FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory, and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition task. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors.
Constitutive macroautophagy involved in the turnover of defective long-lived proteins and organelles is crucial for neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that macroautophagic dysregulation in selective brain regions was associated with memory impairment in aged mice. We used the single-trial object recognition test to measure short-term memory in 18 aged mice compared to 22 young mice and employed immunohistochemistry to assess cellular distribution of proteins involved in the selective degradation of ubiquitinated proteins via macroautophagy. Values of the discrimination ratio (DR, a measure of short-term recognition memory performance) in aged mice were significantly lower than those in young mice (median, 0.54 vs. 0.67; p = 0.005, U test). Almost exclusively in aged mice, there were clusters of puncta immunoreactive for microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), ubiquitin- and LC3-binding protein p62, and ubiquitin in neuronal processes predominantly in the hippocampal formation, olfactory bulb/tubercle, and cerebellar cortex. The hippocampal burden of clustered puncta immunoreactive for LC3 and p62 exhibited inverse linear correlations with DR in aged mice (ρ = −0.48 and −0.55, p = 0.044 and 0.018, respectively, Spearman’s rank correlation). These findings suggest that increased accumulation of autophagosomes within neuronal processes in selective brain regions is characteristic of aging. The dysregulation of macroautophagy can adversely affect the turnover of aggregate-prone proteins and defective organelles, which may contribute to memory impairment in aged mice.
Autophagy; Brain aging; MAP1LC3; Object recognition test; p62; Ubiquitin
The large FK506-binding protein FKBP52 has been characterized as an important positive regulator of androgen, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor signaling pathways. FKBP52 associates with receptor-Hsp90 complexes and is proposed to have roles in both receptor hormone binding and receptor subcellular localization. Data from biochemical and cellular studies has been corroborated in whole animal models as fkbp52-deficient male and female mice display characteristics of androgen, glucocorticoid and/or progesterone insensitivity. FKBP52 receptor specificity and the specific phenotypes displayed by the fkbp52-deficient mice have firmly established FKBP52 as a promising target for the treatment of a variety of hormone-dependent diseases. Recent studies demonstrated that the FKBP52 FK1 domain and the proline-rich loop within this domain are functionally important for FKBP52 regulation of receptor function. Based on these data, efforts are currently underway to target the FKBP52 FK1 domain and the proline-rich loop with small molecule inhibitors.
FK506 binding protein (FKBP)-51 and FKBP52 act as molecular chaperones to control glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity. Dysregulation of proteins involved in GR-mediated signaling can lead to maladaptive stress response and aging-related cognitive decline. As HIV infection is related to chronic stress, we hypothesized that altered cortical expression of these proteins was associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to assess expression levels of these proteins in the mid-frontal gyrus of 55 HIV-infected subjects free of cerebral opportunistic diseases compared to 20 age-matched non-HIV controls. The immunoreactivity normalized to the neuroanatomic area measured (IRn) for FKBP51 was increased in HIV subjects both in the cortex and subcortical white matter (p<0.0001, U test), while no significant alterations were observed for GR or FKBP52. Notably, the cortical FKBP51 IRn was higher in HAND subjects than in cognitively normal HIV subjects (p=0.02, U test). There was also a trend for increasing cortical FKBP51 IRn with the increasing severity of HAND (p=0.08, Kruskal-Wallis test). No significant changes in FKBP51 IRn were found with respect to hepatitis C virus infection, lifetime methamphetamine use, or antiretroviral treatment in HIV subjects. In conclusion, the increased cortical expression of FKBP51 (an inhibitor for GR activity) might represent negative feedback in an attempt to reduce GR sensitivity in the setting of chronic stress-induced elevation of GR-mediated signaling inherent in HIV infection. The further increased FKBP51 expression might lead to maladaptive stress response and HAND.
