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1.  CD36 Deficiency Leads to Choroidal Involution via COX2 Down-Regulation in Rodents 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(2):e39.
Background
In the Western world, a major cause of blindness is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent research in angiogenesis has furthered the understanding of choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in the “wet” form of AMD. In contrast, very little is known about the mechanisms of the predominant, “dry” form of AMD, which is characterized by retinal atrophy and choroidal involution. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible implication of the scavenger receptor CD36 in retinal degeneration and choroidal involution, the cardinal features of the dry form of AMD.
Methods and Findings
We here show that deficiency of CD36, which participates in outer segment (OS) phagocytosis by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in vitro, leads to significant progressive age-related photoreceptor degeneration evaluated histologically at different ages in two rodent models of CD36 invalidation in vivo (Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and CD36−/− mice). Furthermore, these animals developed significant age related choroidal involution reflected in a 100%–300% increase in the avascular area of the choriocapillaries measured on vascular corrosion casts of aged animals. We also show that proangiogenic COX2 expression in RPE is stimulated by CD36 activating antibody and that CD36-deficient RPE cells from SHR rats fail to induce COX2 and subsequent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression upon OS or antibody stimulation in vitro. CD36−/− mice express reduced levels of COX2 and VEGF in vivo, and COX2−/− mice develop progressive choroidal degeneration similar to what is seen in CD36 deficiency.
Conclusions
CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in the RPE. These results show a novel molecular mechanism of choroidal degeneration, a key feature of dry AMD. These findings unveil a pathogenic process, to our knowledge previously undescribed, with important implications for the development of new therapies.
Florian Sennelaub and colleagues show that CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution, a key feature of "dry" age-related macular degeneration, via COX-2 down-regulation in the retinal pigment epithelium.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in industrialized countries. The macula is the central region of the retina, the tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and converts it into electrical messages that are sent to the brain. In the commonest form of AMD—“dry” AMD—the light-sensitive cells in the retina (the photoreceptors) gradually die. This degeneration might occur because of damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This layer of dark cells lies between the photoreceptors and the choroid, the layer of the eye that contains blood vessels and brings oxygen to the retina. The RPE keeps the retina healthy by transferring the right amount of oxygen and nutrients from the choroid to the retina and by removing worn-out photoreceptor outer segments (the part of the photoreceptor that actually absorbs light) in a process called phagocytosis (engulfment and digestion). In addition to photoreceptor degeneration and RPE shrinkage, a layer of the choroid rich in small blood vessels (the choriocapillaris) also shrinks in dry AMD. For affected individuals, all these changes (which experts describe as retinal atrophy and choroidal involution) mean that the sharp central vision that is needed for reading and driving is destroyed, leaving only dim, burred images or a black hole at the center of the vision.
Why Was This Study Done?
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie dry AMD and, consequently, there is no cure for it. In this study, the researchers have tested whether a molecule called CD36, which is expressed on the surface of RPE cells, is involved in dry AMD. CD36 is a scavenger receptor—which means it binds many potentially harmful molecules including oxidized fats (which are present in the photoreceptor outer segments) and is involved in their phagocytosis. Phagocytosis itself induces the expression of several proteins in the RPE cells, including COX2, a “proangiogenic” protein that stimulates the growth of blood vessels. Putting this information together, the researchers hypothesized that a defect in CD36 might cause the characteristic retinal atrophy (by preventing the phagocytosis of worn-out photoreceptor outer segments) and choroidal involution (by preventing the induction of COX2 expression and consequently the maintenance of the blood vessels in the choroid) of dry AMD.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first show that retinal degeneration occurs in rats and mice that express no CD36. This degeneration (which included a reduction in the thickness of the retina, the presence of irregularly shaped photoreceptor outer segments, and the detachment of these structures from the RPE) was seen in old but not young animals. Choroidal involution was also seen in these CD36-deficient animals. This change was present in young mice and rats but increased with age so that by one year old, the choriocapillaris looked moth-eaten. Next, the researchers show that although RPE cells taken from normal animals and grown in dishes were able to make COX2 in response to exposure to purified photoreceptor outer segments, RPE cells from CD36-deficient animals did not. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; a protein that is needed for normal choroidal development and whose expression is controlled by COX2) showed a similar pattern. Finally, the researchers report that COX2 deficiency in mice caused similar age-dependent choroidal involution and similar effects on VEGF expression in RPE cells as CD36 deficiency.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that CD36 deficiency leads to progressive, age-related degeneration of photoreceptors and choroidal involution in rats and mice. They also show that CD36 deficiency causes this choroidal involution, the key feature of dry AMD, because it leads to down-regulation of COX2 expression (and subsequently reduced VEGF expression) in the RPE. Researchers now need to find out whether this mechanism for the development of dry AMD holds in people—what happens in animals does not necessarily happen in people. If it does, pharmacological activation of CD36 or restoration of CD36 expression in the RPE might eventually provide a way to treat dry AMD.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050039.
MedlinePlus provides links to information on macular degeneration and an encyclopedia page on macular degeneration (in English and Spanish)
Pages on the US National Institutes of Health NIH SeniorHealth site provides text and spoken information about AMD
The US National Eye Institute and the UK Royal National Institute of Blind People also provide information about AMD
Wikipedia has pages on the retina, photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050039
PMCID: PMC2245984  PMID: 18288886
2.  Structure-Function Correlation of the Human Central Retina 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e12864.
Background
The impact of retinal pathology detected by high-resolution imaging on vision remains largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of the study was to achieve high-resolution structure-function correlation of the human macula in vivo.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To obtain high-resolution tomographic and topographic images of the macula spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), respectively, were used. Functional mapping of the macula was obtained by using fundus-controlled microperimetry. Custom software allowed for co-registration of the fundus mapped microperimetry coordinates with both SD-OCT and cSLO datasets. The method was applied in a cross-sectional observational study of retinal diseases and in a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab in macular telangietasia type 2. There was a significant relationship between outer retinal thickness and retinal sensitivity (p<0.001) and neurodegeneration leaving less than about 50 µm of parafoveal outer retinal thickness completely abolished light sensitivity. In contrast, functional preservation was found if neurodegeneration spared the photoreceptors, but caused quite extensive disruption of the inner retina. Longitudinal data revealed that small lesions affecting the photoreceptor layer typically precede functional detection but later cause severe loss of light sensitivity. Ranibizumab was shown to be ineffective to prevent such functional loss in macular telangietasia type 2.
