Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria. Expression of MnSOD is essential for the survival of aerobic life. Transgenic mice expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human MnSOD promoter demonstrate that the level of MnSOD is reduced prior to the formation of cancer. Overexpression of MnSOD in transgenic mice reduces the incidences and multiplicity of papillomas in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis model. However, MnSOD deficiency does not lead to enhanced tumorigenicity of skin tissue similarly treated because MnSOD can modulate both the p53-mediated apoptosis and AP-1-mediated cell proliferation pathways. Apoptosis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial levels of p53 suggesting a link between MnSOD deficiency and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Activation of p53 is preventable by application of a SOD mimetic (MnTE-2-PyP5+). Thus, p53 translocation to mitochondria and subsequent inactivation of MnSOD explain the observed mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to transcription-dependent mechanisms of p53-induced apoptosis. Administration of MnTE-2-PyP5+ following apoptosis but prior to proliferation leads to suppression of protein carbonyls and reduces the activity of AP-1 and the level of the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, without reducing the activity of p53 or DNA fragmentation following TPA treatment. Remarkably, the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors are drastically reduced in mice that receive MnTE-2-PyP5+ prior to cell proliferation. The results demonstrate the role of MnSOD beyond its essential role for survival and suggest a novel strategy for an antioxidant approach to cancer intervention.
MnSOD; p53; Cancer; Chemotherapy
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the mitochondria plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative damage. Homozygous MnSOD knockout (Sod2−/−) mice are neonatal lethal, indicating the essential role of MnSOD in early development. To investigate the potential cellular abnormalities underlying the aborted development of Sod2−/− mice, we examined the growth of isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Sod2−/− mice. We found that the proliferation of Sod2−/− MEFs was significantly decreased when compared with wild type MEFs despite the absence of morphological differences. The Sod2−/− MEFs produced less cellular ATP, had lower O2 consumption, generated more superoxide, and expressed less Prdx3 protein. Furthermore, the loss of MnSOD dramatically altered several markers involved in cell proliferation and growth, including decreased growth stimulatory function of mTOR signaling and enhanced growth inhibitory function of GSK-3β signaling. Interestingly, the G protein coupled receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signal transduction was also severely suppressed in Sod2−/− MEFs. Finally, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, an index of autophagic activity, was increased in Sod2−/− MEFs, consistent with a reduction of mTOR signal transduction. These data demonstrate that MnSOD deficiency results in alterations in several key signaling pathways, which may contribute to the lethal phenotype of Sod2−/− mice.
MnSOD; oxidative stress; ROS; signal transduction
Previously, we have shown manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity protects quiescent human normal skin fibroblasts (NHFs) from age associated loss in proliferative capacity. The loss in proliferative capacity of aged vs. young quiescent cells is often characterized as the chronological life span, which is clearly distinct from replicative senescence. We investigate the hypothesis that MnSOD activity protects the mitochondrial morphology from age associated damage and preserves the chronological life span of quiescent fibroblasts. Aged quiescent NHFs exhibited abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology including abnormal cristae formation and increased number of vacuoles. These results correlate with the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial morphology in MnSOD homozygous and heterozygous knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs cultured in presence of 21% oxygen concentration were more severe than NHFs cultured in 4% oxygen environment. The alteration in mitochondrial morphology was associated with a significant increase in cell population doubling: 54 h in 21% compared to 44 h in 4% oxygen environment. Overexpression of MnSOD decreased ROS levels, and preserved mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs. These results demonstrate that MnSOD activity protects mitochondrial morphology and preserves the proliferative capacities of quiescent NHFs from age associated loss.
MnSOD; mitochondria; quiescent growth; ROS; Aging; Chronological life span
To test the impact of increased mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism underlying aging and age-related pathologies, we generated mice with a combined deficiency in two mitochondrial-localized antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1). We compared life span, pathology, and oxidative damage in Gpx1−/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1+/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/−, and wild-type control mice. Oxidative damage was elevated in Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice, as shown by increased DNA oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle and increased protein oxidation in brain. Surprisingly, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice showed no reduction in life span, despite increased levels of oxidative damage. Consistent with the important role for oxidative stress in tumorigenesis during aging, the incidence of neoplasms was significantly increased in the older Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice (28–30 months). Thus, these data do not support a significant role for increased oxidative stress as a result of compromised mitochondrial antioxidant defenses in modulating life span in mice and do not support the oxidative stress theory of aging.
