This study examines the hypothesis that chronic inflammation is associated with a higher risk of cardiac death compared to the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction.
Cardiac death and non-fatal MI events were identified in the ARIC cohort during follow-up from 1987 through 2001. Markers of inflammation and hemostasis were determined at baseline using standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazard regression and polytomous logistic regression were used to estimate associations.
We observed a positive gradient in incidence of sudden cardiac death, non-sudden cardiac death and non-fatal MI in association with decreasing levels of albumin and increasing levels of white blood cell count and of markers of hemostasis (fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, factor VIIIc). Associations for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIIIc were stronger for fatal relative to non-fatal events (3rd versus 1st tertile hazard ratios: vWF: SCD 2.67 (95% CI 1.80, 3.96), NSCD 2.11 (95% CI 1.40, 3.19), non-fatal MI 1.40 (95% CI 1.17, 1.67); factor VIIIc: SCD 2.58 (95% CI 1.77, 3.78), NSCD 2.01 (95% CI 1.38, 2.93), non-fatal MI 1.48 (95% CI 1.24, 1.78). Gradients of association for fibrinogen and white blood cell count, examined over tertiles of distribution and per one SD increase, were similar for the three endpoints. All associations were independent of smoking status.
Von Willebrand factor and factor VIIIc are associated with an increased risk of cardiac death as compared to the risk of non-fatal MI.
hemostasis; inflammation; von Willebrand factor; sudden cardiac death; non-fatal myocardial infarction
Since few studies have examined the associations of plasma levels of coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, XII, plasminogen, or α-2 antiplasmin with coronary heart disease (CHD), we sought to examine the associations of these factors with incident CHD in a prospective case-cohort study.
This case-cohort sample consisted of 368 African-American or white incident CHD cases that occurred between 1990–92 and 1998 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, and a cohort random sample of n=412. Hemostatic factors were measured in the case-cohort sample using plasma stored at −70°C since 1990–92.
After adjustment for age, sex and race, coagulation factors IX and XI, and α-2 antiplasmin were associated positively with risk of CHD: The hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for the highest vs lowest quartiles was 1.52 [1.01–2.27] for factor IX; 2.26 [1.47–3.48] for factor XI; and 1.64 [1.05–2.57] for α-2 antiplasmin. However, these hemostatic factors were correlated with classical risk factors, so that after multivariable adjustment their associations with CHD were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. No associations were observed between CHD and factors II, V, X, XII, or plasminogen.
Positive associations of factors IX and XI, and α-2 antiplasmin with incident CHD were not strong and were accounted for by classical coronary risk factors. (213 words/250 limits)
epidemiology; cardiovascular disease; ischemic disease; fibrinolytic factors; blood clotting
Even among asymptomatic people at low risk (<10%) by Framingham Risk Score (FRS), high coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores signify higher predicted risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. We sought to determine non-invasive factors (without radiation exposure) significantly associated with CAC in low-risk, asymptomatic persons. In a cross-sectional analysis, we studied 3046 participants from MESA at low 10-year predicted risk (FRS <10%) for CHD events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of novel markers with presence of any CAC (CAC >0) and advanced CAC (CAC ≥ 300). CAC >0 and CAC ≥ 300 were present in 30% and 3.5% of participants, respectively. Factor VIIIc, fibrinogen and sICAM were each associated with CAC presence (P ≤ 0.02); and C-reactive protein, D-dimer and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with advanced CAC (P ≤ 0.03). The base model combining traditional risk factors had excellent discrimination for advanced CAC (C-statistic, 0.808). Addition of the 2 best-fit models combining biomarkers plus/minus CIMT improved the c-statistics to 0.822 and 0.820, respectively. All 3 models calibrated well, but were similar in estimating individual risk probabilities for advanced CAC (prevalence = 9.97%, 10.63% and 10.10% in the highest quartiles of predicted probabilities versus 0.26%, 0.26% and 0.26% in the lowest quartiles, respectively). In conclusion, in low risk individuals, traditional risk factors alone predicted advanced CAC with high discrimination and calibration. Biomarker combinations +/− CIMT were also significantly associated with advanced CAC, but improvement in prediction and estimation of clinical risk were modest compared to traditional risk factors alone.
coronary calcium; biomarkers; novel markers; low-risk; risk factors
Optimism and pessimism are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality and progression, however the biological mechanism remains unclear. This study investigates the association between optimism/pessimism and concentrations of seven inflammation and hemostasis markers.