Conclusions/Significance
Since there is a general need for efficient monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy in neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and since SD-OCT imaging is becoming more widely available, surrogate endpoints derived from such structure-function correlation may become highly relevant in future clinical trials.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012864
PMCID: PMC2943911  PMID: 20877651
3.  Towards a Quantitative OCT Image Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e100080.
Background
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study.
Methods
Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), confocal Scanning-La­ser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Fluorescein Angiography (FA) were performed in mice (Mus musculus), gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus), and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer). Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/).
Results
Reflectivity profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates) with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated.
Conclusions
OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the potential of this approach in the long-term follow-up of therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100080
PMCID: PMC4057353  PMID: 24927180
4.  Optical Coherence Tomography for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Macular Edema 
Executive Summary
Objective
The purpose of this evidence-based review was to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with retinal disease, specifically age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Specifically, the research question addressed was:
What is the sensitivity and specificity of spectral domain OCT relative to the gold standard?
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
The incidence of blindness has been increasing worldwide. In Canada, vision loss in those 65 years of age and older is primarily due to AMD, while loss of vision in those 18 years of age and older is mainly due to DME. Both of these conditions are diseases of the retina, which is located at the back of the eye. At the center of the retina is the macula, a 5 mm region that is responsible for what we see in front of us, our ability to detect colour, and fine detail. Damage to the macula gives rise to vision loss, but early detection of asymptomatic disease may lead to the prevention or slowing of the vision loss process.
There are two main types of AMD, ‘dry’ and ‘wet’. Dry AMD is the more prevalent of the two, accounting for approximately 85% of cases and characterized by small deposits of extracellular material called “drusen” that build up in Bruch’s membrane of the eye. Central vision loss is gradual with blurring and eventual colour fading. Wet AMD is a less prevalent condition (15% of all AMD cases) but it accounts for 90% of severe cases. It’s characterized by the appearance of retinal fluid with vision loss due to abnormal blood vessels/leakage within weeks to months of diagnosis. In 2003, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) prevalence estimate for AMD was 1 million Canadians, including approximately 400,000 affected Ontarians. The incidence in 2003 was estimated to be 78,000 new cases in Canada, with approximately one-third of these cases arising in Ontario (n=26,000). Over the next 25 years, the number of new cases is expected to triple.
DME is caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, both Type 1 and Type 2. It is estimated that 1-in-4 persons with diabetes has this condition, though it occurs more frequently among those with type 2 diabetes. The condition is characterized by a swelling of the retina caused by leakage of blood vessels at the back of the eye. In early stages of the disease, vision may still be normal but it can degrade rapidly in later stages. In 2003, the CNIB prevalence estimate for DME was 0.5 million Canadians, with approximately 200,000 Ontarians affected. The incidence of DME is more difficult to ascertain; however, based on an annual incidence rate of 0.8% (for those 20 years of age or older) and the assumption that 1-in-4 persons with diabetes is affected, the incidence of DME in Ontario is estimated to be 21,000 new cases per year.
Optical Coherence Tomography
Prior to the availability of OCT, the standard of care in the diagnosis and/or monitoring of retinal disease was serial testing with fluorescein angiography (FA), biomicroscopy (BM), and stereo-fundus photography (SFP). Each of these is a qualitative measure of disease based on subjective evaluations that are largely dependent on physician expertise. OCT is the first quantitative visual test available for the diagnosis of eye disease. As such, it is allows for a more objective evaluation of the presence/absence of retinal disease and it is the only test that provides a measure of retinal thickness. The technology was developed at the Michigan Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1991 as a real-time imaging modality and is considered comparable to histology. It’s a light-wave based technology producing cross-sectional images with scan rates and resolution parameters that have greatly improved over the last 10 years. It’s also a non-invasive, non-contact visual test that requires just 3 to 5 minutes to assess both eyes.
There are two main types of OCT system, both licensed by Health Canada as class II devices. The original patent was based on a time domain (TD) system (available from 1995) that had an image rate of 100 to 400 scans per second and provided information for a limited view of the retina with a resolution in the range of 10 to 20 μm. The newer system, spectral domain (SD) OCT, has been available since 2006. Improvements with this system include (i) a faster scan speed of approximately 27,000 scans per second; (ii) the ability to scan larger areas of the retina by taking six scans radially-oriented 30 degrees from each other; (iii) increased resolution at 5μm; and (iv) ‘real-time registration,’ which was not previously available with TD.
The increased scan speed of SD systems enables the collection of additional real-time information on larger regions of the retina, thus, reducing the reliance on assumptions required for retinal thickness and volume estimates based on software algorithms. The faster scan speed also eliminates image distortion arising from patient movement (not previously possible with TD), while the improvement in resolution allows for clearer and more distinguishable retinal layers with the possibility of detecting earlier signs of disease. Real-time registration is a new feature of SD that enables the identification of specific anatomical locations on the retina, against which subsequent tests can be evaluated. This is of particular importance in the monitoring of patients. In the evaluation of treatment effects, for example, this enables the same anatomic retinal location to be identified at each visit.
Methods
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on February 13, 2009 using Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 2003 to February 2009. The subject headings and keywords searched included AMD, DME, and OCT (the detailed search strategy can be viewed in Appendix 1). Excluded were case reports, comments, editorials, non-systematic reviews, and letters. Abstacts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. In total, 542 articles were included for review.
English-language articles and health technology assessments.
RCTs and observational studies of OCT and AMD or DME.
Studies focusing on either diagnosis or monitoring of disease.
Studies in which outcomes were not specific to those of interest in this report.
Studies of pediatric populations.
Studies on OCT as a screening tool.
Studies that did not assess comparative effectiveness of OCT with a referent, as specified below in “Comparisons of Interest”.
Outcomes of Interest
Studies of sensitivity, specificity.
Comparisons of Interest
Evidence exists for the following comparisons of interest:
OCT compared with the reference “fluorescein angiography” for AMD.
OCT compared with the reference “biomicroscopy” or “stereo or fundus photography” for DME.
