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1.  Active synovial matrix metalloproteinase-2 is associated with radiographic erosions in patients with early synovitis 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):145-153.
Serum and synovial tissue expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and their molecular regulators, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 was examined in 28 patients with inflammatory early synovitis and 4 healthy volunteers and correlated with the presence of erosions in the patients. Immunohistological staining of MMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 localized to corresponding areas in the synovial lining layer and was almost absent in normal synovium. Patients with radiographic erosions had significantly higher levels of active MMP-2 than patients with no erosions, suggesting that activated MMP-2 levels in synovial tissue may be a marker for a more aggressive synovial lesion.
In cancer the gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9] have been shown to be associated with tissue invasion and metastatic disease. In patients with inflammatory arthritis the gelatinases are expressed in the synovial membrane, and have been implicated in synovial tissue invasion into adjacent cartilage and bone. It is hypothesized that an imbalance between the activators and inhibitors of the gelatinases results in higher levels of activity, enhanced local proteolysis, and bone erosion.
To determine whether the expression and activity levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their regulators MMP-14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), are associated with early erosion formation in patients with synovitis of recent onset.
Patients and method:
A subset of 66 patients was selected from a larger early synovitis cohort on the basis of tissue availability for the study of synovial tissue and serum gelatinase expression. Patients with peripheral joint synovitis of less than 1 years' duration were evaluated clinically and serologically on four visits over a period of 12 months. At the initial visit, patients underwent a synovial tissue biopsy of one swollen joint, and patients had radiographic evaluation of hands and feet initially and at 1year. Serum MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined, and synovial tissue was examined by immunohistology for the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their molecular regulators. Gelatinolytic activity for MMP-2 and MMP-9 was quantified using a sensitive, tissue-based gel zymography technique. Four healthy individuals underwent closed synovial biopsy and their synovial tissues were similarly analyzed.
Of the 66 patients studied, 45 fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with 32 (71%) being rheumatoid factor positive. Of the 21 non-RA patients, seven had a spondylarthropathy and 14 had undifferentiated arthritis. Radiographically, 12 of the RA patients had erosions at multiple sites by 1 year, whereas none of the non-RA patients had developed erosive disease of this extent. In the tissue, latent MMP-2 was widely expressed in the synovial lining layer and in areas of stromal proliferation in the sublining layer and stroma, whereas MMP-9 was expressed more sparsely and focally. MMP-14, TIMP-2, and MMP-2 were all detected in similar areas of the lining layer on consecutive histologic sections. Tissue expression of MMP-14, the activator for pro-MMP-2, was significantly higher in RA than in non-RA patients (8.4 ± 5 versus 3.7 ± 4 cells/high-power field; P = 0.009). In contrast, the expression of TIMP-2, an inhibitor of MMP-2, was lower in the RA than in the non-RA samples (25 ± 12 versus 39 ± 9 cells/high-power field; P = 0.01). Synovial tissue expressions of MMP-2, MMP-14, and TIMP-2 were virtually undetectable in normal synovial tissue samples. The synovial tissue samples of patients with erosive disease had significantly higher levels of active MMP-2 than did those of patients without erosions (Fig. 1). Tissue expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, however, did not correlate with the serum levels of these enzymes.
With the exception of serum MMP-2, which was not elevated over normal, serum levels of all of the other MMPs and TIMPs were elevated to varying degrees, and were not predictive of erosive disease. Interestingly, MMP-1 and C-reactive protein, both of which were associated with the presence of erosions, were positively correlated with each other (r = 0.42; P < 0.001).
MMP-2 and MMP-9 are thought to play an important role in the evolution of joint erosions in patients with an inflammatory arthritis. Most studies have concentrated on the contribution of MMP-9 to the synovitis, because synovial fluid and serum MMP-9 levels are markedly increased in inflammatory arthropathies. Previously reported serum levels of MMP-9 have varied widely. In the present sample of patients with synovitis of recent onset, serum MMP-9 levels were elevated in only 21%. Moreover, these elevations were not specific for RA, the tissue expression of MMP-9 was focal, and the levels of MMP-9 activity were not well correlated with early erosions. Although serum MMP-2 levels were not of prognostic value, high synovial tissue levels of MMP-2 activity were significantly correlated with the presence of early erosions. This may reflect augmented activation of MMP-2 by the relatively high levels of MMP-14 and low levels of TIMP-2 seen in these tissues. We were able to localize the components of this trimolecular complex to the synovial lining layer in consecutive tissue sections, a finding that is consistent with their colocalization.
In conclusion, we have provided evidence that active MMP-2 complexes are detectable in the inflamed RA synovium and may be involved in the development of early bony erosions. These results suggest that strategies to inhibit the activation of MMP-2 may have the potential for retarding or preventing early erosions in patients with inflammatory arthritis.
PMCID: PMC17808  PMID: 11062605
early synovitis; erosion; metalloproteinase; matrix metalloproteinase-2; rheumatoid arthritis
2.  Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in canine mammary tumors 
Malignant canine mammary tumors represent 50% of all neoplasms in female dogs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are thought to be involved in tumor progression, and they are also associated with the reactive stroma, which provides structural and vascular support for tumor growth.
MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP were expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in tumor samples. MMP-2 and MMP-9 immunohistochemical reactions were evident both in the epithelial tumor cells and in the stromal compartment to varying degrees; in particular, the intensity of the MMP-2 staining was stronger in the stromal fibroblasts close to epithelial tumor cells in simple carcinomas than in adenomas. These data were supported by gelatin-zymography; bands for the active form of MMP-2 were found in 94% of carcinoma samples, compared with 17% of benign tumor samples. The gene expression and immunohistochemical results for MT1-MMP were comparable to those for MMP-2. The immunoreactivity for MMP-13 and TIMP-2 was lower in carcinomas than in adenomas, confirming the mRNA data for MMP-13 and the other MMP inhibitors that were evaluated. The active form of MMP-9, but not the active form of MMP-2, was identified in the plasma of all of the tested dogs.
Our findings suggest that MMP-9, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which are synthesized by epithelial cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, play an important role in malignant canine mammary tumors. The reduction of MMP-13 and TIMP-2 could also be a significant step in malignant transformation. MMP-2 and MT1-MMP could be further evaluated as future biomarkers for predicting the progression and prognosis of canine mammary tumors.
PMCID: PMC3141405  PMID: 21726449
3.  Matrix metalloproteinases in recurrent corneal melting associated with primary Sjörgen’s syndrome 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:2364-2372.
To investigate the contribution of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to recurrent corneal melting in keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with primary Sjörgen’s syndrome (pSS).
One native melted cornea and ten melted corneal grafts from two patients with severe pSS were used. The presence of MMPs (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 13) was detected using indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. The active forms of MMP 2 and 9 and MMP 3 and 7 were examined by gelatin and casein zymography, respectively. The concentrations of active MMP 1 were measured using an activity assay. Eleven unaffected corneas served as controls.
The average values of the staining intensity revealed very intense MMP 1, intense MMP 2, 7, and 9 and moderate MMP 3 and 8 positivity, in the corneal epithelium of melted corneas. Intense MMP 1 and 9 staining, moderate MMP 2, 3, and 8 staining, and weak MMP 7 staining were found in the anterior stroma. The posterior stroma revealed intense MMP 1, moderate MMP 3 and 9, and weak MMP 2, 7, and 8 positivity. Immunostaining of the endothelium was moderate for MMP 9 and weak for MMP 1, 2, 3, 7, and 8. MMP 13 was negative in all but four melted specimens, where weak-to-moderate staining was found in the epithelium and stroma. Control corneas revealed moderate MMP 1 and 2 and weak MMP 8 staining in the epithelium, weak MMP 2 staining in the anterior stroma, and weak MMP 1 and 8 staining in the endothelium. Significantly elevated MMP 1 activity and extremely elevated MMP 9 activity were found in most of the tested pathological specimens, compared to healthy controls, where no activity of the two enzymes was present. Markedly elevated MMP 2 activity was found in 2 of 11 specimens, compared to normal tissue. The inactive form of MMP 3 was detected in half of the tested specimens, and inactive MMP 7 in all melted corneas. Active MMP 3 and 7 were found in one melted sample. Neither of these MMPs was found in any of the control specimens.
The increased expression and elevated activity of a wide range of MMPs in melted cornea samples from two patients diagnosed with pSS confirm that these enzymes contribute to the tissue destruction, leading to serious consequences such as corneal perforation and loss of vision.
PMCID: PMC2779063  PMID: 19936308
4.  Activity and expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases in human colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:211.
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are involved in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. There is still debate whether the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 differs between tumors located in the colon and rectum. We designed this study to determine any differences in the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA system between colon and rectal cancer tissues.
Cancer tissue samples were obtained from colon carcinoma (n = 12) and rectal carcinomas (n = 10). MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were examined using gelatin zymography and Western blotting; their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), were assessed by Western blotting. uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activity of uPA was assessed by casein-plasminogen zymography.
In both colon and rectal tumors, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein levels were higher than in corresponding paired normal mucosa, while TIMP-2 level in tumors was significantly lower than in normal mucosa. The enzyme activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitors did not reach a statistically significant difference between colon and rectal cancer compared with their normal mucosa. In rectal tumors, there was an increased activity of uPA compared with the activity in colon tumors (P = 0.0266), however urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showed no significant difference between colon and rectal cancer tissues.
These findings suggest that uPA may be expressed differentially in colon and rectal cancers, however, the activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1 and uPAR are not affected by tumor location in the colon or the rectum.
PMCID: PMC1563482  PMID: 16916471
5.  Autoantibodies against MMP-7 as a novel diagnostic biomarker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic values of serum autoantibodies against matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: The MMP-7 cDNA was cloned from ESCC tissues, and MMP-7 was expressed and purified from a prokaryotic system. MMP-7 autoantibodies were then measured in sera from 50 patients with primary ESCC and 58 risk-matched controls, using a reverse capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which autoantibodies to MMP-7 bound to the purified MMP-7 proteins. In addition, MMP-7 autoantibody levels in sera from 38 gastric cancer patients and from control serum samples were also tested.
