Purpose of Review
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had an unequivocally positive impact on morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. These benefits have clearly extended to some HIV-related malignancies, including Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The impact of HAART on cervical cancer, however, remains uncertain. The objective of this review is to summarize the last ten years of registry-based and clinical research into the impact of HAART on human papillomavirus (HPV) related cervical disease.
Compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, HIV-infected women have an increased prevalence of HPV infection, increased risk of progression of HPV-related cervical disease, and an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer. While the partial immune reconstitution afforded by HAART might be expected to decrease susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical disease, the local effects of improved immunosurveillance on the cervix are uncertain and the increased longevity of patients on HAART may increase risk of exposure to HPV and provide the time required for progression of cervical disease. Registry-based evidence has been consistent in identifying the lack of decrease in cervical cancer incidence in the HAART era. Clinical research on the subject, however, has produced conflicting evidence with regards to both the effect of HAART on HPV infection and its impact on cervical disease progression/regression.
The incidence of cervical cancer has not decreased in the HAART-era. Furthermore, clinical research has not shown a clear benefit of HAART in decreasing HPV-related cervical disease in HIV-infected women. A better understanding of this subject will have an impact on cervical disease surveillance practices.
HPV; Human papillomavirus; HAART; Cervical dysplasia; Cervical cancer; HIV
HIV-1-positive patients clear the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection less frequently than HIV-1-negative. Datasets for estimating HPV clearance probability often have irregular measurements of HPV status and risk factors. A new transitional probability-based model for estimation of probability of HPV clearance was developed to fully incorporate information on HIV-1-related clinical data, such as CD4 counts, HIV-1 viral load (VL), highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and risk factors (measured quarterly), and HPV infection status (measured at 6-month intervals).
Methodology and Findings
Data from 266 HIV-1-positive and 134 at-risk HIV-1-negative adolescent females from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) cohort were used in this study. First, the associations were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the variables that demonstrated significant effects on HPV clearance were included in transitional probability models. The new model established the efficacy of CD4 cell counts as a main clearance predictor for all type-specific HPV phylogenetic groups. The 3-month probability of HPV clearance in HIV-1-infected patients significantly increased with increasing CD4 counts for HPV16/16-like (p<0.001), HPV18/18-like (p<0.001), HPV56/56-like (p = 0.05), and low-risk HPV (p<0.001) phylogenetic groups, with the lowest probability found for HPV16/16-like infections (21.60±1.81% at CD4 level 200 cells/mm3, p<0.05; and 28.03±1.47% at CD4 level 500 cells/mm3). HIV-1 VL was a significant predictor for clearance of low-risk HPV infections (p<0.05). HAART (with protease inhibitor) was significant predictor of probability of HPV16 clearance (p<0.05). HPV16/16-like and HPV18/18-like groups showed heterogeneity (p<0.05) in terms of how CD4 counts, HIV VL, and HAART affected probability of clearance of each HPV infection.
This new model predicts the 3-month probability of HPV infection clearance based on CD4 cell counts and other HIV-1-related clinical measurements.
Increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are now accessing life-prolonging highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developing countries. There is a need for better understanding of interactions of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV, especially in the context of increasing life expectancy due to HAART. The data regarding the impact of HAART on reducing the incidence and progression and facilitating the regression of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities is largely inconsistent. Published studies differ in their study designs (prospective or retrospective cohorts or record linkage studies), screening and diagnostic protocols, duration and type of HAART use, recruitment and referral strategies, and definitions of screening test and disease positivity. Due to the ethical and resource limitations in conducting randomized trials of the impact of HAART on incidence of HPV, CIN, and cervical cancer among HIV-infected women, it is important to consider innovative study designs, including quasi-experimental trials and operations research in sentinel populations to answer the critical research questions in this area.
Purpose of review
To present recent publications in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated diseases and their relationship to HIV-infected patients.
Studies assessing geographic variations in HPV types and prevalence in cervical dysplasia and cancer in HIV-infected women suggest that although HPV types 16 and 18 dominate, multiple other HPV types may play a role in carcinogenesis. Anal dysplasia and cancer incidence continues to rise in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era; however, data on outcomes following therapy for anal dysplasia (infra-red coagulator, high resolution anoscopy guided ablation) and anal cancer (chemoradiation and possibly intensity modulated radiation therapy) have been encouraging. Oral HPV may be associated with lower genital tract HPV infection and may have implications in the development of oropharyngeal cancer.
