Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) are sometimes used as ‘off label’ for excessive bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The main objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and biological efficacy of PCC in this setting.
We reviewed the charts of all patients who had undergone cardiac surgery under CPB in our institution for 2 years. Patients treated for active bleeding with haemostatic therapy were identified. Chest tube blood loss was quantified postoperatively in the first 24 h. Coagulation parameters were recorded at intensive care unit admission and in the patient's first 24 h. Thromboembolic complications were also ascertained.
Seventy-seven patients out of the 677 studied (11.4%) were included: PCC was solely administered in 24 patients (group I), fresh frozen plasma in 26 (group II) and both in 27 (group III). The mean dose of PCC was 10.0 UI/kg ± 3.5 for group I vs 14.1 UI/kg ± 11.2 for group III (P = 0.09). Initial blood loss in the first hour was different between the three groups (P = 0.05): 224 ± 131 ml for group I, 369 ± 296 ml for group II and 434 ± 398 ml for group III. Only group I vs group III presented a significant difference (P = 0.02). Variations of blood loss over time were no different according to the treatment groups (P = 0.12). Reductions in blood loss expressed in percentage showed no difference between the three groups after 2 h: 54.5% (68.6–30.8) for group I; 45.0% (81.6–22.2) for group II; 57.6 (76.0–2.1) for group III; (P = 0.89). Re-exploration for bleeding involved 1 patient in group I (4%), 2 in group II (8%) and 10 in group III (37%) (P = 0.002). Except for fibrinogen, variations of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platelets with time were not different according to the treatment groups. Cerebral infarction occurred in one patient in group II.
Administration of low-dose of PCC significantly decreased postoperative bleeding after CPB.
Prothrombin complex concentrates; Bleeding; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Thromboembolic complications
Fluid resuscitation following traumatic injury causes haemodilution and can contribute to coagulopathy. Coagulation factor replacement may be necessary to prevent bleeding complications of dilutional coagulopathy. Compared with fresh frozen plasma (FFP), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) may potentially offer a more rapid and effective means of normalizing coagulation factor levels.
In anaesthetized mildly hypothermic pigs, 65–70% of total blood volume was substituted in phases with hydroxyethyl starch and red cells. Animals were then treated with 15 ml kg−1 isotonic saline placebo, 25 IU kg−1 PCC, or 15 ml kg−1 FFP. Immediately thereafter, either a standardized femur or spleen injury was inflicted, and coagulation function, including thrombin generation, and bleeding were assessed. An additional group received high-dose FFP (40 ml kg−1) before femur injury.
Haemodilution markedly prolonged prothrombin time and reduced peak thrombin generation. PCC, but not FFP, fully reversed those effects. Compared with 15 ml kg−1 FFP, PCC shortened the time to haemostasis after either bone (P=0.001) or spleen (P=0.028) trauma and reduced the volume of blood lost (P<0.001 and P=0.015, respectively). Subsequent to bone injury, PCC also accelerated haemostasis (P=0.003) and diminished blood loss (P=0.006) vs 40 ml kg−1 FFP.
PCC was effective in correcting dilutional coagulopathy and controlling bleeding in an in vivo large-animal trauma model. In light of its suitability for more rapid administration than FFP, PCC merits further investigation as a therapy for dilutional coagulopathy in trauma and surgery.
blood, haemodilution; complications, haemorrhagic disorder; complications, trauma; fresh frozen plasma; prothrombin complex concentrate
Numerous studies have supported the effectiveness of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) for the control of bleeding after cardiac procedures; however safety concerns persist. Here we report the novel use of intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa in thoracic aortic operations, a strategy intended to improve safety by minimizing rFVIIa exposure.
Between July 2005 and December 2010, 425 consecutive patients at a single referral center underwent thoracic aortic operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); 77 of these patients received intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa (≤60 μg/kg) for severe coagulopathy after CPB. Propensity matching produced a cohort of 88 patients (44 received intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa and 44 controls) for comparison.