RESULTS: The optimum conditions for recombinant MMP-7 protein expression were determined as 0.04 mmol/L Isopropyl-β-D-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction at 37°C for four hours. The levels of serum autoantibodies against MMP-7 were significantly higher in patients with ESCC than in the matched-control samples (OD450 = 1.69 ± 0.08 vs OD450 = 1.55 ± 0.10, P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.87. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of ESCC were 78.0% and 81.0%, respectively, when the OD450 value was greater than 1.65. Although the levels of autoantibodies against MMP-7 were also significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer compared to control samples (OD450 = 1.62 ± 0.06 vs OD450 = 1.55 ± 0.10, P < 0.001), the diagnostic accuracy was less significant than in ESCC patients. The area of ROC curve was 0.75, whereas the sensitivity and specificity were 60.5% and 71.7%, respectively, when the cut-off value of OD450 was set at 1.60.
CONCLUSION: Serum autoantibody levels of MMP-7 may be a good diagnostic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3068276  PMID: 21455340
Matrix metalloproteinase-7; Serum autoantibody; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Gastric cancer; Biomarker
6.  Enhanced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 correlates with the degree of papillary thyroid carcinoma infiltration 
Croatian Medical Journal  2014;55(2):128-137.
To determine whether matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may be a useful adjunctive tool for predicting unfavorable biological behavior of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by evaluating the expression profile and proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in PTC by different techniques and correlating the findings with clinicopathological prognostic factors.
Immunohistochemical localization of MMP-9 was analyzed with antibodies specific for either total or active MMP-9. Activation ratios of MMP-9 were calculated by quantifying gel zymography bands. Enzymatic activity of MMP-9 was localized by in situ zymography after inhibiting MMP-2 activity.
Immunostaining of total and active MMP-9 was observed in tumor tissue and occasionally in non-neoplastic epithelium. Only active MMP-9 was significantly associated with extrathyroid invasion, lymph-node metastasis, and the degree of tumor infiltration (P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P < 0.001, respectively). Gelatin zymography revealed a correlation between the MMP-9 activation ratio and nodal involvement, extrathyroid invasion, and the degree of tumor infiltration. In situ zymography showed that gelatinases exerted their activity in tumor parenchymal and stromal cells. Moreover, after application of MMP-2 inhibitor, the remaining gelatinase activity, corresponding to MMP-9, was highest in cancers with the most advanced degree of tumor infiltration.
This is the first report suggesting that the evaluation of active MMP-9 by immunohistochemistry and determination of its activation ratio by gelatin zymography may be a useful adjunct to the known clinicopathological factors in predicting tumor behavior. Most important, in situ zimography with an MMP-2 inhibitor for the first time demonstrated a strong impact of MMP-9 activity on the degree of tumor infiltration during PTC progression.
PMCID: PMC4009713  PMID: 24778099
7.  Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and -2) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2 and -3) in oral lichen planus, dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(12):2239-2245.
Although matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are among the potential key mediators of cancer invasion, their involvement in premalignant lesions and conditions is not clarified. Therefore, we studied, using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and zymography the expression and distribution of MMP-1 and -2, and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs -1, -2 and -3) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and lymph node metastases as well as in oral lichen planus, epithelial dysplasias and normal buccal mucosa. In oral SCC and lymph node metastasis, MMP-1 mRNA was detected in fibroblastic cells of tumoral stroma. In two out of ten carcinomas studied, the peripheral cells of neoplastic islands were also positive. MMP-2 mRNA expression was noted in fibroblasts surrounding the carcinoma cells, and no signal in carcinoma cells was detected. A clear TIMP-3 mRNA expression was seen in stromal cells surrounding the neoplastic islands in all SCCs and lymph node metastases studied. TIMP-1 mRNA was detected in some stromal cells surrounding the neoplastic islands, whereas the mRNA expression for TIMP-2 was negligible. On the other hand, expression of MMPs and TIMPs was consistently low in oral epithelial dysplasias, lichen planus and normal mucosa. In certain epithelial dysplasias and lichen planus, MMP-1 and -2 mRNA expressions were detected in few fibroblasts under the basement membrane zone, but normal mucosa was completely negative. In SCC and lymph node metastasis, a detectable immunostaining for MMP-1 in stromal cells and in some carcinoma cells was observed. MMP-2 immunoreactivity was detected in the peripheral cell layer in neoplastic islands and in some fibroblast-like cells of tumoral stroma. Immunostaining for TIMP-3 was detected in stromal cells surrounding the neoplastic islands. A weak positive staining for TIMP-1 was located in tumoral stroma, whereas the immunostaining for TIMP-2 was negative. Using zymography, elevated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed in carcinoma samples in comparison with lichen planus or normal oral mucosa. Our results indicate that the studied MMPs and TIMPs are clearly up-regulated during invasion in oral SCC. However, there was also a clear, although weak, up-regulation of the expression of the MMPs but not TIMPs in some of the lichen planus and dysplastic lesions.
PMCID: PMC2150416  PMID: 9649139
8.  MMP-1 is a (pre-)invasive factor in Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinomas and is associated with positive lymph node status 
Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) arise due to gastroesophageal reflux, with Barrett's esophagus (BE) regarded as precancerous lesion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) might play a role during the multistep carcinogenetic process.
