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1.  Analysis of maternal–offspring HLA compatibility, parent-of-origin and non-inherited maternal effects for the classical HLA loci in type 1 diabetes 
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism  2009;11(Suppl 1):74-83.
Aim
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex trait for which variation in the classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) loci within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) significantly influences disease risk. To date, HLA class II DR-DQ genes confer the strongest known genetic effect in T1D. HLA loci may also influence T1D through additional inherited or non-inherited effects. Evidence for the role of increased maternal–offspring HLA compatibility, and both parent-of-origin (POO) and non-inherited maternal HLA (NIMA) effects in autoimmune disease has been previously established. The current study tested hypotheses that classical HLA loci influence T1D through these mechanisms, in addition to genetic transmission of particular risk alleles.
Methods
The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) cohort was of European descent and consisted of 2271 affected sib-pair families (total n = 11 023 individuals). Class I genes HLA-A, Cw and B, and class II genes HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1 were studied. The pedigree disequilibrium test was used to examine transmission of HLA alleles to individuals with T1D. Conditional logistic regression was used to model compatibility relationships between mother–offspring and father–offspring for all HLA loci. POO and NIMA effects were investigated by comparing frequencies of maternal and paternal transmitted and non-transmitted HLA alleles for each locus. Analyses were also stratified by gender of T1D-affected offspring.
Results
Strong associations were observed for all classical HLA loci except for DPA1, as expected. Compatibility differences between mother–offspring and father–offspring were not observed for any HLA loci. Furthermore, POO and NIMA HLA effects influencing T1D were not present.
Conclusions
Maternal–offspring HLA compatibility, POO and NIMA effects for eight classical HLA loci were investigated. Results suggest that these HLA-related effects are unlikely to play a major role in the development of T1D.
doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.01006.x
PMCID: PMC2635943  PMID: 19143818
HLA; maternal–offspring HLA compatibility; non-inherited maternal; parent-of-origin; T1D
2.  Identification of Two Independent Risk Factors for Lupus within the MHC in United Kingdom Families 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(11):e192.
The association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with SLE is well established yet the causal variants arising from this region remain to be identified, largely due to inadequate study design and the strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated by genes across this locus. The majority of studies thus far have identified strong association with classical class II alleles, in particular HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DRB1*1501. Additional associations have been reported with class III alleles; specifically, complement C4 null alleles and a tumor necrosis factor promoter SNP (TNF-308G/A). However, the relative effects of these class II and class III variants have not been determined. We have thus used a family-based approach to map association signals across the MHC class II and class III regions in a cohort of 314 complete United Kingdom Caucasian SLE trios by typing tagging SNPs together with classical typing of the HLA-DRB1 locus. Using TDT and conditional regression analyses, we have demonstrated the presence of two distinct and independent association signals in SLE: HLA-DRB1*0301 (nominal p = 4.9 × 10−8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.3) and the T allele of SNP rs419788 (nominal p = 4.3 × 10−8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.0) in intron 6 of the class III region gene SKIV2L. Assessment of genotypic risk demonstrates a likely dominant model of inheritance for HLA-DRB1*0301, while rs419788-T confers susceptibility in an additive manner. Furthermore, by comparing transmitted and untransmitted parental chromosomes, we have delimited our class II signal to a 180 kb region encompassing the alleles HLA-DRB1*0301-HLA-DQA1*0501-HLA-DQB1*0201 alone. Our class III signal importantly excludes independent association at the TNF promoter polymorphism, TNF-308G/A, in our SLE cohort and provides a potentially novel locus for future genetic and functional studies.
Author Summary
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE/lupus) is a complex autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues, causing inflammation in a variety of different organs such as the skin, joints, and kidneys. The cause of lupus is not known, but genes play a significant role in the predisposition to disease. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on Chromosome 6 contains at least 100 different genes that affect the immune system, including the genes with the strongest effect on lupus susceptibility. Despite the importance of the MHC in SLE, the identity of the actual genes in the MHC region that cause SLE has remained elusive. In the present study, we used the latest set of genetic markers present at the MHC in lupus families to identify the actual genes that affect the disease. To our knowledge, we have shown for the first time that two separate groups of genes are involved in SLE. One group of genes alters how the immune system may inappropriately target its own tissues in the disease. How the second set of genes predisposes to SLE is the subject of ongoing study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030192
PMCID: PMC2065882  PMID: 17997607
3.  High-Density SNP Screening of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Demonstrates Strong Evidence for Independent Susceptibility Regions 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(10):e1000696.