Matched patients receiving intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa got an initial median dose of 32 μg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 16–43 μg/kg) rFVIIa given 51 minutes (42–67 minutes) after separation from CPB. Patients receiving intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa demonstrated improved postoperative coagulation measurements (partial thromboplastin time 28.6 versus 31.5 seconds; p = 0.05; international normalized ratio, 0.8 versus 1.2; p < 0.0001) and received 50% fewer postoperative blood product transfusions (2.5 versus 5.0 units; p = 0.05) compared with control patients. No patient receiving intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa required postoperative rFVIIa administration or reexploration for bleeding. Rates of stroke, thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and other adverse events were equivalent between groups.
Intraoperative low-dose rFVIIa led to improved postoperative hemostasis with no apparent increase in adverse events. Intraoperative rFVIIa administration in appropriately selected patients may correct coagulopathy early in the course of refractory blood loss and lead to improved safety through the use of smaller rFVIIa doses. Appropriately powered randomized studies are necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of this approach.
Extracorporeal circulation induces hemostatic alterations that lead to inflammatory response (IR) and postoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TA) reduces fibrinolysis and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, its effects on IR and vasoplegic shock (VS) are not well known and elucidating these effects was the main objective of this study.
A case control study was carried out to determine factors associated with IR after CPB. Patients undergoing elective CPB surgery were randomly assigned to receive 2 g of TA or placebo (0.9% saline) before and after intervention. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing the incidence of IR and VS. We also analyzed several biological parameters related to inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis systems. We used SPSS version 12.2 for statistical purposes.
In the case control study, 165 patients were studied, 20.6% fulfilled IR criteria, and the use of TA proved to be an independent protective variable (odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.81; P < 0.01). The clinical trial was interrupted. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive TA (24) or placebo (26). Incidence of IR was 17% in the TA group versus 42% in the placebo group (P = 0.047). In the TA group, we observed a significant reduction in the incidence of VS (P = 0.003), the use of norepinephrine (P = 0.029), and time on mechanical ventilation (P = 0.018). These patients showed significantly lower D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and creatine-kinase levels and a trend toward lower levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor and interleukin-6 within the first 24 hours after CPB.
The use of TA attenuates the development of IR and VS after CPB.
Trial registration number
Hypomagnesaemia is a common complication after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and predisposes to the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Previous studies showed that intravenous magnesium reduces the incidence of postoperative cardiac arrhythmias but it also inhibits platelet function. Our aim was to compare the postoperative blood loss in patients not receiving magnesium after CPB with the group who received magnesium and to compare the requirement of blood, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets within 24 hours after surgery. This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in 80 adult patients on oral aspirin undergoing elective CABG requiring CPB. Group A patients had not received magnesium infusion after recovery from CPB. Group B patients received magnesium infusion after recovery from CPB. Postoperative bleeding was assessed in both the groups. All the data were statistically analyzed. There was a insignificant increase in 24 hours postoperative drainage in magnesium recipient group compared to control group (p>0.05). Requirements of blood and blood products to maintain haematocrit and coagulation profile revealed insignificant (p > 0.05). Increase in requirement of PRC, FFP and platelets in magnesium recipient patients than the control group. Incidence of atrial fibrillation (Gr A 2.5%, Gr B 2.5%) and atrial extrasystoles (Gr A 2.5%, Gr B 10%) revealed comparable (p > 0.05) between the groups, but incidence of ventricular arrhythmias were significantly (p<0.05) high in the patients of Gr A(17.5%) than Gr B(5%). To conclude, magnesium may be administered to patients who continue pre-operative aspirin to undergo on-pump CABG surgery.
Aspirin; Magnesium; CPB; CABG; Postoperative bleeding
To determine the effect of recovery with mild hypothermia after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) on the activity of selected key proteins involved in initiation (Bax, Caspase-3) or inhibition of apoptotic injury (Bcl-2, increased ratio Bcl-2/Bax) in the brain of newborn piglets.
The piglets were placed on CPB, cooled with pH-stat management to 18 °C, subjected to 30 min of DHCA followed by 1 h of low flow at 20 ml/kg/min, rewarmed to 37 °C (normothermia) or to 33 °C (hypothermia), separated from CPB, and monitored for 6 h. Expression of above proteins was measured in striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex by Western blots. The results are mean for six experiments ± SEM.