Expression of MMP-1 and -13 was analyzed in esophageal cancer (n = 41 EAC with BE, n = 19 EAC without BE, and n = 10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC), furthermore in BE without intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) (n = 18), and the cell line OE-33. MMP-1 was co-labelled with Ki-67 (proliferation), Cdx-2 (marker for intestinal metaplasia, BE) and analyzed on mRNA level. MMP-1 staining results were correlated with clinicopatholocical parameters.
On protein level, MMP-1 expression was found in 39 of 41 (95%) EAC with BE, in 19 of 19 (100%) EAC without BE, in 6 of 10 (60%) ESCC, and in 10 of 18 (56%) BE without IN. No expression of MMP-13 was found in these specimens. Quantification showed 48% MMP-1 positive cells in EAC with BE, compared to 35% in adjacent BE (p < 0.05), 44% in EAC without BE, 32% in ESCC, and 4% in BE without IN. Immunofluorescence double staining experiments revealed increased MMP-1 expressing in proliferating cells (MMP-1+/Ki-67+) (r = 0.943 for BE and r = 0.811 for EAC). On mRNA-level, expression of MMP-1 was significantly higher in EAC compared to BE (p = 0.01) and confirmed immunohistochemical staining results. High MMP-1 levels were associated with lymph node metastases but not with poorer survival (p = 0.307).
Our findings suggest that MMP-1 plays a role as preinvasive factor in BE-associated EAC. Expression of MMP-1 in proliferating BE and EAC cells suggest malignant proliferation following the clonal expansion model.
PMCID: PMC2967517  PMID: 20946664
9.  MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.
PMCID: PMC3854135  PMID: 22086466
Matrix metalloprotease-1; Protease-activated receptor-1; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis; Immunohistochemistry
10.  Expression and prognostic relevance of Cyclophilin A and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:207.
To guide clinicians in selecting treatment options for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients, reliable markers predictive of clinical outcome are desirable. This study analyzed the correlation of cyclophilin A (CypA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in ESCC and their relationships to clinicopathological features and survival.
We immunohistochemically investigated 70 specimens of ESCC tissues using CypA and MMP9 antibodies. Then, the correlations between CypA and MMP9 expression and clinicopathological features and its prognostic relevance were determined.
Significant correlations were only found in high level of CypA and MMP9 expression with tumor differentiation and lymph node status. Significant positive correlations were found between the expression status of CypA and that of MMP9. Overexpression of CypA and metastasis were significantly associated with shorter progression free survival times in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that CypA expression was an independent prognostic factor.
CypA might be correlated with the differentiation, and its elevated expression may be an adverse prognostic indicator for the patients of ESCC. CypA/MMP9 signal pathway may be attributed to the malignant transformation of ESCC, and attention should be paid to a possible target for therapy.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC3878405  PMID: 24351116
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Cyclophilin A; Matrix metalloproteinase 9
11.  Tumor and salivary matrix metalloproteinase levels are strong diagnostic markers of oral squamous cell carcinoma 
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and thus may play a key role in cancer development.
In our search for biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we compared primary OSCC, oral dysplasia and control subjects with respect to: (1) expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP12 in oral epithelial tissue using Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays, followed by qRT-PCR for MMP1, and (2) determination of MMP1 and MMP3 concentrations in saliva.
MMP1 expression in primary OSCC (n=119) was >200-fold higher (p=7.16×10−40) compared with expression levels in non-neoplastic oral epithelium from controls (n=35). qRT-PCR results on 30 cases and 22 controls confirmed this substantial differential expression. The exceptional discriminatory power to separate OSCC from controls was validated in two independent testing sets (AUC%=100; 95% CI, 100-100 and AUC%=98.4; 95% CI, 95.6–100). Salivary concentrations of MMP1 and MMP3 in OSCC patients (33 stage I/II, 26 stage III/IV) were 6.2 times (95% CI, 3.32–11.73) and 14.8 times (95% CI, 6.75–32.56) higher, respectively, than in controls, and displayed an increasing trend with higher stage disease.
Tumor and salivary MMPs are robust diagnostic biomarkers of OSCC.
The capacity of MMP gene expression to identify OSCC provides support for further investigation into MMPs as potential markers for OSCC development. Detection of MMP proteins in saliva in particular may provide a promising means to detect and monitor OSCC non-invasively.
PMCID: PMC3237810  PMID: 21960692
oral squamous cell carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinase; MMP; saliva; gene expression
12.  Profiling of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases proteins in bladder urothelial carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(4):691-695.
