Acyl coenzyme A carboxylase (acyl-CoA carboxylase) was purified from Acidianus brierleyi. The purified enzyme showed a unique subunit structure (three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 62, 59, and 20 kDa) and a molecular mass of approximately 540 kDa, indicating an α4β4γ4 subunit structure. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 60 to 70°C, and the optimum pH was around 6.4 to 6.9. Interestingly, the purified enzyme also had propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity. The apparent Km for acetyl-CoA was 0.17 ± 0.03 mM, with a Vmax of 43.3 ± 2.8 U mg−1, and the Km for propionyl-CoA was 0.10 ± 0.008 mM, with a Vmax of 40.8 ± 1.0 U mg−1. This result showed that A. brierleyi acyl-CoA carboxylase is a bifunctional enzyme in the modified 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Both enzymatic activities were inhibited by malonyl-CoA, methymalonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, or CoA but not by palmitoyl-CoA. The gene encoding acyl-CoA carboxylase was cloned and characterized. Homology searches of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 62-, 59-, and 20-kDa subunits indicated the presence of functional domains for carboxyltransferase, biotin carboxylase, and biotin carboxyl carrier protein, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylases revealed that archaeal acyl-CoA carboxylases are closer to those of Bacteria than to those of Eucarya. The substrate-binding motifs of the enzymes are highly conserved among the three domains. The ATP-binding residues were found in the biotin carboxylase subunit, whereas the conserved biotin-binding site was located on the biotin carboxyl carrier protein. The acyl-CoA-binding site and the carboxybiotin-binding site were found in the carboxyltransferase subunit.
We have cloned a DNA fragment from a genomic library of Myxococcus xanthus using an oligonucleotide probe representing conserved regions of biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases. The fragment contained two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), designated the accB and accA genes, capable of encoding a 538-amino-acid protein of 58.1 kDa and a 573-amino-acid protein of 61.5 kDa, respectively. The protein (AccA) encoded by the accA gene was strikingly similar to biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of pyruvate carboxylase. The putative motifs for ATP binding, CO2 fixation, and biotin binding were found in AccA. The accB gene was located upstream of the accA gene, and they formed a two-gene operon. The protein (AccB) encoded by the accB gene showed high degrees of sequence similarity with carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Carboxybiotin-binding and acyl-CoA-binding domains, which are conserved in several carboxyltransferase subunits of acyl-CoA carboxylases, were found in AccB. An accA disruption mutant showed a reduced growth rate and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity compared with the wild-type strain. Western blot analysis indicated that the product of the accA gene was a biotinylated protein that was expressed during the exponential growth phase. Based on these results, we propose that this M. xanthus acetyl-CoA carboxylase consists of two subunits, which are encoded by the accB and accA genes, and occupies a position between prokaryotic and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in terms of evolution.
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis. Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase is composed of biotin carboxylase, carboxyltransferase and biotin carboxyl carrier protein functions. The accA and accD genes that code for the α- and β-subunits, respectively, are not in an operon, yet yield an α2β2 carboxyltransferase. Here, we report that carboxyltransferase regulates its own translation by binding the mRNA encoding its subunits. This interaction is mediated by a zinc finger on the β-subunit; mutation of the four cysteines to alanine diminished nucleic acid binding and catalytic activity. Carboxyltransferase binds the coding regions of both subunit mRNAs and inhibits translation, an inhibition that is relieved by the substrate acetyl-CoA. mRNA binding reciprocally inhibits catalytic activity. Preferential binding of carboxyltransferase to RNA in situ was shown using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We propose an unusual regulatory mechanism by which carboxyltransferase acts as a ‘dimmer switch’ to regulate protein production and catalytic activity, while sensing the metabolic state of the cell through acetyl-CoA concentration.
Transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii is a complex biotin-containing enzyme composed of 30 polypeptides of three different types: a hexameric central 12S subunit to which 6 outer 5S subunits are attached through 12 1.3S biotinyl subunits. The enzyme catalyzes a two-step reaction in which methylmalonyl coenzyme A and pyruvate serve as substrates to form propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) and oxalacetate, the 12S subunit specifically catalyzing one of the two reactions. We report here the cloning, sequencing, and expression of the 12S subunit. The gene was identified by matching amino acid sequences derived from isolated authentic 12S peptides with the deduced sequence of an open reading frame present in a cloned P. shermanii genomic fragment known to contain the gene encoding the 1.3S biotinyl subunit. The cloned 12S gene encodes a protein of 604 amino acids and of M(r) 65,545. The deduced sequence shows regions of extensive homology with the beta subunit of mammalian propionyl-CoA carboxylase as well as regions of homology with acetyl-CoA carboxylase from several species. Two genomic fragments were subcloned into pUC19 in an orientation such that the 12S open reading frame could be expressed from the lac promoter of the vector. Crude extracts prepared from these cells contained an immunoreactive band on Western blots (immunoblots) which comigrated with authentic 12S. The Escherichia coli-expressed 12S was purified to apparent homogeneity by a three-step procedure and compared with authentic 12S from P. shermanii. Their quaternary structures were identical by electron microscopy, and the E. coli 12S preparation was fully active in the reactions catalyzed by this subunit. We conclude that we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the 12S subunit which exists in a hexameric active form in E.coli.
The Corynebacterium glutamicum NTA monooxygenase component A protein, which plays the central role in NTA biodegradation, was crystallized. The initial X-ray crystallographic characterization is reported.
Safety and environmental concerns have recently dictated the proper disposal of nitrilotriacetate (NTA). Biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase, which is composed of two proteins: component A and component B. The NTA monooxygenase component A protein from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.04, b = 98.51, c = 171.61 Å, β = 101.94°. The asymmetric unit consists of four molecules, corresponding to a packing density of 2.3 Å3 Da−1. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Structure refinement is in progress.
nitrilotriacetate; nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase component A
Propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC), a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, is essential for the catabolism of the amino acids Thr, Val, Ile and Met, cholesterol, and fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. Deficiencies of PCC activity in humans are linked to the disease propionic acidemia (PA), an autosomal recessive disorder that can be fatal in infants 1–4. The holoenzyme of PCC is an α6β6 dodecamer, with a molecular weight of 750 kD. The α subunit contains the biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains, while the β subunit supplies the carboxyltransferase (CT) activity. Here we report the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of a bacterial PCC α6β6 holoenzyme as well as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructionat 15 Å resolution demonstrating a similar structure for human PCC. The structure defines the overall architecture of PCC and reveals unexpectedly that the α subunits are arranged as monomers in the holoenzyme, decorating a central β6 hexamer. A hitherto unrecognized domain in the α subunit, formed by residues between the BC and BCCP domains, is crucial for interactions with the β subunit. We have named it the BT domain. The structure reveals for the first time the relative positions of the BC and CT active sites in the holoenzyme. They are separated by approximately 55 Å, indicating that the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. The BCCP domain is located in the active site of the β subunit in the current structure, providing insight for its involvement in the CT reaction. The structural information establishes a molecular basis for understanding the large collection of disease-causing mutations in PCC, and also has important relevance for the holoenzymes of other biotin-dependent carboxylases, including 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) 5–7 and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 8,9.
fatty acid metabolism; amino acid metabolism; propionic acidemia; 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria; protein complex; biotin-dependent carboxylase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase; 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
An acyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase, which catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate-dependent fixation of CO2 into acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-CoA, was detected in fractionated cell extracts of Propionibacterium shermanii. Catalytic activity was inhibited by avidin but was unaffected by avidin pretreated with excess biotin. The carboxylase levels detected were relatively small and were related to cellular growth. Maximal carboxylase activity was detected in cells grown for about 96 h. Thereafter, the activity declined rapidly. Optimal CO2 fixation occurred at pH 7.5. Other parameters of the assay system were optimized, and the apparent Km values for substrates were determined. The end product of the reaction (with acetyl-CoA as the substrate) was identified as malonyl-CoA. The stoichiometry of the reaction was such that, for every mole of acetyl-CoA and adenosine triphosphate consumed, 1 mol each of malonyl-CoA, adenosine diphosphate, and orthophosphate was formed. These data provide the first evidence for the presence of another biotin-containing enzyme, an acyl-CoA carboxylase, in these bacteria in addition to the well-characterized methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase.
Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase is a biotin-dependent, multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. The Escherichia coli enzyme is composed of a homodimeric biotin carboxylase (BC), biotinylated biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and an α2β2 heterotetrameric carboxyltransferase. This enzyme complex catalyzes two half-reactions to form malonylcoenzyme A. BC and BCCP participate in the first half-reaction, whereas carboxyltransferase and BCCP are involved in the second. Three-dimensional structures have been reported for the individual subunits; however, the structural basis for how BCCP reacts with the carboxylase or transferase is unknown. Therefore, we report here the crystal structure of E. coli BCCP complexed with BC to a resolution of 2.49 Å. The protein-protein complex shows a unique quaternary structure and two distinct interfaces for each BCCP monomer. These BCCP binding sites are unique compared to phylogenetically related biotin-dependent carboxylases and therefore provide novel targets for developing antibiotics against bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report here crystallographic and cryoEM studies of S. aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, as well as mutagenesis, biochemical and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 may play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryoEM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of R. etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that may be catalytically more competent.
Biotin-dependent carboxylases include acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), geranyl-CoA carboxylase (GCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and urea carboxylase (UC). They contain biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have important functions in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, polyketide biosynthesis, urea utilization, and other cellular processes. ACCs are also attractive targets for drug discovery against type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, microbial infections, and other diseases, and the plastid ACC of grasses is the target of action of three classes of commercial herbicides. Deficiencies in the activities of PCC, MCC or PC are linked to serious diseases in humans. Our understanding of these enzymes has been greatly enhanced over the past few years by the crystal structures of the holoenzymes of PCC, MCC, PC, and UC. The structures reveal unanticipated features in the architectures of the holoenzymes, including the presence of previously unrecognized domains, and provide a molecular basis for understanding their catalytic mechanism as well as the large collection of disease-causing mutations in PCC, MCC and PC. This review will summarize the recent advances in our knowledge on the structure and function of these important metabolic enzymes.
fatty acid metabolism; carbohydrate metabolism; amino acid metabolism; metabolic syndrome; obesity; diabetes; cancer; drug discovery; antibiotics; propionic acidemia; 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria; lactic acidemia
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-containing enzyme that catalyses the HCO3−- and MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate. This is a very important anaplerotic reaction, replenishing oxaloacetate withdrawn from the Krebs cycle for various pivotal biochemical pathways. PC is therefore considered as an enzyme that is crucial for intermediary metabolism, controlling fuel partitioning toward gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis and insulin secretion. The enzyme was discovered in 1959 and over the last decade there has been much progress in understanding its structure and function. PC from most organisms is a tetrameric protein that is allosterically regulated by acetyl CoA and aspartate. High resolution crystal structures of the holoenzyme with various ligands bound have recently been determined, and have revealed details and the relative positions of the biotin carboxylase, carboxyltransferase and biotin carboxyl carrier domains, and also a unique allosteric effector domain. In the presence of the allosteric effector, acetyl CoA, the biotin moiety transfers the carboxyl group intermediate between the biotin carboxylase domain active site on one polypeptide chain and the carboxyltransferase active site on the adjacent antiparallel polypeptide chain. In addition, the bona fide role of PC in the non-gluconeogenic tissues has been studied using a combination of classical biochemistry and genetic approaches. The first cloning of the promoter of the PC gene in mammals and subsequent transcriptional studies reveal some key cognate transcription factors regulating tissue-specific expression. This review summarizes these advances and also offers some prospects in terms of future directions for the study of this important enzyme.
pyruvate carboxylase; biotin; structure; kinetics; acetyl CoA; role in metabolism; gene expression
PHBH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of NaH2PO4 and K2HPO4 as precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline.
p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) is an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxybenzoate (pOHB) to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate in an NADPH-dependent reaction and plays an important role in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds. PHBH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of NaH2PO4 and K2HPO4 as precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 94.72, c = 359.68 Å, γ = 120°. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules, corresponding to a packing density of 2.65 Å3 Da−1. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Structure refinement is in progress.