Summary of Existing Evidence
No evidence for the accuracy of SD OCT compared to either FA, BM or SFP was published between January 2006 to February 2009; however, two technology assessments were found, one from Alberta and the other from Germany, both of which contain evidence for TD OCT. Although these HTAs included eight studies each, only one study from each report was specific to this review. Additionally, one systematic review was identified for OCT and DME. It is these three articles, all pertaining to time and not spectral domain OCT, as well as comments from experts in the field of OCT and retinal disease, that comprise the evidence contained in this review.
Upon further assessment and consultations with experts in the methodology of clinical test evaluation, it was concluded that these comparators could not be used as references in the evaluation of OCT. The main conclusion was that, without a third test as an arbiter, it is not possible to directly compare the sensitivity and specificity of OCT relative to either FA for AMD and stereo- or fundus – photography for DME. Therefore, in the absence of published evidence, it was deemed appropriate to consult a panel of experts for their views and opinions on the validity of OCT and its utility in clinical settings. This panel consisted of four clinicians with expertise in AMD and/or DME and OCT, as well as a medical biophysicist with scientific expertise in ocular technologies. This is considered level 5 evidence, but in the absence of an appropriate comparator for further evaluation of OCT, this may be the highest level of evidence possible.
Summary of Findings
The conclusions for SD OCT based on Level 5 evidence, or expert consultation, are as follows:
OCT is considered an essential part of the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with DME and AMD.
OCT is adjunctive to FA for both AMD and DME but should decrease utilization of FA as a monitoring modality.
OCT will result in a decline in the use of BM in the monitoring of patients with DME, given its increased accuracy and consistency.
OCT is diffusing rapidly and the technology is changing. Since FA is still considered pivotal in the diagnosis and treatment of AMD and DME, and there is no common outcome against which to compare these technologies, it is unlikely that RCT evidence of efficacy for OCT will ever be forthcoming.
In addition to the accuracy of OCT in the detection of disease, assessment of the clinical utility of this technology included a rapid review of treatment effects for AMD and DME. The treatment of choice for AMD is Lucentis®, with or without Avastin® and photodynamic therapy. For DME the treatment of choice is laser photocoagulation, which may be replaced with Lucentis® injections (Expert consultation). The evidence, as presented in systematic reviews and other health technology assessments, indicates that there are effective treatments available for both AMD and DME.
Considerations for the Ontario Health System
OCT testing is presently an uninsured service in Ontario with patients paying approximately $150 out-of-pocket per test. Several provinces do provide funding for this procedure, including British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and the Yukon Territory. Provinces that do not provide such funding are Quebec, Manitoba and New Brunswick.
The demand for OCT is expected to increase with aging of the population.
PMCID: PMC3377511  PMID: 23074517
5.  Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:45-59.
Purpose
The primate retina contains a specialized, cone-rich macula, which mediates high acuity and color vision. The spatial resolution provided by the neural retina at the macula is optimized by stereotyped retinal blood vessel and ganglion cell axon patterning, which radiate away from the macula and reduce shadowing of macular photoreceptors. However, the genes that mediate these specializations, and the reasons for the vulnerability of the macula to degenerative disease, remain obscure. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that may influence retinal vascular patterning and definition of the foveal avascular area.
Methods
We used RNA from human fetal retinas at 19–20 weeks of gestation (WG; n=4) to measure differential gene expression in the macula, a region nasal to disc (nasal) and in the surrounding retina (surround) by hybridization to 12 GeneChip® microarrays (HG-U133 Plus 2.0). The raw data was subjected to quality control assessment and preprocessing, using GC-RMA. We then used ANOVA analysis (Partek® Genomic Suite™ 6.3) and clustering (DAVID website) to identify the most highly represented genes clustered according to “biological process.” The neural retina is fully differentiated at the macula at 19–20 WG, while neuronal progenitor cells are present throughout the rest of the retina. We therefore excluded genes associated with the cell cycle, and markers of differentiated neurons, from further analyses. Significantly regulated genes (p<0.01) were then identified in a second round of clustering according to molecular/reaction (KEGG) pathway. Genes of interest were verified by quantitative PCR (QRT–PCR), and 2 genes were localized by in situ hybridization.
Results
We generated two lists of differentially regulated genes: “macula versus surround” and “macula versus nasal.” KEGG pathway clustering of the filtered gene lists identified 25 axon guidance-related genes that are differentially regulated in the macula. Furthermore, we found significant upregulation of three anti-angiogenic factors in the macula: pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), natriuretic peptide precurusor B (NPPB), and collagen type IVα2. Differential expression of several members of the ephrin and semaphorin axon guidance gene families, PEDF, and NPPB was verified by QRT–PCR. Localization of PEDF and Eph-A6 mRNAs in sections of macaque retina shows expression of both genes concentrates in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) at the developing fovea, consistent with an involvement in definition of the foveal avascular area.
Conclusions
Because the axons of macular ganglion cells exit the retina from around 8 WG, we suggest that the axon guidance genes highly expressed at the macula at 19–20 WG are also involved in vascular patterning, along with PEDF and NPPB. Localization of both PEDF and Eph-A6 mRNAs to the GCL of the developing fovea supports this idea. It is possible that specialization of the macular vessels, including definition of the foveal avascular area, is mediated by processes that piggyback on axon guidance mechanisms in effect earlier in development. These findings may be useful to understand the vulnerability of the macula to degeneration and to develop new therapeutic strategies to inhibit neovascularization.
PMCID: PMC2622716  PMID: 19145251
6.  Selective Thinning of the Perifoveal Inner Retina as an Early Sign of Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity 
Eye (London, England)  2010;24(5):756-763.
Purpose
To evaluate macular thickness profiles using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and image segmentation in patients with chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine.
Methods
This study included 8 patients with chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine (Group 1) and 8 controls (Group 2). Group 1 patients had no clinically-evident retinal toxicity. All subjects underwent SDOCT imaging of the macula. An image segmentation technique was used to measure thickness of 6 retinal layers at 200 µm intervals. A mixed-effects model was used for multivariate analysis.