There were no significant differences in Bcl-2 level between normothermic and hypothermic groups. The Bax levels in normothermic group in cortex, hippocampus and striatum were 94 ± 9, 136 ± 22 and 125 ± 34 and decreased in the hypothermic group to 59 ± 17 ( p = 0.028), 70 ± 6 (p = 0.002) and 48 ± 8 (p = 0.01). In cortex, hippocampus and striatum Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased from 1.23, 0.79 and 0.88 in normothermia to 1.96, 1.28 and 2.92 in hypothermia. Expression of Caspase-3 was 245 ± 39, 202 ± 74 and 244 ± 31 in cortex, hippocampus and striatum in the normothermic group and this decreased to 146 ± 24 ( p = 0.018), 44 ± 16 ( p = 7 × 10−7) and 81 ± 16 ( p = 0.01) in the hypothermic group.
In neonatal piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass with circulatory arrest, mild hypothermia during post bypass recovery provides significant protection from cellular apoptosis, as indicated by lower expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The biggest protection was observed in striatum probably by decreasing of neurotoxicity of striatal dopamine.
Newborn; Brain; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Circulatory arrest; Hypothermia; Apoptosis
Abnormal bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may result from incomplete neutralization of heparin, increased fibrinolytic activity, consumption of coagulation factors, or from a reduction in the number of circulating platelets together with impairment of platelet function. Although researchers have reason to believe that hemostasis after CPB could be improved with prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, the drug's clear-cut benefits in this respect have not yet been confirmed.
After conducting an initial study concerning the fate of platelets during CPB, in which we determined that PGI2 had a protective effect, we investigated the effects of PGI2 infusion during CPB on postoperative blood loss in 554 open-heart surgery patients, 200 of whom underwent valve replacement, 200 of whom had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and 154 of whom underwent repeat valve replacement or CABG. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 277 patients (the study group) received both heparin and PGI2 during CPB, whereas the remaining 277 patients (the control group) were given heparin alone.
Of the patients who underwent surgery for the first time, those treated with PGI2 had a reduced mean blood loss (p < 0.05 only in CABG patients) in comparison with those who received heparin alone. Of the patients who underwent redo operations, those who received PGI2 had a nonsignificant tendency toward reduced blood loss. The mean difference in blood loss between the study group and the control group had no clinical relevance, however, because it was less than the smallest practical unit of measurement (i.e., 1 unit of blood). (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988; 15:86-90)
Cardiopulmonary bypass; prostaglandins X; platelet aggregation; hemostasis, surgical
Haemodilution during resuscitation after massive haemorrhage may worsen the coagulopathy and perpetuate bleeding.
Materials and methods
Blood samples from healthy donors were diluted (30 and-60%) using crystalloids (saline, Ringer’s lactate, PlasmalyteTM) or colloids (6% hydroxyethylstarch [HES130/0.4], 5% human albumin, and gelatin). The effects of haemodilution on platelet adhesion (Impact R), thrombin generation (TG), and thromboelastometry (TEM) parameters were analysed as were the effects of fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), activated recombinant factor VII (FVIIa), and cryoprecipates on haemodilution.
Platelet interactions was already significantly reduced at 30% haemodilution. Platelet reactivity was not improved by addition of any of the concentrates tested. A decrease in TG and marked alterations of TEM parameters were noted at 60% haemodilution. HES130/0.4 was the expander with the most deleterious action. TG was significantly enhanced by PCC whereas rFVIIa only caused a mild acceleration of TG initiation. Fibrinogen restored the alterations of TEM parameters caused by haemodilution including those caused by HES 130/0.4. Cryoprecipitates significantly improved the alterations caused by haemodilution on TG and TEM parameters; the effects on TG disappeared after ultracentrifugation of the cryoprecipitates.