FKBP4; FKBP5; HIV dementia; Immunophilin; NR3C1
Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice). These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing tyrosine receptor kinase B BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition.
exercise; recognition memory; adult neurogenesis; proliferation; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; tyrosine receptor kinase B
FK506 and rapamycin are immunosuppressive drugs with a unique mode of action. Prior to binding to their protein targets, these drugs form a complex with an endogenous chaperone FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12). The resulting composite FK506-FKBP and rapamycin-FKBP binding surfaces recognize the relatively flat target surfaces of calcineurin and mTOR, respectively, with high affinity and specificity. To test whether this mode of action may be generalized to inhibit other protein targets, especially those that are challenging to inhibit by conventional small molecules, we have developed a parallel synthesis method to generate a 200-member library of bifunctional cyclic peptides as FK506 and rapamycin analogues, which were referred to as “rapalogs”. Each rapalog consists of a common FKBP-binding moiety and a variable effector domain. The rapalogs were tested for binding to FKBP12 by a fluorescence polarization competition assay. Our results show that FKBP12 binds to most of the rapalogs with high affinity (KI values in the nanomolar to low micromolar range), creating a large repertoire of composite surfaces for potential recognition of macromolecular targets such as proteins.
Cyclic peptides; FKBP; FK506; rapamycin; structure-activity relationship
FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is gaining increased recognition for its essential roles in cell biology. Originally discovered as a component of steroid receptor complexes, it is now known to regulate a diverse set of transcription factors, enzymes and structural proteins. Its cellular properties suggest numerous possible functions for FKBP51 in physiology, and the best clue to its potential importance may be the following: FKBP51 is a glucocorticoid-induced negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. Thus, FKBP51 is intricately involved in regulation of the most pleiotropic hormone known to biology. In contrast to glucocorticoid receptor, FKBP51 is a positive regulator of the androgen receptor, suggesting that it functions as a reciprocal modulator of glucocorticoid- and androgen-mediated physiology. In this work, we evaluate this hypothesis by examining recent cellular and physiological evidence.
Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients.
To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro.
FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls.
Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis.
The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A block T-lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting calcineurin, a critical signaling molecule for activation. Multiple intracellular receptors (immunophilins) for these drugs that specifically bind either FK506 and rapamycin (FK506-binding proteins [FKBPs]) or cyclosporin A (cyclophilins) have been identified. We report the cloning and characterization of a new 51-kDa member of the FKBP family from murine T cells. The novel immunophilin, FKBP51, is distinct from the previously isolated and sequenced 52-kDa murine FKBP, demonstrating 53% identity overall. Importantly, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis showed that unlike all other FKBPs characterized to date, FKBP51 expression was largely restricted to T cells. Drug binding to recombinant FKBP51 was demonstrated by inhibition of peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity. As judged from peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity, FKBP51 had a slightly higher affinity for rapamycin than for FK520, an FK506 analog. FKBP51, when complexed with FK520, was capable of inhibiting calcineurin phosphatase activity in an in vitro assay system. Inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity has been implicated both in the mechanism of immunosuppression and in the observed toxic side effects of FK506 in nonlymphoid cells. Identification of a new FKBP that can mediate calcineurin inhibition and is restricted in its expression to T cells suggests that new immunosuppressive drugs may be identified that, by virtue of their specific interaction with FKBP51, would be targeted in their site of action.