This cross-sectional study used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a study of 6814 persons aged 45–84 with no history of clinical cardiovascular disease. The Life-Orientation Test—Revised (LOT-R) was used to measure dispositional optimism and pessimism. Regression analyses were used to estimate associations of optimism and pessimism with interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine, factor VIII, D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin, before and after adjustment for sociodemographics, depression, cynicism, health behaviors, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes.
Higher scores on the LOT-R (positive disposition) were related to lower concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), fibrinogen (p<0.001) and homocysteine (p=0.031). Associations were stronger for the pessimism subscale. After adjustment for demographics, the percentage differences in inflammatory markers corresponding to a 2-standard deviation increase in pessimism were 6.01% (p=0.001) for IL-6; 10.31% (p=0.001) for CRP; 2.47% (p<0.0001) for fibrinogen, and 1.36% (p=0.07) for homocysteine. Associations were attenuated but significant after adjustment for sociodemographics, depression, cynical distrust, and behaviors. Further adjustment for hypertension, BMI and diabetes reduced associations for CRP and IL-6. Pessimism remained associated with a 1.36% (p=0.02) increase in fibrinogen in the fully adjusted model. Factor VIII, D-dimer and plasmin-antiplasmin were not associated with the LOT-R or subscales.
Pessimism is related to higher levels of inflammation. Health behaviors, BMI, hypertension and diabetes appear to play a mediating role.
Psychosocial factors; inflammation; coagulation; epidemiology; risk factors
Various hemostatic markers are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, limited information exists on their relationship with the occurrence and prognosis of atrial fibrillation (AF).
To assess whether hemostatic markers are associated with the incidence and prognosis of AF.
We studied 14,858 men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, aged 45–64 and free of AF at baseline (1987–1989). Fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWf), factor VII activity (VIIc), factor VIII activity (VIIIc), protein C, antithrombin III (ATIII), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured in blood samples at baseline. AF and other cardiovascular outcomes through 2005 were determined following standardized protocols.
During a median follow-up of 16.8 years, 1209 cases of AF were identified. In multivariable Cox models, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident AF associated with a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in each marker were 1.13 (1.07–1.20) for fibrinogen, 1.17 (1.11–1.23) for vWf, 1.17 (1.11–1.24) for factor VIIIc, 0.93 (0.88–1.00) for factor VIIc, 0.98 (0.92–1.04) for protein C, 1.00 (0.94–1.06) for aPTT and 1.00 (0.95–1.06) for ATIII. Greater factor VIIIc, fibrinogen and vWf were consistently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in those with and without incident AF, while greater protein C was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke.
Several hemostatic markers are associated with the incidence of AF independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. Their role in the risk stratification of AF patients should be further studied.
atrial fibrillation; epidemiology; prognosis; fibrinogen; von Willebrand factor
To determine the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with conventional and less well-established risk factors in African Americans with diabetes, we studied 741 African Americans aged 45 to 64 years with diabetes, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Risk factors were measured from 1987 to 1989, and incident CVD (n = 143 coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke events) was ascertained through 1998. The crude incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of CVD was 22.5 (11.9 for CHD and 12.0 for stroke). After multivariate adjustments, total cholesterol, prevalent hypertension and current smoking were significantly and positively associated with incident CVD among these African Americans with diabetes. Among the non-conventional risk factors, serum creatinine, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and white blood cell count were positively and serum albumin negatively and independently associated with CVD incidence. Adjusted relative risks for highest versus lowest tertiles of these risk factors ranged from 1.77 to 2.13. This study confirms that the major risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking) are important determinants of CVD in African Americans with diabetes. In addition, several blood markers of hemostasis or inflammatory response and elevated serum creatinine also proved to be CVD risk factors in African Americans with diabetes.
Limited data exist regarding the use of a genetic risk score for predicting risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in US based samples.
Methods and Results
Using findings from recent GWAS, we constructed genetic risk scores (GRS) comprised of 13 genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction (MI) or other manifestations of CHD and 102 genetic variants associated with CHD or its major risk factors. We also updated the 13 SNP GRS with 16 SNPs recently discovered by GWAS. We estimated the association, discrimination and risk reclassification of each GRS for incident cardiovascular events and for prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC).
