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1.  Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study 
Brain : a journal of neurology  2009;132(Pt 5):1376-1385.
Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder reported in association with dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Although impulse control disorders are conceptualized as lying within the spectrum of addictions, little neurobiological evidence exists to support this belief. Functional imaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities of dopaminergic function in patients with drug addictions, but to date no study has specifically evaluated dopaminergic function in Parkinson’s disease patients with impulse control disorders. We describe results of a [11C] raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) study comparing dopaminergic function during gambling in Parkinson’s disease patients, with and without pathological gambling, following dopamine agonists. Patients with pathological gambling demonstrated greater decreases in binding potential in the ventral striatum during gambling (13.9%) than control patients (8.1%), likely reflecting greater dopaminergic release. Ventral striatal bindings at baseline during control task were also lower in patients with pathological gambling. Although prior imaging studies suggest that abnormality in dopaminergic binding and dopamine release may be markers of vulnerability to addiction, this study presents the first evidence of these phenomena in pathological gambling. The emergence of pathological gambling in a number of Parkinson’s disease patients may provide a model into the pathophysiology of this disorder.
doi:10.1093/brain/awp054
PMCID: PMC3479148  PMID: 19346328 CAMSID: cams2369
Parkinson’s disease; dopamine; impulse control disorders; pathological gambling; PET; functional imaging
2.  Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease 
Since the original descriptions of hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation syndrome and pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, impulse control disorders, such as compulsive spending, punding, or binge eating, are increasingly recognized. Although the term hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation syndrome has been supplanted by the concept of the dopamine dysregulation syndrome, the features of severe dyskinesias, cyclical mood disorder with hypomania or manic psychosis, and impairment of social and occupational functioning in the setting of increased intake of antiparkinson therapy remain. At this time, impulse control disorder is defined as maladaptive behaviors that emerge with disease progression and increasing antiparkinson medications. These behaviors may be disruptive, such as punding, or destructive, such as compulsive spending, gambling, binge eating, or hypersexuality.
doi:10.3410/M1-29
PMCID: PMC2924724  PMID: 20948752
3.  Neuroimaging in Dementia 
Seminars in neurology  2008;28(4):467-483.
Although dementia is a clinical diagnosis, neuroimaging often is crucial for proper assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) may identify nondegenerative and potentially treatable causes of dementia. Recent neuroimaging advances, such as the Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) ligand for positron emission tomography imaging in Alzheimer’s disease, will improve our ability to differentiate among the neurodegenerative dementias. High-resolution volumetric MRI has increased the capacity to identify the various forms of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum and some forms of parkinsonism or cerebellar neurodegenerative disorders, such as corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and spinocerebellar ataxias. In many cases, the specific pattern of cortical and subcortical abnormalities on MRI has diagnostic utility. Finally, among the new MRI methods, diffusion-weighted MRI can help in the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Although only clinical assessment can lead to a diagnosis of dementia, neuroimaging is clearly an invaluable tool for the clinician in the differential diagnosis.
doi:10.1055/s-0028-1083695
PMCID: PMC2647854  PMID: 18843575
MRI; PET; Pittsburgh Compound-B; dementia; neurodegenerative disease
4.  Neuroimaging in Dementia 
Neurotherapeutics  2011;8(1):82-92.