Results
By measuring total retinal thickness either at the central macular (2800 µm in diameter), the perifoveal region 1200-µm-width ring surrounding the central macula), or the overall macular area (5200 µm in diameter), there were no significant differences in the thickness between Groups 1 and 2. On an image segmentation analysis, selective thinning of the inner plexiform + ganglion cell layers (p=0.021) was observed only in the perifoveal area of the patients in Group 1 compared to that of Group 2 by using the mixed-effects model analysis.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine is associated with thinning of the perifoveal inner retinal layers, especially in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers, even in the absence of functional or structural clinical changes involving the photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelial cell layers. This may be a contributing factor as the reason most patients who have early detectable signs of drug toxicity present with paracentral or pericentral scotomas.
doi:10.1038/eye.2010.21
PMCID: PMC3711255  PMID: 20395978
hydroxychloroquine; perifoveal; parafoveal; ganglion cell; retinal toxicity; OCT
7.  Mapping of Macular Substructures with Optical Coherence Tomography for Glaucoma Diagnosis 
Ophthalmology  2007;115(6):949-956.
Purpose
To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify the specific retinal layers and macular regions damaged in glaucoma.
Design
Observational cross-sectional study.
Participants
One hundred forty-nine participants in the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study, divided into 3 groups: normal (N) perimetric glaucoma (PG), and glaucoma suspect and preperimetric glaucoma (GSPPG) with 44, 73, and 29 persons, respectively.
Methods
The Zeiss Stratus OCT system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) was used to map the macula over a 6-mm diameter and to scan the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer (cpNFL). The macular OCT images were exported for automatic segmentation using software developed by the authors. The thickness of the macular nerve fiber layer (mNFL), ganglion cell layer (mGCL), inner plexiform layer (mIPL), inner nuclear layer (mINL), outer retinal layer (mORL), and total retinal thickness were measured. Thickness measurements of GSPPG and PG eyes were compared with those of N eyes. The ability to differentiate between GSPPG and PG eyes against N eyes was assessed by fractional loss, standardized deviation, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.
Main Outcome Measures
Area-weighted average thicknesses of retinal sublayers in the macula.
Results
The mNFL, mGCL, mIPL, and mINL were significantly (P<0.001) thinner in both the GSPPG and PG eyes than in the N eyes. In PG eyes, mNFL, mGCL, and mIPL thinning was most severe (approximately 20%), mINL thinning was intermediate (7%), and mORL thinning was minimal (3%). The repeatability (coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation) of thickness measurements was improved by combining the mNFL, mGCL, and mIPL measurements as the inner retinal layer (mIRL). The mIRL was the best macular parameter for glaucoma diagnosis and had discriminant power comparable with that of the cpNFL. The fractional loss of mIRL thickness was most severe in the inferior perifoveal region for both the PG and GSPPG groups.
Conclusions
Glaucoma leads to thinning of the mNFL, mGCL, mIPL, and mINL, even before detectable visual field changes occur. A combination of the 3 innermost layers seems to provide optimal glaucoma detection. Increasing the sampling of peripheral macula with a new OCT scan pattern may improve glaucoma diagnosis further.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.08.011
PMCID: PMC2692598  PMID: 17981334
8.  Multimodal Retinal Vessel Analysis in CADASIL Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112311.
Purpose
To further elucidate retinal findings and retinal vessel changes in Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) patients by means of high resolution retinal imaging.
Methods
28 eyes of fourteen CADASIL patients and an equal number of control subjects underwent confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) measurements, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography. Three vessel measurement techniques were applied: RNFL thickness, a semiautomatic software tool based on cSLO images and manual vessel outlining based on SD-OCT.
Results
Mean age of patients was 56.2±11.6 years. Arteriovenous nicking was present in 22 (78.6%) eyes and venous dilation in 24 (85.7%) eyes. Retinal volume and choroidal volume were 8.77±0.46 mm3 and 8.83±2.24 mm3. RNFL measurements showed a global increase of 105.2 µm (Control group: 98.4 µm; p = 0.015). Based on semi-automatic cSLO measurements, maximum diameters of arteries and veins were 102.5 µm (106.0 µm; p = 0.21) and 128.6 µm (124.4 µm; p = 0.27) respectively. Manual SD-OCT measurements revealed significantly increased mean arterial 138.7 µm (125.4 µm; p<0.001) and venous 160.0 µm (146.9; p = 0.003) outer diameters as well as mean arterial 27.4 µm (19.2 µm; p<0.001) and venous 18.3 µm (15.7 µm; p<0.001) wall thicknesses in CADASIL patients.
Conclusions
The findings reflect current knowledge on pathophysiologic changes in vessel morphology in CADASIL patients. SD-OCT may serve as a complementary tool to diagnose and follow-up patients suffering from cerebral small-vessel diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112311
PMCID: PMC4221286  PMID: 25372785
9.  Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology 
Ophthalmology  2005;112(11):1922.e1-1922.15.
Objective
To compare ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) with standard-resolution OCT for imaging macular diseases, develop baselines for interpreting OCT images, and identify situations where UHR OCT can provide additional information on disease morphology.
Design
Cross-sectional study.
Participants
One thousand two eyes of 555 patients with different macular diseases including macular hole, macular edema, central serous chorioretinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization, epiretinal membrane, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa.
Methods
A UHR ophthalmic OCT system that achieves 3-μm axial image resolution was developed for imaging in the ophthalmology clinic. Comparative studies were performed with both UHR OCT and standard 10-μm-resolution OCT. Standard scanning protocols of 6 radial 6-mm scans through the fovea were obtained with both systems. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT and standard-resolution OCT images were correlated with standard ophthalmic examination techniques (dilated ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiograms) to assess morphological information contained in the images.
Main Outcome Measures
Ultrahigh-resolution and standard-resolution OCT images of macular pathologies.
Results
Correlations of UHR OCT images, standard-resolution images, fundus examination, and/or fluorescein angiography were demonstrated in full-thickness macular hole, central serous chorioretinopathy, macular edema, AMD, RPE detachment, epiretinal membrane, vitreal macular traction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT and standard-resolution OCT exhibited comparable performance in differentiating thicker retinal layers, such as the retinal nerve fiber, inner and outer plexiform, and inner and outer nuclear. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT had improved performance differentiating finer structures or structures with lower contrast, such as the ganglion cell layer and external limiting membrane. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT confirmed the interpretation of features, such as the boundary between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments, which is also visible in standard-resolution OCT. The improved resolution of UHR OCT is especially advantageous in assessing photoreceptor morphology.