In analyses adjusted for age, sex, CVD risk factors and parental history of CVD, the 13 SNP GRS was significantly associated with incident hard CHD (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p=0.04), CVD (hazard ratio [HR] per-allele 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09; p=0.03), and high CAC (defined as >75th age and sex-specific percentile; odds ratio [OR] per-allele 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.26, p=3.4 × 10-7). The GRS did not improve discrimination for incident CHD or CVD but led to modest improvements in risk reclassification. However, significant improvements in discrimination and risk reclassification were observed for the prediction of high CAC. The addition of 16 newly discovered SNPs to the 13 SNP GRS did not significantly modify these results.
A GRS comprised of 13 SNPs associated with coronary disease is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and of high CAC, modestly improves risk reclassification for incident CHD and significant improves discrimination for high CAC. The addition of recently discovered SNPs did not significantly improve the performance of this GRS.
Genetics; single nucleotide polymorphisms; cardiovascular disease; coronary heart disease; risk prediction; reclassification
In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The relationship of kidney function with CVD outcomes in transplant recipients remains uncertain. We performed a post-hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial to assess risk factors for CVD and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Following adjustment for demographic, clinical and transplant characteristics, and traditional CVD risk factors, proportional hazards models were used to explore the association of estimated GFR with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. In 4016 participants, mean age was 52 years and 20% had prior CVD. Mean eGFR was 49±18 mL/min/1.73m2. In 3,676 participants with complete data, there were 527 CVD events over a median of 3.8 years. Following adjustment, each 5 mL/min/1.73m2 higher eGFR at levels below 45 mL/min/1.73m2 was associated with a 15% lower risk of both CVD [HR = 0.85 (0.80, 0.90)] and death [HR = 0.85 (0.79, 0.90)], while there was no association between eGFR and outcomes at levels above 45 mL/min/1.73m2. In conclusion, in stable kidney transplant recipients, lower eGFR is independently associated with adverse events, suggesting that reduced kidney function itself rather than pre-existing comorbidity may lead to CVD.
Kidney Transplant; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Kidney Disease; Epidemiology; Mortality
Although an association between moderate alcohol consumption and decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality has been reported, limited data are available on potential mediating mechanisms. We examined the association between alcohol and CVD and mortality in 26,399 women and estimated the proportion of reduced risk of CVD/mortality explained by a series of intermediate factors.
Methods and Results:
Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and CVD events and deaths were ascertained via follow-up questionnaires and medical records. Baseline levels of hemoglobin A1c, inflammatory markers, hemostatic factors, and lipids were measured. Blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia; and treatment for lipids were self-reported. During a mean follow up of 12.2 years, 1039 CVD events, 785 deaths (153 CVD deaths) occurred. There was a J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and incident CVD, total and CVD mortality in a multivariable model. Compared with abstainers, alcohol intake of 5-14.9 g/d was associated with 26%, 35%, and 51% lower risk of CVD, total and CVD mortality, respectively, in a multivariable model. For CVD risk reduction, lipids made the largest contribution to the lower risk of CVD (28.7%), followed by hemoglobin A1c/diabetes (25.3%), inflammatory/hemostatic factors (5%), and blood pressure factors (4.6%). All these mediating factors together explained 86.3%, 18.7%, and 21.8% of the observed lower risk of CVD, total and CVD mortality, respectively.
These data suggest that alcohol effects on lipids and insulin sensitivity may account for a large proportion of the lower risk of CVD/mortality observed with moderate drinking under the assumption that the alcohol-CVD association is causal.
Alcohol drinking; epidemiology; cardiovascular disease
To determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a risk indicator for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events independent of other known risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort.
Population-based prospective cohort study.
A diverse population sample of 6233 men and women aged 45–84 without known CVD from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Participants in the MESA had retinal photographs taken between 2002 and 2003. Photographs were evaluated for AMD. Incident CHD/CVD events were ascertained during clinical follow-up visits for up to 8 years after the retinal images were taken.
Main Outcome Measures
Incident CHD/CVD events.
