Although treatment of stroke patients with mild hypothermia is a promising therapeutic approach, chemicals inducing prompt and safe reduction of body temperature are an unmet need. We measured the effects of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) agonist rinvanil on thermoregulation and ischemic brain injury in mice. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of rinvanil induces mild hypothermia that is prevented by the receptor antagonist capsazepine. Both intraischemic and postischemic treatments provide permanent neuroprotection in animals subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), an effect lost in mice artificially kept normothermic. Data indicate that TRPV1 receptor agonists are promising candidates for hypothermic treatment of stroke.
hypothermia; neuroprotectants; TRPV1 receptor
Our previous studies have shown that the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expressed in the renal pelvis leads to an increase in ipsilateral afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and contralateral renal excretory function, but the molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 action are largely unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of receptors of neurokinin 1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by endogenously released substance P (SP) or CGRP following TRPV1 activation, respectively, governs TRPV1-induced increases in ARNA and renal excretory function. Capsaicin (CAP, 0.04, 0.4, 4nM), a selective TRPV1 agonist, administrated into the renal pelvis dose-dependently increased ARNA. CAP (4nM)-induced increases in ipsilateral ARNA or contralateral urine flow rate (Uflow) and urinary sodium excretion (UNa) were abolished by capsazepine (CAPZ), a selective TRPV1 antagonist, RP67580, or L703,606, selective NK1 antagonists, but not by CGRP8-37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist. Both SP (7.4nM) and CGRP (0.13μM) increased ARNA, Uflow, or UNa, and increases in these parameters induced by CGRP but not SP were abolished by CAPZ. CAP at 4nM perfused into the renal pelvis caused the release of SP and CGRP, which was blocked by CAPZ but not by RP67580, L703,606, or CGRP8-37. Immunofluorescence results showed that NK1 receptors were expressed in sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sensory nerve fibers innervating the renal pelvis. Taken together, our data indicate that NK1 activation induced by SP release upon TRPV1 activation governs TRPV1 function and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism is operant in CGRP action.
Most δ-opioid receptors are located on the presynaptic terminals of primary afferent neurons in the spinal cord. However, their presence in different phenotypes of primary afferent neurons and their contribution to the analgesic effect of δ-opioid agonists are not fully known. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultra-potent transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) agonist and can selectively remove TRPV1-expressing primary afferent neurons. In this study, we determined the role of δ-opioid receptors expressed on TRPV1 sensory neurons in the antinociceptive effect of the δ-opioid receptor agonists [d-Pen2,d-Pen5]-enkephalin and [d-Ala2,Glu4]-deltorphin. Nociception was measured by testing the mechanical withdrawal threshold in the hindpaw of rats. Changes in the δ-opioid receptors were assessed using immunocytochemistry and the [3H]-naltrindole radioligand binding. In RTX-treated rats, the δ-opioid receptor on TRPV1-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglion neurons and afferent terminals in the spinal cord was diminished. RTX treatment also significantly reduced the maximal specific binding sites (31%) of the δ-opioid receptors in the dorsal spinal cord. Interestingly, intrathecal injection of [d-Pen2,d-Pen5]-enkephalin or [d-Ala2,Glu4]-deltorphin produced a large and prolonged increase in the nociceptive threshold in RTX-treated rats. These findings indicate that loss of TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons leads to a substantial reduction in presynaptic δ-opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the effect of δ-opioid agonists on mechano-nociception is paradoxically potentiated in the absence of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons. This information is important to our understanding of the cellular sites and mechanisms underlying the spinal analgesic effect of δ-opioid agonists.
Accurate assessment of the potential binding mode of drugs is crucial to computer-aided drug design paradigms. It has been reported that evodiamine acts as an agonist of the vanilloid receptor Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). However, the precise interaction between evodiamine and TRPV1 was still not fully understood. In this perspective, the homology models of TRPV1 were generated using the crystal structure of the voltage-dependent shaker family K+ channel as a template. We then performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of evodiamine within the TRPV1 binding pocket. There are no significant interspecies differences in evodiamine binding in rat, human and rabbit TRPV1 models. Pharmacophore modeling further provided confidence for the validity of the docking studies. This study is the first to shed light on the structural determinants required for the interaction between TRPV1 and evodiamine, and gives new suggestions for the rational design of novel TRPV1 ligands.
transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1; homology modeling; molecular docking; molecular dynamics; capsaicin; evodiamine
The transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel composed of four monomers with six transmembrane helices (TM1-TM6). TRPV1 is found in the central and peripheral nervous system, and it is an important therapeutic target for pain relief. We describe here the construction of a tetrameric homology model of rTRPV1. We experimentally evaluated by mutational analysis the contribution of residues of rat TRPV1 (rTRPV1) contributing to ligand binding by the prototypical TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin. We then performed docking analysis using our homology model. The docking results with capsaicin and RTX showed that our homology model was reliable, affording good agreement with our mutation data. Additionally, the binding mode of a simplified RTX (sRTX) ligand as predicted by the modeling agreed well with those of capsaicin and RTX, accounting for the high binding affinity of the sRTX ligand for TRPV1. Through the homology modeling, docking and mutational studies, we obtained important insights into the ligand-receptor interactions at the molecular level which should prove of value in the design of novel TRPV1 ligands.
transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1); capsaicin; resiniferatoxin (RTX); homology modeling; docking; mutation
Control of cancer, neuropathic, and postoperative pain is frequently inadequate or compromised by debilitating side effects. Inhibition or removal of certain nociceptive neurons, while retaining all other sensory modalities and motor function, would represent a new therapeutic approach to control severe pain. The enriched expression of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1; also known as the vanilloid receptor, VR1) in nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia allowed us to test this concept. Administration of the potent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) to neuronal perikarya induces calcium cytotoxicity by opening the TRPV1 ion channel and selectively ablates nociceptive neurons. This treatment blocks experimental inflammatory hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation in rats and naturally occurring cancer and debilitating arthritic pain in dogs. Sensations of touch, proprioception, and high-threshold mechanosensitive nociception, as well as locomotor function, remained intact in both species. In separate experiments directed at postoperative pain control, subcutaneous administration of RTX transiently disrupted nociceptive nerve endings, yielding reversible analgesia. In human dorsal root ganglion cultures, RTX induced a prolonged increase in intracellular calcium in vanilloid-sensitive neurons, while leaving other, adjacent neurons unaffected. The results suggest that nociceptive neuronal or nerve terminal deletion will be effective and broadly applicable as strategies for pain management.
To test the hypothesis that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1)-mediated increases in afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the renal pelvis are suppressed in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS), but not -resistant (DR), rats fed a high-salt (HS) diet.
Methods and Results
Male DS and DR rats were given a HS or low-salt (LS) diet for 3 weeks. Perfusion of capsaicin (CAP, 10−6M), a selective TRPV1 agonist, into the left renal pelvis increased ipsilateral ARNA in all groups, but with a smaller magnitude in DS-HS compared to other groups. CAP increased contralateral urine flow in all groups except DS-HS rats. CAP-induced release of SP and CGRP from the renal pelvis was less in DS-HS compared to other groups. Western blot showed that TRPV1 expression in the kidney decreased while expression of neurokinin 1 receptors increased in DS-HS compared to other groups.
TRPV1-mediated increases in ARNA and release of SP and CGRP in the renal pelvis are impaired in DS rats fed a HS diet, which can likely be attributed to suppressed TRPV1 expression in the kidney and contributes to increased salt sensitivity.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1; Afferent renal nerve activity; Dahl rats; Salt sensitivity; Substance P; Calcitonin gene-related peptide
To test the hypothesis that activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels leads to natriuresis and diuresis via an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), recirculating Krebs-Henseleit buffer added with inulin was perfused in the isolated perfused kidney of male Wistar rat at a constant flow, and perfusion pressures (PP) were pre-adjusted to three different levels (~100, ~150, and ~190 mmHg) with phenylephrine. Capsaicin (Cap), a selective TRPV1 agonist, was perfused in the presence or absence of capsazepine (Capz), a selective TRPV1 antagonist, CGRP8–37, a selective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, or spantide II (Spa), a selective substance P (SP) receptor antagonist. At the higher (150 and 190 mmHg) but not baseline (100 mmHg) PP levels, Cap at 10µM significantly decreased PP and increased GFR, urine flow rate (UFR) and Na+ excretion (UNaV). At the highest (190 mmHg) PP level, Cap (2, 10, 30 µM) dose-dependently decreased PP and increased GFR, UFR, UNaV, and the release of CGRP and SP. Capz or CGRP8–37 combined with Spa fully blocked the effect of Cap on PP, GFR, UFR, UNaV, and the release of CGRP and SP. In conclusion, activation of TRPV1 in the isolated kidney decreases renal PP and increases GFR and water/sodium excretion possibly via simultaneous activation of CGRP and SP receptors upon their enhanced release, suggesting that TRPV1 plays a key role in modulating renal hemodynamics and excretory function.
transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1; glomerular filtration rate; isolated perfused kidney; capsaicin
This study tests the hypothesis that dysfunction of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels occurs and contributes to the decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and sodium/water excretion in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Recirculating Krebs-Henseleit buffer added with inulin was perfused at a constant flow in the isolated kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) or Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats fed a high salt (HS) or low salt (LS) diet for three weeks. Perfusion pressures (PP) were pre-adjusted to three levels (~100, ~150, ~190 mmHg) with or without phenylephrine. Capsaicin (Cap), a selective TRPV1 agonist, in the presence or absence of capsazepine (Capz), a selective TRPV1 antagonist, was perfused. Basal GFR, urine flow rate (UFR) and Na+ excretion (UNaV) were significantly lower in DS-HS than in DR-HS, DS-LS and DR-LS rats. Cap caused pressure-dependent decreases in PP and increases in GFR, UFR and UNaV in all groups, with less magnitude of decreases in PP and increases in GFR, UFR and UNaV in DS-HS than in DR-HS, DS-LS and DR-LS rats. Capz fully blocked the effect of Cap on PP, GFR, UFR and UNaV in all groups. Thus, these results show that TRPV1 function is impaired in the kidney of DS rats fed a high salt diet, which may contribute to the decrease in GFR and renal excretory function in DS rats in face of salt challenge.
transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel; Dahl salt-sensitive rats; glomerular filtration rate
In addition to capsaicin, a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) agonist, two kinds of antagonists against this receptor are used as therapeutic drugs for pain relief. Indeed, a number of small molecule TRPV1 antagonists are currently undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials to determine their effect on relieving chronic inflammatory pain and migraine headache pain. However, we previously reported that the absence of TRPV1 in mice results in a striking increase in skin carcinogenesis, suggesting that chronic blockade of TRPV1 might increase the risk of tumor development. In this study, we found that a typical TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, promotes mouse skin tumor development. The topical application of AMG9810 resulted in a significant increase in the expression level of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-signaling pathway. This increase was not only observed in AMG9810-treated tumor tissue but was also found in skin tissue treated with AMG9810. In telomerase-immortalized primary human keratinocytes, AMG9810 promoted proliferation that was mediated through the EGFR/Akt/mTOR-signaling pathway. In summary, our data suggest that the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, promotes mouse skin tumorigenesis mediated through EGFR/Akt/mTOR signaling. Thus, the application of this compound for pain relief might increase the risk of skin cancer.
Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia, we examined the effects of hypothermic culture on TLR3-activated microglial release of interferon (IFN)-β and nitric oxide (NO), which are known to be associated with neuronal cell death. When rat or mouse microglia were cultured under conditions of hypothermia (33°C) and normothermia (37°C) with a TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, the production of IFN-β and NO in TLR3-activated microglia at 48 h was decreased by hypothermia compared with that by normothermia. In addition, exposure to recombinant IFN-β and sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, caused death of rat neuronal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner after 24 h. Taken together, these results suggest that the attenuation of microglial production of IFN-β and NO by therapeutic hypothermia leads to the inhibition of neuronal cell death.
Emerging data indicate that central neurons participate in diabetic processes by modulating autonomic output from neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). We tested the hypothesis that synaptic modulation by transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors is reduced in the DMV in slices from a murine model of type 1 diabetes. The TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin robustly enhanced glutamate release onto DMV neurons by acting at preterminal receptors in slices from intact mice, but failed to do so in slices from diabetic mice. TRPV1 receptor protein expression in the vagal complex was unaltered. Brief insulin pre-application restored TRPV1-dependent modulation of glutamate release in a PKC- and PI3K-dependent manner. The restorative effect of insulin was prevented by brefeldin A, suggesting insulin induced TRPV1 receptor trafficking to the terminal membrane. Central vagal circuits critical to the autonomic regulation of metabolism undergo insulin-dependent synaptic plasticity involving TRPV1 receptor modulation in diabetic mice after several days of chronic hyperglycemia.