Conclusions
Ultrahigh-resolution OCT enhances the visualization of intraretinal architectural morphology relative to standard-resolution OCT. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT images can provide a baseline for defining the interpretation of standard-resolution images, thus enhancing the clinical utility of standard OCT imaging. In addition, UHR OCT can provide additional information on macular disease morphology that promises to improve understanding of disease progression and management.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.05.027
PMCID: PMC1937402  PMID: 16183127
10.  MACULAR HOLES AND MACULAR PUCKER: THE ROLE OF VITREOSCHISIS AS IMAGED BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY/SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY 
Purpose
The pathogenesis of macular pucker and macular holes is poorly understood. Anomalous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreoschisis have been proposed as possible mechanisms. This study used clinical imaging to seek vitreoschisis and study the topographic features of macular pucker and macular holes.
Methods
Combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (OCT/SLO) was performed in 45 eyes with macular hole and 44 eyes with macular pucker. Longitudinal imaging was used to identify vitreoschisis and measure retinal thickness. The topographic features of eyes with macular hole with eccentric macular contraction were compared to 24 eyes with unifocal macular pucker using coronal plane imaging.
Results
Vitreoschisis was detected in 24 of 45 eyes (53.3%) with macular hole and 19 of 44 (43.2%) with macular pucker. Retinal contraction was detected eccentrically in the macula of 18 of 45 eyes (40%) with macular hole. In eyes with macular hole with unifocal retinal contraction, the average surface area of contraction (23.12 ± 18.79 mm2) was significantly smaller than in eyes with macular pucker (63.20 ± 23.68 mm2; P = .006). The distance from the center of retinal contraction to the center of the macula was significantly greater in eyes with macular hole (8.64 ± 2.33 mm) than eyes with macular pucker (4.45 ± 1.90 mm; P = .0001).
Conclusion
Vitreoschisis was detected in about half of all eyes with macular hole and macular pucker. The topographic and structural features in eyes with macular hole with retinal contraction differed in comparison to eyes with macular pucker alone, suggesting that although each condition may begin with anomalous PVD, differences in subsequent cell migration and proliferation probably result in the different clinical appearances detected in this study.
PMCID: PMC2258095  PMID: 18427601
11.  Early Glaucoma Involves Both Deep Local, and Shallow Widespread, Retinal Nerve Fiber Damage of the Macular Region 
Purpose.
To better understand the nature of early glaucomatous damage of the macula by comparing the results from 10-2 visual fields, optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular cube scans, and OCT circumpapillary circle scans.
Methods.
One eye of each of 66 glaucoma patients or suspects, with a mean deviation (MD) on the 24-2 visual field (VF) test of better than −6 decibels (dB), was prospectively tested with 10-2 VFs and OCT macular cube and circumpapillary circle scans. Thickness and probability maps of the retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layers were generated. A hemifield was considered abnormal if both the macular RGC+ and the 10-2 probability plots were abnormal (cluster criteria). The thickness plots of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were analyzed in the context of a model that predicted the region of the disc associated with macular damage.
Results.
Twenty-seven hemifields (20 eyes) had abnormal 10-2 and RGC+ probability plots: 7 in upper VF/inferior retina, 6 in lower VF/superior retina, and 7 in both hemifields. Both shallow widespread and deep local thinning of the circumpapillary RNFL were observed. The local defects were more common and closer to fixation in the upper VF/inferior retina as predicted.
Conclusions.
A model of glaucomatous damage of the macula predicted the location of both the widespread and local defects in the temporal and inferior disc quadrants. Optical coherence tomography scans of the circumpapillary RNFL and the macular RGC+ layer can aid in the identification of these defects and help in the interpretation of 24-2 and 10-2 VF tests.
Early glaucomatous damage to the macula is due to widespread and/or local circumpapillary RNFL defects. A model of glaucomatous damage of the macula predicts the location of both these widespread and local defects.
doi:10.1167/iovs.13-13130
PMCID: PMC3912939  PMID: 24370831
glaucoma; optical coherence tomography; visual fields; optic disc; retinal nerve fiber layer
12.  2-D Pattern of Nerve Fiber Bundles in Glaucoma Emerging from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Through a structure-structure correlation analysis of focal macular and peripapillary SD-OCT regions in 57 subjects with glaucoma (or glaucoma suspicion), a color-coded map closely resembling the nerve fiber bundle pattern of retinal ganglion cells emerged.
Purpose.
To correlate the thicknesses of focal regions of the macular ganglion cell layer with those of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucoma subjects.
Methods.
Macula and optic nerve head SD-OCT volumes were obtained in 57 eyes of 57 subjects with open-angle glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Using a custom automated computer algorithm, the thickness of 66 macular ganglion cell layer regions and the thickness of 12 peripapillary nerve fiber layer regions were measured from registered SD-OCT volumes. The mean thickness of each ganglion cell layer region was correlated to the mean thickness of each peripapillary nerve fiber layer region across subjects. Each ganglion cell layer region was labeled with the peripapillary nerve fiber layer region with the highest correlation using a color-coded map.
Results.
The resulting color-coded correlation map closely resembled the nerve fiber bundle (NFB) pattern of retinal ganglion cells. The mean r2 value across all local macular-peripapillary correlations was 0.49 (± 0.11). When separately analyzing the 30 glaucoma subjects from the 27 glaucoma-suspect subjects, the mean r2 value across all local macular-peripapillary correlations was significantly larger in the glaucoma group (0.56 ± 0.13 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11; P < 0.001).
Conclusions.
A two-dimensional (2-D) spatial NFB map of the retina can be developed using structure-structure relationships from SD-OCT. Such SD-OCT-based NFB maps may enhance glaucoma detection and contribute to monitoring change in the future.
doi:10.1167/iovs.11-8349
PMCID: PMC3292380  PMID: 22222272
13.  Relationship between perifoveal capillaries and pathomorphology in macular oedema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion 
Eye  2012;26(6):771-780.
Purpose
To study the relationship between macular ischaemia on fluorescein angiography (FA) and pathomorphology at the foveal centre delineated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in macular oedema (MO) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).