As HIV-infected patients in the HAART era continue to have high rates of cervical and anal cancer, it is important to continue screening efforts and treatment of pre-invasive disease. Treatment options for anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals are expanding and may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. Trials assessing safety and immunogenicity of the HPV quadrivalent vaccine in people with HIV have started enrollment, and if successful, may prevent many HPV-associated cancers.
HPV; HIV; cervical and anal dysplasia
Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non infected women. In a pilot study, we assessed the relationships among cervical cytology abnormalities associated to Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HIV infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the development of Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Out of the 70 HIV infected women from Douala -Cameroon (Central Africa) that we included in the study, half (35) were under HAART. After obtaining information related to their lifestyle and sexual behaviour, cervicovaginal samples for Pap smears and venous blood for CD4 count were collected and further divided into two groups based upon the presence or absence of cervical cytology abnormalities i.e. those with normal cervical cytology and those with low and high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL).
Assessment was done according to current antiretroviral regimens available nationwide and CD4 count. It was revealed that 44.3% of HIV-infected women had normal cytology. The overall prevalence of LSIL and HSIL associated to HPV in the studied groups was 24.3% (17/70) and 31.4% (22/70) respectively. Among the 22 HSIL-positive women, 63.6% (14/22) were not on antiretroviral therapy, while 36.4% (8/22) were under HAART. HIV infected women under HAART with positive HSIL, showed a median CD4+ T cell count of 253.7 +/- 31.7 higher than those without therapy (164.7 +/- 26.1). The incidence of HSIL related to HPV infection within the study group independently of HAART initiation was high.
These results suggest the need for extension and expansion of the current study in order to evaluate the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and non HIV- infected women in Cameroon.
To determine the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical specimens from treatment-naïve women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and explore the longitudinal association of HPV DNA with CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL).
Women enrolled prior to HAART were evaluated at baseline, weeks 24, 48, and 96 with CD4 count, VL, and cervical swab for HPV DNA.
The 146 subjects had a median CD4 count of 238 cells/μL and VL of 13,894 copies/mL. Ninety-seven (66%) subjects had HPV DNA detected in the baseline specimen including 90 subjects (62%) positive for one or more high risk HPV types. HPV DNA detection declined to 49% at week 96, and that of a high risk HPV type to 39%. The duration of follow-up was associated with decreased detection of HPV DNA of any type (p=0.045) and of high risk HPV types (p=0.003). There was at most a marginal association between HAART response and loss of detection of cervical HPV DNA.
Women initiating HAART had a high prevalence of cervical HPV DNA that declined over 96 weeks of HAART. The relationship of CD4 count and VL response to the decline of cervical HPV DNA was not strong.
human papillomavirus; human immunodeficiency virus; cervical dysplasia; antiretroviral therapy
HIV and HPV can both cause chronic infections and are acquired during sexual contact. HIV infection results in a progressive loss of CD4+ T cells that is associated with an increased prevalence of HPV infections, type-specific persistence and an increase in HPV-associated malignancies. On the one hand this illustrates the important role of HPV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell immunity, on the other it shows the Achilles heel of the HPV-specific immune response. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) results in a rapid reduction of HIV and a reconstitution of systemic CD4+ T-cell levels. The use of HAART thus has the potential to raise immunity to HPV but to the surprise of many, the incidence of HPV-induced diseases has increased rather than declined since the introduction of HAART. Here, the knowledge on how HPV-induced diseases develop in the face of a non-compromised immune system will be used to explain why the effect of HAART on HPV-induced diseases is modest at best. Furthermore, exciting new data in the field of therapeutic vaccines against HPV will be discussed as this may form a more durable and clinically successful therapeutic approach for the treatment of HPV-induced high-grade lesions in HIV-positive subjects on HAART.
Purpose of review
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is unacceptably high among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and possibly in HIV-positive women. Unlike most other malignancies occurring in the HIV-positive population, anal cancer is potentially preventable, using methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer in women. This review discusses the issues around screening to prevent anal cancer.