capsaicin; PI3K; STZ; TRPV4; type 1 diabetes; vagus
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is crucial in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; yet its role and underlying mechanism in the formation of macrophage foam cells remain unclear. Here, we show increased TRPV1 expression in the area of foamy macrophages in atherosclerotic aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Exposure of mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) upregulated the expression of TRPV1. In addition, oxLDL activated TRPV1 and elicited calcium (Ca2+) influx, which were abrogated by the pharmacological TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Furthermore, oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages was ameliorated by TRPV1 agonists but exacerbated by TRPV1 antagonist. Treatment with TRPV1 agonists did not affect the internalization of oxLDL but promoted cholesterol efflux by upregulating the efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Moreover, the upregulation of ABC transporters was mainly through liver X receptor α- (LXRα-) dependent regulation of transcription. Moreover, the TNF-α-induced inflammatory response was alleviated by TRPV1 agonists but aggravated by the TRPV1 antagonist and LXRα siRNA in macrophages. Our data suggest that LXRα plays a pivotal role in TRPV1-activation-conferred protection against oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and TNF-α-induced inflammation in macrophages.
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels have been implicated to play a role in blood pressure regulation. However, contribution of tissue specific TRPV1 to blood pressure regulation is largely unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPV1 expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments (T8-L3) of the spinal cord and their central and peripheral terminals constitutes a counter regulatory mechanism preventing the increases in blood pressure.
TRPV1 was knocked down by intrathecal injection of TRPV1 shRNA in rats. Systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. The level of TRPV1 and tyrosine hydroxylase was measured by Western blot.
Intrathecal injection of TRPV1 shRNA (6 μg kg−1 per day) for 3 days increased systolic blood pressure and MAP when compared to rats that received control shRNA (control shRNA: 112±2 vs TRPV1 shRNA: 123±2 mmHg). TRPV1 expression was suppressed in T8-L3 segments of dorsal horn and DRG as well as mesenteric arteries of rats given TRPV1 shRNA. Contents of tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of sympathetic nerves, were increased in mesenteric arteries of rats treated with TRPV1 shRNA. Pretreatment with the α1-adrenoceptor blocker, prazosin (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.), abolished the TRPV1 shRNA-induced pressor effects.
Our data show that selective knockdown of TRPV1 expressed in DRG of T8-L3 segments of the spinal cord and their central and peripheral terminals increases blood pressure, suggesting that neuronal TRPV1 in these segments possesses a tonic anti-hypertensive effect possibly via suppression of the sympathetic nerve activity.
TRPV1; sensory nerves; blood pressure regulation; intrathecal injection; short-hairpin RNA
To test the hypothesis that activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel conveys a hypotensive effect that is enhanced during salt load, male Wistar rats fed a normal (NS, 0.5%) or high sodium (HS, 4%) diet for 3 weeks were given 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α – PDD), a specific TRPV4 activator, in the presence or absence of capsazepine (CAPZ), a selective TRPV1 blocker; ruthenium red (RuR), a TRPV4 blocker; or TRPV4 small hairpin (sh)RNA that selectively knockdowns TRPV4. 4α-PDD (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg, iv) dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP, p<0.05). HS enhanced 4α-PDD-induced depressor effects as well as 4α-PDD-mediated release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) (p<0.001). RuR markedly blunted (p<0.001), while CAPZ slightly attenuated (p<0.05), 4α-PDD-induced depressor effects in HS and NS rats. RuR alone increased baseline MAP in both HS and NS rats with a greater magnitude in the former (p< 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that HS increased TRPV4 expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mesenteric arteries (MA) (p<0.05) but not the renal cortex and medulla. Gene-silencing approach revealed that TRPV4 shRNA down-regulated TRPV4 expression leading to blunted 4α-PDD-induced hypotension (p<0.05). Thus, TRPV4 activation decreases blood pressure in rats given NS. HS enhances TRPV4 expression in sensory nerves/mesenteric arteries and TRPV4-mediated depressor effects and CGRP/SP release, in such that HS causes a greater increase in blood pressure when TRPV4 is blocked. Our data indicate that TRPV4 activation may constitute a compensatory mechanism in preventing salt-induced increases in blood pressure.
salt intake; gene-targeting; gene-silencing; sensory nerves; blood pressure; transient receptor potential channel
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have shown that the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) are formed in mouse and rat skin biopsies by exposure to noxious heat. 9- and 13-HODE and their metabolites, 9- and 13-oxoODE, activated TRPV1 and therefore constitute a family of endogenous TRPV1 agonists. Moreover, blocking these substances substantially decreased the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rats and mice and reduced nociception. Collectively, our results indicate that HODEs contribute to the heat sensitivity of TRPV1 in rodents. Because oxidized linoleic acid metabolites are released during cell injury, these findings suggest a mechanism for integrating the hyperalgesic and proinflammatory roles of TRPV1 and linoleic acid metabolites and may provide the foundation for investigating new classes of analgesic drugs.