A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99×10−16). The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53×10−12), *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002), and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032). The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80×10−13. Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE–associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006), CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01), and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004). Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006) also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.
Author Summary
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and involvement of multiple organ systems. Although the cause of SLE remains unknown, several lines of evidence underscore the importance of genetic factors. As is true for most autoimmune diseases, a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6. This region of the genome contains a large number of genes that participate in the immune response. However, the full contribution of this genomic region to SLE risk has not yet been defined. In the current study we characterize a large number of SLE patients and family members for approximately 2,000 MHC region variants to identify the specific genes that influence disease risk. Our results, for the first time, implicate four different MHC regions in SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000696
PMCID: PMC2758598  PMID: 19851445
4.  Relation between HLA typing and clinical presentations in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia 
Background
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease with diverse clinical presentations due to interaction between genetic and environmental factors. SLE is associated worldwide with polymorphisms at various loci, including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), although inconsistencies exist among these studies.
Aims
This study was carried out to investigate, the association of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1 alleles in SLE patients and clinical presentations at Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
Fifty one patients with SLE—84.3% of whom had kidney involvement were studied in a case control study for HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1.
Results
It was found that DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE, HLA DRB3, HLA DRB1*11 frequency was increased in patients with serositis with a p value of (0.004), (0.047) respectively, increased frequency of HLA DQB1*3 among SLE patients with skin manifestations with a p value of (0.041), the frequency of HLA DRB1*15 alleles was increased among SLE patients with nephritis with a p value of (0.029), the frequency of HLA DRB1*11 among those with hematological manifestations with a p value of (0.03) and the frequency DRB1*10 was found to be increased among SLE patients with neurological manifestations with a p value of (0.002)
Conclusion
In contradistinction to what have been found among other populations DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE. No evidence for a role of the HLA-DRB1, DRB4, DRB5, DQB1 alleles. There was an increased HLA DRB3 frequency with serositis, DQB1*3 skin manifestations, HLA DRB1*15 with nephritis, DRB1*10 with hematological manifestations and DRB1*11 with neurological manifestations.
PMCID: PMC4166988  PMID: 25246883
SLE; HLA; Saudi; disease clinical expression; lupus
5.  Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Large Case-Control Collection and Associations with Clinical Subphenotypes 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(2):e1001311.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a genetically complex disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Recent studies have greatly expanded the number of established SLE risk alleles, but the distribution of multiple risk alleles in cases versus controls and their relationship to subphenotypes have not been studied. We studied 22 SLE susceptibility polymorphisms with previous genome-wide evidence of association (p<5×10−8) in 1919 SLE cases from 9 independent Caucasian SLE case series and 4813 independent controls. The mean number of risk alleles in cases was 15.1 (SD 3.1) while the mean in controls was 13.1 (SD 2.8), with trend p = 4×10−128. We defined a genetic risk score (GRS) for SLE as the number of risk alleles with each weighted by the SLE risk odds ratio (OR). The OR for high-low GRS tertiles, adjusted for intra-European ancestry, sex, and parent study, was 4.4 (95% CI 3.8–5.1). We studied associations of individual SNPs and the GRS with clinical manifestations for the cases: age at diagnosis, the 11 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, and double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) production. Six subphenotypes were significantly associated with the GRS, most notably anti-dsDNA (ORhigh-low = 2.36, p = 9e−9), the immunologic criterion (ORhigh-low = 2.23, p = 3e−7), and age at diagnosis (ORhigh-low = 1.45, p = 0.0060). Finally, we developed a subphenotype-specific GRS (sub-GRS) for each phenotype with more power to detect cumulative genetic associations. The sub-GRS was more strongly associated than any single SNP effect for 5 subphenotypes (the above plus hematologic disorder and oral ulcers), while single loci are more significantly associated with renal disease (HLA-DRB1, OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.64) and arthritis (ITGAM, OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88). We did not observe significant associations for other subphenotypes, for individual loci or the sub-GRS. Thus our analysis categorizes SLE subphenotypes into three groups: those having cumulative, single, and no known genetic association with respect to the currently established SLE risk loci.