FKBP52 and FKBP51 are tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins found in steroid receptor complexes and FKBP51 is an androgen receptor (AR) target gene. Although in vitro studies suggest that FKBP52 and FKBP51 regulate hormone-binding and/or subcellular trafficking of receptors, the roles of FKBP52 and FKBP51 in vivo have not been extensively investigated. Here, we evaluate their physiological roles in FKBP52-deficient and FKBP51-deficient mice. FKBP52-deficient males developed defects in select reproductive organs (e.g., penile hypospadias, prostate dysgenesis, but normal testis), pointing to a role for FKBP52 in AR-mediated signaling and function. Surprisingly, ablation of FKBP52 did not affect AR hormone-binding or nuclear translocation in vivo and in vitro. Molecular studies in MEF cells uncovered that FKBP52 is critical to AR transcriptional activity. Interestingly, FKBP51 expression was down-regulated in FKBP52-deficient males but only in affected tissues, providing further evidence of tissue-specific loss of AR activity and suggesting that FKBP51 is an AR target gene essential to penile and prostate development. However, FKBP51-deficient mice were normal, showing no defects in AR-mediated reproductive function. Our work demonstrates that FKBP52 but not FKBP51 is essential to AR-mediated signaling, and provides evidence for an unprecedented FKBP52 function – direct control of steroid receptor transcriptional activity.
FKBP65 (65-kDa FK506-binding protein) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–localized peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase predicted to play a role in the folding and trafficking of secretory proteins. In previous studies, we have shown that FKBP65 is developmentally regulated and associates with the extracellular matrix protein, tropoelastin, during its maturation and transport through the ER. In this study, we show that FKBP65 is expressed in the lung with the same developmental pattern as tropoelastin and other matrix proteins. To test the hypothesis that FKBP65 is upregulated at times when extracellular matrix proteins are being actively synthesized and assembled, adult mice were treated with bleomycin to cause reinitiation of matrix protein production during the ensuing development of pulmonary fibrosis. After bleomycin instillation, FKBP65 expression was reactivated in the lung with a pattern similar to that observed for tropoelastin and type I collagen. Using human lung fibroblast cultures, we showed that FKBP65 does not undergo the unfolded protein response, a response associated with an upregulation of resident ER proteins that occurs after increased ER stress. When fibroblasts were treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which is upregulated during the development of pulmonary fibrosis and known to induce matrix production, FKBP65 expression and synthesis was also increased. Similar to type I collagen and tropoelastin, this response was completely inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by GGTI-298, a geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor. Treatment of fibroblasts with an inhibitor of ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase II after TGF-β1 treatment showed that the effect of TGF-β1 was not because of increased stabilization of the FKBP65 messenger RNA. In summary, we have shown that FKBP65 is highly expressed in lung development, downregulated in the adult, and can be reactivated in a coordinated manner with extracellular matrix proteins after lung injury. The expression pattern of FKBP65, which is atypical for general ER foldases, suggests that FKBP65 has a distinct set of developmentally regulated protein ligands. The response to injury, which may be in part a direct response to TGF-β1, assures the presence of FKBP65 in the ER of cells actively producing components of the extracellular matrix.
FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) is a known cis-trans peptidyl prolyl isomerase and highly expressed in the heart. Its role in regulating postnatal cardiac function remains largely unknown.
Methods and Results
We generated FKBP12 overexpressing transgenic (αMyHC-FKBP12) mice and cardiomyocyte-restricted FKBP12 conditional knockout (FKBP12f/f/αMyHC-Cre) mice, and analyzed their cardiac electrophysiology in vivo and in vitro. A high incidence (38%) of sudden death was found in αMyHC-FKBP12 mice. Surface and ambulatory ECGs documented cardiac conduction defects, which were further confirmed by electrical measurements and optical mapping in Langendorff-perfused hearts. αMyHC-FKBP12 hearts had slower action potential upstrokes, and longer action potential durations. Whole-cell patch-clamp analyses demonstrated an ~80% reduction in peak density of the tetrodotoxin-resistant, voltage-gated sodium current, INa, in αMyHC-FKBP12 ventricular cardiomyocytes, a slower recovery of INa from inactivation, shifts of steady-state activation and inactivation curves of INa to more depolarized potentials, and augmentation of late INa, suggesting that the arrhythmogenic phenotype of αMyHC-FKBP12 mice is due to abnormal INa. Ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from FKBP12f/f/αMyHC-Cre hearts showed faster action potential upstrokes and a more than 2-fold increase in peak INa density. Dialysis of exogenous recombinant FKBP12 protein into FKBP12-deficient cardiomyocytes promptly recapitulated alterations in INa seen in αMyHC-FKBP12 myocytes.