We investigated the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) proteins in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and surgical specimens of the bladder neoplasm. The expression level was correlated to the degree of cellular differentiation and invasiveness of bladder cancer. Panels of six TCC cell lines with different degrees of differentiation were tested with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9a, MMP-9b, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by immunocytochemistry. Gelatin zymography was also conducted on the cell lines for MMP-2 and -9. In addition, immunohistochemistry with the mAbs to MMP and TIM molecules was performed on 30 TCC specimens. We found that TCC cell lines were stained positively for MMP-1 (6/6), weakly for MMP-9a (2/6), MMP9b (5/6) and TIMP-1 (3/6), and negatively for MMP-2 (3/6) and MMP-3 (3/6). Zymographic analysis of the cell lines showed a high level of MMP2 in the MGH-U4 cell line. In bladder cancer surgical specimens, all specimens were positive for MMP1 (30/30), 19 were positive for MMP-2 (63.3%), 21 positive for MMP-9a (70%) and 15 positive for MMP-9b (50%). The expression of MMP-2 was found to be positively correlated with higher-grade tumors (p=0.036) and the expression of MMP-9a and -9b was found to be positively correlated with tumor stage (p=0.012 and 0.023, respectively). However, the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was not correlated with either tumor staging or grading. In conclusion, the expression of MMP-2 and -9 was correlated with high-grade or high-stage bladder tumors, respectively. However, this correlation was not observed with TCC cell lines in which high- and low-grade tumors are included. Immunohistochemical results on tumor lesions may have more clinical relevance, since in a given tumor microenvironment the interaction among tumor cells in situ and tumor-associated cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, as well as environmental factors (hypoxia and pH), cytokines and growth factors released by these cells may be required for TCC to express selective MMPs and TIMPs. The selective expression of these molecules then regulates tumor progression.
PMCID: PMC3436408  PMID: 22966365
bladder neoplasm; metastasis; matrix metalloproteinases; cell line; tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases
13.  Autoantibodies as Potential Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma 
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death worldwide and effective diagnosis is needed. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may benefit early diagnosis.
We analyzed data for patients with ESCC and normal controls in a test cohort and a validation cohort. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens (p53, NY-ESO-1, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), and BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene (Bmi-1)) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
We assessed serum autoantibodies in 513 participants: 388 with ESCC and 125 normal controls. The validation cohort comprised 371 participants: 237 with ESCC, and 134 normal controls. Autoantibodies to at least 1 of 6 antigens demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 57% (95% confidence interval (CI): 52–62%)/95% (95% CI: 89–98%) and 51% (95% CI: 45–57%)/96% (95% CI: 91–99%) in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. Measurement of the autoantibody panel could differentiate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls (sensitivity 45% (95% CI: 32–59%) and specificity 95% (95% CI: 89–98%) in the test cohort; 46% (95% CI: 35–58%) and 96% (95% CI: 91–99%) in the validation cohort). In either cohort, no significant differences were seen when patients were subdivided by age, gender, smoking status, size of tumor, site of tumor, depth of tumor invasion, histological grade, lymph node status, TNM stage, or early-stage and late-stage groups.
Measurement of an autoantibody response to multiple tumor-associated antigens in an optimized panel assay, to help discriminate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls, may aid in early detection of ESCC.
PMCID: PMC3887578  PMID: 24296751
14.  Modulation of u-PA, MMPs and their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mixture in human lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines 
International Journal of Oncology  2013;42(6):1883-1889.
Lung cancer, the most prevalent cancer worldwide and malignant mesothelioma are highly aggressive tumors that are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretion. Proteases play a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of u-PA and MMPs with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival. MMP activities are regulated by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPS). Our main objective was to study the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) on the activity of u-PA, MMPs and TIMPs on human lung and malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines. Human lung cancer (A-549 and Calu-3) and malignant mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) cell lines were cultured in their respective media and treated at confluence with NM at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml. Analysis of u-PA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography, MMPs by gelatinase zymography and TIMPs by reverse zymography. Both lung cancer cell lines expressed u-PA, which was inhibited by NM in a dose-dependent manner. However, no bands corresponding to u-PA were detected for the MSTO-211H MM cell line. On gelatinase zymography, A-549 cells showed one band corresponding to MMP-2 and induction of MMP-9 with PMA (100 ng/ml) treatment. MSTO-211H showed two bands, an intense band corresponding to MMP-2 and a faint band corresponding to MMP-9; MMP-9 was enhanced significantly with PMA treatment. NM inhibited their expression in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Calu-3 showed no MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression. Activity of TIMPs was upregulated by NM in all cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis revealed a positive correlation between u-PA and MMPs and a negative correlation between u-PA/MMPs and TIMPs. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NM in the treatment of lung and mesothelioma cancers.
PMCID: PMC3699578  PMID: 23563849
lung cancer A-549 and Calu-3; malignant mesothelioma MSTO-211H; MMP-2 and MMP-9; nutrient mixture; TIMPs; u-PA
15.  In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in adult human sarcoma cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors 
International Journal of Oncology  2013;43(6):1787-1798.
The highly aggressive adult sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effect of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion in chondrosarcoma (SW-1353), fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), liposarcoma (SW-872) and synovial sarcoma (SW-982) cell lines. The selected compounds included natural cytokines and growth factors, as well as chemical compounds applied in therapy of sarcoma and natural compounds that have demonstrated anticancer therapeutic potential. MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretions were analyzed by gelatinase zymography following 24-h exposure to the tested agents and quantitated by densitometry. Fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma showed bands corresponding to MMP-2 and MMP-9 with dose-dependent enhancement of MMP-9 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment. In chondrosarcoma cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had a stimulatory effect on MMP-9 and insignificant effect on MMP-2 and interleukin (IL)-1β stimulated MMP-9 and MMP-2. In fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma cells, TNF-α had a profound stimulatory effect on MMP-9, but no effect on MMP-2 and in synovial sarcoma an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and no effect on MMP-9. IL-1β had a slight inhibitory effect on fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma MMP-2 and MMP-9 except for MMP-9 in synovial sarcoma which showed slight stimulation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated expression of MMP-2 in fibrosarcoma and chondrosarcoma while inhibited it in liposarcoma. Doxycycline, epigallocatechin gallate and the nutrient mixture inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 in all cell lines. Actinomycin-D, cyclohexamide, retinoic acid, and dexamethasone inhibited MMP-2 and -9 in chondrosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cells. Our results show that cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors have an up or down regulatory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in adult sarcoma cell lines, suggesting these agents may be effective strategies to treat these cancers.