Of the 6814 persons at risk of CHD, there were 893 participants with early AMD (13.1%) and 27 (0.5%) at baseline. Over a mean follow-up period of 5.4 years, there was no statistically significant difference in incident CHD or CVD between the AMD and non-AMD groups (5.0%vs. 3.9%, p=0.13 for CHD and 6.6 vs. 5.5%, p=0.19 for CVD, respectively). In Cox regression models adjusting for CVD risk factors, there was no significant relationship between presence of any AMD and any CHD/CVD events (HR=0.99, 95% CI 0.74–1.33, p=0.97). No significant association was found between subgroups of early AMD or late AMD and incident CHD/CVD events.
In persons without a history of cardiovascular disease, AMD was not associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD.
Religious involvement has been associated with improved health practices and outcomes; however, no ethnically-diverse community-based study has examined differences in cardiac risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events across levels of religiosity.
Methods and Results
We included 5474 White, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants who attended Exam 2 of the NHLBI’s MESA study. We compared cross-sectional differences in cardiac risk factors and subclinical CVD, and longitudinal CVD event rates across self-reported levels of religious participation, prayer/meditation, and spirituality. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were fitted to assess associations of measures of religiosity with risk factors, subclinical CVD, and CVD events. MESA participants (52.4% female, mean age 63) with greater levels of religious participation were more likely to be female and black. After adjustment for demographic covariates, participants who attended services daily, compared with never, were significantly more likely to be obese (adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 – 1.72), but less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.26 – 0.58). Results were similar for those with frequent prayer/meditation or high levels of spirituality. There were no consistent patterns of association observed between measures of religiosity and presence/extent of subclinical CVD at baseline or incident CVD events during longitudinal follow up over 4 years.
Our results do not confirm those of previous studies associating greater religiosity with overall better health risks and status, at least with regard to CVD. There was no reduction in risk for CVD events associated with greater religiosity.
Religion; Cardiovascular diseases; Obesity
To examine the impact of systemic inflammation and serum lipids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
In a population-based RA incident cohort (1987 ACR criteria first met between 1988 and 2007), we collected serum lipid measures, erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) measures and cardiovascular events including ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Cox models were used to examine the association of lipids and inflammation with the risk of CVD and mortality adjusting for age, sex and year of RA incidence.
The study included 651 RA patients (mean age 55.8 years, 69% female); 67% were rheumatoid factor positive. ESR was associated with the risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.2 per 10 mm/hr increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.3). Similar findings, although not statistically significant, were seen with CRP (p=0.07). We found a significant nonlinear association for total cholesterol (TCh) on risk of CVD, with 3.3-fold increased risk for TCh<4 mmol/L (95%CI 1.5, 7.2) and no increased risk of CVD for TCh≥4 mmol/L (p=0.57). Low low-density cholesterol (LDL<2 mmol/L) was associated with marginally increased risk of CVD (p=0.10); there was no increased risk for LDL≥2 mmol/L (p=0.76).
Inflammatory measures (particularly, ESR) are significantly associated with the risk of CVD in RA. Lipids may have paradoxical associations with the risk of CVD in RA, whereby lower TCh and LDL levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation; lipid paradox; cardiovascular outcomes; ESR; CRP; lipids
There are conflicting data regarding relationships of systemic biomarkers of inflammation, hemostasis, and homocysteine with diabetic retinopathy. We examined these relationships in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 921 participants with diabetes were included. Diabetic retinopathy was graded from retinal photographs. We defined two outcomes: any diabetic retinopathy and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse). Systemic markers analyzed were C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen, plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex (PAP), interleukin-6, d-dimer, factor VIII, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine (UAC) ratio.
Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 33.2% and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy 7.1%. After adjusting for established risk factors (diabetes duration, A1C, systolic blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and use of diabetes medications), fibrinogen (odds ratio 1.14 [95% CI 1.01–1.32], P = 0.05) and PAP (1.25 [1.05–1.50], P = 0.01) were associated with any diabetic retinopathy, while PAP (1.54 [1.13–2.11], P = 0.007) and homocysteine (1.57 [1.16–2.11], P = 0.003) were associated with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Only PAP remained significant after additional adjustment for serum creatinine and UAC ratio. Area under receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) for diabetic retinopathy was constructed for established and novel risk factors. Established risk factors accounted for a 39.2% increase of the AUROC, whereas novel markers (fibrinogen, PAP, homocysteine, serum creatinine, and UAC ratio) only accounted for an additional 2.2%.
There were few associations of novel markers of inflammation, hemostasis, and homocysteine with diabetic retinopathy after controlling for established risk factors. These data suggest that there is limited clinical use of these biomarkers for prediction of diabetic retinopathy.