Oxidative stress; Longevity
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide have been implicated as causal elements of oncogenesis. A variety of cancers have displayed changes in steady state levels of key antioxidant enzymes with the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) being commonly implicated. Increasing MnSOD expression suppresses the malignant phenotype in various cancer cell lines and suppresses tumor formation in xenograft and transgenic mouse models. We examined the impact of MnSOD expression in the development of T cell lymphoma in mice expressing pro-apoptotic Bax. Lck-Bax38/1 transgenic mice were crossed to mice overexpressing MnSOD (Lck-MnSOD) as well as MnSOD +/− mice. The effect of MnSOD on apoptosis, cell cycle, chromosomal instability (CIN), and lymphoma development was determined. The apoptotic and cell cycle phenotypes observed in thymocytes from control and Bax transgenic mice were unaffected by variations in MnSOD levels. Remarkably, increased gene dosage of MnSOD significantly decreased aneuploidy in pre-malignant thymocytes as well as the onset of tumor formation in Lck-Bax38/1 mice. The observed effects of MnSOD support a role for ROS in CIN and tumor formation in this mouse model of T cell lymphoma.
MnSOD; ROS; Apoptosis; Bcl-2; Oncogenesis; Chromosomal Instability
Previous phenotyping of glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis (Hfe−/−) and iron overload suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria from Hfe−/− mouse liver exhibited decreased respiratory capacity and increased lipid peroxidation. Although the cytosol contained excess iron, Hfe−/− mitochondria contained normal iron but decreased copper, manganese, and zinc, associated with reduced activities of copper-dependent cytochrome c oxidase and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The attenuation in MnSOD activity was due to substantial levels of unmetallated apoprotein. The oxidative damage in Hfe−/− mitochondria is due to diminished MnSOD activity, as manganese supplementation of Hfe−/− mice led to enhancement of MnSOD activity and suppressed lipid peroxidation. Manganese supplementation also resulted in improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance associated with increased MnSOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation in islets. These data suggest a novel mechanism of iron-induced cellular dysfunction, namely altered mitochondrial uptake of other metal ions.
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are considered to be antioxidant enzymes. This view came about because its substrate, superoxide, is a free radical; in the era of their discovery, 1960’s – 1970’s, the general mindset was that free radicals in biology must be damaging. Indeed SOD blunts the cascade of oxidations initiated by superoxide. However in the late 1970’s it was observed that cancer cells that have low activity of the mitochondrial form of SOD, MnSOD, grow faster than those with higher activities of MnSOD. These observations indicated that SOD, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide affected the basic biology of cells and tissues, not just via damaging oxidation reactions. It is now realized that superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are essential for normal cellular and organism function. MnSOD appears to be a central player in the redox biology of cells and tissues.
superoxide dismutase; mitochondria; coenzyme Q; hydrogen peroxide; superoxide; redox environment; hypoxia inducible factor; iron
Inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant, has been associated with renal disorders and often results in detrimental downstream events that are mechanistically not clear. Development of an animal model that exhibits kidney-specific deficiency of MnSOD would be extremely beneficial in exploring the downstream events that occur following MnSOD inactivation. Using Cre-Lox recombination technology, kidney-specific MnSOD deficient mice (both 100% and 50%) were generated that exhibited low expression of MnSOD in discrete renal cell types and reduced enzymatic activity within the kidney. These kidney-specific 100% KO mice possessed a normal life-span, although it was interesting that the mice were smaller. Consistent with the important role in scavenging superoxide radicals, the kidney-specific KO mice showed a significant increase in oxidative stress (tyrosine nitration) in a gene-dose dependent manner. In addition, loss of MnSOD resulted in mild renal damage (tubular dilation and cell swelling). Hence, this novel mouse model will aid in determining the specific role (local and/or systemic) governed by MnSOD within certain kidney cells. Moreover, these mice will serve as a powerful tool to explore molecular mechanisms that occur downstream of MnSOD inactivation in renal disorders or possibly in other pathologies that rely on normal renal function.