Methods
One hundred and five consecutive eyes of 105 patients with MO (centre point thickness (CPT) ≥300 μm) associated with BRVO in which FA using Heidelberg Retinal Angiography 2 and Spectralis OCT were performed on the same day were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the foveal pathomorphology using OCT images and the association with macular ischaemia.
Results
Within 1 year from symptom onset, 94 eyes were classified with perfused macula (34 eyes) or non-perfused macula (60 eyes). Eyes with perfused macula had better visual acuity and less CPT than those with non-perfused macula (P=0.024 and P<0.001, respectively). Fourteen eyes with perfused macula had serous retinal detachment (SRD) alone at the presumed foveal centre (SRD type); seven, a sponge-like swelling at that area (retinal swelling type); 11, foveal cystoid spaces alone (cystoid MO (CMO) type), and 2, with both SRD and foveal cystoid spaces (SRD+CMO type). However, 58 eyes with non-perfused macula had foveal cystoid spaces (42 of CMO type and 16 of SRD+CMO type), with a significant association between them (P<0.001). Among 11 eyes with symptoms exceeding 1 year, 6 eyes had perfused macula, and none had the SRD type.
Conclusion
Most eyes without foveal cystoid spaces have perfused macula in MO associated with BRVO.
doi:10.1038/eye.2012.85
PMCID: PMC3376306  PMID: 22653519
branch retinal vein occlusion; macular oedema; spectral domain optical coherence tomography; fluorescein angiography; macular ischemia; cystoid spaces
14.  Macular Thickness Measurements in Normal Eyes with Time Domain and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2009;29(7):980-987.
Purpose
To compare macular thickness measurements using time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Fourier domain OCT (FD OCT).
Methods
Thirty-two eyes from 32 normal patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation. Macular scanning using the StratusOCT and the RTVue-100 OCT were performed for a total of 3 times each on the same visit. The average retinal thicknesses of the 9 macular sectors as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), along with the foveal center point and macular volume, were recorded. The standard deviation, the coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated for each parameter studied. Comparisons were made between the two OCTs in terms of retinal thicknesses measurements, their reproducibility, and macular regional differences. Correlations between retinal thickness and demographic variables (age and gender) were also investigated. Due to known differences in segmentation algorithms of the two OCTs, software calipers were used to measure the distance from the internal limiting membrane to the photoreceptor inner segment--outer segment junction at the foveal center point on all RTVue scans in order to allow a more fair comparison.
Results
The RTVue yielded greater retinal thickness measurements in nearly all macular subfields compared to the StratusOCT. Even after accounting for differences in segmentation algorithms, significant disparities were still evident with the RTVue measurements less than those of the StratusOCT at the foveal center. On both machines, the macula was thinnest at the fovea and thickest within the 3mm ring. There were some consistent regional variations in macular thickness evident on both OCTs. Compared to the StratusOCT, the RTVue generally had lower coefficients of variation and higher intraclass coefficients, suggesting better reproducibility. Age and gender also appeared to be important determinants in some macular thickness parameters.
Conclusion
Compared with StratusOCT, the RTVue FD OCT yields greater retinal thickness measurements with greater reproducibility, presumably due to different segmentation algorithms, increased sampling density, and greater resolution. However, regional differences across the macula can be consistently observed with both devices.
doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181a2c1a7
PMCID: PMC2749962  PMID: 19584656
Fourier-domain; macular thickness; optical coherence tomography; time-domain
15.  Glaucomatous damage of the macula 
There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test.
doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.08.003
PMCID: PMC3529818  PMID: 22995953
Glaucoma; OCT; Macula; Retinal ganglion cell; Visual field
16.  Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging study of chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula in Alagille syndrome 
We report the first case in the literature of chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula in an 11-year-old girl with Alagille syndrome, as examined by optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Funduscopy revealed diffuse choroidal hypopigmentation with increased visibility of the choroidal vessels and symmetric, well circumscribed macular discoloration. Anomalous oblique configuration of the optic disc and peripapillary tortuous vessels were also detected. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated decreased retinal thickness, especially the outer retinal layer, and the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junctions were irregular and discontinued, corresponding to macular discoloration. Fundus autofluorescence imaging clearly defined hypofluorescent areas in the peripapillary regions that extended along the macula and had a sleep mask appearance. We suggest that transient hypovitaminosis due to Alagille syndrome early in life might contribute to the retinal degeneration seen in this case.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S36146
PMCID: PMC3460705  PMID: 23055661
Alagille syndrome; chorioretinal atrophy; optical coherence tomography; fundus autofluorescence imaging; hypovitaminosis
17.  Evaluation of Inner Retinal Layers in Eyes With Temporal Hemianopic Visual Loss From Chiasmal Compression Using Optical Coherence Tomography 
Purpose.
We measured macular inner retinal layer thicknesses using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fd-OCT) and correlated these measures with visual field (VF) in eyes with temporal hemianopia from chiasmal compression and band atrophy (BA) of the optic nerve.
Methods.
Macular fd-OCT scans and VFs were obtained from 33 eyes of 33 patients with temporal hemianopia and 36 control eyes. The macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), combined retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (RGCL+), and the inner nuclear layer (INL) were segmented. Measurements were averaged for each macula quadrant. Scans were assessed qualitatively for microcysts in the INL. The VF was estimated from the central 16 test points. The two groups were compared. Correlations between VF and OCT measurements were assessed.
Results.
The mRNFL, RGCL+, and total retinal (TR) macular thickness measurements were significantly smaller in BA eyes than controls. In the nasal quadrants, INL measurements were significantly greater in BA eyes than controls. The mRNFL and RGCL+ measurements had greater discrimination ability than TR measurements in the temporal quadrants. A significant correlation was found between most OCT parameters and their corresponding VF parameters. The strongest association was observed between RNFL and RGCL+ thickness, and VF loss in the corresponding area. The INL microcysts were found in seven eyes with BA, but not in controls.
Conclusions.
Band atrophy leads to mRNFL and RGCL+ thinning, and INL thickening, and mRNFL and RGCL+ measurements are correlated strongly with VF loss. Segmented macular thickness measurements may be useful for quantifying neuronal loss in chiasmal compression.