Author Summary
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease, most commonly striking women in their thirties or forties. It can cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including kidney disease, arthritis, and skin disorders. Prognosis varies greatly depending on these clinical features, with kidney disease and related characteristics leading to greater morbidity and mortality. It is also complex genetically; while lupus runs in families, genes increase one's risk for lupus but do not fully determine the outcome. The interactions of multiple genes and/or interactions between genes and environmental factors may cause lupus, but the causes and disease pathways of this very heterogeneous disease are not well understood. By examining relationships between the presence of multiple lupus risk genes, lupus susceptibility, and clinical manifestations, we hope to better understand how lupus is triggered and by what biological pathways it progresses. We show in this work that certain clinical manifestations of lupus are highly associated with cumulative genetic variations, i.e. multiple risk alleles, while others are associated with a single variation or none at all.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001311
PMCID: PMC3040652  PMID: 21379322
6.  Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia 
Schizophrenia research  2012;143(1):11-17.
Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2012.11.002
PMCID: PMC4197457  PMID: 23177929
Schizophrenia; human leukocyte antigens; non-random mating; maternal-fetal incompatibility
7.  Variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter 2 gene is a separate risk factor for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus within the MHC 
Genes and immunity  2009;10(4):350-355.
The ATP-binding cassette transporter (TAP) proteins are functionally relevant candidates for predisposition to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) by virtue of their role in autoantigen presentation and location in the MHC. We tested if variation in the TAP genes (TAP1 and TAP2) is associated with SLE. We genotyped tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed family-based association analysis on 390 Caucasian pedigrees. We found significant evidence of association between TAP2 and SLE (rs241453, P = 1.33 × 10-6). Conditional logistic regression analysis suggests that this TAP2 effect is separate from the HLA-DRB1 alleles. Our analyses show that both rs241453 (P = 1.6 × 10-4) and HLA-DRB1*03xx (P = 2.3 × 10-4) have significant autonomous effects not due to linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, these loci exhibit a significant statistical interaction (P < 1.0 × 10-6), demonstrated by an increase in the odds ratio for the TAP2 association from OR = 2.00 (CI=1.17-3.42) in HLA-DRB1*03xx-negative subjects to OR = 4.29 (CI=1.88-9.76) in the subjects with at least one HLA-DRB1*03xx allele group. We report the largest association study of the TAP genes with SLE to date, and the first to test for its separate effect and interaction with the HLA alleles consistently associated with SLE.
doi:10.1038/gene.2009.21
PMCID: PMC2927958  PMID: 19387463
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; TAP2; HLA-DRB1; family-based association analysis; conditional logistic regression analysis; interaction analysis
8.  Human Leukocyte Antigens and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Protective Role for the HLA-DR6 Alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87792.
Many studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been performed. However, few protective associations with HLA-DRB1 alleles have been reported. Here, we sought protective, as well as predispositional, alleles of HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. An association study was conducted for HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. Relative predispositional effects were analyzed by sequential elimination of carriers of each allele with the strongest association. We also explored the association of DRB1 alleles with SLE phenotypes including the presence of autoantibody and clinical manifestations. Significantly different carrier frequencies of certain DRB1 alleles were found to be associated with SLE as follows: increased DRB1*15:01 (P = 5.48×10−10, corrected P (Pc) = 1.59×10−8, odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–2.79), decreased DRB1*13:02 (P = 7.17×10−5, Pc = 0.0020, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.63) and decreased DRB1*14:03 (P = 0.0010, Pc = 0.0272, OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18–0.63). Additionally, the “*15:01/*13:02 or *14:03” genotype tended to be negatively associated with SLE (P = 0.4209, OR 0.66), despite there being significant positive associations with *15:01 when present together with alleles other than *13:02 or *14:03 (P = 1.79×10−11, OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.84–3.10). This protective effect of *13:02 and *14:03 was also confirmed in SLE patients with different clinical phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a protective association between the carrier frequencies of HLA-DRB1*13:02 and *14:03 and SLE in the Japanese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087792
PMCID: PMC3912000  PMID: 24498373