FKBP12 is a critical regulator of INa and is important to cardiac arrhythmogenic physiology. FKPB12-mediated dysregulation of INa may underlie clinical arrhythmias associated with FK506 administration.
proteins; ion channels; conduction; heart block; long-QT syndrome
Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS.
Down syndrome; GABAB receptors; Cognition; Contextual fear conditioning; Novel object recognition; Long-term potentiation
FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), also called immunophilins, are prolyl-isomerases (PPIases) that participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including hormone signaling and protein folding. Recent studies indicate that proteins that contain PPIase activity can also alter the processing of Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). Originally identified in hematopoietic cells, FKBP52 is much more abundantly expressed in neurons, including the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and basal ganglia. Given the fact that the high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP52 is highly expressed in CNS regions susceptible to Alzheimer's, we investigated its role in Aβ toxicity. Towards this goal, we generated Aβ transgenic Drosophila that harbor gain of function or loss of function mutations of FKBP52. FKBP52 overexpression reduced the toxicity of Aβ and increased lifespan in Aβ flies, whereas loss of function of FKBP52 exacerbated these Aβ phenotypes. Interestingly, the Aβ pathology was enhanced by mutations in the copper transporters Atox1, which interacts with FKBP52, and Ctr1A and was suppressed in FKBP52 mutant flies raised on a copper chelator diet. Using mammalian cultures, we show that FKBP52 (−/−) cells have increased intracellular copper and higher levels of Aβ. This effect is reversed by reconstitution of FKBP52. Finally, we also found that FKBP52 formed stable complexes with APP through its FK506 interacting domain. Taken together, these studies identify a novel role for FKBP52 in modulating toxicity of Aβ peptides.
Chronic stress has been found to be a major risk factor for various human pathologies. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is tightly regulated via, among others, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activity of the GR is modulated by a variety of proteins, including the co-chaperone FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5). Although FKBP5 has been associated with risk for affective disorders and has been implicated in GR sensitivity, previous studies focused mainly on peripheral blood, while information about basal distribution and induction in the central nervous system are sparse.
In the present study, we describe the basal expression pattern of Fkbp5 mRNA in the brain of adult male mice and show the induction of Fkbp5 mRNA via dexamethasone treatment or different stress paradigms. We could show that Fkbp5 is often, but not exclusively, expressed in regions also known for GR expression, for example the hippocampus. Furthermore, we were able to induce Fkbp5 expression via dexamethasone in the CA1 and DG subregions of the hippocampus, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the central amygdala (CeA). Increase of Fkbp5 mRNA was also found after restrained stress and 24 hours of food deprivation in the PVN and the CeA, while in the hippocampus only food deprivation caused an increase in Fkbp5 mRNA.
Interestingly, regions with a low basal expression showed higher increase in Fkbp5 mRNA following induction than regions with high basal expression, supporting the hypothesis that GR sensitivity is, at least partly, mediated via Fkbp5. In addition, this also supports the use of Fkbp5 gene expression as a marker for GR sensitivity. In summary, we were able to give an overview of the basal expression of fkbp5 mRNA as well as to extend the findings of induction of Fkbp5 and its regulatory influence on GR sensitivity from peripheral blood to the brain.