PMCID: PMC3834263  PMID: 24085323
matrix metalloproteinases; chondrosarcoma; fibrosarcoma; liposarcoma; synovial sarcoma; cytokines; inducers; inhibitors
16.  Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2 and -3 in squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis 
British Journal of Cancer  1999;80(7):1087-1091.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with cancer invasion. An expression of MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (72-kDa type IV collagenase) and MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) was investigated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precancerous condition, actinic keratosis (AK), using in situ hybridization techniques. MMP-1 mRNA was detected in tumour cells and/or in stromal cells in all cases of SCC, four of six AKs adjacent to SCC and four of 16 AKs. MMP-2 and MMP-3 mRNAs were detected in SCC but not in AK. The expression of MMP-3 correlated to that of MMP-1 (P = 0.03) localized at the tumour mass and stroma of the invasive area, while MMP-2 mRNA was detected widely throughout the stroma independent of MMP-1 expression. Our results indicated that the expression of MMP-1, -2 and -3 showed different localization patterns, suggesting a unique role of each MMP in tumour progression. Moreover, MMP-1 expression could be an early event in the development of SCC, and AK demonstrating MMP-1 mRNA, might be in a more advanced dysplastic state, progressing to SCC. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
PMCID: PMC2363037  PMID: 10362121
squamous cell carcinoma; actinic keratosis; in situ hybridization; matrix metalloproteinases; extracellular matrix; skin cancer
17.  Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(6):455-461.
OBJECTIVE—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in joint tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to define the steady state levels of seven different MMPs and two tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as well as the potential metalloproteinase activity in the synovial fluid (SF) to provide more insight into the role of MMPs in cartilage destruction in RA and OA.
METHODS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in SF aspirated from knee joints of 97 patients with RA and 103 patients with OA were measured by the corresponding one step sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Proteolytic activity of MMPs in these SFs was examined in an assay using [3H]carboxymethylated transferrin substrate in the presence of inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteinases after activation with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). Destruction of RA knee joints was radiographically evaluated.
RESULTS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 were significantly higher in RA SF than in OA SF. MMP-7 and MMP-13 were detectable in more than 45% of RA SFs and in less than 20% of OA SFs, respectively. Among the MMPs examined, MMP-3 levels were extremely high compared with those of other MMPs. Direct correlations were seen between the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and between those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in RA SF. Although the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 increased even in the early stage of RA, those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were low in the early stage and increased with the progression of RA. Molar ratios of the total amounts of the MMPs to those of the TIMPs were 5.2-fold higher in patients with RA than in OA, which was significant. APMA-activated metalloproteinase activity in SF showed a similar result, and a direct correlation was seen between the molar ratios and the activity in RA SF.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results show that high levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 are present in RA SF and suggest that once these MMPs are fully activated, they have an imbalance against TIMPs, which may contribute to the cartilage destruction in RA.

PMCID: PMC1753174  PMID: 10834863
18.  Modulation of u-PA, MMPs and their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mixture in adult human sarcoma cell lines 
Adult sarcomas are highly aggressive tumors that are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretions that degrade the ECM and basement membrane, allowing cancer cells to spread to distal organs. Proteases play a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of u-PA and MMPs with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival. MMP activities are regulated by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Our main objective was to study the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) on the activity of u-PA, MMPs and TIMPs in various human adult sarcomas. Human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), chondrosarcoma (SW-1353), liposarcoma (SW-872), synovial sarcoma (SW-982) and uterine leimyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cell lines (ATCC) were cultured in their respective media and treated at confluence with NM at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 μg/ml. Analysis of u-PA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography, MMPs by gelatinase zymography and TIMPs by reverse zymography. Fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma cancer cell lines expressed u-PA, which was inhibited by NM in a dose-dependent manner. However, no bands corresponding to u-PA were detected for synovial sarcoma cells. On gelatinase zymography, fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma showed bands corresponding to MMP-2 and MMP-9 with enhancement of MMP-9 with PMA (100 ng/ml) treatment. Uterine leiomyosarcoma showed strong bands corresponding to inactive and active MMP-9 and a faint band corresponding to MMP-9 dimer induced with PMA treatment, but no MMP-2 band. NM inhibited their expression in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of TIMPs was upregulated by NM in all cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis revealed a positive correlation between u-PA and MMPs and a negative correlation between u-PA/MMPs and TIMPs. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NM in treatment of adult sarcomas.