This study tests the hypothesis that the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1)-induced neuropeptide secretion and depressor response are mediated by, at least in part, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated Ca2+ release receptors, leading to increased cytosolic Ca2+ in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.
Bolus injection of capsaicin (CAP, 10 or 50 μg/kg), a selective TRPV1 agonist, into anesthetized male Wistar rats caused dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, P<0.05). CAP (50 μg/kg)-induced depressor effects and increases in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels (-29±2 mmHg, 82.2±5.0 pg/ml, respectively) were abolished by a selective TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (3 mg/kg CAPZ, -4±1 mmHg, 41.8±4.4 pg/ml, P<0.01), and attenuated by a selective ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist, dantrolene (5 mg/kg, -12±1 mmHg, 57.2±2.6 pg/ml, P<0.01), but unaffected by an inhibitor of ER Ca2+-ATPase, thapsigargin (50 μg/kg TG, -30±1 mmHg, 73.8±2.3 pg/ml, P>0.05), or an antagonist of the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (3 mg/kg 2-APB, -34±5 mmHg, 69.0±3.7 pg/ml, P>0.05). CGRP8-37 (1 mg/kg), a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, also blocked CAP-induced depressor effects. In contrast, dantrolene had no effect on CGRP (1 μg/kg)-induced depressor effects. In vitro, CAP (0.3 μM) increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and CGRP release from freshly isolated sensory neurons in DRG (P<0.01), which were blocked by CAPZ (10 μM) and attenuated by dantrolene but not TG or 2-APB.
Our results indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers RyR- but not IP3R-dependent Ca2+ release from ER in DRG neurons leading to increased CGRP release and consequent depressor effects.
transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1; ryanodine receptors; calcium; calcitonin gene-related peptide; depressor effects
The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) has an important role in orchestrating anxiety- and panic-related responses. Given the cellular and behavioral evidence suggesting opposite functions for cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1), we hypothesized that they could differentially influence panic-like reactions induced by electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Drugs were injected locally and the expression of CB1 and TRPV1 in this structure was assessed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The CB1-selective agonist, ACEA (0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 pmol) increased the threshold for the induction of panic-like responses solely at the intermediary dose, an effect prevented by the CB1-selective antagonist, AM251 (75 pmol). Panicolytic-like effects of ACEA at the higher dose were unmasked by pre-treatment with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (0.1 nmol). Similarly to ACEA, capsazepine (1 and 10 nmol) raised the threshold for triggering panic-like reactions, an effect mimicked by another TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791 (1 nmol). Remarkably, the effects of both capsazepine and SB366791 were prevented by AM251 (75 pmol). These pharmacological data suggest that a common endogenous agonist may have opposite functions at a given synapse. Supporting this view, we observed that several neurons in the dPAG co-expressed CB1 and TRPV1. Thus, the present work provides evidence that an endogenous substance, possibly anandamide, may exert both panicolytic and panicogenic effects via its actions at CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels, respectively. This tripartite set-point system might be exploited for the pharmacotherapy of panic attacks and anxiety-related disorders.
panic; anxiety; periaqueductal gray; cannabinoid; vanilloid; anandamide; cannabinoids; animal models; mood/anxiety/stress disorders; psychopharmacology; panic; anxiety; periaqueductal gray; cannabinoid; vanilloid
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a thermoreceptor that responds to noxious temperatures, as well as to chemical agonists, such as vanilloids and protons. In addition, its channel activity is notably potentiated by proinflammatory mediators released upon tissue damage. The TRPV1 contribution to sensory neuron sensitization by proalgesic agents has signaled this receptor as a prime target for analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug intervention. However, TRPV1 antagonists have notably failed in clinical and preclinical studies because of their unwanted side effects. Recent reports have unveiled previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory and protective functions of TRPV1 in several diseases. For instance, this channel has been suggested to play an anti-inflammatory role in sepsis. Therefore, the use of potent TRPV1 antagonists as a general strategy to treat inflammation must be cautiously considered, given the deleterious effects that may arise from inhibiting the population of channels that have a protective function. The use of TRPV1 antagonists may be limited to treating those pathologies where enhanced receptor activity contributes to the inflamed state. Alternatively, therapeutic paradigms, such as reduction of inflammatory-mediated increase of receptor expression in the cell surface, may be a better strategy to prevent abrogation of the TRPV1 subpopulation involved in anti-inflammatory and protective processes.