Arteriolar hyalinosis is a common histological finding in renal transplant recipients treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus; however, the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. In addition to increasing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels, tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin by binding to FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12). FKBP12 alone also inhibits TGF-β receptor activation. Here we tested whether tacrolimus binding to FKBP12 removes an inhibition of the TGF-β receptor, allowing ligand binding, ultimately leading to receptor activation and arteriolar hyalinosis. We found that specific deletion of FKBP12 from endothelial cells was sufficient to activate endothelial TGF-β receptors and induce renal arteriolar hyalinosis in these knockout mice, similar to that induced by tacrolimus. Tacrolimus-treated and knockout mice exhibited significantly increased levels of aortic TGF-β receptor activation as evidenced by SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, along with increased collagen and fibronectin expression compared to controls. Treatment of isolated mouse aortas with tacrolimus increased TGF-β receptor activation, collagen and fibronectin expression. These effects were independent of calcineurin, absent in endothelial denuded aortic rings, and could be prevented by the small molecule TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB-505124. Thus endothelial cell TGF-β receptor activation is sufficient to cause vascular remodeling and renal arteriolar hyalinosis.
tacrolimus; TGF-β; collagen; fibronectin; SMAD2/3; FK506 binding protein 12
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51, also called FKBP5) belongs to a family of immunophilins, FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs). FKBP family members are targets for drugs such as rapamycin. Although FKBP51 shares characteristics with other FKBPs, it also has unique features, especially the role in its regulation of important signaling pathways such as the AKT kinase/protein kinase B pathway. In this review, we will focus on the function of FKBP51 as a scaffolding protein in the regulation of AKT activation and, in turn, its role in tumorigenesis and response to chemotherapy.
AKT; AKT phosphorylation; FKBP51; Scaffolding protein; chemoresistance; chemosensitivity
Specifically, FK506-binding proteins 12 (FKBP12) and 12.6 (FKBP12.6) are cis–trans peptidyl prolyl isomerases that are expressed in the heart. Both FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 were previously known to interact with ryanodine receptors in striated muscles. Although FKBP12 is abundantly present in the heart, its function in the heart is largely uncertain. Recently, by generating FKBP12 transgenic overexpression and cardiac-restricted knockout mice, we showed that FKBP12 is critically important in regulating trans-sarcolemmal ionic currents, predominately the voltage-gated Na+ current, INa, but it appears to be less important for regulating cardiac ryanodine receptor function. Similar genetic approaches also confirm the role of FKBP12.6 in regulating cardiac ryanodine receptors. The current study demonstrated that FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 have very different physiologic functions in the heart.
FK506-binding protein; Cardiac function; Arrhythmia; Voltage-gated sodium channel; Ryanodine receptor; Calcium release
β-Adrenergic augmentation of Ca2+ sparks and cardiac contractility has been functionally linked to phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of FK506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6) regulatory proteins from ryanodine receptors subtype 2 (RYR2). We used FKBP12.6 null mice to test the extent to which the dissociation of FKBP12.6 affects Ca2+ sparks and mediates the inotropic action of isoproterenol (ISO), and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) regulation of Ca2+ sparks.
Methods and results
Ca2+ sparks and contractility were measured in cardiomyocytes and papillary muscle segments from FKBP12.6 null mice, and western blot analysis was carried out on sarcoplasmic reticulum microsomes prepared from mouse heart. Exposure to ISO resulted in a three- and two-fold increase in Ca2+ spark frequency in wild-type (WT) and FKBP12.6 knockout (KO) myocytes, respectively, and Ca2+ spark kinetics were also significantly altered in both types of cells. The effects of ISO on Ca2+ spark properties in KO cells were inhibited by pre-treatment with thapsigargin or phospholamban inhibitory antibody, 2D12. Moreover, twitch force magnitude and the rate of force development were not significantly different in papillary muscles from WT and KO mice. Unlike β-adrenergic stimulation, cADPR stimulation increased Ca2+ spark frequency (2.8-fold) and altered spark kinetics only in WT but not in KO mice. The effect of cADPR on spark properties was not entirely blocked by pre-treatment with thapsigargin or 2D12. In voltage-clamped cells, cADPR increased the peak Ca2+ of the spark without altering the decay time. We also noticed that basal Ca2+ spark properties in KO mice were markedly altered compared with those in WT mice.