The haemostatic alterations caused by haemodilution are multifactorial and affect both blood cells and coagulation. In our in vitro approach, HES 130/0.4 had the most deleterious effect on haemostasis parameters. Coagulation factor concentrates did not improve platelet interactions in the Impact R, but did have favourable effects on coagulation parameters measured by TG and TEM. Fibrinogen notably improved TEM parameters without increasing thrombin generation, suggesting that this concentrate may help to preserve blood clotting abilities during haemodilution without enhancing the prothrombotic risk.
haemodilution; coagulation factor concentrates; platelet function; thrombin generation; thromboelastometry
During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.
Bleeding remains a potentially lethal complication of cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better insight into in vitro thrombin generation in the context of CPB.
We used Calibrated Automated Thrombography to assess blood coagulation of 10 low-risk patients operated for valve replacement with CPB, under 2 experimental conditions, one implicating platelets as platelet dysfunction has been described to occur during CPB.
Our main finding was that CPB-induced coagulopathy was differently appreciated depending on the presence or absence of platelets: the decrease in thrombin generation was much less pronounced in their presence (mean endogenous thrombin potential change values before and after CPB were -3.9% in the presence of platelets and -39.6% in their absence).
Our results show that experimental conditions have a profound effect in the study of in vitro thrombin generation in the context of CPB.
Cardio pulmonary bypass; Thrombin; Platelets; Thrombography
Visual loss occurring after pediatric cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is relatively rare but the risk is substantial. Compromised cerebral perfusion due to a CPB related micro-embolization and inflammatory vascular changes as well as reduced oxygen carrying capacity in hemodilution and hypothermia during CPB might be major contributing factors to the development of postoperative visual loss after cardiac surgery with CPB. A case of immediate but transient postoperative visual loss was encountered in a 21-month-old male who underwent tricuspid valve surgery. Despite routine intraoperative measures to maintain an adequate perfusion pressure throughout the procedure, postoperative computed tomography revealed a subacute infarct in his occipital lobe. Recovery began on postoperative day 28, and the patient's vision was restored by 31 days.
Blindness; Cardiac surgical procedures; Complications
Excessive bleeding (EB) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to increased mortality, morbidity, transfusion requirements and re-intervention. Less than 50% of patients undergoing re-intervention exhibit surgical sources of bleeding. We studied clinical and genetic factors associated with EB.
We performed a nested case-control study of 26 patients who did not receive antifibrinolytic prophylaxis. Variables were collected preoperatively, at intensive care unit (ICU) admission, at 4 and 24 hours post-CPB. EB was defined as 24-hour blood loss of >1 l post-CPB. Associations of EB with genetic, demographic, and clinical factors were analyzed, using SPSS-12.2 for statistical purposes.
EB incidence was 50%, associated with body mass index (BMI)< 26.4 (25–28) Kg/m2, (P = 0.03), lower preoperative levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (P = 0.01), lower body temperature during CPB (P = 0.037) and at ICU admission (P = 0.029), and internal mammary artery graft (P = 0.03) in bypass surgery. We found a significant association between EB and 5G homozygotes for PAI-1, after adjusting for BMI (F = 6.07; P = 0.02) and temperature during CPB (F = 8.84; P = 0.007). EB patients showed higher consumption of complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis and hemoderivatives, with significantly lower leptin levels at all postoperative time points (P = 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01).
Excessive postoperative bleeding in CPB patients was associated with demographics, particularly less pronounced BMI, and surgical factors together with serine protease activation.
Refractory post cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) bleeding continues to cause concern for cardiac surgeons and intensivists. Massive postoperative hemorrhage following CPB is multifactorial and not fully understood, and it is also associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) has emerged as possible salvage medication in refractory post cardiac surgical bleeding. This observational study sought to identify the pattern of use of rFVIIa in cardiac surgery, its effectiveness, and risk.
This study involved a retrospective case review of medical records of ten patients undergoing a variety of cardiac surgery procedures and who developed life-threatening bleeding during surgery or after surgery despite conventional medical therapy, including transfusion of blood and blood products, and received rFVIIa at a regional center between August 2007 and April 2009.