Summary
Dementia is a common illness with an incidence that is rising as the aged population increases. There are a number of neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia, which is subdivided into the behavioral variant, the semantic variant, and nonfluent variant. Numerous other neurodegenerative illnesses have an associated dementia, including corticobasal degeneration, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Huntington’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Vascular dementia and AIDS dementia are secondary dementias. Diagnostic criteria have relied on a constellation of symptoms, but the definite diagnosis remains a pathologic one. As treatments become available and target specific molecular abnormalities, differentiating amongst the various primary dementias early on becomes essential. The role of imaging in dementia has traditionally been directed at ruling out treatable and reversible etiologies and not to use imaging to better understand the pathophysiology of the different dementias. Different brain imaging techniques allow the examination of the structure, biochemistry, metabolic state, and functional capacity of the brain. All of the major neurodegenerative disorders have relatively specific imaging findings that can be identified. New imaging techniques carry the hope of revolutionizing the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease so as to obtain a complete molecular, structural, and metabolic characterization, which could be used to improve diagnosis and to stage each patient and follow disease progression and response to treatment. Structural and functional imaging modalities contribute to the diagnosis and understanding of the different dementias.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0012-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0012-2
PMCID: PMC3026935  PMID: 21274688
Dementia; MRI; PET; Alzheimer’s disease; frontotemporal dementia
5.  Neuroimaging in Dementia 
Summary
Dementia is a common illness with an incidence that is rising as the aged population increases. There are a number of neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia, which is subdivided into the behavioral variant, the semantic variant, and nonfluent variant. Numerous other neurodegenerative illnesses have an associated dementia, including corticobasal degeneration, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Huntington’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Vascular dementia and AIDS dementia are secondary dementias. Diagnostic criteria have relied on a constellation of symptoms, but the definite diagnosis remains a pathologic one. As treatments become available and target specific molecular abnormalities, differentiating amongst the various primary dementias early on becomes essential. The role of imaging in dementia has traditionally been directed at ruling out treatable and reversible etiologies and not to use imaging to better understand the pathophysiology of the different dementias. Different brain imaging techniques allow the examination of the structure, biochemistry, metabolic state, and functional capacity of the brain. All of the major neurodegenerative disorders have relatively specific imaging findings that can be identified. New imaging techniques carry the hope of revolutionizing the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease so as to obtain a complete molecular, structural, and metabolic characterization, which could be used to improve diagnosis and to stage each patient and follow disease progression and response to treatment. Structural and functional imaging modalities contribute to the diagnosis and understanding of the different dementias.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0012-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13311-010-0012-2
PMCID: PMC3026935  PMID: 21274688
Dementia; MRI; PET; Alzheimer’s disease; frontotemporal dementia
6.  Diagnosis and treatment of impulse control disorders in patients with movement disorders 
Impulse control disorders are a psychiatric condition characterized by the failure to resist an impulsive act or behavior that may be harmful to self or others. In movement disorders, impulse control disorders are associated with dopaminergic treatment, notably dopamine agonists (DAs). Impulse control disorders have been studied extensively in Parkinson’s disease, but are also recognized in restless leg syndrome and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes. Epidemiological studies suggest younger age, male sex, greater novelty seeking, impulsivity, depression and premorbid impulse control disorders as the most consistent risk factors. Such patients may warrant special monitoring after starting treatment with a DA. Various individual screening tools are available for people without Parkinson’s disease. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease has been developed specifically for Parkinson’s disease. The best treatment for impulse control disorders is prevention. However, after the development of impulse control disorders, the mainstay intervention is to reduce or discontinue the offending anti-Parkinsonian medication. In refractory cases, other pharmacological interventions are available, including neuroleptics, antiepileptics, amantadine, antiandrogens, lithium and opioid antagonists. Unfortunately, their use is only supported by case reports, small case series or open-label clinical studies. Prospective, controlled studies are warranted. Ongoing investigations include naltrexone and nicotine.
doi:10.1177/1756285613476127
PMCID: PMC3625015  PMID: 23634190
Impulse control disorders; Parkinson’s disease; restless leg syndrome; parkinsonism; dopamine agonist; non-motor complication; neurobehavioural
7.  Parkinson's Disease: The Quintessential Neuropsychiatric Disorder 
Although diagnosed by characteristic motor features, Parkinson's disease may be preceded, and is frequently accompanied by, a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychiatric features. In addition to the most commonly studied disorders of dementia, depression, and psychosis, other relatively common and clinically significant psychiatric complications include impulse control disorders, anxiety symptoms, disorders of sleep and wakefulness, and apathy. These problems may be underrecognized and are frequently undertreated. The emergent focus on nonmotor aspects of Parkinson's disease over the past quarter of a century is highlighted by a nonlinear increase in the number of articles published devoted to this topic. Although the development of newer antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and cholinesterase inhibitors in recent years has had a positive benefit on the management of these troublesome and distressing symptoms, responses are frequently suboptimal, and this remains an area of major unmet therapeutic need.