p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase; Corynebacterium glutamicum; ; FAD-dependent monooxygenases
The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique α-branched β-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase is apparently additionally present in these bacteria. It activates the α-carbon of a linear fatty acid by carboxylation, thus enabling its decarboxylative condensation with a second fatty acid to afford mycolic acid synthesis. We now show that the acetyl-CoA carboxylase of C. glutamicum consists of the biotinylated α-subunit AccBC, the β-subunit AccD1, and the small peptide AccE of 8.9 kDa, forming an active complex of approximately 812,000 Da. The carboxylase involved in mycolic acid synthesis is made up of the two highly similar β-subunits AccD2 and AccD3 and of AccBC and AccE, the latter two identical to the subunits of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex. Since AccD2 and AccD3 orthologues are present in all Corynebacterianeae, these polypeptides are vital for mycolic acid synthesis forming the unique hydrophobic outer layer of these bacteria, and we speculate that the two β-subunits present serve to lend specificity to this unique large multienzyme complex.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the world’s most versatile, economically important tropical crops. Little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of coconut pulp (endosperm) development and only a few coconut genes and gene product sequences are available in public databases. This study identified genes that were differentially expressed during development of coconut pulp and functionally annotated these identified genes using bioinformatics analysis.
Pulp from three different coconut developmental stages was collected. Four suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed (forward and reverse libraries A and B between stages 1 and 2, and C and D between stages 2 and 3), and identified sequences were computationally annotated using Blast2GO software. A total of 1272 clones were obtained for analysis from four SSH libraries with 63% showing similarity to known proteins. Pairwise comparing of stage-specific gene ontology ids from libraries B-D, A-C, B-C and A-D showed that 32 genes were continuously upregulated and seven downregulated; 28 were transiently upregulated and 23 downregulated. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis showed that 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT), phospholipase D, acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase beta subunit, 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase-like and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 β subunit were associated with fatty acid biosynthesis or metabolism. Triose phosphate isomerase, cellulose synthase and glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase were related to carbohydrate metabolism, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was related to both fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Of 737 unigenes, 103 encoded enzymes were involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate biosynthesis and metabolism, and a number of transcription factors and other interesting genes with stage-specific expression were confirmed by real-time PCR, with validation of the SSH results as high as 66.6%. Based on determination of coconut endosperm fatty acids content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, a number of candidate genes in fatty acid anabolism were selected for further study.
Functional annotation of genes differentially expressed in coconut pulp development helped determine the molecular basis of coconut endosperm development. The SSH method identified genes related to fatty acids, carbohydrate and secondary metabolites. The results will be important for understanding gene functions and regulatory networks in coconut fruit.
Coconut; Computational annotation; Differentially expressed genes; Fatty acids; Pulp development; Suppression subtractive hybridization
HisC from M. tuberculosis was overexpressed in M. smegmatis, purified and crystallized, and its structure was solved.
Histidinolphosphate aminotransferase (HisC; Rv1600) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was overexpressed in M. smegmatis and purified to homogeneity using nickel–nitrilotriacetic acid metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals suitable for X-ray analysis were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using 30% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3221, with an unusual high solvent content of 74.5%. X-ray diffraction data were recorded to 3.08 Å resolution from a single crystal using in-house Cu Kα radiation. The structure of HisC was solved by the molecular-replacement method using its Corynebacterium glutamicum counterpart as a search model. HisC is a dimer in the crystal as well as in solution.
histidinolphosphate aminotransferase; HisC; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Rv1600
Trigonal crystals of FadR from B. halodurans have been obtained. X-ray data were collected to 2.05 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
FadR is an acyl-CoA-dependent transcription factor which regulates genes encoding proteins involved in fatty-acid degradation and synthesis in order to maintain lipid homeostasis. FadR from the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The FadR (Bh3102) protein from B. halodurans is composed of 195 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 22 378 Da. Crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution. FadR was crystallized at 296 K using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystal belonged to the apparent trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.34, c = 199.73 Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were estimated to be 2.0 Å3 Da−1 and 39.8%, respectively, assuming that the asymmetric unit contained two molecules of FadR, which was subsequently confirmed by molecular-replacement calculations.