9.  The Inheritance of Resistance Alleles in Multiple Sclerosis 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(9):e150.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-DRB1*17-bearing haplotypes and interactions at the HLA-DRB1 locus increase risk of MS but it has taken large samples to identify resistance HLA-DRB1 alleles. In this investigation of 7,093 individuals from 1,432 MS families, we have assessed the validity, mode of inheritance, associated genotypes, and the interactions of HLA-DRB1 resistance alleles. HLA-DRB1*14-, HLA-DRB1*11-, HLA-DRB1*01-, and HLA-DRB1*10-bearing haplotypes are protective overall but they appear to operate by different mechanisms. The first type of resistance allele is characterised by HLA-DRB1*14 and HLA-DRB1*11. Each shows a multiplicative mode of inheritance indicating a broadly acting suppression of risk, but a different degree of protection. In contrast, a second type is exemplified by HLA-DRB1*10 and HLA-DRB1*01. These alleles are significantly protective when they interact specifically in trans with HLA-DRB1*15-bearing haplotypes. HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*10 do not interact with HLA-DRB1*17, implying that several mechanisms may be operative in major histocompatibility complex–associated MS susceptibility, perhaps analogous to the resistance alleles. There are major practical implications for risk and for the exploration of mechanisms in animal models. Restriction of antigen presentation by HLA-DRB1*15 seems an improbably simple mechanism of major histocompatibility complex–associated susceptibility.
Author Summary
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease with a strong genetic component. With the possible exception of a weak association at Chromosome 5p, the major histocompatibility complex is the only locus consistently linked to MS. Because of this the major histocompatibility complex has recently undergone renewed attention. A region at or near the gene HLA-DRB1 influences the risk of MS. HLA-DRB1 comes in over 400 different forms (or alleles). A common form in Europe, named 1501, increases risk of MS by 3-fold. In this paper, to our knowledge the largest-ever analysis of this region in MS, we examine the inheritance of newly discovered HLA-DRB1 MS resistance alleles, namely HLA-DRB1*14, HLA-DRB1*11, *10, and HLA-DRB1*01. We show that HLA-DRB1*14 and HLA-DRB1*11 are dominantly protective; e.g., HLA-DRB1*14 significantly reduces the risk associated with HLA-DRB1*15 when they are inherited together. This may explain, in part, why MS is rare in Asia; there, the HLA-DRB1*14 allele is frequent. HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*10 are protective only in the presence of HLA-DRB1*15. HLA-DRB1*14 and HLA-DRB1*11 haplotypes and HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*10 haplotypes share common ancestral origins and this may be why the alleles can be grouped in terms of their protective nature. Discovery of the mechanism of protection against MS may lead to the discovery of new treatments to make a palpable difference in the lives of those who have been affected by this devastating disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030150
PMCID: PMC1971120  PMID: 17845076
10.  Exploring the Developmental Overnutrition Hypothesis Using Parental–Offspring Associations and FTO as an Instrumental Variable 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(3):e33.
Background
The developmental overnutrition hypothesis suggests that greater maternal obesity during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity in later life. If true, this would result in the obesity epidemic progressing across generations irrespective of environmental or genetic changes. It is therefore important to robustly test this hypothesis.
Methods and Findings
We explored this hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with offspring dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)–determined fat mass measured at 9 to 11 y (4,091 parent–offspring trios) and by using maternal FTO genotype, controlling for offspring FTO genotype, as an instrument for maternal adiposity. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass, but the maternal association effect size was larger than that in the paternal association in all models: mean difference in offspring sex- and age-standardised fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation BMI 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.26) for maternal BMI versus 0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.15) for paternal BMI; p-value for difference in effect < 0.001. The stronger maternal association was robust to sensitivity analyses assuming levels of non-paternity up to 20%. When maternal FTO, controlling for offspring FTO, was used as an instrument for the effect of maternal adiposity, the mean difference in offspring fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation maternal BMI was −0.08 (95% CI: −0.56 to 0.41), with no strong statistical evidence that this differed from the observational ordinary least squares analyses (p = 0.17).
Conclusions
Neither our parental comparisons nor the use of FTO genotype as an instrumental variable, suggest that greater maternal BMI during offspring development has a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9–11 y. Developmental overnutrition related to greater maternal BMI is unlikely to have driven the recent obesity epidemic.