All ten patients received two consecutive doses of rFVIIa (average dose 65 μg/kg) at a 2-hour interval. Eight patients were re-explored due to massive postoperative bleeding or cardiac tamponade before receiving rFVIIa. Surgical sources of bleeding were not identified in any cases. A second re-exploration was carried out in two cases. Two patients (20%) died in ITU from problems not related to bleeding and thromboembolism. Blood loss was significantly reduced after administration of rFVIIa. Blood loss 6 hours prior to treatment was 1758.5 ± 163.9 mL and blood loss in the 6-hour period post treatment was 405.6 ± 50.5 mL (P < 0.05). Blood and blood products used in the 6-hour period before and after administration of rFVIIa were 19.6 ± 1.5U and 4.4 ± 0.6U, respectively (P < 0.05). No adverse reactions or thrombotic complications related to rFVIIa were noted.
In our limited study, use of rFVIIa in refractory post surgical bleeding was significantly reduced blood loss and use of blood and blood products. We concluded that rFVIIa can be used satisfactorily and safely as a rescue therapy in the management of post cardiac surgical bleeding.
cardiopulmonary bypass; CPB; refractory bleeding; rFVIIa
In spite of using heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still associated with an extensive thrombin generation, which is only partially suppressed by the use of high dosages of heparin. Recent studies have focused on the origins of this thrombotic stimulus and the possible role of retransfused suctioned blood from the thoracic cavities on the activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. The present study was designed to find during CPB an association between retransfusion of suctioned blood from the pericardium and pleural space, containing activated factor VIIa and systemic thrombin generation.
Blood samples taken from 12 consenting patients who had elective cardiac surgery were assayed for plasma factor VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) concentrations. Blood aspirated from the pericardium and pleural space was collected separately, assayed for F1+2, TAT, and factor VIIa and retransfused to the patient after the aorta occlusion.
After systemic heparinization and during CPB thrombin generation was minimal, as indicated by the lower than base line plasma levels of F1+2, and TAT after correction for hemodilution. In contrast, blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities had significantly higher levels of factor VIIa, F1+2, and TAT compared to the simultaneous samples from the blood circulation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after retransfusion of the suctioned blood (range, 200–1600 mL) circulating levels of F1+2, and TAT rose significantly from 1.6 to 2.9 nmol/L (P = 0.002) and from 5.1 to 37.5 μg/L (P = 0.01), respectively. The increase in both F1+2, and TAT levels correlated significantly with the amount of retransfused suctioned blood (r = 0.68, P = 0.021 and r = 0.90, P = 0.001, respectively). However, the circulating factor VIIa levels did not correlate with TAT and F1+2 levels.
These data suggest that blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities during CPB is highly thrombogenic. Retransfusion of this blood may, therefore, promote further systemic thrombin generation during CPB.
There is currently a contrast between the demonstrated benefits of fibrinogen concentrate in correcting bleeding and reducing transfusion, and its perceived thrombogenic potential. This analysis evaluates the effects of fibrinogen concentrate on coagulation up to 12 days after administration during aortic surgery.
We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of fibrinogen concentrate as first-line haemostatic therapy in aortic surgery. After cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and protamine administration, subjects with coagulopathic bleeding received fibrinogen concentrate or placebo. The placebo group received allogeneic blood products, including fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; n=32); the fibrinogen concentrate group received fibrinogen concentrate alone (FC; n=14), or fibrinogen concentrate followed by allogeneic blood products (FC+FFP; n=15). Plasma fibrinogen, fibrin-based clotting (ROTEM®-based FIBTEM assay), and peri- and postoperative haematological and coagulation parameters were compared.
Plasma fibrinogen and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) decreased ∼50% during CPB but were corrected by FC or FC+FFP. At last suture, the highest values for plasma fibrinogen (360 mg dl−1) and FIBTEM MCF (22 mm) were within normal ranges—below the acute phase increases observed after surgery. In patients receiving only FFP as a source of fibrinogen, these parameters recovered marginally by last suture (P<0.001 vs FC and FC+FFP). All groups displayed comparable haemostasis at 24 h post-surgery. Fibrinogen concentrate did not cause alterations of other haemostasis parameters.