Our data demonstrate that dissociation of FKBP12.6 from the RYR2 complex does not play a significant role in β-adrenergic-stimulated Ca2+ release in heart cells, whereas this mechanism does underlie the action of cADPR.
β-Adrenergic stimulation; cADPR; FKBP126 null cardiac myocytes; Ryanodine receptor; Ca2+ spark; Cardiac contractility
Aggregation of tau protein in the brain is associated with a class of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. FK506 binding protein 51 kDa (FKBP51, encoded by FKBP5) forms a mature chaperone complex with Hsp90 that prevents tau degradation. In this study, we have shown that tau levels are reduced throughout the brains of Fkbp5–/– mice. Recombinant FKBP51 and Hsp90 synergized to block tau clearance through the proteasome, resulting in tau oligomerization. Overexpression of FKBP51 in a tau transgenic mouse model revealed that FKBP51 preserved the species of tau that have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, blocked amyloid formation, and decreased tangle load in the brain. Alterations in tau turnover and aggregate structure corresponded with enhanced neurotoxicity in mice. In human brains, FKBP51 levels increased relative to age and AD, corresponding with demethylation of the regulatory regions in the FKBP5 gene. We also found that higher FKBP51 levels were associated with AD progression. Our data support a model in which age-associated increases in FKBP51 levels and its interaction with Hsp90 promote neurotoxic tau accumulation. Strategies aimed at attenuating FKBP51 levels or its interaction with Hsp90 have the potential to be therapeutically relevant for AD and other tauopathies.
Patients treated with the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus (FK506), which binds FK506 Binding Protein 12 (FKBP12) then inhibits the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, exhibit decreased regulatory T cells, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension; however the mechanisms and whether altered T cell polarization play a role are unknown. Tacrolimus treatment of mice for 1 week dose-dependently decreased CD4+/FoxP3+ (regulatory T cells) and increased CD4+/IL-17+ (T helper 17) cells in the spleen, and caused endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. To determine the mechanisms, we crossed floxed FKBP12 mice with Tie2-Cre mice to generate offspring lacking FKBP12 in endothelial and hematopoietic cells only (FKBP12EC KO). Given FKBP12’s role in inhibiting TGF-β receptor activation, Tie2-Cre-mediated deletion of FKBP12 increased TGF-β receptor activation and SMAD2/3 signaling. FKBP12EC KO mice exhibited increased vascular expression of genes and proteins related to endothelial cell activation and inflammation. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-17a, IL-21, and IL-23 were increased significantly suggesting a Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory state. Flow cytometry studies confirmed this as splenocyte levels of CD4+/IL-17+ cells were increased significantly while CD4+/FoxP3+ cells were decreased in FKBP12EC KO mice. Furthermore, spleens from FKBP12EC KO mice showed increased STAT3 activation, involved in Th17 cell induction, and decreased STAT5 activation, involved in regulatory T cell induction. FKBP12EC KO mice also exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. These data suggest that tacrolimus, through its activation of TGF-β receptors in endothelial and hematopoietic cells, may cause endothelial dysfunction and hypertension by activating endothelial cells, reducing Tregs, and increasing Th17 cell polarization and inflammation.
endothelium; hypertension; experimental; inflammation; lymphocytes; T cells; FK506 (tacrolimus)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls self renewal of neural stem cells during embryonic telencephalic development. FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) has a significant role in the production of cortical neurons during embryogenesis, but its role in the hippocampus during development and in adulthood has not been described.
Here we dissociate the role of FGFR2 in the hippocampus during development and during adulthood with the use of embryonic knock-out and inducible knock-out mice.
Embryonic knock-out of FGFR2 causes a reduction of hippocampal volume and impairment in adult spatial memory in mice. Spatial reference memory, as assessed by performance on the water maze probe trial, was correlated with reduced hippocampal parvalbumin+ cells, whereas short term learning was correlated with reduction in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, short term learning and newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus were deficient even when FGFR2 was lacking only in adulthood.