Using parental-offspring associations and theFTO gene as an instrumental variable for maternal adiposity, Debbie Lawlor and colleagues found that greater maternal BMI during offspring development does not appear to have a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9-11.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Since the 1970s, the proportion of children and adults who are overweight or obese (people who have an unhealthy amount of body fat) has increased sharply in many countries. In the US, 1 in 3 adults is now obese; in the mid-1970s it was only 1 in 7. Similarly, the proportion of overweight children has risen from 1 in 20 to 1 in 5. An adult is considered to be overweight if their body mass index (BMI)—their weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared—is between 25 and 30, and obese if it is more than 30. For children, the healthy BMI depends on their age and gender. Compared to people with a healthy weight (a BMI between 18.5 and 25), overweight or obese individuals have an increased lifetime risk of developing diabetes and other adverse health conditions, sometimes becoming ill while they are still young. People become unhealthily fat when they consume food and drink that contains more energy than they need for their daily activities. It should, therefore, be possible to avoid becoming obese by having a healthy diet and exercising regularly.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some researchers think that “developmental overnutrition” may have caused the recent increase in waistline measurements. In other words, if a mother is overweight during pregnancy, high sugar and fat levels in her body might permanently affect her growing baby's appetite control and metabolism, and so her offspring might be at risk of becoming obese in later life. If this hypothesis is true, each generation will tend to be fatter than the previous one and it will be very hard to halt the obesity epidemic simply by encouraging people to eat less and exercise more. In this study, the researchers have used two approaches to test the developmental overnutrition hypothesis. First, they have asked whether offspring fat mass is more strongly related to maternal BMI than to paternal BMI; it should be if the hypothesis is true. Second, they have asked whether a genetic indicator of maternal fatness—the “A” variant of the FTO gene—is related to offspring fat mass. A statistical association between maternal FTO genotype (genetic make-up) and offspring fat mass would support the developmental nutrition hypothesis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In 1991–1992, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) enrolled about 14,000 pregnant women and now examines their offspring at regular intervals. The researchers first used statistical methods to look for associations between the self-reported prepregnancy BMI of the parents of about 4,000 children and the children's fat mass at ages 9–11 years measured using a technique called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass (that is, fatter parents had fatter children) but the effect of maternal BMI was greater than the effect of paternal BMI. When the researchers examined maternal FTO genotypes and offspring fat mass (after allowing for the offspring's FTO genotype, which would directly affect their fat mass), there was no statistical evidence to suggest that differences in offspring fat mass were related to the maternal FTO genotype.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although the findings from first approach provide some support for the development overnutrition hypothesis, the effect of maternal BMI on offspring fat mass is too weak to explain the recent obesity epidemic. Developmental overnutrition could, however, be responsible for the much slower increase in obesity that began a century ago. The findings from the second approach provide no support for the developmental overnutrition hypothesis, although these results have wide error margins and need confirming in a larger study. The researchers also note that the effects of developmental overnutrition on offspring fat mass, although weak at age 9–11, might become more important at later ages. Nevertheless, for now, it seems unlikely that developmental overnutrition has been a major driver of the recent obesity epidemic. Interventions that aim to improve people's diet and to increase their physical activity levels could therefore slow or even halt the epidemic.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050033.
See a related PLoS Medicine Perspective article
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on obesity (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of obesity (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service's health Web site (NHS Direct) provides information about obesity
The International Obesity Taskforce provides information about preventing obesity and on childhood obesity
The UK Foods Standards Agency, the United States Department of Agriculture, and Shaping America's Health all provide useful advice about healthy eating for adults and children
The ALSPAC Web site provides information about the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and its results so far
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050033
PMCID: PMC2265763  PMID: 18336062
11.  Influence of non-inherited maternal HLA-DR antigens on susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1998;57(11):672-675.
OBJECTIVE—It has recently been observed that non-inherited maternal DR4 antigens (NIMAs) of DR4 negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were increased compared with non-inherited paternal DR4 antigens (NIPAs). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-inherited DR4 antigens and DRB1 alleles in parents of RA patients. 
METHODS—HLA-DR serology and DRB1 typing was performed in 97 RA patients and their parents. NIMA and NIPA frequencies were compared, stratified according to the presence of DR4 and/or the shared epitope (SE).