FadR; transcriptional regulators; Bacillus halodurans
The cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the crystals of biotin acetyl-CoA carboxylase ligase from M. tuberculosis are reported.
The gene encoding biotin acetyl-CoA carboxylase ligase (BirA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal Strep-tag. PEG 4000 as well as PEG 8000 were used as precipitants at pH 7.5 to crystallize the protein using the vapour-diffusion technique. X-ray characterization of crystals at room temperature indicated that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 62.8, c = 105.8 Å. Assuming the presence of two BirA molecules in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content of the crystals was 44% (V
M = 2.2 Å3 Da−1). When transferred to a cryoprotectant, crystals grown in the same drop exhibited a difference in one unit-cell parameter, with a = 60.1, b = 64.0, c = 103.6 Å, but belonged to the same P212121 space group. These crystals, with two molecules of BirA present per asymmetric unit, appeared to have a very low solvent content of 28% (V
M = 1.7 Å3 Da−1).
biotin; biotin protein ligase; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pathogenic mycobacteria contain a variety of unique fatty acids that have methyl branches at an even-numbered position at the carboxyl end and a long n-aliphatic chain. One such group of acids, called mycocerosic acids, is found uniquely in the cell wall of pathogenic mycobacteria, and their biosynthesis is essential for growth and pathogenesis. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathway of the unique precursor of such lipids, methylmalonyl coenzyme A (CoA), represents an attractive target for developing new antituberculous drugs. Heterologous protein expression and purification of the individual subunits allowed the successful reconstitution of an essential acyl-CoA carboxylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whose main role appears to be the synthesis of methylmalonyl-CoA. The enzyme complex was reconstituted from the α biotinylated subunit AccA3, the carboxyltransferase β subunit AccD5, and the ɛ subunit AccE5 (Rv3281). The kinetic properties of this enzyme showed a clear substrate preference for propionyl-CoA compared with acetyl-CoA (specificity constant fivefold higher), indicating that the main physiological role of this enzyme complex is to generate methylmalonyl-CoA for the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids. The α and β subunits are capable of forming a stable α6-β6 subcomplex but with very low specific activity. The addition of the ɛ subunit, which binds tightly to the α-β subcomplex, is essential for gaining maximal enzyme activity.
The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum.
By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation.
The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylases provide the building blocks for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis by fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) and for the elongation of FAS I end products by the FAS II complex to produce meromycolic acids. The M. tuberculosis genome contains three biotin carboxylase subunits (AccA1 to -3) and six carboxyltransferase subunits (AccD1 to -6), with accD6 located in a genetic locus that contains members of the FAS II complex. We found by quantitative real-time PCR analysis that the transcripts of accA3, accD4, accD5, and accD6 are expressed at high levels during the exponential growth phases of M. tuberculosis in vitro. Microarray analysis of M. tuberculosis transcripts indicated that the transcripts for accA3, accD4, accD5, accD6, and accE were repressed during later growth stages. AccD4 and AccD5 have been previously studied, but there are no reports on the function of AccD6. We expressed AccA3 (α3) and AccD6 (β6) in E. coli and purified them by affinity chromatography. We report here that reconstitution of the α3-β6 complex yielded an active acyl-CoA carboxylase. Kinetic characterization of this carboxylase showed that it preferentially carboxylated acetyl-CoA (1.1 nmol/mg/min) over propionyl-CoA (0.36 nmol/mg/min). The activity of the α3-β6 complex was inhibited by the ɛ subunit. The α3-β6 carboxylase was inhibited significantly by dimethyl itaconate, C75, haloxyfop, cerulenin, and 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Our results suggest that the β6 subunit could play an important role in mycolic acid biosynthesis by providing malonyl-CoA to the FAS II complex.