Cre-Lox technology; Kidney; MnSOD; Cre recombinase; Superoxide; Nitrotyrosine
Antioxidant enzymes maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage. Levels of MnSOD are reduced in many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and psoriasis. Overexpression of MnSOD in tumor cells can significantly attenuate the malignant phenotype. Past studies have reported that this enzyme has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its superoxide anion scavenging ability. Superoxide anions have a proinflammatory role in many diseases. Treatment of a rat model of lung pleurisy with the MnSOD mimetic MnTBAP suppressed the inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner. In this paper, the mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects of MnSOD in inflammatory diseases are studied, and the potential applications of this enzyme and its mimetics as anti-inflammatory agents are discussed.
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) is a key mitochondrial enzymatic antioxidant. Arguably the most striking phenotype associated with complete loss of SOD2 in flies and mice is shortened life span. To further explore the role of SOD2 in protecting animals from aging and age-associated pathology, we generated a unique collection of Drosophila mutants that progressively reduce SOD2 expression and function. Mitochondrial aconitase activity was substantially reduced in the Sod2 mutants, suggesting that SOD2 normally ensures the functional capacity of mitochondria. Flies with severe reductions in SOD2 expression exhibited accelerated senescence of olfactory behavior as well as precocious neurodegeneration and DNA strand breakage in neurons. Furthermore, life span was progressively shortened and age-dependent mortality was increased in conjunction with reduced SOD2 expression, while initial mortality and developmental viability were unaffected. Interestingly, life span and age-dependent mortality varied exponentially with SOD2 activity, indicating that there might normally be a surplus of this enzyme for protecting animals from premature death. Our data support a model in which disruption of the protective effects of SOD2 on mitochondria manifests as profound changes in behavioral and demographic aging as well as exacerbated age-related pathology in the nervous system.
Drosophila; oxidative stress; SOD; aging; mitochondria
The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) ala16val polymorphism has been associated with various diseases including breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated levels of MnSOD protein, enzymatic activity and mRNA with respect to MnSOD genotype in several human breast carcinoma cell lines and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), developed from the MnSOD knockout mouse, stably expressing human MnSOD-ala and MnSOD-val. In human breast cell lines, the MnSOD-ala allele was associated with increased levels of MnSOD protein and MnSOD protein per unit mRNA. In the MEF transformants, MnSOD activity correlated fairly well with MnSOD protein levels. MnSOD mRNA expression was significantly lower in MnSOD-ala versus MnSOD-val lines. MnSOD protein and activity levels were not related to MnSOD genotype in the transformed MEF, although, as observed in the human breast cell lines, the MEF human MnSOD-ala lines produced significantly more human MnSOD protein per unit mRNA than the human MnSOD-val lines. This suggests that there is more efficient production of MnSOD-ala protein compared to MnSOD-val protein. Examination of several indicators of reactive oxygen species levels, including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, in wild type MEF and in MEF expressing similar elevated amounts of MnSOD-ala or val activity did not show differences related to the levels of MnSOD protein expression. In conclusion, in both human breast carcinoma cell lines and MEF cell lines stably transfected with human MnSOD, the MnSOD-ala allele was associated with increased production of MnSOD protein per unit mRNA indicating a possible imbalance in MnSOD protein production from the MnSOD-val mRNA.
MnSOD; breast cancer; oxidative stress; polymorphism
Increased superoxide levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We have shown that functional activation of a small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, is one of the signaling steps involved in glucose-induced apoptosis of retinal capillary cells. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which oxidative stress could result in the activation of H-Ras in diabetes.
Experiments were performed in isolated retinal endothelial cells that were treated with H2O2, or the cells in which glucose-induced superoxide accumulation was inhibited either by superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTBAP) or by overexpressing mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The in vitro experiments were complemented with in vivo experiments using the retina from mice overexpressing MnSOD.