The segmentation of the retinal layer demonstrates reduction of retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell layer, and increase in the inner nuclear layer in the macula of eyes with temporal hemianopia than controls. Correlations with field loss were stronger for segmented than total thickness measurements.
doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14118
PMCID: PMC4322661  PMID: 24764062
optical coherence tomography; retinal ganglion cell layer thickness; retinal nerve fiber layer; inner nuclear layer; macular thickness; band atrophy
18.  Pattern electroretinogram association with spectral domain-OCT structural measurements in glaucoma 
Eye  2010;25(2):224-232.
Purpose
To describe the association between pattern electroretinogram (PERG) amplitude and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) macular thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disc topography measurements.
Subjects and methods
Both eyes (n=132) of 66 glaucoma patients (mean age=67.9 years) enroled in the University of California, San Diego, CA, USA, Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) were included. Eyes were tested with PERG (Glaid PERGLA, Lace Elettronica, Pisa, Italy), RTVue SD-OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) GCC, and NHM4 protocols on the same day. Of the 66 enroled patients, 43 had glaucoma defined by repeated abnormal standard automated perimetry (SAP) results in at least one eye and 23 were glaucoma suspects defined by a glaucomatous-appearing optic disc by physicians' examination in at least one eye and normal SAP results in both eyes. Associations (R 2) were determined between PERG amplitude (μV) and SD-OCT macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness (μm), macular thickness (μm), macular outer retinal thickness (macular thickness minus GCC thickness) (μm), RNFL thickness (μm), neuroretinal rim area (mm2), and rim volume (mm3).
Results
PERG amplitude was significantly associated with GCC thickness (R 2=0.179, P<0.001), RNFL thickness (R 2=0.174, P<0.001), and macular thickness (R 2=0.095, P<0.001). R 2 associations with other parameters were not significant (all P>0.624). Significant associations remained for GCC and average RNFL thickness when age and intraocular pressure at the time of testing were included in multivariate models (both P≤0.030).
Conclusions
PERG amplitude is significantly (but weakly) associated with macular GCC thickness, RNFL thickness, and macular thickness. The lack of association between PERG amplitude and macular outer retinal thickness supports previous results, possibly suggesting that that the PERG is driven primarily by retinal ganglion cell (inner retinal) responses.
doi:10.1038/eye.2010.203
PMCID: PMC3169218  PMID: 21183943
glaucoma; electrophysiology; pattern electroretinogram; spectral domain; fourier domain; optical coherence tomography
19.  Relation Between Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell/Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness and Multifocal Electroretinogram Measures in Experimental Glaucoma 
Purpose.
We investigated relations between macular retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+IPL) thickness and macular retinal function revealed by multifocal electroretinonography (mfERG) in a nonhuman primate model of experimental glaucoma.
Methods.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) structure and function were followed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and ERGs in five macaques with unilateral experimental glaucoma. Linear regression was used to study correlations in control (Con) and experimental (Exp) eyes between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular RGC+IPL thickness, multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) and high-frequency multifocal oscillatory potentials (mfOP) in slow-sequence mfERG, and low-frequency component (mfLFC) in global-flash mfERG. We used ANOVA and paired t-tests to compare glaucoma-related mfERG changes between superior and inferior hemifields, foveal hexagon, inner three rings, and four quadrants of macula.
Results.
Average macular RGC+IPL and temporal RNFL thickness were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.90, P < 0.001). In hexagon-by-hexagon analysis, all three mfERG measures were correlated (P < 0.001) with RGC+IPL thickness for Con (r2, 0.33–0.51) and Exp eyes (r2, 0.17–0.35). The RGC structural and functional metrics decreased as eccentricity increased. The reduction in amplitude of mfERG measures in Exp eyes relative to Con eyes was proportionally greater, in general, than the relative thinning of RGC+IPL at the same location for eyes in which structural loss was not evident, or mild to moderate. Although not statistically significant, percent amplitude reduction of mfERG measures was greatest in the inferior temporal quadrant.
Conclusions.
Macular RGC+IPL thickness and mfERG measures of RGC function can be complementary tools in assessing glaucomatous neuropathy.
Relations were studied between macular retinal ganglion cell (RGC) plus inner plexiform layer thickness and macular RGC function assessed by mfERG in nonhuman primate model of experimental glaucoma. Function changed before structure in many loci, and local structure–function correlations were observed.
doi:10.1167/iovs.14-13937
PMCID: PMC4106250  PMID: 24970256
multifocal ERG; experimental glaucoma; photopic negative response; retinal ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer complex
20.  The Nature of Macular Damage in Glaucoma as Revealed by Averaging Optical Coherence Tomography Data 
Purpose
To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage, especially to the macula, the inner retinal thickness maps obtained with frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) were averaged.
Methods
Frequency domain optical coherence tomography macular and optic disc cube scans were obtained from 54 healthy eyes and 156 eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A manually corrected algorithm was used for layer segmentation. Patients’ eyes were grouped both by mean deviation (MD) and hemifield classification using standard categories and 24-2 (6° grid) visual fields (VFs). To obtain average difference maps, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber (RNF) and retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layers were averaged and subtracted from the average control values.
Results
On the average difference maps, RGC+ and RNF layer thinning was seen in the patient groups with VFs classified as normal. The pattern of the thinning was the same, but the degree of thinning increased with decreased MD and with classification category (from normal to arcuate). This RGC+ thinning was largely within the central four points of the 24-2 (6° grid) field, after correcting for RGC displacement.
Conclusion
1. VF categories represent different degrees of the same pattern of RGC+ and RNFL layer thinning. 2. RGC+ damage occurs in the central macula even in patients with VFs classified as normal. 3. The 6° grid (24-2) pattern is not optimally designed to detect macular damage. 4. A schematic model of RGC projections is proposed to explain the pattern of macular loss, including the greater vulnerability of the inferior retinal region.
Translational relevance
The 24-2 is not an optimal test pattern for detecting or following glaucomatous damage. Further, we suggest clinical fdOCT reports include RGC+ and RNFL probability plots combined with VF information.
doi:10.1167/tvst.1.1.3
PMCID: PMC3634586  PMID: 23626924
glaucoma; optical coherence tomography; perimetry; visual fields; macula
21.  The Nature of Macular Damage in Glaucoma as Revealed by Averaging Optical Coherence Tomography Data 
Purpose
To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage, especially to the macula, the inner retinal thickness maps obtained with frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) were averaged.