doi:10.1002/mds.23664
PMCID: PMC3513835  PMID: 21626547
Parkinson's; dementia; neuropsychiatric; depression; psychosis
8.  Brain Dopamine Transporter Binding and Glucose Metabolism in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-Like Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 
Case Reports in Neurology  2014;6(1):28-33.
Here, we present a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) who developed initial symptoms mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Before the development of typical CJD symptoms, functional imaging supported a diagnosis of PSP when [123I]-FP-CIT-SPECT showed a defect in striatal dopamine transporter binding, while [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed cortical hypometabolism suggestive of Lewy body dementia. However, the postmortem neuropathological examination was indicative of CJD only, without tau protein or Lewy body findings. This case demonstrates that CJD should be taken into account in rapidly progressing atypical cases of parkinsonism, even when functional imaging supports a diagnosis of a movement disorder.
doi:10.1159/000358483
PMCID: PMC3934789  PMID: 24575030
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; Progressive supranuclear palsy; PET; MRI
9.  Levodopa responsive parkinsonism in an adult with Huntington's disease 
A patient is reported on with Huntington's disease who, as an adult, first developed severe parkinsonism with bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability and festinating gait. His clinical signs were similar to those of the Westphal variant of Huntington's disease except that he also had resting tremor and a supranuclear gaze palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed caudate and putamen atrophy. Genetic analysis disclosed 49 triple CAG repeats in allele 1 and 17 in allele 2 confirming the diagnosis of Huntington's disease. Treatment with levodopa produced substantial functional motor improvement with a 17 point reduction in the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor subscale including reduction of tremor, bradykinesia, and postural instability. This is the first report of a patient with adult onset Huntington's disease with parkinsonism responsive to levodopa.


PMCID: PMC2170319  PMID: 9771791
10.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders 
The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.
doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00187
PMCID: PMC3549487  PMID: 23346074
Parkinson disease; Parkinsonian disorders; cerebrospinal fluid; biomarkers; proteomics
11.  Dopamine Agonist Use is Associated with Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease 
Archives of neurology  2006;63(7):969-973.
Objective
To determine the frequency and correlates of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Design
An unstructured screening interview for ICDs (compulsive gambling, buying, and sexual behavior) followed by a telephone-administered structured interview for screen-positive patients.
Setting
Two university-affiliated movement disorders centers.
Participants
A convenience sample of 272 patients with idiopathic PD who were screened for psychiatric complications.
Main Outcome Measures
Presence of compulsive gambling, buying, or sexual behavior as assessed by the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview.
Results
Eighteen (6.6%) PD patients met criteria for an ICD at some point during the course of PD, including 11 (4.0%) with an active ICD. Compulsive gambling and compulsive sexual behavior were equally common. In a multivariate model, treatment with a dopamine agonist (P = .01) and a history of ICD symptomatology prior to PD onset (P = .02) predicted current ICD. There were no differences between the dopamine agonists in their association with ICDs (P = .21), and daily doses of dopamine agonists were higher in patients with an ICD than in dopamine agonist-treated patients without an ICD (P < .001).
Conclusions
PD patients treated with a dopamine agonist should be made aware of the risk of developing an ICD and monitored clinically. As dopamine agonists are increasing being used for other indications, future research should assess the dopamine agonist-associated risk for ICDs in other populations.
doi:10.1001/archneur.63.7.969
PMCID: PMC1761054  PMID: 16831966
12.  FDG PET in the Evaluation of Parkinson’s Disease 
PET clinics  2010;5(1):55-64.