H2O2 activated H-Ras and its downstream signaling pathway, including Raf-1 and phosphorylation of p38 (p-p38) MAP kinase. Inhibition of superoxide significantly attenuated glucose-induced activation of H-Ras, Raf-1 and p-p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of MnSOD in mice prevented diabetes-induced activation of both H-Ras and p-p38 MAP kinase.
Our results clearly indicate that the activation of H-Ras and its downstream signaling pathway in the retina and its vasculature could be under the control of superoxide, and H-Ras activation in diabetes can be prevented by inhibiting superoxide accumulation.
Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can sensitize a variety of cancer cell lines to many anticancer drugs. Recent work has shown that cancer cells can be sensitized to cell killing by raising peroxide levels through increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) when combined with inhibition of peroxide removal. Here we utilize the mechanistic property of one such anticancer drug, BCNU, which inhibits glutathione reductase (GR), compromising the glutathione peroxidase system thereby inhibiting peroxide removal. The purpose of this study was to determine if anticancer modalities known to produce superoxide radicals can increase the antitumor effect of MnSOD overexpression when combined with BCNU. To enhance MnSOD, an adenoviral construct containing the cDNA for MnSOD (AdMnSOD) was introduced into human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. AdMnSOD infection alone did not alter cell killing, however when GR was inhibited with either BCNU or siRNA, cytotoxicity increased. Futhermore, when the AdMnSOD + BCNU treatment was combined with agents that enhance steady-state levels of superoxide (TNF-α, antimycin, adriamycin, photosensitizers, and ionizing radiation), both cell cytotoxicity and intracellular peroxide levels increased. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of AdMnSOD combined with BCNU can be enhanced by agents that increase generation of superoxide.
MnSOD; BCNU; Hydrogen peroxide; Superoxide; Adenovirus; breast cancer
Adriamycin (ADR) is a potent anticancer drug known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. Although ADR generates free radicals, the role of free radicals in the development of cardiac toxicity and the intracellular target for ADR-induced cardiac toxicity are still not well understood. We produced three transgenic mice lines expressing increased levels of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial enzyme, as an animal model to investigate the role of ADR-mediated free radical generation in mitochondria. The human MnSOD was expressed, functionally active, and properly transported into mitochondria in the heart of transgenic mice. The levels of copper-zinc SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase did not change in the transgenic mice. Electron microscopy revealed dose-dependent ultrastructural alterations with marked mitochondrial damage in nontransgenic mice treated with ADR, but not in the transgenic littermates. Biochemical analysis indicated that the levels of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in ADR-treated mice were significantly greater in nontransgenic than their transgenic littermates expressing a high level of human MnSOD after ADR treatment. These results support a major role for free radical generation in ADR toxicity as well as suggesting mitochondria as the critical site of cardiac injury.
Manganese superoxide dismutase is a nuclear encoded primary antioxidant enzyme localized exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix. Genotoxic agents, such as UV radiation, generates oxidative stress and cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. The mitochondrial DNA polymerase (Polγ), a major constituent of nucleoids, is responsible for the replication and repair of the mitochondrial genome. Recent studies suggest that mitochondria contain fidelity proteins and MnSOD constitutes an integral part of the nucleoid complex. However, it is not known whether or how MnSOD participates in the mitochondrial repair processes. Using skin tissue from C57/BL6 mice exposed to UVB radiation, we demonstrate that MnSOD plays a critical role in preventing mtDNA damage by protecting the function of Polγ. Q-PCR analysis shows an increase in mtDNA damage after UVB exposure. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies demonstrate p53 translocation to mitochondria and interaction with Polγ after UVB exposure. The mtDNA immunoprecipitation assay with Polγ and p53 antibodies in p53+/+ and p53−/− mice demonstrates an interaction between MnSOD, p53, and Polγ. The results suggest that these proteins form a complex for the repair of UVB-associated mtDNA damage. The data also demonstrate that UVB exposure injures the mtDNA D-loop in a p53-dependent manner. Using MnSOD-deficient mice we demonstrate that UVB-induced mtDNA damage is MnSOD-dependent. Exposure to UVB results in nitration and inactivation of Polγ, which is prevented by addition of the MnSOD mimetic MnIIITE-2-PyP5+. These results demonstrate for the first time that MnSOD is a fidelity protein that maintains the activity of Polγ by preventing UVB-induced nitration and inactivation of Polγ. The data also demonstrate that MnSOD plays a role along with p53 to prevent mtDNA damage.