The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial evaluated a multifactor intervention on coronary heart disease (CHD) in 12 866 men. A priori defined endpoints (CHD death, CHD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disease [CVD] death, and all-cause death) did not differ significantly between the special intervention (SI) and usual care (UC) groups over an average follow-up period of 7 years. Event rates were lower than anticipated, reducing power. Other nonfatal CVD outcomes were prespecified but not considered in composite outcomes comparing SI with UC.
Methods and Results
Post-trial CVD mortality risks associated with nonfatal CVD events occurring during the trial were determined with Cox regression. Nonfatal outcomes associated with >2-fold risk of CVD death over the subsequent 20 years were combined with during-trial deaths to create 2 new composite outcomes. SI/UC hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for each composite outcome. Of 10 during-trial nonfatal events, 6 were associated (P<0.001) with >2-fold risk of CVD death. A CHD composite outcome (CHD death, myocardial infarction [clinical or serial ECG change], CHF, or coronary artery surgery) was experienced by 520 SI and 602 UC men (SI/UC hazard ratio = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.97; P=0.01). A CVD composite outcome (CHD [as above], other CVD deaths, stroke, or renal impairment) was experienced by 581 SI and 652 UC men (hazard ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.99; P=0.04).
In post hoc analyses, composite fatal/nonfatal CHD and CVD rates over 7 years were significantly lower for SI than for UC. These findings reinforce recommendations for improved dietary/lifestyle practices, with pharmacological therapy as needed, to prevent and control major CVD risk factors.
clinical trials; primary prevention; risk factors
Background and Objective
The role of hemostatic factor levels in cerebral infarction remains uncertain. We studied the association of levels of several under-studied hemostatic factors with ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort.
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study includes 15,792 individuals aged 45–54 years at intake. Hemostatic factors II, V, IX, X, XI, XII, plasminogen and α2-antiplasmin were measured on frozen citrate plasma samples from 1990 to 1992. A case-cohort design was used, including all incident ischemic strokes (n = 89) over a median of 7.5 years and a stratified cohort random sample (n = 412). To determine the association of hemostatic factors with incident ischemic stroke, we computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for demographic and other cardiovascular risk factors.
The cohort random sample had a mean age (SD) of 56.9 (5.4) years and 42% were men. The age-, sex- and race-adjusted HRs for highest versus lowest quartiles were: factor XI (2.74, 95% CI 1.42–5.29), factor IX (1.92, 95% CI 0.99–3.73), and α2-antiplasmin (2.24, 95% CI 1.16–4.33). Correspondingly, the HRs of ischemic stroke per SD increment of factors XI, IX, and α2-antiplasmin were 1.64, 1.46 and 1.52, respectively (all p < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment including other clinical variables, the standardized HR remained significant for factor XI (1.50, 95% CI 1.10–2.05), but no other factor.
A greater level of factor XI was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Higher factor XI levels might help identify patients at elevated ischemic stroke risk.
Stroke; Coagulation; Risk factors
Higher levels of physical activity are associated with fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. While the precise mechanisms underlying this inverse association are unclear, differences in several cardiovascular risk factors may mediate this effect.
Methods and Results
In a prospective study of 27,055 apparently healthy women, we measured baseline levels of hemoglobin A1c, traditional lipids (total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol), novel lipids (lipoprotein [a], apolipoprotein A1 and B100), creatinine, homocysteine, inflammatory/hemostatic biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1), and women self-reported physical activity, weight, height, hypertension and diabetes. Mean follow-up was 10.9±1.6 years, and 979 incident CVD events occurred. The risk of CVD decreased linearly with higher levels of activity (P, linear trend, <0.001). Using the reference group of <200 kcal/week of activity, the age and treatment-adjusted relative risk reductions associated with 200–599, 600–1499, and ≥1500 kcal/week were 27%, 32%, and 41%, respectively. Differences in known risk factors explained a large proportion (59.0%) of the observed inverse association. When sets of risk factors were examined, inflammatory/hemostatic biomarkers made the largest contribution to lower risk (32.6%), followed by blood pressure (27.1%). Novel lipids contributed less to CVD risk reduction, compared with traditional lipids (15.5% and 19.1%, respectively). Smaller contributions were attributed to body mass index (10.1%) and hemoglobin A1c/diabetes (8.9%), while homocysteine and creatinine had negligible effects (<1%).