Synopsis
Network analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is an innovative approach for the study of in movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Spatial covariance analysis of imaging data acquired from PD patients has revealed characteristic regional patterns associated with the motor and cognitive features of disease. Quantification of pattern expression in individual patients can be used for diagnosis, assessment of disease severity, and evaluation of novel medical and surgical therapies. Identification of disease-specific patterns in other parkinsonian syndromes, such as multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy, has improved diagnostic accuracy in patients with difficult to diagnose parkinsonism. Further developments of these techniques are likely to enhance the role of functional imaging in investigating underlying abnormalities and potential new therapies in these neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.cpet.2009.12.004
PMCID: PMC2913894  PMID: 20689674
Positron emission topography (PET); parkinsonism; movement disorders; differential diagnosis; brain metabolism; biomarkers; treatment response
13.  Dopaminergic and Clinical Correlates of Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Report 
Dopaminergic medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) recently has been linked with impulse control disorders, including pathological gambling (PG), which affects up to 8% of patients. PG often is considered a behavioral addiction associated with disinhibition, risky decision-making, and altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Using [11C]raclopride with positron emission tomography, we assessed dopaminergic neurotransmission during Iowa Gambling Task performance. Here we present data from a single patient with PD and concomitant PG. We noted a marked decrease in [11C]raclopride binding in the left ventral striatum upon gambling, indicating a gambling-induced dopamine release. The results imply that PG in PD is associated with a high dose of dopaminergic medication, pronounced motor symptomatology, young age at disease onset, high propensity for sensation seeking, and risky decision-making. Overall, the findings are consistent with the hypothesis of medication-related PG in PD and underscore the importance of taking clinical variables, such as age and personality, into account when patients with PD are medicated, to reduce the risk of PG.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00095
PMCID: PMC3725950  PMID: 23908610
Parkinson’s disease; pathological gambling; impulse control disorders; decision-making; dopamine
14.  Post mortem cerebrospinal fluid α-synuclein levels are raised in multiple system atrophy and distinguish this from the other α-synucleinopathies, Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies 
Neurobiology of Disease  2012;45(1):188-195.
Differentiating clinically between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the atypical parkinsonian syndromes of Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is challenging but crucial for patient management and recruitment into clinical trials. Because PD (and the related disorder Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)) and MSA are characterised by the deposition of aggregated forms of α-synuclein protein (α-syn) in the brain, whereas CBS and PSP are tauopathies, we have developed immunoassays to detect levels of total and oligomeric forms of α-syn, and phosphorylated and phosphorylated oligomeric forms of α-syn, within body fluids, in an attempt to find a biomarker that will differentiate between these disorders. Levels of these 4 different forms of α-syn were measured in post mortem samples of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 76 patients with PD, DLB, PSP or MSA, and in 20 healthy controls. Mean CSF levels of total and oligomeric α-syn, and phosphorylated α-syn, did not vary significantly between the diagnostic groups, whereas mean CSF levels of phosphorylated oligomeric α-syn did differ significantly (p < 0.001) amongst the different diagnostic groups. Although all 4 measures of α-syn were higher in patients with MSA compared to all other diagnostic groups, these were only significantly raised (p < 0.001) in MSA compared to all other diagnostic groups, for phosphorylated oligomeric forms of α-syn. This suggests that this particular assay may have utility in differentiating MSA from control subject and patients with other α-synucleinopathies. However, it does not appear to be of help in distinguishing patients with PD and DLB from those with PSP or from control subjects. Western blots show that the principal form of α-syn within CSF is phosphorylated, and the finding that the phosphorylated oligomeric α-syn immunoassay appears to be the most informative of the 4 assays would be consistent with this observation.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.08.003
PMCID: PMC3657198  PMID: 21856424
Parkinson's disease; Dementia with Lewy Bodies; Multiple system atrophy; Alpha synuclein; Cerebrospinal fluid
15.  Filamentous nerve cell inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases: tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies. 
Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are the most common neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by the degeneration of selected populations of nerve cells that develop filamentous inclusions before degeneration. The neuronal inclusions of Alzheimer's disease are made of the microtubule-associated protein tau, in a hyperphosphorylated state. Recent work has shown that the filamentous inclusions of Parkinson's disease are made of the protein alpha-synuclein and that rare, familial forms of Parkinson's disease are caused by missense mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene. Besides Parkinson's disease, the filamentous inclusions of two additional neurodegenerative diseases, namely dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, have also been found to be made of alpha-synuclein. Abundant filamentous tau inclusions are not limited to Alzheimer's disease. They are the defining neuropathological characteristic of frontotemporal dementias such as Pick's disease, and of progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. The recent discovery of mutations in the tau gene in familial forms of frontotemporal dementia has provided a direct link between tau dysfunction and dementing disease. The new work has established that tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies account for most late-onset neurodegenerative diseases in man. The formation of intracellular filamentous inclusions might be the gain of toxic function that leads to the demise of affected brain cells.
PMCID: PMC1692614  PMID: 10434313
16.  Long-Term Follow-Up of Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease 
Recent studies have linked dopamine agonist (DA) usage with the development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Little is known about optimal management strategies or the long-term outcomes of affected patients. To report on the clinical interventions and long-term outcomes of PD patients who developed an ICD after DA initiation. Subjects contacted by telephone for a follow-up interview after a mean time period of 29.2 months. They were administered a modified Minnesota Impulse Disorder Interview for compulsive buying, gambling, and sexuality, and also self-rated changes in their ICD symptomatology. Baseline and follow-up dopamine replacement therapy use was recorded and verified by chart review. Of 18 subjects, 15 (83.3%) participated in the follow-up interview. At follow-up, patients were receiving a significantly lower DA levodopa equivalent daily dosage (LEDD) (Z = -3.1, P = 0.002) and a higher daily levodopa dosage (Z = -1.9, P = 0.05), but a similar total LEDD dosage (Z = -0.47, P = 0.64) with no changes in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor score (Z = -1.3, P = 0.19). As part of ICD management, 12 (80.0%) patients discontinued or significantly decreased DA treatment, all of whom experienced full or partial remission of ICD symptoms by self-report, and 10 (83.3%) of whom no longer met diagnostic criteria for an ICD. For PD patients who develop an ICD in the context of DA treatment, discontinuing or significantly decreasing DA exposure, even when offset by an increase in levodopa treatment, is associated with remission of or significant reduction in ICD behaviors without worsening in motor symptoms.
doi:10.1002/mds.21770
PMCID: PMC2651355  PMID: 17960796
dopamine agonist; gambling; impulse control disorders; Parkinson’s disease
17.  The tauopathy associated with mutation +3 in intron 10 of Tau: characterization of the MSTD family 
Brain  2007;131(1):72-89.
Multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD) is an inherited disease caused by a (g) to (a) transition at position +3 in intron 10 of Tau. It belongs to the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 with mutations in Tau (FTDP-17T). Here we present the longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, neuropathological, biochemical and genetic characterization of the MSTD family. Presenting signs were consistent with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia in 17 of 21 patients. Two individuals presented with an atypical form of progressive supranuclear palsy and two others with either severe postural imbalance or an isolated short-term memory deficit. Memory impairment was present at the onset in 15 patients, with word finding difficulties and stereotyped speech also being common. Parkinsonism was first noted 3 years after the onset of symptoms. Neuroimaging showed the most extensive grey matter loss in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and frontal operculum/insular cortex of the right hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, in the anterior cingulate gyrus, head of the caudate nucleus and the posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex bilaterally. Neuropathologically, progressive nerve cell loss, gliosis and coexistent neuronal and/or glial deposits consisting mostly of 4-repeat tau were present in frontal, cingulate, temporal and insular cortices, white matter, hippocampus, parahippocampus, basal ganglia, selected brainstem nuclei and spinal cord. Tau haplotyping indicated that specific haplotypes of the wild-type allele may act as modifiers of disease presentation. Quantitative neuroimaging has been used to analyse the progression of atrophy in affected individuals and for predicting disease onset in an asymptomatic mutation carrier. This multidisciplinary study provides a comprehensive description of the natural history of disease in one of the largest known families with FTDP-17T.