Fidelity gene; Polymerase gamma; p53; MnSOD; Oxidative/nitrative stresses; MnIIITE-2-PyP5+
Radiation therapy of the CNS, even at low doses, can lead to deficits in neurocognitive functions. Reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is usually, but not always, associated with cognitive deficits resulting from radiation therapy. Generation of reactive oxygen species is considered the main cause of radiation-induced tissue injuries, and elevated levels of oxidative stress persist long after the initial cranial irradiation. Consequently, mutant mice with reduced levels of the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or Sod2), are expected to be more sensitive to radiation-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and the related functions. In this study, we showed that MnSOD deficiency led to reduced generation of immature neurons in Sod2−/+ mice even though progenitor cell proliferation was not affected. Compared to irradiated Sod2+/+ mice, which showed cognitive defects and reduced differentiation of newborn cells towards the neuronal lineage, irradiated Sod2−/+ mice showed normal hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions and normal differentiation pattern for newborn neurons and astroglia. However, we also observed a disproportional decrease in newborn neurons in irradiated Sod2−/+ following behavioral studies, suggesting that MnSOD deficiency may render newborn neurons more sensitive to stress from behavioral trainings following cranial irradiation. A positive correlation between normal cognitive functions and normal dendritic spine densities in dentate granule cells was observed. The data suggest that maintenance of synaptic connections, via maintenance of dendritic spines, may be important for normal cognitive functions following cranial irradiation.
Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is the major site of ATP production as well as a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause damage to critical biomolecules. It is well known that mitochondrial enzymes that scavenge ROS are targeted by stress responsive proteins to maintain the fidelity of mitochondrial function. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a primary mitochondrial ROS scavenging enzyme, and in 1983 Irwin Fridovich proposed an elegant chemical mechanism/model whereby acetylation directs MnSOD enzymatic activity. He christened it the “electrostatic repulsion model”. However, the biochemical and genetic mechanism(s) determining how acetylation directs activity and the reasons behind the evolutionarily conserved need for several layers of transcriptional and post-translational MnSOD regulation remain unknown. In this regard, we and others have shown that MnSOD is regulated, at least in part, by the deacetylation of specific conserved lysines in a reaction catalyzed by the mitochondrial sirtuin, Sirt3. We speculate that the regulation of MnSOD activity by lysine acetylation via an electrostatic repulsion mechanism is a conserved and critical aspect of MnSOD regulation necessary to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis.
Electrostatic Repulsion Model; MnSOD; Sirt3; Sirtuins; Metabolism; Mitochondria; ROS; Acetylation; Acetylome; Metabolic homeostasis
It has been suggested that oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage play important roles in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a major enzyme that is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. A T → C substitution in the MnSOD gene results in a Val → Ala change at the -9 position of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (Val-9Ala), which alters the protein secondary structure and thus affects transport of MnSOD into the mitochondria.
We evaluated this genetic polymorphism in association with breast cancer risk using data from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study conducted in urban Shanghai from 1996 to 1998. The MnSOD Val-9Ala polymorphism was examined in 1125 breast cancer cases and 1197 age-frequency-matched control individual.
Breast cancer risk was slightly elevated in women with Ala/Ala genotype (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–2.3), particularly among premenopausal women (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9–3.7), as compared with those with Val/Val genotype. The increased risk with the Ala/Ala genotype was stronger among premenopausal women with a higher body mass index (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9–7.0) and more years of menstruation (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8–8.0). The risk among premenopausal women was further increased twofold to threefold among those with a low intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamin supplements, selenium, or antioxidant vitamins, including carotenes and vitamins A, C, and E. However, the frequency of the Ala allele was low (14%) in the study population, and most of the ORs provided above were not statistically significant.