Fibrinogen concentrate provided specific, significant, short-lived increases in plasma fibrinogen and fibrin-based clot firmness after aortic surgery.
blood coagulation tests; cardiopulmonary bypass; fibrin; fibrinogen; plasma
The use of PCC for the treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy potentially increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which is addressed to an imbalance of both pro- and anticoagulants. As PCCs differ in composition, we used an in vitro dilutional approach to assess the overall thrombin generation of five different PCCs through various laboratory assays.
The vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, heparin, and antithrombin were assessed in five commercially available PCCs. The procoagulant potential of the PCCs was assessed in plasma and whole blood from 4 healthy donors by means of classical coagulation assays, thrombin generation assay and thromboelastometry. In order to reflect coagulopathy, whole blood was diluted to 80, 60, 40, and 20% with Ringer’s lactate solution.
The five different PCCs were characterised by comparable levels of factors II, VII, IX and X (all around 20–30 IU/mL), whereas the heparin (0 to 17.6 IU/mL) and antithrombin (0.06 to 1.29 IU/mL) levels were remarkably different between manufactures. In vitro dilution of blood induced a prolongation of the PT and aPTT, and attenuation of thrombin generation and ExTem induced thromboelastometry. Overall, non- or low-heparin containing PCCs restored the in vitro dilutional coagulopathy, whereas PCCs containing heparin have an anticoagulant effect. The thrombin generation assay showed to be the most sensitive method for assessment of PCC effects.
This study shows that most available PCCs are not balanced regarding their pro- and anticoagulants. The effect of measured differences in thrombin generation among different PCCs requires further investigations to elaborate the clinical meaning of this finding in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy.
Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and mild hypothermia.
Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt)/P, and wall thickening) were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4). The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3).
Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax)/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p < 0.05). However, with regard to dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax)/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant.
The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.
The objective of this clinical trial is to study the effectiveness of administering recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in reducing the amount of bleeding and the need for homologous blood and products transfusion in cardiac surgical coronary revascularization procedures done under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
In a randomized controlled prospective observational study, 30 patients were scheduled for elective cardiac revascularization under CPB. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. In Group I (Control group), no rFVIIa was administered following CPB. In Group II (Study group), a dose of 90 ug/Kg of rFVIIa was administered following weaning off CPB. The total amount of chest tube drain during the 1st 24 h following surgery was recorded as well as the qualitative and quantitative assessments of homologous blood and products transfusion. Serial analysis of hematological parameters including hemoglobin level and coagulation test in a definite data points was done. T0=baseline readings prior to CPB, T1=off CPB after protamine administration and before administration of the study drug, T2=on Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) admission, T3=12 h post-CICU admission, and T4=24 h post-CICU admission.
Considering the total chest tube drainage, mean values showed statistically significant results with a P value of 0.001. Homologous blood and products transfusion were statistically lower in the study group. Regarding the mean values for hematological assessment, results showed statistically lower International Normalized Ratio values at CICU admission and 12 h post-CICU admission with a P value of 0.018 and 0.004, respectively. Also, the Partial Thromboplastin Time mean values were statistically lower at same timings with estimated P values of 0.04 and 0.001, respectively.
It is concluded that the prophylactic use of rFVIIa in patients undergoing coronary revascularization surgery under the management of CPB had a remarkable significant results on both the amount of post-operative bleeding and the amount of blood and products transfusion.
CABG; coronary revascularization; recombinant activated factor VII
Conventional markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) lack diagnostic accuracy and are expressed only late after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Recently, interest has focused on hepcidin, a regulator of iron homeostasis, as a unique renal biomarker.
We studied 100 adult patients in the control arm of a randomized, controlled trial http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00672334 who were identified as being at increased risk of AKI after cardiac surgery with CPB. AKI was defined according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease classification of AKI classification stage. Samples of plasma and urine were obtained simultaneously (1) before CPB (2) six hours after the start of CPB and (3) twenty-four hours after CPB. Plasma and urine hepcidin 25-isoforms were quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay.