The pseudopeptide pyrrolidinedione antibiotics, such as moiramide B, have recently been discovered to target the multisubunit acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases of bacteria. In this paper, we describe synthetic variations of each moiety of the modularly composed pyrrolidinediones, providing insight into structure-activity relationships of biochemical target activity, in vitro potency, and in vivo efficacy. The novel derivatives showed highly improved activities against gram-positive bacteria compared to those of previously reported variants. The compounds exhibited a MIC90 value of 0.1 μg/ml against a broad spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. No cross-resistance to antibiotics currently used in clinical practice was observed. Resistance mutations induced by pyrrolidinediones are exclusively located in the carboxyltransferase subunits of the bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, indicating the identical mechanisms of action of all derivatives tested. Improvement of the physicochemical profile was achieved by salt formation, leading to aqueous solubilities of up to 5 g/liter. For the first time, the in vitro activity of this compound class was compared with its in vivo efficacy, demonstrating a path from compounds weakly active in vivo to agents with significant efficacy. In a murine model of S. aureus sepsis, the 100% effective dose of the best compound reported was 25 mg/kg of body weight, only fourfold higher than that of the comparator molecule linezolid. The obvious improvements achieved by chemical derivatization reflect the potential of this novel antibiotic compound class for future therapy.
To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 has been purified and crystallized.
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to pyruvate and CO2. Recently, the Corynebacterium glutamicum gene product Cg1458 was determined to be a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 was purified and crystallized. The best crystal was grown from 0.2 M MgCl2, 0.1 M Bis-Tris pH 6.0, 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop method. The crystals belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.1, c = 73.6 Å. The crystals are most likely to contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit, with a V
M value of 2.27 Å3 Da−1. A full data set was collected at 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline BL17U of SSRF, Shanghai, China. Structure-solution attempts by molecular replacement were successful with PDB entries 3qdf or 2dfu as the template.
Cg1458; oxaloacetate decarboxylases; Corynebacterium glutamicum
Fatty acid-CoA racemase from M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to beyond 2.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source.
Fatty acid-CoA racemase plays an important role in the β-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids and fatty-acid derivatives as it catalyzes the conversion of several (2R)-branched-chain fatty acid-CoAs to their (2S)-stereoisomers. Fatty acid-CoA racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 4000 as precipitant. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P31 or P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.56, c = 147.97 Å. The asymmetric unit contains six monomers, corresponding to a V
M value of 2.15 Å3 Da−1. A complete native data set has been collected at 2.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source.
fatty acid-CoA racemase; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; α-oxidation; β-oxidation
A simple off-column capillary electrophoretic (CE) assay for measuring acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase holoenzyme (holo-ACC) activity and inhibition was developed. The two reactions catalyzed by the holo-ACC components, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT), were simultaneous monitored in this assay. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), malonyl-CoA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were separated by CE, and the depletion of ATP and acetyl-CoA as well as the production of ADP and malonyl-CoA were monitored. Inhibition of holo-ACC by the biotin carboxylase inhibitor, 2-amino-N,N-dibenzyloxazole-5-carboxamide, and the carboxyltransferase inhibitor, andrimid, was confirmed using this assay. A previously reported off-column CE assay for only the CT component of ACC was optimized, and an off-column CE assay for the BC component of ACC also was developed.
capillary electrophoresis; enzyme assay; acetyl CoA carboxylase; enzyme inhibition
The first committed step of fatty acid and polyketides biosynthesis, the biotin-dependent carboxylation of an acyl-CoA, is catalyzed by acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). ACC and PCC in Streptomyces coelicolor are homologues multisubunit complexes that can carboxylate different short chain acyl-CoAs. While ACC is able to carboxylate acetyl-, propionyl-, or butyryl-CoA with approximately the same specificity, PCC only recognizes propionyl- and butyryl-CoA as substrates. How ACC and PCC have such different specificities towards these substrates is only partially understood. To further understand the molecular basis of how the active site residues can modulate the substrate recognition, we mutated D422, N80, R456 and R457 of PccB, the catalytic beta subunit of PCC. The crystal structures of six PccB mutants and the wild type crystal structure were compared systematically to establish the sequence-structure-function relationship that correlates the observed substrate specificity towards acetyl-, propionyl- and butyryl-CoA with active site geometry. The experimental data confirmed that D422 is a key determinant of substrate specificity, influencing not only the active site properties but further altering protein stability and causing long-range conformational changes. Mutations of N80, R456 and R457 lead to variations in the quaternary structure of the beta subunit and to a concomitant loss of enzyme activity, indicating the importance of these residues in maintaining the active protein conformation as well as a critical role in substrate binding.