Taken together, these findings support a dual role for FGFR2 in hippocampal short term learning and long-term reference memory, which appear to depend upon the abundance of two separate cellular components, parvalbumin interneurons and newly generated granule cells in the hippocampus.
Fgf receptor 2; hippocampus; parvalbumin; neurogenesis; learning; memory
The gene FKBP5 codes for FKBP51, a co-chaperone protein of the Hsp90 complex that increases with age. Through its association with Hsp90, FKBP51 regulates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene associate with increased recurrence of depressive episodes, increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, attempt of suicide, and major depressive disorder in HIV patients. Variation in one of these SNPs correlates with increased levels of FKBP51. FKBP51 is also increased in HIV patients. Moreover, increases in FKBP51 in the amygdala produce an anxiety phenotype in mice. Therefore, we tested the behavioral consequences of FKBP5 deletion in aged mice. Similar to that of naïve animals treated with classical antidepressants FKBP5−/− mice showed antidepressant behavior without affecting cognition and other basic motor functions. Reduced corticosterone levels following stress accompanied these observed effects on depression. Age-dependent anxiety was also modulated by FKBP5 deletion. Therefore, drug discovery efforts focused on depleting FKBP51 levels may yield novel antidepressant therapies.
Hippocampal injury typically leads to mood and memory impairments associated with reduced and aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This study examined whether subventricular zone-neural stem cell (SVZ-NSC) grafting after hippocampal injury would counteract impairments in mood, memory, and neurogenesis. Analyses through forced swim, water maze, and novel object recognition tests revealed significant impairments in mood and memory function in animals that underwent injury and sham-grafting surgery, but animals that received NSC grafts after injury exhibited mood and memory function comparable to those of naïve control animals. The results suggest that grafting of SVZ-NSCs into the hippocampus is a useful approach for alleviating mood and memory dysfunction in neurological disorders associated with hippocampal lesions or damage.
The hippocampus is vital for functions such as mood and memory. Hippocampal injury typically leads to mood and memory impairments associated with reduced and aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. We examined whether neural stem cell (NSC) grafting after hippocampal injury would counteract impairments in mood, memory, and neurogenesis. We expanded NSCs from the anterior subventricular zone (SVZ) of postnatal F344 rat pups expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase and grafted them into the hippocampus of young adult F344 rats at 5 days after an injury inflicted through a unilateral intracerebroventricular administration of kainic acid. Analyses through forced swim, water maze, and novel object recognition tests revealed significant impairments in mood and memory function in animals that underwent injury and sham-grafting surgery. In contrast, animals that received SVZ-NSC grafts after injury exhibited mood and memory function comparable to those of naïve control animals. Graft-derived cells exhibited excellent survival and pervasive migration, and they differentiated into neurons, subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitors. Significant fractions of graft-derived cells also expressed beneficial neurotrophic factors such as the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, SVZ-NSC grafting counteracted the injury-induced reductions and abnormalities in neurogenesis by both maintaining a normal level of NSC activity in the subgranular zone and providing protection to reelin+ interneurons in the dentate gyrus. These results underscore that early SVZ-NSC grafting intervention after hippocampal injury is efficacious for thwarting mood and memory dysfunction and abnormal neurogenesis.
Nervous system; Neural stem cell; Cell transplantation; Cellular therapy; Neural differentiation; Rat model; Stem cell transplantation; Tissue-specific stem cells
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51, also called FKBP5) belongs to a family of immunophilins, FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs). Members of this family are targets for drugs such as rapamycin and cyclosporine. Although FKBP5 shares characteristics with other FKBPs, it also has unique features, especially its role in the regulation of multiple signalling pathways and in tumourigenesis and chemoresistance. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered role of FKBP5 in cancer aetiology and response to antineoplastic therapy.
FKBP5; immunophilins; chemoresistance