The inverse association between physical activity and CVD risk is mediated in substantial part by known risk factors, particularly inflammatory/hemostatic factors and blood pressure.
epidemiology; exercise; risk factors; cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributes significantly to HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic immune activation and inflammation are thought to augment the progression of atherosclerotic disease. In this retrospective, case-control study of HIV-infected subjects, we investigated the association of traditional cardiac risk factors, HIV-related disease and inflammation with CVD events.
HIV-infected subjects who experienced an incident CVD event while enrolled in National Institutes of Health clinical protocols from 1995-2009 were matched 2:1 to HIV-infected subjects without known CVD. Markers of inflammation and cell activation were measured in serum or plasma using ELISA-based assays and peripheral mononuclear cells by four-color flow cytometry.
Fifty-two patients experienced an incident CVD event. Events were related to smoking, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and family history as well as D-dimer, sVCAM-1, TIMP-1, and soluble tissue factor but not hsCRP. No significant differences in antiviral therapy, CD4+ T-cell count or CD38 and HLA-DR expression were identified between cases and controls. In multivariable analysis, smoking, family history, D-dimer, and glucose were independently related to CVD risk.
In this cohort, CVD risk was related to traditional CVD risk factors and markers of thrombosis and endothelial damage but not to hsCRP or markers of T-cell activation such as CD38+/HLA-DR coexpression. D-dimer may help identify HIV-infected patients at elevated CVD risk.
HIV; cardiovascular disease; myocardial infarction; smoking; D-dimer; tissue factor; VCAM-1
A positive parental history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, different definitions of parental history have been used. We evaluated the impact of parental gender and age of onset of MI on CVD incidence.
Baseline data were collected between 1993 and 1997 in 10 524 respondents aged 40–65 years. CVD events were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register and Statistics Netherlands. We used proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD incidence and adjusted for lifestyle and biological risk factors.
At baseline, 36% had a parental history of MI. During 10-year follow-up, 914 CVD events occurred. The age and gender adjusted HR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.5) for those with a paternal MI, 1.5 (1.2–1.8) for those with a maternal MI and 1.6 (1.2–2.2) for those with both parents with an MI. With decreasing parental age of MI, HR increased from 1.2 (1.0–1.6) for age ≥70 years to 1.5 (1.2–1.8) for age <60 years for a paternal MI and from 1.1 (0.9–1.5) to 2.2 (1.6–3.0) for a maternal MI. The impact of having a mother with MI before age 60 significantly differed in women [(2.9 (1.8–4.6)] and men [1.5 (0.9–2.6)]. Adjustment only slightly influenced HRs for maternal MI.
Respondents with a parental history of MI have an increased CVD incidence, in particular with parental onset of MI before age 70. A maternal history of MI before age 60 was the strongest predictor of CVD incidence.
This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.
We prospectively followed 165 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 168 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of HMGB1 and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline.
During the course of follow-up (median, 12.3 years [interquartile range, 7.8–12.5]), 80 patients died, 82 suffered a fatal (n = 46) and/or non-fatal (n = 53) CVD event. After adjustment for age, sex, case–control status and other risk factors, patients with higher levels of loge HMGB1 had a higher incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD and all-cause mortality: HR 1.55 (95% CI 0.94, 2.48) and HR 1.86 (95% CI 1.18, 2.93), respectively. Further adjustments for differences in markers of low-grade inflammation, endothelial and renal dysfunction and arterial stiffness did not attenuate these associations because plasma levels of HMGB1 were not independently associated with these variables.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, higher levels of plasma HMGB1 are independently associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality and, to a lesser extent, with a higher incidence of CVD. Larger studies are needed to ascertain more definitely the role of HMGB1 in the development of vascular complications in diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-012-2622-1) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
All-cause mortality; Cardiovascular disease; High-mobility group box 1; Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Major cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of mortality among US Hispanic and Latino individuals. Comprehensive data are limited regarding the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population and relations of these traits to socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation.