In AKI-free patients (N = 91), urine hepcidin concentrations had largely increased at six and twenty-four hours after CPB, and they were three to seven times higher compared to patients with subsequent AKI (N = 9) in whom postoperative urine hepcidin remained at preoperative levels (P = 0.004, P = 0.002). Furthermore, higher urine hepcidin and, even more so, urine hepcidin adjusted to urine creatinine at six hours after CPB discriminated patients who did not develop AKI (area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic curve 0.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.71 to 0.87] and 0.88 [95% CI 0.78 to 0.97]) or did not need renal replacement therapy initiation (AUC 0.81 [95% CI 0.72 to 0.88] 0.88 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.99]) from those who did. At six hours, urine hepcidin adjusted to urine creatinine was an independent predictor of ruling out AKI (P = 0.011). Plasma hepcidin did not predict no development of AKI. The study findings remained essentially unchanged after excluding patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease.
Our findings suggest that urine hepcidin is an early predictive biomarker of ruling out AKI after CPB, thereby contributing to early patient risk stratification.
According to some reports, left hemidiaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve injury may occur following cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to document the effects on phrenic nerve injury of whole body hypothermia, use of ice-slush around the heart and mammary artery harvesting.
Electrophysiology of phrenic nerves was studied bilaterally in 78 subjects before and three weeks after cardiac or peripheral vascular surgery. In 49 patients, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and heart valve replacement with moderate hypothermic (mean 28°C) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were performed. In the other 29, CABG with beating heart was performed, or, in several cases, peripheral vascular surgery with normothermia.
In all patients, measurements of bilateral phrenic nerve function were within normal limits before surgery. Three weeks after surgery, left phrenic nerve function was absent in five patients in the CPB and hypothermia group (3 in CABG and 2 in valve replacement). No phrenic nerve dysfunction was observed after surgery in the CABG with beating heart (no CPB) or the peripheral vascular groups. Except in the five patients with left phrenic nerve paralysis, mean phrenic nerve conduction latency time (ms) and amplitude (mV) did not differ statistically before and after surgery in either group (p > 0.05).
Our results indicate that CPB with hypothermia and local ice-slush application around the heart play a role in phrenic nerve injury following cardiac surgery. Furthermore, phrenic nerve injury during cardiac surgery occurred in 10.2 % of our patients (CABG with CPB plus valve surgery).
The return of extracorporeal circuit blood at the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is an important feature of blood conservation during cardiac surgery procedures globally. We report our initial clinical evaluation of the Hemobag system a blood-salvaging device designed for whole blood recovery of residual post-CPB volume.
Residual whole blood is hemoconcetrated through the multipass “recovery loop” circuit separate from the CPB and collected in the Hemobag System. This allows the surgeons to continue with surgery, decannulate, and administer protamine simultaneously while the Hemobag is in use and the CPB circuit remains safely primed. We have compared 25 patients receiving the Hemobag to a control group of 25 patients treated with the cell washer that represented our previous standard of care method of circuit blood-salvaging technique.
The Hemobag system provided significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, fibrinogen, albumin, and total protein levels in the final product reducing the amount of wasted autologous blood cells. There were no device-related complications. There were no significant differences in terms of blood utilization, chest tube drainage and clinical outcomes over the entire postoperative period among groups.
These results suggest that the Hemobag system is a safe and efficient method to multipass hemoconcentrate the residual diluted blood of the CPB circuit. The Hemobag has demonstrated its ability to maximize the composition of the residual CPB volume to achieve the best possible post-CPB hemoglobin, plasma protein and coagulation factors profile for the patient respect to CW.
Ultrafiltration; MUF; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Autologous blood conservation; Cardiac surgery
Numerous cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) models in the rat have already been described, but these models often have an important mortality and differ a lot from human clinical conditions thus making them hardly usable.
The CPB model in the rat we describe allows a femoro-femoral support CPB with a low priming volume, minimal surgical approach and excellent peroperative survival. This CPB model in the rat allows evaluating extracorporeal circulation effects.
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Experimental surgery; Animal model
Conventional Cardiopulmonary Bypass (cCPB) is a trigger of systemic inflammatory reactions, hemodilution, coagulopathy, and organ failure. Miniaturised Cardiopulmonary Bypass (mCPB) has the potential to reduce these deleterious effects. Here, we describe our standardised ‘Hammersmith’ mCPB technique, used in all types of adult cardiac operations including major aortic surgery.