RESULTS—In DR4 negative patients, NIMA DR4 was increased compared with NIPA DR4 (OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.76, 12.70). When combined with results from a previous study this increase was significant (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.29, 10.31). The NIMA effect of SE positive DR4 subtypes in this study (OR 4.73, 95% CI 0.94, 23.8) was stronger than the NIMA effect of combined SE positive DRB1 alleles (OR 2.19 95% CI 0.36, 13.22).
CONCLUSIONS—The association between non-inherited maternal HLA-DR4 alleles and the susceptibility to RA was observed in two independent populations.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; non-inherited maternal DR4 antigens; HLA; genetics
PMCID: PMC1752500  PMID: 9924209
12.  A shared HLA-DRB1 epitope in the DR beta first domain is associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in Indian patients 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:353-358.
Purpose
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) are two distinct entities that share common clinical and histopathological features; however, it remains unknown whether they have a common genetic susceptibility. Several studies have shown an association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 with VKH disease in patients of different ethnic backgrounds. We present in this paper the HLA-DRB1 genotyping analysis of a large cohort of VKH patients from southern India and compare these patients to patients with SO and to healthy individuals from the same geographic area.
Methods
VKH patients were diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International Committee on VKH disease. Patients with granulomatous uveitis after ocular trauma or multiple eye surgeries were diagnosed as having SO. Genomic DNA was extracted from all patients and controls. Samples were analyzed for HLA-DRB1 alleles by reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) hybridization on microbeads, using the Luminex technology, and by PCR sequence-specific primers (SSP) typing for DRB1*04 allele determination. Strength of associations was estimated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and frequencies were compared using the Fisher’s exact test.
Results
HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined in 94 VKH patients, 39 SO patients, and 112 healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*04 frequency was higher in VKH patients (20.2% versus 10.3% in controls; OR=2.2, p=0.005, pc=0.067). This association was lower than the association of HLA-DRB1*04 frequency in cohorts of patients from different origins. No significant DR4 association with SO was detected. HLA-DRB1*0405 and HLA-DRB1*0410 alleles were significantly increased in VKH patients (8.5% versus 0.9% in controls; OR=10.3, 95% CI=2.34–45.5, p<0.001). These two alleles share the epitope S57-LLEQRRAA (67–74) in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR molecule. None of the DRB1 alleles was significantly associated with SO.
Conclusions
Based on the association of HLA-DRB1*0405 and HLA-DRB1*0410 alleles with VKH disease, we propose that the epitope S57-LLEQRRAA (67–74) in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DRβ1 molecule is the relevant susceptibility epitope. This genetic component seems specific to VKH disease since no correlation could be identified in SO patients. The weaker association with HLA-DR4 in this VKH patient cohort compared to VKH patients from northern India is probably related to the lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0405 in our study group. The HLA-DRB1 association with susceptibility to VKH syndrome seems weaker in Indian patients compared to Japanese or Hispanic patients, suggesting a different non-HLA immunogenetic background in Indian VKH patients.
PMCID: PMC2834567  PMID: 20216938
13.  Non Inherited Maternal HLA Antigens in Susceptibility to Familial Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2008;68(1):107-109.
Objectives
Some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients lack RA-associated HLA alleles. Prior studies investigated non-inherited maternal HLA alleles (NIMA) in RA risk with conflicting results.
Methods
We examined NIMA in a large cohort of families from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium.
Results
Among 620 patients with one or both parents HLA-genotyped, RA patients informative for analysis included 176 without HLA-DRB1*04 and 86 without the HLA shared epitope (SE). The frequency of NIMA encoding HLA-DR4 or the SE was compared to the non-inherited paternal allele (NIPA). DR4-encoding NIMA vs. NIPA revealed no significant difference (27% vs. 20%). However, parity is known to modulate RA risk and analyses stratified by sex and age of onset showed significant variation among women. Interestingly, among women with onset <45 years DR4-encoding NIMA was increased compared to NIPA; among women ≥45 years at onset the reverse was observed (31% vs. 16% compared to 10% vs. 60%, p=0.008). DR4 encoding NIMA vs. NIPA did not differ in men. The SE did not differ in men or women.