To describe prevalence of major CVD risk factors and CVD (coronary heart disease [CHD] and stroke) among US Hispanic/Latino individuals of different backgrounds, examine relationships of SES and acculturation with CVD risk profiles and CVD, and assess cross-sectional associations of CVD risk factors with CVD.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos including individuals of Cuban (n =2201), Dominican (n = 1400), Mexican (n=6232), Puerto Rican (n=2590), Central American (n=1634), and South American backgrounds (n = 1022) aged 18 to 74 years. Analyses involved 15 079 participants with complete data enrolled between March 2008 and June 2011.
Main Outcome Measures
Adverse CVD risk factors defined using national guidelines for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. Prevalence of CHD and stroke were ascertained from self-reported data.
Age-standardized prevalence of CVD risk factors varied by Hispanic/Latino background; obesity and current smoking rates were highest among Puerto Rican participants (for men, 40.9% and 34.7%; for women, 51.4% and 31.7%, respectively); hypercholesterolemia prevalence was highest among Central American men (54.9%) and Puerto Rican women (41.0%). Large proportions of participants (80% of men, 71% of women) had at least 1 risk factor. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of 3 or more risk factors was highest in Puerto Rican participants (25.0%) and significantly higher (P<.001) among participants with less education (16.1%), those who were US-born (18.5%), those who had lived in the United States 10 years or longer (15.7%), and those who preferred English (17.9%). Overall, self-reported CHD and stroke prevalence were low (4.2% and 2.0% in men; 2.4% and 1.2% in women, respectively). In multivariate-adjusted models, hypertension and smoking were directly associated with CHD in both sexes as were hypercholesterolemia and obesity in women and diabetes in men (odds ratios [ORs], 1.5–2.2). For stroke, associations were positive with hypertension in both sexes, diabetes in men, and smoking in women (ORs, 1.7–2.6).
Among US Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse backgrounds, a sizeable proportion of men and women had adverse major risk factors; prevalence of adverse CVD risk profiles was higher among participants with Puerto Rican background, lower SES, and higher levels of acculturation.
Blood samples were taken for haemostatic analysis from 225 patients with angina pectoris who were admitted to hospital for coronary angiography. beta thromboglobulin, platelet factor 3, platelet factor 4, factor VII:C, factor VIII:C, von Willebrand factor antigen, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein C:Ag, plasminogen, and antiplasmin were measured before angiography. Patients who had had a myocardial infarction in the two months before the investigation were excluded from the study. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that none of the haemostatic variables contributed independently to the prediction of an angiographic score that indicated the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. History of myocardial infarction, male sex, worsening of angina pectoris, serum triglycerides, and ejection fraction were independently associated with the angiographic score. There were some significant correlations between haemostatic variables and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease. Thus data obtained from haemostatic analyses of peripheral venous blood do not permit the presence or the extent of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries to be predicted.
The relationship of circulating levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, particularly with consideration of effects at intermediate levels of risk, has not been fully assessed.
Among 3006 Offspring participants in the Framingham Heart Study free of CVD (mean age 46 years at baseline), there were 129 Hard coronary heart disease (CHD) events and 286 Total CVD events during 12 years of follow up. Cox regression, discrimination with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and net reclassification improvement were used to assess the role of CRP on vascular risk.
In an age-adjusted model that included both sexes the hazard ratios for new Hard CHD and Total CVD were significantly associated with higher CRP levels. Similar analyses according to increasing homocysteine (Hcys) level showed significant protective associations for Hard CHD but not for Total CVD. In multivariable analyses that included age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, hypertension treatment and homocysteine, the log CRP level remained significantly related to developing Hard CHD and Total CVD and provided moderate improvement in the discrimination of events. The net reclassification improvement when CRP was added to traditional factors was 5.6% for Total CVD (P=0.014) and 11.8% for Hard CHD (P=0.009).
Circulating levels of CRP help to estimate risk for initial cardiovascular events and may be used most effectively in persons at intermediate risk for vascular events, offering moderate improvement in reclassification of risk.
risk factors; coronary disease; homocysteine; C-reactive protein
The influence hemostatitc parameters on the morphological extent and severity of coronary artery disease were studied in patients with and without DM type 2.
It is known that patients with diabetes (DM) have abnormal metabolic and hemostatic parameters
Of 150 consecutive patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease 29 presented with DM. Additionally to parameters of lipid-metabolism fibrinogen, tissue-plasminogenactivator (t-PA), plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI), plasmin-a-antiplasmin (PAP), prothrombin-fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), von-willebrand-factor (vWF), platelet factor 4 (PF4), glykomembranproteine 140 (GMP140) and the rheologic parameters plasma viscosity and red blood cell aggregation were evaluated. The extent and severity of CAD was evaluated according to the criteria of the American Heart Association.