doi:10.1093/brain/awm280
PMCID: PMC2702832  PMID: 18065436
frontotemporal dementia; progressive supranuclear palsy; hippocampus; voxel-based morphometry; Tau haplotype
18.  Parkinsonism and Frontotemporal Dementia: The Clinical Overlap 
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience  2011;45(3):343-349.
Frontotemporal dementia is commonly associated with parkinsonism in several sporadic (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration) and familial neurodegenerative disorders (i.e., frontotemporal dementia associated with parkinsonism and MAPT or progranulin mutations in chromosome 17). The clinical diagnosis of these disorders may be challenging in view of overlapping clinical features, particularly in speech, language, and behavior. The motor and cognitive phenotypes can be viewed within a spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and genetic disorders with no discrete clinicopathologic correlations but rather lying within a dementia–parkinsonism continuum. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis can be helpful, but the poor specificity of clinical and imaging features has enormously challenged the development of biological markers that could differentiate these disorders premortem. This gap is critical to bridge in order to allow testing of novel biological therapies that may slow the progression of these proteinopathies.
doi:10.1007/s12031-011-9632-1
PMCID: PMC3324113  PMID: 21892619
Frontotemporal dementia; Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; Parkinsonism; Corticobasal syndrome; Progressive supranuclear palsy; Corticobasal degeneration
19.  L-Dopa and amantadine hydrochloride in extra-pyramidal disorders 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1971;47(544):116-119.
L-Dopa and amantadine hydrochloride were separately given to patients with diverse extra-pyramidal disorders including progressive supranuclear palsy; porto-systemic encephalopathy; oculogyric crises; drug-induced Parkinsonism; Huntington's chorea, hemiballismus; spasmodic torticollis, familial tremor; and athetosis. Akinesia and rigidity were improved in the first two conditions and simultaneously there was improvement in disordered eye movement. Amantadine provoked an exacerbation in spasmodic torticollis and familial tremor. No other condition was influenced. Both amantadine and L-dopa will facilitate eye movement mechanisms: it seems probable that both drugs act on dopamine-sensitive areas within the CNS. Neither drug will give significant benefit in the above disorders.
Images
PMCID: PMC2467156  PMID: 5572526
20.  Performance on the dementia rating scale in Parkinson's disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies: comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer's disease 
Background: The relation between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) is unknown.
Objectives: To compare the cognitive profiles of patients with DLB and PDD, and compare those with the performance of patients with a subcortical dementia (progressive supranuclear palsy) and a cortical dementia (Alzheimer's disease).
Design: Survey of cognitive features.
Setting: General community in Rogaland county, Norway, and a university dementia and movement disorder research centre in the USA.
Patients: 60 patients with DLB, 35 with PDD, 49 with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 29 with Alzheimer's disease, diagnosed by either standardised clinical procedures and criteria (all PDD and Alzheimer cases and 76% of cases of progressive supranuclear palsy), or necropsy (all DLB cases and 24% of cases of progressive supranuclear palsy). Level of dementia severity was matched using the total score on the dementia rating scale adjusted for age and education.
Main outcome measures: Dementia rating scale subscores corrected for age.