Recent reports show that the incidence of anal cancer has increased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in this population and now exceeds the highest incidence of cervical cancer among women reported anywhere in the world.
The high incidence of anal cancer among HIV-positive individuals must not be ignored, since it may be preventable. Given the current evidence and analogy with cervical cancer prevention model, many clinicians believe that identification and treatment of HGAIN to prevent anal cancer are warranted. Where the expertise to do so exists, this is a reasonable approach, particularly if coupled with efforts to optimize further screening and treatment approaches, as well as efforts to document the efficacy of HGAIN treatment to reduce the incidence of anal cancer.
Anal cancer; human papillomavirus; anal intraepithelial neoplasia; cancer prevention; screening; HIV
The risk of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) is higher in HIV-positive women. As these women begin to live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), their risk of cervical cancer may increase. Few data exist regarding the effect of HAART on the incidence and progression of SIL in HIV-positive African women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HAART on the incidence and progression of SIL in HIV-positive women in South Africa.
A prospective observational study of HIV-seropositive women was conducted over 5 years in an HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. The participants consisted of 601 women on and off HAART who had repeat Pap smears greater than 6 months apart. The effect of HAART use on incidence and progression rates of SIL was determined using multivariate Poisson regression to obtain incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for age, CD4 count and other potential confounders.
Median follow-up time was 445 days (inter-quartile range 383, 671). The crude rate of incidence of any SIL was 15.9 episodes (95% confidence limit (CL) 12.7, 19.9) per 100 person-years; the crude rate of all progression of cervical dysplasia among women was 13.5 episodes (95% CL 11.3, 16.1) per 100 person-years. HAART use was associated with a robust reduction in the rate of incidence and progression of cervical lesions, adjusted IRR=0.55 (95% CL 0.37, 0.80). Sensitivity analyses confirmed this main association held for incidence and progression when they were considered separately, and that the result was not dependent on the length of HAART exposure.
HAART use was associated with a reduction in the rate of both incidence and progression of cervical lesions among HIV-positive women.
HAART effect; cervical dysplasia; HIV-positive women; South Africa
We assessed the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with various characteristics, CD4 count and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among HIV-positive women.
Cross-sectional study of 498 HIV-positive women who underwent HPV PCR-based testing, cytology, and systematic cervical biopsy.
In all, 68.7% of women were HPV-positive, 52.6% had high-risk (hr) HPV, and 40.2% multiple type infections. High-risk human papillomavirus-positivity did not vary significantly by age but it was negatively associated with education level. The most frequent types in 113 CIN2/3 were HPV16 (26.5%), HPV35 (19.5%), and HPV58 (12.4%). CD4 count was negatively associated with prevalence of hrHPV (P<0.001) and CIN2/3 among non-users of cART (P=0.013). Combination antiretroviral therapies users (⩾2 year) had lower hrHPV prevalence (prevalence ratio (PR) vs non-users=0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.96) and multiple infections (PR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.53–0.88), but not fewer CIN2/3. The positive predictive value of hrHPV-positivity for CIN2/3 increased from 28.9% at age <35 years to 53.3% in ⩾45 years.
The burden of hrHPV and CIN2/3 was high and it was related to immunosuppression level. Combination antiretroviral therapies ( ⩾2 year) use had a favourable effect on hrHPV prevalence but cART in our population may have been started too late to prevent CIN2/3.
HIV; cervical neoplasia; human papillomavirus; combination antiretroviral therapy; Africa
Purpose of the review
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population. This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and AIN in HIV-positive men and women, new data show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of ART and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising. Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and mouth. Treatment methods for AIN have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the ART era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of AIN will prevent development of anal cancer. Recent data show progress in both of these areas.
Human papillomavirus; anal cancer; cervical cancer; anal intraepithelial neoplasia; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Despite having high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, screening for cervical precancerous lesions remains infrequent in sub-Saharan Africa. The need to screen HIV-positive women because of the higher prevalence and faster progression of cervical precancerous lesions may be heightened by the increased access to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Policymakers need quantitative data on the effect of HAART and screening to better allocate limited resources. Our aim was to quantify the potential effect of these interventions on cervical cancer mortality.