transient receptor potential; nociceptor; capsaicin; pain; ion channel; analgesia
Transient receptor potential channels, of the vanilloid subtype (TRPV), act as sensory mediators, being activated by endogenous ligands, heat, mechanical and osmotic stress. Within the vasculature, TRPV channels are expressed in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, as well as in peri-vascular nerves. Their varied distribution and polymodal activation properties make them ideally suited to a role in modulating vascular function, perceiving and responding to local environmental changes. In endothelial cells, TRPV1 is activated by endocannabinoids, TRPV3 by dietary agonists, and TRPV4 by shear stress, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and downstream of Gq-coupled receptor activation. Upon activation, these channels contribute to vasodilation via nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and intermediate/small conductance potassium channel (IKCa/SKCa) dependent pathways. In smooth muscle, TRPV4 is activated by endothelial derived EETs, leading to large conductance potassium channel (BKCa) activation and smooth muscle hyperpolarization. Conversely, smooth muscle TRPV2 channels contribute to global calcium entry and may aid constriction. TRPV1 and TRPV4 are expressed in sensory nerves and can cause vasodilation through CGRP and substance P release as well as mediating vascular function via the baroreceptor reflex (TRPV1) or via increasing sympathetic outflow during osmotic stress (TRPV4). Thus, TRPV channels play important roles in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular function in the vasculature.
TRPV channels; smooth muscle; endothelium; neurovascular
Agonist-induced Ca2+ entry is important for the synthesis and release of vasoactive factors in endothelial cells. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channel, a Ca2+-permeant cation channel, is expressed in endothelial cells and involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Here we investigated the role of TRPV4 channels in acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in vitro and in vivo using the TRPV4 knockout mouse model. The expression of TRPV4 mRNA and protein was detected in both conduit and resistance arteries from wild-type mice. In small mesenteric arteries from wild-type mice, the TRPV4 activator 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate increased endothelial [Ca2+]i in situ, which was reversed by the TRPV4 blocker ruthenium red. In wild-type animals, acetylcholine dilated small mesenteric arteries that involved both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s) (EDHF). In TRPV4-deficient mice, the NO component of the relaxation was attenuated and the EDHF component was largely eliminated. Compared to their wild-type littermates, TRPV4-deficient mice demonstrated a blunted endothelial Ca2+ response to acetylcholine in mesenteric arteries, and reduced NO release in carotid arteries. Acetylcholine (5 mg/kg, iv) decreased blood pressure by 37.0±6.2 mmHg in wild-type animals but only 16.6±2.7 mmHg in knockout mice. We conclude that acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced both in vitro and in vivo in TRPV4 knockout mice. These findings may provide novel insight into mechanisms of Ca2+ entry evoked by chemical agonists in endothelial cells.
Transient receptor potential; endothelium; endothelium-derived factors; nitric oxide; calcium
Elevating body temperature or just the temperature of the dorsal medulla by approximately 2 °C prolongs the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) in decerebrate neonatal piglets. We tested the hypothesis that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) mediate thermal prolongation of the LCR. We studied the effect of a selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist on thermal prolongation of the LCR, and we tested the effect of a TRPV1 agonist on the duration of the LCR under normothermic conditions. We studied 37 decerebrate neonatal piglets between the ages of post-natal days 4 and 7. The TRPV1 receptor antagonist, 5−iodoresiniferatoxin (65 microM/L in 100 nL), blocked thermal prolongation of the LCR when injected bilaterally into the region of the NTS. The TRPV1 agonist, resiniferatoxin (0.65-1.0 mM/L in 100 nL), prolonged the LCR after bilateral injection into the NTS even when the body temperature of each piglet was normal. The effect of the TRPV1 agonists could be blocked by treatment with the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, whether given intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) or focally injected bilaterally into the NTS (10 mM in 100nL). We conclude that TRPV1 receptors in the NTS mediate thermal prolongation of the LCR.