Results: No significant differences between the dementia rating scale subscores in the PDD and DLB groups were found in the severely demented patients; in patients with mild to moderate dementia the conceptualisation subscore was higher in PDD than in DLB (p = 0.03). Compared with Alzheimer's disease, PDD and DLB had higher memory subscores (p < 0.001) but lower initiation and perseveration (p = 0.008 and p=0.021) and construction subscores (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001). DLB patients had a lower conceptualisation subscore (p = 0.004). Compared with progressive supranuclear palsy, PDD and DLB patients had lower memory subscores (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: The cognitive profiles of patients with DLB and PDD were similar, but they differed from those of patients with Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The cognitive pattern in DLB and PDD probably reflects the superimposition of subcortical deficits upon deficits typically associated with Alzheimer's disease.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.9.1215
PMCID: PMC1738667  PMID: 12933921
21.  Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-dopa uptake: difference in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism. 
Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-Dopa uptake were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) in eight non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and eight with atypical Parkinsonism. Patients with atypical Parkinsonism had no specific cause for the Parkinsonian symptoms and were clinically different from Parkinson's disease with lack of resting tremor and a poor response to dopaminergic drugs. Decreased 18F-Dopa uptake in the putamen was observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism compared with normal controls. 18F-Dopa uptake in the head of the caudate was also significantly reduced in both conditions but relatively less in Parkinson's disease. Decreased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the striatum associated with a global cerebral decrease were also observed in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with controls, while they were preserved in patients with Parkinson's disease, indicating affected neurons not only in the striatum but also in the cerebrum in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with patients with Parkinson's disease. The differences in the caudate 18F-Dopa uptake, and blood flow and glucose metabolism in the cerebrum including the striatum between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism assessed by PET may be due to the differences in the pathophysiological mechanism between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism.
Images
PMCID: PMC1014575  PMID: 1744644
22.  Neurochemical Approaches in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Parkinson and Parkinson Dementia Syndromes: A Review 
CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics  2009;15(2):157-182.
The diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is rendered on the basis of clinical parameters, whereby laboratory chemical tests or morphological imaging is only called upon to exclude other neurodegenerative diseases. The differentiation between PD and other diseases of the basal ganglia, especially the postsynaptic Parkinson syndromes multisystem atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), is of decisive importance, on the one hand, for the response to an appropriate therapy, and on the other hand, for the respective prognosis of the disease. However, particularly at the onset of symptoms, it is difficult to precisely distinguish these diseases from each other, presenting with an akinetic-rigid syndrome. It is not yet possible to conduct a neurochemical differentiation of Parkinson syndromes. Therefore, a reliable biomarker is still to be found that might predict the development of Parkinson dementia. Since this situation is currently the subject of various different studies, the following synopsis is intended to provide a brief summary of the investigations addressing the field of the early neurochemical differential diagnosis of Parkinson syndromes and the early diagnosis of Parkinson dementia, from direct α-synuclein detection to proteomic approaches. In addition, an overview of the tested biomarkers will be given with regard to their possible introduction as a screening method.
doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00064.x
PMCID: PMC2730483  PMID: 19298613
Differential diagnosis; Multisystem atrophy; Neurochemical diagnosis; Parkinson dementia; Parkinson disease; Progressive supranuclear palsy
23.  Dopamine and Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease 
Annals of neurology  2008;64(Suppl 2):S93-100.
There is an increasing awareness that impulse control disorders (ICDs), including compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, can occur as a complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, other impulsive or compulsive disorders have been reported to occur, including dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) and punding. Case reporting and prospective studies have reported an association between ICDs and the use of dopamine agonists (DAs), particularly at greater dosages, whereas dopamine dysregulation syndrome has been associated with greater dosages of levodopa or short-acting DAs. Data suggest that risk factors for an ICD may include male sex, younger age or younger age at PD onset, a pre-PD history of ICD symptoms, personal or family history of substance abuse or bipolar disorder, and a personality style characterized by impulsiveness. Although psychiatric medications are used clinically in the treatment of ICDs, there is no empiric evidence supporting their use in PD. Therefore, management for clinically significant ICD symptoms should consist of modifications to dopamine replacement therapy, particularly DAs, and there is emerging evidence that such management is associated with an overall improvement in ICD symptomatology. It is important that PD patients be aware that DA use may lead to the development of an ICD, and that clinicians monitor patients as part of routine clinical care. As empirically validated treatments for ICDs are emerging, it will be important to examine their efficacy and tolerability in individuals with cooccurring PD and ICDs.