The present study provides some evidence that genetic polymorphism in the MnSOD gene may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women with high levels of oxidative stress or low intake of antioxidants. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the findings.
antioxidant; breast cancer; case-control study; MnSOD; polymorphism
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) convert superoxide radicals into less damaging hydrogen peroxide. The opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans is known to express CuZnSOD (SOD1) and MnSOD (SOD3) in the cytosol and MnSOD (SOD2) in the mitochondria. We identified three additional CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, SOD4, SOD5, and SOD6, within the sequence of the C. albicans genome. The transcription of SOD5 was up-regulated during the yeast to hyphal transition of C. albicans, and SOD5 was induced when C. albicans cells were challenged with osmotic or with oxidative stresses. SOD5 transcription was also increased when cells were grown on nonfermentable substrates as the only carbon source. The Rim101p transcription factor was required for all inductions observed, whereas the Efg1p transcription factor was specifically needed for serum-modulated expression. Deletion of SOD5 produced a viable mutant strain that showed sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide when cells were grown in nutrient-limited conditions. Sod5p was found to be necessary for the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse model of infection. However, the sod5 mutant strain showed the same resistance to macrophage attack as its parental strain, suggesting that the loss of virulence in not due to an increased sensitivity to macrophage attack.
Retinal mitochondria become dysfunctional in diabetes and the production of superoxide radicals is increased; over-expression of MnSOD abrogates mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents the development of diabetic retinopathy. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is particularly prone to oxidative damage. The aim of this study is to examine the role of MnSOD in the maintenance of mtDNA. The effect of MnSOD mimic, MnTBAP or over-expression of MnSOD on glucose-induced alterations in mtDNA homeostasis and its functional consequence was determined in retinal endothelial cells. Exposure of retinal endothelial cells to high glucose increased mtDNA damage and compromised the DNA repair machinery. The gene expressions of mitochondrial-encoded proteins of the electron transport chain complexes were decreased. Inhibition of superoxide radicals by either MnTBAP or by over-expression of MnSOD prevented mtDNA damage and protected mitochondrial-encoded genes. Thus, the protection of mtDNA from glucose-induced oxidative damage is one of the plausible mechanisms by which MnSOD ameliorates the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy; DNA damage; endothelial cells; mitochondrial DNA; MnSOD
Transcriptional profiling of MnSOD-mediated life-span extension in Drosophila identifies a set of candidate biomarkers of aging, consisting primarily of carbohydrate metabolism and electron transport genes.
Several interventions increase lifespan in model organisms, including reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS), FOXO transcription factor activation, dietary restriction, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) over-expression. One question is whether these manipulations function through different mechanisms, or whether they intersect on common processes affecting aging.
A doxycycline-regulated system was used to over-express manganese-SOD (MnSOD) in adult Drosophila, yielding increases in mean and maximal lifespan of 20%. Increased lifespan resulted from lowered initial mortality rate and required MnSOD over-expression in the adult. Transcriptional profiling indicated that the expression of specific genes was altered by MnSOD in a manner opposite to their pattern during normal aging, revealing a set of candidate biomarkers of aging enriched for carbohydrate metabolism and electron transport genes and suggesting a true delay in physiological aging, rather than a novel phenotype. Strikingly, cross-dataset comparisons indicated that the pattern of gene expression caused by MnSOD was similar to that observed in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like signaling mutants and to the xenobiotic stress response, thus exposing potential conserved longevity promoting genes and implicating detoxification in Drosophila longevity.