SIDS; laryngeal chemoreflex; hyperthermia; GABA; TRPV1 channels; nucleus of the solitary tract
Since stimulation of transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) mitigates acute kidney injury (AKI) and endogenous N-acyl dopamine derivatives are able to activate TRPV1, we tested if synthetic N-octanoyl-dopamine (NOD) activates TRPV1 and if it improves AKI. These properties of NOD and its intrinsic anti-inflammatory character were compared with those of dopamine (DA). TRPV1 activation and anti-inflammatory properties of NOD and DA were tested using primary cell cultures in vitro. The influence of NOD and DA on AKI was tested in a prospective, randomized, controlled animal study with 42 inbred male Lewis rats (LEW, RT1), treated intravenously with equimolar concentrations of DA or NOD one hour before the onset of warm ischemia and immediately before clamp release. NOD, but not DA, activates TRPV1 channels in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) that innervate several tissues including kidney. In TNFα stimulated proximal tubular epithelial cells, inhibition of NFκB and subsequent inhibition of VCAM1 expression by NOD was significantly stronger than by DA. NOD improved renal function compared to DA and saline controls. Histology revealed protective effects of NOD on tubular epithelium at day 5 and a reduced number of monocytes in renal tissue of DA and NOD treated rats. Our data demonstrate that NOD but not DA activates TRPV1 and that NOD has superior anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Although NOD mitigates deterioration in renal function after AKI, further studies are required to assess to what extend this is causally related to TRPV1 activation and/or desensitization.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a condition characterized by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the temporal lobe. Hallmarks of this change are axon sprouting and accompanying synaptic reorganization in the temporal lobe. Synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids have variable therapeutic potential in treating intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, in part because cannabinoid ligands can bind multiple receptor types. This study utilized in vitro electrophysiological methods to examine the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation in dentate gyrus granule cells in a murine model of TLE. Capsaicin, a selective TRPV1 agonist had no measurable effect on overall synaptic input to granule cells in control animals, but significantly enhanced spontaneous and miniature EPSC frequency in mice with TLE. Exogenous application of anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid that acts at both TRPV1 and cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R), also enhanced glutamate release in the presence of a CB1R antagonist. Anandamide reduced the EPSC frequency when TRPV1 were blocked with capsazepine. Western blot analysis of TRPV1 receptor indicated protein expression was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus of mice with TLE compared with control mice. This study indicates that a prominent cannabinoid agonist can increase excitatory circuit activity in the synaptically reorganized dentate gyrus of mice with TLE by activating TRPV1 receptors, and suggests caution in designing anticonvulsant therapy based on modulating the endocannabinoid system.
anandamide; endocannabinoid; mossy fiber sprouting; vanilloid; VR1; seizure
Previous studies suggest that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has a role in sepsis but it is unclear whether its effect on survival and immune response is beneficial or harmful.
We studied the effects of genetic (Trpv1-knock out vs. wild-type mice) and pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with resiniferatoxin (an agonist) or capsazepine (an antagonist) on mortality, bacterial clearance, and cytokine expression during lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis.
After CLP, genetic disruption of TRPV1 in Trpv1-knock out mice was associated with increased mortality risk [2.17 (1.23 to 3.81) hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.01] compared with wild-type. Further, pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with intrathecal resiniferatoxin, compared with vehicle, increased mortality risk [1.80 (1.05 to 3.2) hazard-ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.03] in wild-type animals, but not in Trpv1-knock out mice. After lipopolysaccharide, neither genetic (Trpv1-knock out) nor pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with resiniferatoxin had significant effect on survival compared with respective controls. In contrast, after lipopolysaccharide, pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with capsazepine, compared with vehicle, increased mortality risk [1.92 (1.02 to 3.61) hazard-ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.04] in wild-type animals. Further, after CLP, increased mortality in resiniferatoxin-treated-wild-type animals was associated with higher blood bacterial count (p=0.0004) and nitrate/nitrite levels and downregulation of tumor necrosis factor α expression (p=0.004) compared with controls.
Genetic or pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 can affect mortality, blood bacteria clearance, and cytokine response in sepsis in patterns that may vary according to the sepsis-inducing event and the method of TRPV1 disruption.