Methods
Frequency domain optical coherence tomography macular and optic disc cube scans were obtained from 54 healthy eyes and 156 eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A manually corrected algorithm was used for layer segmentation. Patients' eyes were grouped both by mean deviation (MD) and hemifield classification using standard categories and 24-2 (6° grid) visual fields (VFs). To obtain average difference maps, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber (RNF) and retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layers were averaged and subtracted from the average control values.
Results
On the average difference maps, RGC+ and RNF layer thinning was seen in the patient groups with VFs classified as normal. The pattern of the thinning was the same, but the degree of thinning increased with decreased MD and with classification category (from normal to arcuate). This RGC+ thinning was largely within the central four points of the 24-2 (6° grid) field, after correcting for RGC displacement.
Conclusion
1. VF categories represent different degrees of the same pattern of RGC+ and RNFL layer thinning. 2. RGC+ damage occurs in the central macula even in patients with VFs classified as normal. 3. The 6° grid (24-2) pattern is not optimally designed to detect macular damage. 4. A schematic model of RGC projections is proposed to explain the pattern of macular loss, including the greater vulnerability of the inferior retinal region.
Translational relevance
The 24-2 is not an optimal test pattern for detecting or following glaucomatous damage. Further, we suggest clinical fdOCT reports include RGC+ and RNFL probability plots combined with VF information.
doi:10.1167/tvst.1.1.3
PMCID: PMC3634586  PMID: 23626924
glaucoma; optical coherence tomography; perimetry; visual fields; macula
22.  A Pilot Study of Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Dystrophy Patients 
American journal of ophthalmology  2008;146(3):417-426.
Purpose
To characterize the macular anatomy of retinal dystrophy eyes using high-speed, high-resolution, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT).
Design
Case control study.
Methods
Patients with retinal dystrophy and normal age and gender matched controls underwent FD-OCT imaging using the RTVue™ (Optovue, Inc.), which has an axial resolution of 5 microns. Vertical and horizontal eight mm scans of 1,024 lines/cross-section were obtained. Based on boundaries manually drawn on computer displays of OCT cross-sections, the thicknesses of the retina, inner retinal layer (IRL) and outer retinal layer (ORL) were averaged over both 5 and 1.5 millimeters regions centered at the fovea. The inner retina layer (IRL) was the sum of nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thicknesses. Total retinal thickness (RT) was measured between the inner edges of the NFL and the retinal pigment epithelium. Outer retinal layer (ORL) thickness was calculated by subtracting IRL thickness from RT.
Results
14 patients (7 retinal dystrophy patients and seven normal controls) underwent high resolution OCT imaging. Patients ranged in age from 33 to 84 years old. Retinal dystrophy diagnoses included retinitis pigmentosa (3), cone-rod degeneration (2), and Stargardt disease (2). The following thickness values reported are mean ± standard deviation. Mean foveal RT (foveal RT) averaged over a 1.5 mm area was 271.3+/-23.3μ for normal patients and 159.2+/-48.0 μ for dystrophy (p<0.001) patients. Mean macular RT (macular RT), averaged over the central 5-mm area, was 292.8+/-8.1 μ for normal patients and 199.1+/-32.7μ for dystrophy patients (p<0.001). Mean macular IRL was 109.9 ± 6.4 for normals and 98.0 +/-20.6μ for dystrophy patients (p=0.02); mean macular ORL was 182.9+/-4.7 μ for normals and 101.1+/-18.8μ for dystrophy patients (p<0.001).
Conclusion
Eyes with retinal dystrophy had a small (11%) decrease in macular IRL and severe (45 %) decrease in macular ORL compared to normals. The higher resolution and definition of the FD-OCT technology facilitated measurements of the thickness of retinal sublayers.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2008.05.018
PMCID: PMC2654420  PMID: 18635153
23.  A comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes in unilateral amblyopia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 
Purpose
To compare the macular retinal thickness and characteristics of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in amblyopic and fellow eyes in patients with unilateral amblyopia.
Patients and methods
A total of 21 patients with unilateral amblyopia (14 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, four patients with strabismic amblyopia, and three patients with both) were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±3.5 years. The examined parameters included the mean macular (full, inner, and outer), ganglion cell complex and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thicknesses, and ONH parameters (rim volume, nerve head volume, cup volume, rim area, optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc area ratio).
Results
The amblyopic eyes were significantly more hyperopic than the fellow eyes (P<0.001). Among the macular retinal thickness parameters, the cpRNFL thickness (P<0.01), macular full retinal thickness (3 mm region) (P<0.01), and macular outer retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions) (P<0.05) were significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes, while the ganglion cell complex thickness, macular full retinal thickness (1 mm region), and macular inner retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions) were not significantly different. Among the ONH parameters, the rim area was significantly larger and the cup-to-disc area ratio was smaller in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes (P<0.05). None of the other ONH parameters were significantly different between the investigated eyes. The differences in the cpRNFL thickness and macular outer retinal thickness in the 1 mm region were significantly correlated with the difference in axial length (P<0.05, r=−0.48; P<0.01, r=−0.59, respectively) and refractive error (P<0.05, r=0.50; P<0.01, r=0.60, respectively). The other parameters were not significantly related to the difference in axial length, refractive error, or best corrected visual acuity.
Conclusion
We found significant differences in some of the morphological measurements between amblyopic and fellow eyes that appear to be independent of abnormalities in the visual cortex.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S69501
PMCID: PMC4230232  PMID: 25404852
anisometropic amblyopia; strabismic amblyopia; ganglion cell complex thickness; macular retinal thickness; peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness
24.  High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system 
Optics Express  2010;18(11):11607-11621.
We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.
doi:10.1364/OE.18.011607
PMCID: PMC2958093  PMID: 20589021
(110.1080) Adaptive optics; 170.4500 Optical coherence tomography; (170.0110) Imaging systems; (170.5755) Retina scanning; (170.4470) Ophthalmology
25.  High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system 
Optics express  2010;18(11):11607-11621.
We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2958093  PMID: 20589021

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