PMCID: PMC3742160  PMID: 23661254
fibrosarcoma; chondrosarcoma; liposarcoma; synovial sarcoma; uterine leimyosarcoma; u-PA; MMP-2 and MMP-9; TIMP-2; PMA; nutrient mixture
19.  Modulation of u-PA, MMPs and their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mixture in pediatric human sarcoma cell lines  
International Journal of Oncology  2013;43(4): 1027 - 1035 .
Pediatric sarcomas are highly aggressive tumors that are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretions that degrade the ECM and basement membrane, allowing cancer cells to spread to distal organs. Proteases play a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of u-PA and MMPs with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival. MMP activities are regulated by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Our main objective was to study the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) on activity of u-PA, MMPs and TIMPs in various human pediatric sarcomas. Human osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS, osteosarcoma U-2OS and rhabdomyosarcoma RD cell lines (ATCC) were cultured in their respective media and treated at confluence with NM at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 μ g/ml. Analysis of u-PA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography, MMPs by gelatinase zymography and TIMPs by reverse zymography. All sarcoma cell lines studied expressed u-PA, which was inhibited by NM in a dose-dependent manner. On gelatinase zymography, osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS showed a band corresponding to MMP-2 and induction of MMP-9 with PMA (100 ng/ml) treatment. U-2OS osteosarcoma cells showed strong bands corresponding to inactive MMP-2 and MMP-9 and faint bands corresponding to active MMP-2 and MMP-9 dimer; PMA treatment enhanced MMP-9 and MMP-9 dimer activity. Rhabdomyosarcoma showed MMP-2 and faint MMP-9 bands; PMA treatment enhanced MMP-9 expression. NM inhibited their expression in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of TIMPs was upregulated by NM in all cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis revealed a positive correlation between u-PA and MMPs and a negative correlation between u-PA/MMPs and TIMPs. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NM in treatment of pediatric sarcomas.
doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.2031
PMCID: PMC3829799  PMID: 23900236
osteosarcoma MNNG-HOS and U-2OS ;  rhabdomyosarcoma RD ;  urokinase plasminogen activator ;  matrix metalloproteinase-2 ;  matrix metalloproteinase-9 ;  tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 ;  PMA ;  nutrient mixture
20.  Matrix Metalloproteinase 1, 3, and 9 Polymorphisms and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk 
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are multifunctional zinc-dependent proteinases that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of tumors. We have analyzed the association between 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP3 −1612 5A/6A, and MMP9 −1562 C/T) and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
We investigated these 3 SNPs in 132 patients and 132 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The MMP1 and MMP3 genes are located on the same chromosome. Haplotype analysis was performed to study the combined effect of the linked MMP polymorphisms on ESCC risk.
The MMP1 and MMP9 promoter polymorphisms were not associated with ESCC risk, while the MMP3 −1612 5A/6A polymorphism was significantly associated with susceptibility to ESCC. Patients carrying the 5A allele had a significantly higher risk for developing ESCC compared with individuals carrying the 6A allele (OR=1.93; 95% CI 1.34–2.77; p<0.01). The 2G-5A and 1G-5A haplotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC as compared with the 2G-6A haplotype (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.37–3.04 and OR=3.65, 95% CI 1.26–10.55, respectively).
These findings implicate this MMP3 polymorphism as a contributor to ESCC susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC4242704  PMID: 25391977
Esophageal Neoplasms; Genetic Association Studies; Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
21.  Increased circulating 92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity in exacerbations of asthma 
Thorax  2003;58(9):757-760.
Background: The 72 kDa matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and the 92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) are type IV collagenases implicated in various aspects of inflammation including accumulation of inflammatory cells, tissue injury, and development of remodelling. The role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbations is unknown.
Methods: Circulating levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins and the expression of their inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), were measured in 21 patients experiencing an asthma exacerbation and 21 age matched patients with stable asthma. Circulating gelatinolytic activity was compared during the asthma exacerbation and during subsequent convalescence by gelatin zymography in the same individuals. In addition, MMP-9 specific activity was quantified with a colorimetric assay which uses an artificial proenzyme containing a specific domain recognised by MMP-9 in the same paired samples.
Results: A significant increase in the circulating level of MMP-9 was seen in patients with an asthma exacerbation compared with patients with stable asthma (202.9 (22.0) v 107.7 (9.9) ng/ml, p=0.0003). There were no significant differences in the circulating levels of MMP-2 or TIMP-1. Gelatin zymography identified two major circulating gelatinolytic activities corresponding to MMP-2 and MMP-9, and showed that asthma exacerbations are characterised by markedly increased MMP-9 activity with no significant change in MMP-2 activity compared with the activities during convalescence in the same individuals. Direct measurement showed that MMP-9 specific activity is significantly increased during asthma exacerbations compared with subsequent convalescence (269.6 (31.7) v 170.4 (12.6) ng/ml, p=0.0099).
Conclusions: Asthma exacerbations are characterised by increased circulating MMP-9 activity. This increased activity may be related to exaggerated airway inflammation and airway remodelling.