doi:10.1002/ana.21454
PMCID: PMC3530139  PMID: 19127573
24.  Impulsive choice and response in dopamine agonist-related impulse control behaviors 
Psychopharmacology  2009;207(4):645-659.
Rationale
Dopaminergic medication-related Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) such as pathological gambling and compulsive shopping have been reported in Parkinson disease (PD).
Hypothesis
We hypothesized that dopamine agonists (DAs) would be associated with greater impulsive choice, or greater discounting of delayed rewards, in PD patients with ICDs (PDI).
Methods
Fourteen PDI patients, 14 PD controls without ICDs and 16 medication-free matched normal controls were tested on (i) the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT), a feedback-based intertemporal choice task, (ii) spatial working memory and (iii) attentional set shifting. The EDT was used to assess impulsivity choice (hyperbolic K-value), reaction time (RT) and decision conflict RT (the RT difference between high conflict and low conflict choices). PDI patients and PD controls were tested on and off DA.
Results
On the EDT, there was a group by medication interaction effect [F(1,26)=5.62; p=0.03] with pairwise analyses demonstrating that DA status was associated with increased impulsive choice in PDI patients (p=0.02) but not in PD controls (p=0.37). PDI patients also had faster RT compared to PD controls F(1,26)=7.51 p=0.01]. DA status was associated with shorter RT [F(3,24)=8.39, p=0.001] and decision conflict RT [F(1,26)=6.16, p=0.02] in PDI patients but not in PD controls. There were no correlations between different measures of impulsivity. PDI patients on DA had greater spatial working memory impairments compared to PD controls on DA (t=2.13, df=26, p=0.04).
Conclusion
Greater impulsive choice, faster RT, faster decision conflict RT and executive dysfunction may contribute to ICDs in PD.
doi:10.1007/s00213-009-1697-y
PMCID: PMC3676926  PMID: 19838863
dopamine agonist; gambling; impulse control; Parkinson disease; delay discounting
25.  Accumulation of NACP/α-synuclein in Lewy body disease and multiple system atrophy 
OBJECTIVES—NACP/α-synuclein is an aetiological gene product in familial Parkinson's disease. To clarify the pathological role of NACP/α-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease and other related disorders including diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), paraffin sections were examined immunocytochemically using anti-NACP/α-synuclein antibodies.
METHODS—A total of 58 necropsied brains, from seven patients with Parkinson's disease, five with DLBD, six with MSA, 12 with Alzheimer's disease, one with Down's syndrome, one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), three with ALS and dementia, one with Huntington's disease, two with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), one with Pick's disease, one with myotonic dystrophy, and three with late cerebellar cortical atrophy (LCCA), and 15 elderly normal controls were examined.
RESULTS—In addition to immunoreactive Lewy bodies, widespread accumulation of NACP/α-synuclein was found in neurons and astrocytes from the brainstem and basal ganglia to the cerebral cortices in Parkinson's disease/DLBD. NACP/α-synuclein accumulates in oligodendrocytes from the spinal cord, the brain stem to the cerebellar white matter, and inferior olivary neurons in MSA. These widespread accumulations were not seen in other types of dementia or spinocerebellar ataxia.
CONCLUSION—Completely different types of NACP/α-synuclein accumulation in Parkinson's disease/DLBD and MSA suggest that accumulation is a major step in the pathological cascade of both diseases and provides novel strategies for the development of therapies.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.5.605
PMCID: PMC1736929  PMID: 10766891

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