The data suggest that MnSOD up-regulation and a retrograde signal of reactive oxygen species from the mitochondria normally function as an intermediate step in the extension of lifespan caused by reduced insulin-like signaling in various species. The results implicate a species-conserved net of coordinated genes that affect the rate of senescence by modulating energetic efficiency, purine biosynthesis, apoptotic pathways, endocrine signals, and the detoxification and excretion of metabolites.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell signaling, survival, and homeostasis. Aberrant ROS lead to disease and contribute to the aging process. Numerous enzymes and vigilant antioxidant pathways are required to regulate ROS for normal cellular health. Mitochondria are a major source of ROS, and mechanisms to prevent elevated ROS during oxidative phosphorylation require super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. SOD2, also known as MnSOD, is targeted to mitochondria and is instrumental in regulating ROS by conversion of superoxides to hydrogen peroxide, which is further broken down into H2O and oxygen. Here, we describe the identification of a novel mutation within the mitochondrial SOD2 enzyme in Drosophila that results in adults with an extremely shortened life span, sensitivity to hyperoxia, and neuropathology. Additional studies demonstrate that this novel mutant, SOD2bewildered, exhibits abnormal brain morphology, suggesting a critical role for this protein in neurodevelopment. We investigated the basis of this neurodevelopmental defect and discovered an increase in aberrant axonal that could underlie the aberrant neurodevelopment and brain morphology defects. This novel allele, SOD2bewildered, provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of increased mitochondrial ROS on neural development, axonal targeting, and neural cell degeneration in vivo.
Drosophila melanogaster; MnSOD; motoneuron axonal targeting; roGFP; ROS; SOD2
Proliferating cells consume more glucose to cope with the bioenergetics and biosynthetic demands of rapidly dividing cells as well as to counter a shift in cellular redox environment. This study investigates the hypothesis that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) regulates cellular redox flux and glucose consumption during the cell cycle. A direct correlation was observed between glucose consumption and percentage of S-phase cells in MnSOD wild type fibroblasts, which was absent in MnSOD homozygous knockout fibroblasts. Results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and flow cytometry assays showed a significant increase in cellular superoxide levels in S-phase cells, which was associated with an increase in glucose and oxygen consumption, and a decrease in MnSOD activity. Mass spectrometry results showed a complex pattern of MnSOD-methylation at both lysine (68, 89, 122, and 202) and arginine (197 and 216) residues. MnSOD protein carrying a K89A mutation had significantly lower activity compared to wild type MnSOD. Computational-based simulations indicate that lysine and arginine methylation of MnSOD during quiescence would allow greater accessibility to the enzyme active site as well as increase the positive electrostatic potential around and within the active site. Methylation-dependent changes in the MnSOD conformation and subsequent changes in the electrostatic potential around the active site during quiescence vs. proliferation could increase the accessibility of superoxide, a negatively charged substrate. These results support the hypothesis that MnSOD regulates a “metabolic switch” during progression from quiescent through the proliferative cycle. We propose MnSOD as a new molecular player contributing to the “Warburg effect.”
MnSOD; methylation; glucose; cell cycle; Warburg effect
The mitochondrial enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an integral component of the cell's defense against superoxide-mediated cellular damage. We have isolated and characterized four cDNA clones and the structural gene for rat MnSOD. Northern analyses using MnSOD cDNA probes detected at least five mRNAs in all tissues and cell types examined. Southern and Northern analysis using a 3' non-coding sequence probe, common to all the cDNAs, showed hybridization only to genomic restriction fragments that correspond to our genomic clone and the five MnSOD mRNAs. These data demonstrate that all of the rat MnSOD transcripts are derived from a single functional gene. Primer extension data indicate that transcription initiation is clustered within a few bases. Northern analysis using intron probes demonstrates that all five transcripts are fully processed. Northern analysis using cDNA and genomic probes from sequences progressively 3' to the end of the coding sequence indicates that size heterogeneity in the MnSOD transcripts results from variations in the length of the 3' non-coding sequence. From this data and the location of potential polyadenylation signals near the expected sites of transcript termination, we conclude that the existence of multiple MnSOD mRNA species originate as the result of alternate polyadenylation.
Efficient elimination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) correlates with increased cellular survival and organism life span. Detoxification of mitochondrial ROS is regulated by induction of the nuclear SOD2 gene, which encodes the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). However, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress activates cellular signaling pathways leading to induction of nuclear genes are not known. Here we demonstrate that release of mROS activates a signal relay pathway in which the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) activates the NF-κB transcription factor, leading to induction of SOD2. Conversely, the FOXO3a transcription factor is dispensable for mROS-induced SOD2 induction. PKD-mediated MnSOD expression promotes increased survival of cells upon release of mROS, suggesting that mitochondrion-to-nucleus signaling is necessary for efficient detoxification mechanisms and cellular viability.