The use of mCPB remains limited by the diversity of technologies which range from extremely complex, micro systems to ones very similar to cCPB. Our approach is designed around the principle of balancing the benefits of miniaturisation; reducing foreign surface area while maintaining patient safety.
From January 2010 to March 2011, a single surgeon performed 184 consecutive operations (Euro score Logistic 8.4+/-9.9): 61 aortic valve replacements, 78 CABGs, 25 aortic valve replacement and CABG and 17 other procedures (major aortic surgery, re-do operations or double/triple valve replacements).
Our clinical experience suggests that:
i. Venous drainage is optimally maintained using kinetic energy.
ii. Venous collapse pressure depends on the patient’s anatomy and cannula size, but most importantly on the negative pressure generated by venous drainage.
iii. The patient-prime interaction is optimised with antegrade and retrograde autologous priming, which mixes the blood and prime away from the tissues and results in a reduced oncotic destabilization.
iv. mCPB is a safe and reproducible technique
The Hammersmith mCPB is a “next generation” system which uses standard commercially available components. It aims to maintain safety margin and the benefit of miniaturised system whilst reducing the human factor demands.
Mini CPB; Conventional CPB; Heart surgery; Mini-Cardiopulmonary; Bypass
Glucocorticoids can reduce myocardial dysfunction associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and circulatory arrest. The hypothesis was that maintenance of cardiac function after CPB with methylprednisolone therapy results, in part, from preservation of myocyte calcium cycling.
Piglets (5–7 kg) underwent CPB and 120 min of hypothermic circulatory arrest with (CPB-GC) or without (CPB) methylprednisolone (30 mg·kg−1) administered 6 hr before and at CPB. Controls (No-CPB) did not undergo CPB or receive glucocorticoids (n=6 per treatment). Myocardial function was monitored in vivo for 120 min after CPB. Calcium cycling was analyzed using rapid line-scan confocal microscopy in isolated, fluo-3-AM-loaded cardiac myocytes. Phospholamban phosphorylation and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA2a) protein levels were determined by immunoblotting of myocardium collected 120 min after CPB. Calpain activation in myocardium was measured by fluorometric assay.
Preload recruitable stroke work in vivo 120 min after reperfusion decreased from baseline in CPB (47.4±12 vs 26.4±8.3 slope of the regression line, p<.05), but was not different in CPB-GC (41±8.1 vs 37.6±2.2, p=.7). In myocytes isolated from piglets, total calcium transient time remained unaltered in CPB-GC (368±52.5 msec) compared with controls (434.5±35.3 msec; p=.07), but was prolonged in CPB myocytes (632±83.4 msec; p<.01). Calcium transient amplitude was blunted in myocytes from CPB (757±168 nM) compared with controls (1127±126 nM, p<.05) but was maintained in CPB-GC (1021±155 nM, p>.05). Activation of calpain after CPB was reduced with glucocorticoids. Phospholamban phosphorylation and SERCA2a protein levels in myocardium were decreased in CPB compared with No-CPB and CPB-GC (p<.05).
The glucocorticoid-mediated improvement in myocardial function after CPB might be due, in part, to prevention of calpain activation and maintenance of cardiac myocyte calcium cycling.
ischemia/reperfusion; cardiopulmonary bypass; circulatory arrest; physiology/pathophysiology; neonate; calcium; calcium cycling; SERCA2a; phospholamban
The pharmacodynamics of fentanyl citrate were studied in two groups of patients. One group underwent surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the other group had surgery without CPB; the latter group represented the controls. Apneic periods were considerably longer (2.70 ± 0.90 hr) for the CPB patients than for the control patients (1.75 ± 0.75 hr).
The total plasma fentanyl concentration at which apnea ceased was not statistically different between the two groups. Minor differences were attributed to the massive dilution of plasma proteins after the adding of priming fluid to the heart-lung machine.
This prolongation of apnea is of considerable clinical importance because it means that CPB patients must remain mechanically ventilated for longer periods.