Methods and Findings
We constructed a Markov state-transition model of a cohort of HIV-positive women in Cameroon. Published data on the prevalence, progression and regression of lesions as well as mortality rates from HIV, cervical cancer and other causes were incorporated into the model. We examined the potential impact, on cumulative cervical cancer mortality, of four possible scenarios: no HAART and no screening (NHNS), HAART and no screening (HNS), HAART and screening once on HAART initiation (HSHI), and HAART and screening once at age 35 (HS35). Our model projected that, compared to NHNS, lifetime cumulative cervical cancer mortality approximately doubled with HNS. It will require 262 women being screened at HAART initiation to prevent one cervical cancer death amongst women on HAART. The magnitudes of these effects were most sensitive to the rate of progression of precancerous lesions.
Screening, even when done once, has the potential of reducing cervical cancer mortality among HIV-positive women in Africa. The most feasible and cost-effective screening strategy needs to be determined in each setting.
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Penile and cervical cancer rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on HR-HPV acquisition and clearance among heterosexual men.
HR-HPV incidence and clearance were evaluated in 999 men (776 HIV-negative and 223 HIV-positive) aged 15–49 who participated in male circumcision trials in Rakai, Uganda.
Penile swabs were tested for HR-HPV by Roche HPV Linear Array. A Poisson multivariable model was used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (adjIRR) and clearance risk ratios (adjRR).
HR-HPV incidence was 66.5/100 py in HIV-positive men and 32.9/100 py among HIV-negative men (IRR=2.0, 95%CI 1.7–2.4). Incidence was higher with non-marital status (adjIRR=1.7, 95%CI 1.2–2.5), and decreased with age (adjIRR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4–1.0) and male circumcision (adjIRR=0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9). HR-HPV clearance was 114.7/100 py for HIV-positive men and 170.2/100 py for HIV-negative men (RR=0.7, 95%I 0.6–0.8). Clearance in HIV-negative men was increased with circumcision (adjRR=1.5, 95%CI 1.3–1.7), HSV-2 infection (adjRR=1.2, 95%CI 1.0–1.4), and symptoms of urethral discharge (adjRR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1–1.7).
HR-HPV is common among heterosexual Ugandan men, particularly the HIV-infected. HIV infection increases HR-HPV acquisition and reduces HR-HPV clearance. Promotion of male circumcision and HPV vaccination is critical in sub-Saharan Africa.
Human papillomavirus (HPV); HIV; male circumcision; Uganda
Expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has become an important approach to HIV prevention in recent years. Previous studies suggest that concomitant changes in risk behaviours may either help or hinder programs that use a Treatment as Prevention strategy.
We consider HIV-related risk behaviour as a social contagion in a deterministic compartmental model, which treats risk behaviour and HIV infection as linked processes, where acquiring risk behaviour is a prerequisite for contracting HIV. The equilibrium behaviour of the model is analysed to determine epidemic outcomes under conditions of expanding HAART coverage along with risk behaviours that change with HAART coverage. We determined the potential impact of changes in risk behaviour on the outcomes of Treatment as Prevention strategies. Model results show that HIV incidence and prevalence decline only above threshold levels of HAART coverage, which depends strongly on risk behaviour parameter values. Expanding HAART coverage with simultaneous reduction in risk behaviour act synergistically to accelerate the drop in HIV incidence and prevalence. Above the thresholds, additional HAART coverage is always sufficient to reverse the impact of HAART optimism on incidence and prevalence. Applying the model to an HIV epidemic in Vancouver, Canada, showed no evidence of HAART optimism in that setting.
Our results suggest that Treatment as Prevention has significant potential for controlling the HIV epidemic once HAART coverage reaches a threshold. Furthermore, expanding HAART coverage combined with interventions targeting risk behaviours amplify the preventive impact, potentially driving the HIV epidemic to elimination.
The successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a combination of potent antiretroviral agents, including protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, has impacted positively on morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Over time, HAART has been associated with a number of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance as well as subcutaneous fat loss and abdominal obesity, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk. Recent studies have more firmly established that both HIV infection and HAART might increase the risk of clinical cardiovascular events. Furthermore, whereas HIV/HAART is associated with multiple aspects of endocrine dysfunction, there has been less focus on bone disease, although some studies indicate a higher prevalence of osteoporosis among HIV-positive subjects compared to HIV-negative controls. The relationship between bone and fat metabolism under HIV-positive conditions deserves further attention, and available data suggest the possibility of an intriguing connection. In the future, an increasing population of aging HIV-positive patients with a spectrum of antiretroviral therapies and accumulation of endocrine abnormalities and conventional cardiovascular risk factors will present preventive and therapeutic challenges to our health-care system.
The impact of HAART on the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) remains uncertain following conflicting reports. Prior studies, however, did not consider patients’ adherence to their regimen, or HAART effectiveness (viral suppression).
HIV-positive women (N=286) who initiated HAART during follow-up in a prospective cohort were assessed semiannually for HPV (by PCR) and SIL. Adherence was defined as using HAART as prescribed ≥95% of the time, and effective HAART as suppression of HIV replication. The prevalence, incident detection, clearance/persistence of HPV/SIL before versus after HAART initiation were compared (using women as their own comparison group).
HAART initiation among adherent women was associated with a significant reduction in prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.60 [95% CI 0.44–0.81];p=0.001), incident detection of oncogenic HPV (hazard ratio [HR] 0.49 [0.30–0.82];p=0.006), and decreased prevalence and more rapid clearance of oncogenic HPV-positive SIL (HR 2.35 [1.07–5.18];p=0.03). Effects were smaller among non-adherent women. The associations of HPV/SIL with HAART effectiveness were fairly similar to those with HAART adherence.
Effective and adherent HAART use is associated with a significantly reduced burden of HPV and SIL; this may help explain why rates of cervical cancer have not increased during the HAART era, despite greater longevity.
HIV; human papillomavirus; HPV; HAART; SIL; cervical neoplasia
Immunoreconstitution of HIV-infected (HIV+) patients after treatment with highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appears to provoke inflammatory diseases.
Determine whether HIV+ children on HAART (HIV+ HAART+) have a higher incidence of asthma than HIV+ children not on HAART (HIV+ HAART−).
To investigate this possibility, 2,664 children (193 HIV+, 2,471 HIV−) born to HIV+ women were evaluated for the incidence and prevalence of asthma (i.e., asthma medication use), and change of CD4+ T cell percentage with time.
The HIV+ HAART+ children had higher CD4+ T cell percentages, lower CD8+ T cell percentages, and lower viral burdens than the HIV+ HAART− children (P≤0.05 to P≤0.01). The cumulative incidence of asthma medication use in HIV+ HAART+ children at 13.5 year rose to 33.5% vs. 11.5% in HIV+ HAART− children (hazard ratio=3.34, P=0.01) and was equal to that in the HIV− children. In children born prior to the HAART era, the prevalence of asthma medication use for HIV+ HAART+ children at 11 years of age was 10.4% vs. 3.8% for HIV+ HAART− children (odds ratio=3.38, P=0.02) and was equal to that of the HIV− children. The rate of change of CD4+ T cells (percent/year) around the time of first asthma medication for HIV+ HAART+ vs. HIV+ HAART− children was 0.81 vs. −1.43 (P=0.01).
The increased incidence of asthma in HIV+ HAART+ children may be driven by immunoreconstitution of CD4+ T cells.
This HIV model of pediatric asthma may yield clues to help explain the epidemic of asthma in the general pediatric population.
pediatric HIV infection; CD4+ T cell mediated induction of asthma; HAART-produced immunoreconstitution
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major etiologic agent in the development of cervical cancer and its natural history of infection is altered in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence of HPV infection and cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females in the Bahamas is not known. Finding out the prevalence would allow for the establishment of protocols to optimize total care of this population and help prevent morbidity and mortality related to cervical cancer.
The Objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of high risk HPV genotypes and the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females attending the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Nassau, Bahamas.
One hundred consecutive, consenting, non-pregnant, HIV-sero-positive females from the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Nassau, Bahamas were screened for high-risk HPV infections and cervical cytology abnormalities using liquid-based pap smear and signal amplification nucleic acid method for HPV detection. A questionnaire was also utilized to gather demographic information and obtain information on known risk factors associated with HPV infections such numbers of partners.