PMCID: PMC1746799  PMID: 12947131
22.  Expression and significance of MMP2 and HIF-1α in hepatocellular carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):539-546.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious threat to human health. HCC is a malignant tumor and its invasion and metastasis are the result of multigene interactions. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is capable of degrading the majority of components of the extracellular matrix and is regarded to closely correlate with tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is an important transcription factor, which is closely associated with the process of tumor growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of MMP2 and HIF-1α) in HCC, and the relationship between MMP2/HIF-1α protein expression and the clinical/pathological characteristics of HCC. The mRNA levels of MMP2 and HIF-1α were detected in 32 cases of HCC and the corresponding normal adjacent tissues with fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of MMP2 and HIF-1α was assessed in 45 HCC cases and 33 cases of corresponding normal adjacent tissue, using immunohistochemical methods. The association between MMP2/HIF-1α and pathological features of HCC, and the correlation between MMP2 and HIF-1α were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the impact of MMP2 and HIF-1α expression on survival. The fluorescence-based qPCR demonstrated that MMP2 and HIF-1α mRNA expression levels in the HCC tissues were 0.84±0.17 and 0.87±0.11, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal tissues (0.70±0.13 and 0.68±0.13, respectively; P<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MMP2 and HIF-1α protein expression in the HCC tissues was 63.1 and 70.8%, respectively, which was also higher than that in the adjacent normal tissues (34.2 and 36.8%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the expression of MMP2 or HIF-1α protein and the age or gender of patients with HCC (P>0.05). However, there was significant correlation between MMP2 or HIF-1α protein expression and tumor size, metastasis, presence of a capsule and clinical TNM staging of HCC. Their expression also had a significant effect on patient survival time. In conclusion, MMP2 and HIF-1α are overexpressed in HCC, and the MMP2 signaling pathway may promote the development of HCC together with HIF-1α.
PMCID: PMC4081179  PMID: 25013467
hepatocellular carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinase 2; hypoxia-inducible factor 1α; gene expression
23.  Clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
AIM: To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: The expression of MMP-9 in 208 cases of ESCC was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and its clinical significance in ESCC especially the relationship with the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.
RESULTS: The percentage of positive cases for MMP-9 detected by IHC was 49.0%. MMP-9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells especially in the invasive front. Only weak expression was detected in the stromal cells and no expression in non-cancerous mucosa. The expression of MMP-9 was positively correlated with poorer differentiation (P = 0.001<0.01), existence of vessel permeation (P = 0.027<0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.027<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The expression of MMP-9 correlates with the cancer cell differentiation, vessel permeation and lymph node metastasis. It may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of ESCC.
PMCID: PMC4250600  PMID: 15682484
Matrix metalloproteinase-9; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Clinicopathological parameters; Biomarker
24.  MicroRNA-133a regulates the mRNAs of two invadopodia-related proteins, FSCN1 and MMP14, in esophageal cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;110(1):189-198.
FSCN1 and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) are both invadopodia-related proteins. We herein elucidate the tumourigenicity of these proteins and identify novel therapeutic agents in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
FSCN1 and MMP14 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, and microRNA (miR)-133a was also evaluated by PCR in surgical ESCC specimens. The roles of FSCN1, MMP14 and miR-133a were established in ESCC cells.
The expression of FSCN1 or MMP14 was an independent poor prognostic factor according to a multivariate analysis of immunohistochemistry, and their co-expression correlated with the poorest overall survival (OS) out of all the examined factors. Additionally, their mRNAs significantly correlated and both inversely correlated with miR-133a in surgical specimens. Transfection of a miR-133a mimic decreased the mRNA and protein levels of both FSCN1 and MMP14 in ESCC cells. The knockdown of FSCN1 or MMP14 and transfection of a miR-133a mimic inhibited the proliferation and invasion of ESCC cells. Patients with a lower miR-133a expression have a significantly poorer OS than those with a higher expression.
The combined expression of FSCN1 and MMP14 is associated with a poor prognosis, and miR-133a, which regulates their mRNAs, can serve as a strong tumour suppressor of ESCC.
PMCID: PMC3887287  PMID: 24196787
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; FSCN1; MMP14; invadopodia; anti-oncomir; prognosis
25.  Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in human gastric cancer and superficial gastritis 
AIM: To assess expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in gastric cancer, superficial gastritis and normal mucosa, and to measure metalloproteinase activity.
METHODS: MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalization was carried out using three different factors. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative gelatin zymography (qGZ).
RESULTS: 18S ribosomal RNA (18SRNA) was very highly expressed, while hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase-1 (HPRT-1) was moderately expressed. MMP2 was highly expressed, while MMP9 was not detected or lowly expressed in normal tissues, moderately or highly expressed in gastritis and highly expressed in cancer. Relative expression of 18SRNA and HPRT-1 showed no significant differences. Significant differences in MMP2 and MMP9 were found between cancer and normal tissue, but not between gastritis and normal tissue. Absolute quantification of MMP9 echoed this pattern, but differential expression of MMP2 proved conflictive. Analysis by qGZ indicated significant differences between cancer and normal tissue in MMP-2, total MMP-9, 250 and 110 kDa bands.
CONCLUSION: MMP9 expression is enhanced in gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa; interpretation of differential expression of MMP2 is difficult to establish.
PMCID: PMC2846256  PMID: 20333791
Gastric cancer; Superficial gastritis; Matrix metalloproteinases; Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; Quantitative zymography

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