Patients with DM presented with a higher number of conventional risk factors as compared to non-diabetic patients. Additionally there were significant differences for F1+2, red blood cell aggregation and PAI. Diabetic patients showed a more severe extent of coronary arteriosclerosis, which also could be found more distally. A significant relationship between blood-glucose, thrombocyte-activation (vWF), endogenous fibrinolysis (PAI) and the severity of CAD and a more distal location of stenoses could be found (r = 0.6, p < 0.001).
Patients with coronary artery disease and DM type 2 showed marked alterations of metabolic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and rheologic parameters, which can produce a prothrombogenic state. A direct association of thrombogenic factors on coronary morphology could be shown. This can be the pathophysiologic mechanism of more severe and distal pronounced coronary atherosclerosis in these patients.
Increased circulating levels of hemostatic factors as well as anemia have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Known associations between hemostatic factors and sequence variants at genes encoding these factors explain only a small proportion of total phenotypic variation. We sought to confirm known putative loci and identify novel loci that may influence either trait in genome-wide association and linkage analyses using the Affymetrix GeneChip 100K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set.
Plasma levels of circulating hemostatic factors (fibrinogen, factor VII, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator, D-dimer) and hematological phenotypes (platelet aggregation, viscosity, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) were obtained in approximately 1000 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants from 310 families. Population-based association analyses using the generalized estimating equations (GEE), family-based association test (FBAT), and multipoint variance components linkage analyses were performed on the multivariable adjusted residuals of hemostatic and hematological phenotypes.
In association analysis, the lowest GEE p-value for hemostatic factors was p = 4.5*10-16 for factor VII at SNP rs561241, a variant located near the F7 gene and in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2 = 1) with the Arg353Gln F7 SNP previously shown to account for 9% of total phenotypic variance. The lowest GEE p-value for hematological phenotypes was 7*10-8 at SNP rs2412522 on chromosome 4 for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. We presented top 25 most significant GEE results with p-values in the range of 10-6 to 10-5 for hemostatic or hematological phenotypes. In relating 100K SNPs to known candidate genes, we identified two SNPs (rs1582055, rs4897475) in erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 2 (EPB41L2) associated with hematological phenotypes (GEE p < 10-3). In linkage analyses, the highest linkage LOD score for hemostatic factors was 3.3 for factor VII on chromosome 10 around 15 Mb, and for hematological phenotypes, LOD 3.4 for hemoglobin on chromosome 4 around 55 Mb. All GEE and FBAT association and variance components linkage results can be found at
Using genome-wide association methodology, we have successfully identified a SNP in complete LD with a sequence variant previously shown to be strongly associated with factor VII, providing proof of principle for this approach. Further study of additional strongly associated SNPs and linked regions may identify novel variants that influence the inter-individual variability in hemostatic factors and hematological phenotypes.
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) are noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis that consensus panels have recommended as possible additions to risk factor assessment for predicting the probability of cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence.
To assess whether maximum carotid IMT or CAC (Agatston Score) is the better predictor of incident CVD.
Design, Setting, Patients
Prospective cohort study of 45–84 year-olds initially free of CVD (n = 6,698) in four ethnic groups, with standardized carotid IMT and CAC measures at baseline, in six field centers of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Incident CVD events (coronary heart disease, stroke, and fatal CVD) over a maximum of 5.3 years of follow-up.
There were 222 CVD events during follow-up. CAC was associated more strongly than carotid IMT with risk of incident CVD. After adjustment for each other and traditional CVD risk factors, the hazard of CVD increased 2.1-fold (95% CI 1.8–2.5) for each standard deviation greater level of log-transformed CAC, versus 1.3-fold (95% CI 1.1–1.4) for each standard deviation greater maximum IMT. For coronary heart disease, the hazard ratios per standard deviation increment were 2.5-fold (95% CI 2.1–3.1) for CAC and 1.2-fold (95% CI 1.0–1.4) for IMT. An ROC analysis also suggested that CAC predicted incident CVD better than IMT did.
Although whether and how to clinically use bio-imaging tests of subclinical atherosclerosis remains a topic of debate, this study found that CAC predicts subsequent CVD events better than does carotid IMT.