The prevalence of high-risk HPV was 67% and cervical abnormalities were noted in 44% of the study population. High-risk HPV types were more likely to be present in women with CD4+ cell counts less than 400 μl-1 and in women with cervical cytology abnormalities (97%). The most common cervical abnormality was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
Findings suggest that HIV-sero positive females should have HPV testing done as part of their normal gynecology evaluation and these patients should be encouraged and provisions be made for ease of access having regular PAP smears and HPV testing.
Adherence continues to be a major barrier to successful treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected adolescents and young adults face a lifetime of treatment with HAART. Often, individuals who struggle with adherence to HAART face multiple barriers that would therefore impact on the success of any single modality intervention. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the prevalence of personal barriers to adherence and to identify associations between these barriers in HIV-infected subjects, 12 to 24. We studied the following personal barriers to adherence: mental health barriers, high/low self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, and the presence of specific structural barriers. There were 396 subjects infected after age 9 recruited from sites from the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions or the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Of the 396 subjects, 148 (37.4%) self-identified as nonadherent. No significant differences were found between adherent and nonadherent subjects for the presence of mental health disorders. Adherence was significantly associated with all but one structural barrier. Both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were higher among adherent versus nonadherent subjects (p < 0.0001). Grouping subjects according to low self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for adherence, adherence differed according to the presence or absence of mental health disorders and structural barriers (p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that adolescents have significant rates of non-adherence and face multiple personal barriers. Adherence interventions must address multiple barriers to have the maximum chance for positive effects.
Treatment of women for high-grade cervical cancer precursors frequently results in clearance of the associated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection but the role of treatment among women without hrHPV is unknown. We investigated whether cervical cryotherapy reduces newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who were hrHPV negative when treated.
The impact of cryotherapy on newly detected hrHPV infections was examined among 612 women of known HIV serostatus, aged 35 to 65 years, who were negative for hrHPV DNA, and randomized to either undergo cryotherapy (n = 309) or not (n = 303). All women underwent repeat hrHPV DNA testing 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later.
Among 540 HIV-negative women, cryotherapy was associated with a significant reduction in newly detected hrHPV infections. Women in the cryotherapy group were 55% less likely to have newly detected hrHPV than women in the control group (95% CI 0.28 to 0.71). This association was independent of the influence of changes in sexual behaviors following therapy (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81). Among 72 HIV-positive women, similar reductions were not observed (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.29).
Cervical cryotherapy significantly reduced newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-negative, but not HIV-positive women. These results raise intriguing questions about immunological responses and biological mechanisms underlying the apparent prophylactic benefits of cryotherapy.
Background. It is well established that the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive individuals, but the temporal relationships between these infections are unclear.
Methods. During a South African cervical cancer screening trial, 5595 women 35–65 years of age were followed up for 36 months; 577 women were HIV positive at enrollment, HIV seroconversion occurred in 123 women, and 4895 women remained HIV negative throughout. Tests for high-risk HPV DNA and cytology were performed on cervical samples, and a colposcopy/biopsy was performed at each visit. The effects of early HIV infection on the risk of HPV infection and HPV-related disease were evaluated.
Results. Among seroconverters, HPV infection prevalence was 20.3% before seroconversion, 23.6% at seroconversion (P = .4), and 49.1% after seroconversion (P = .01). Seroconverters had significantly lower HPV infection prevalence than women with prevalent HIV infection before and at seroconversion (41.8% and 45.9%, respectively) but had similar HPV infection prevalence to women with prevalent HIV infection after seroconversion (49.4%). HIV seroconversion was associated with newly detected HPV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.26–7.13) and increased risk of low-grade cytological abnormalities (AHR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.16–5.51) compared with HIV-negative women.
Conclusion. Detection of HPV infection increases rapidly within the first years after HIV seroconversion, suggesting that mucosal immune dysfunction occurring at an early stage of HIV infection may influence HPV-related diseases.
Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected individuals is associated with control of viremia, improved CD4 counts, and declining systemic HIV-specific immune responses. While HAART effectively reduces plasma viremia, it remains unclear how effectively antiretroviral drugs reach mucosal surfaces, such as those of the genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HAART on genital tract CD4 T cell reconstitution, HIV shedding, and HIV-specific T cell responses. Cervical cytobrush and blood specimens were obtained from 35 HIV-infected, HAART-naïve women and 27 women on HAART in order to investigate HIV Gag-specific T cell responses by intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-γ) staining. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We show that for HIV-infected women, HAART is associated with significantly improved CD4 T cell counts both in blood and at the cervix. While HAART effectively suppressed both blood and cervical viremia, HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses in blood were lost, while those at the cervix were preserved.
Objective. Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in populations with a high prevalence of both infections. Procedures performed in the management of cervical dysplasia may facilitate HIV entry via mechanical injury. We sought to investigate the association between cervical procedures and incident HIV. Methods. Data on cervical cancer screening and procedures were collected in a cohort study evaluating the diaphragm for HIV prevention in 2040 women. In this secondary analysis, we investigated the association between cervical procedures and HIV acquisition. Results. Out of 2027 HIV-negative women at baseline, 199 underwent cervical procedures. Cumulative risk of HIV was 4.3% over 21 months of median followup (n = 88). Compared with women without cervical procedures, we observed no difference in HIV incidence after a cervical biopsy (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.39–2.16), endocervical curettage (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07–1.22), or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.30–3.30). Conclusions. In this cohort, cervical procedures were not associated with HIV incidence. This lack of association could be due to the small number of events.
The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the natural history of AIDS disease has been allowed to prolong the survival of people with HIV infection, particularly whose with increased HIV viral load. Additionally, the antiretroviral therapy could exert a certain degree of protection against parasitic diseases. A number of studies have been evidenced a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic parasitic infections in the era of HAART. Although these changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity, induced by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or HIV protease inhibitors, in combination with at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors included in HAART, there are evidence that the control of these parasitic infections in HIV-positive persons under HAART, is also induced by the inhibition of the proteases of the parasites. This review focuses on the principal available data related with therapeutic HIV-protease inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo effects on the opportunistic protozoan parasites.
Protease inhibitors; antiretrovirals; therapeutic agents; protozoa; parasite
Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is high and HPV vaccine coverage low.
Between July 2005 and January 2006, a cross-sectional community-based survey in Mombasa, Kenya, enrolled female sex workers using snowball sampling. After interview and a gynaecological examination, blood and cervical cytology samples were taken. Quantitative real-time PCR detected HPV types and viral load measures. Prevalence of high-risk HPV was compared between HIV-infected and -uninfected women, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology, measured using conventional Pap smears.
Median age of the 820 participants was 28 years (inter-quartile range [IQR] = 24-36 years). One third of women were HIV infected (283/803; 35.2%) and these women were y more likely to have abnormal cervical cytology than HIV-negative women (27%, 73/269, versus 8%, 42/503; P < 0.001). Of HIV-infected women, 73.3% had high-risk HPV (200/273) and 35.5% had HPV 16 and/or 18 (97/273). Corresponding figures for HIV-negative women were 45.5% (229/503) and 15.7% (79/503). After adjusting for age, number of children and condom use, high-risk HPV was 3.6 fold more common in HIV-infected women (95%CI = 2.6-5.1). Prevalence of all 15 of the high-risk HPV types measured was higher among HIV-infected women, between 1.4 and 5.5 fold. Median total HPV viral load was 881 copies/cell in HIV-infected women (IQR = 33-12,110 copies/cell) and 48 copies/cell in HIV-uninfected women (IQR = 6-756 copies/cell; P < 0.001). HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were identified in 42.7% of LSIL (32/75) and 42.3% of HSIL (11/26) lesions (P = 0.98). High-risk HPV types other than 16 and 18 were common in LSIL (74.7%; 56/75) and HSIL (84.6%; 22/26); even higher among HIV-infected women.
HIV-infected sex workers had almost four-fold higher prevalence of high-risk HPV, raised viral load and more precancerous lesions. HPV 16 and HPV 18, preventable with current vaccines, were associated with cervical disease, though other high-risk types were commoner. HIV-infected sex workers likely contribute disproportionately to HPV transmission dynamics in the general population. Current efforts to prevent HIV and HPV are inadequate. New interventions are required and improved implementation of existing strategies.