Conclusions
Risk of RA was associated with HLA-DR4 encoding NIMA in younger-onset women but not in older-onset women or men. These observations could help explain conflicting prior results of NIMA in RA.
doi:10.1136/ard.2008.092312
PMCID: PMC2760537  PMID: 18684745
rheumatoid arthritis; HLA alleles; HLA-DRB1; gender
14.  Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and complement C4 alleles in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a multicenter study. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(4):1346-1351.
In a multicenter study more than 300 central European systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were examined for HLA-B, HLA-DR, and complement C4 phenotypes. For 174 SLE patients MHC haplotypes were determined by family segregation analysis, and for 155 patients C4 gene deletions were determined by TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Two haplotypes, B8-C4AQ0-C4B1-DR3 and B7-C4A3-C4B1-DR2, were identified as risk factors for SLE. These findings were confirmed by applying the haplotype frequency difference (HFD) method, which uses nontransmitted haplotypes from the family study as internal controls. Furthermore, only HLA-DR2, but not DR3, B7, or B8, was significantly increased in SLE patients independently of the two risk haplotypes. C4A gene deletions, but not silent C4AQ0 alleles, were increased in SLE patients and neither C4BQ0 alleles nor C4B gene deletions were increased. The observed frequencies of homozygosity and heterozygosity for the two haplotypes and the frequencies of homozygotes for C4AQ0 and C4A deletions did not differ from the expected values, indicating that the risk for SLE is conveyed by single allele effects. In conclusion, there are two MHC-linked susceptibility factors for Caucasian SLE patients carried by the haplotypes B7-DR2 and B8-DR3. The results argue against C4Q0 alleles being the decisive factors increasing susceptibility to SLE.
PMCID: PMC443179  PMID: 1401069
15.  MHC associations with clinical and autoantibody manifestations in European SLE 
Genes and immunity  2014;15(4):210-217.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease affecting multiple organ systems and characterized by autoantibody formation to nuclear components. Although genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with SLE, its role in the development of clinical manifestations and autoantibody production is not well defined. We conducted a meta-analysis of four independent European SLE case collections for associations between SLE sub-phenotypes and MHC single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and variant HLA amino acids. Of the 11 American College of Rheumatology criteria and 7 autoantibody sub-phenotypes examined, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibody subsets exhibited the highest number and most statistically significant associations. HLA-DRB1*03:01 was significantly associated with both sub-phenotypes. We found evidence of associations independent of MHC class II variants in the anti-Ro subset alone. Conditional analyses showed that anti-Ro and anti-La subsets are independently associated with HLA-DRB1*0301, and that the HLA-DRB1*03:01 association with SLE is largely but not completely driven by the association of this allele with these sub-phenotypes. Our results provide strong evidence for a multilevel risk model for HLA-DRB1*03:01 in SLE, where the association with anti-Ro and anti-La antibody-positive SLE is much stronger than SLE without these autoantibodies.
doi:10.1038/gene.2014.6
PMCID: PMC4102853  PMID: 24598797
Sub-phenotype analysis; MHC; meta-analysis; genetics; systemic lupus erythematosus; Europeans
16.  The rs4774 CIITA missense variant is associated with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus 
Genes and Immunity  2011;12(8):667-671.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator gene (CIITA) encodes an important transcription factor required for HLA class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation. MHC genes, including the HLA class II DRB1*03:01 allele, are strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently the rs4774 CIITA missense variant (+1632G/C) was reported to be associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we investigated CIITA, DRB1*03:01 and risk of SLE using a multi-stage analysis. In stage 1, 9 CIITA variants were tested in 658 cases and 1,363 controls (N = 2,021). In stage 2, rs4774 was tested in 684 cases and 2,938 controls (N = 3,622). We also performed a meta-analysis of the pooled 1,342 cases and 4,301 controls (N = 5,643). In stage 1, rs4774*C was associated with SLE (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.07–1.44, P = 4.2 × 10−3). Similar results were observed in stage 2 (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02–1.33, P = 8.5×10−3) and the meta-analysis of the combined dataset (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09–1.33, Pmeta = 2.5×10−4). In all three analyses, the strongest evidence for association between rs4774*C and SLE was present in individuals who carried at least one copy of DRB1*03:01 (Pmeta= 1.9×10−3). Results support a role for CIITA in SLE, which appears to be stronger in the presence of DRB1*03:01.
doi:10.1038/gene.2011.36
PMCID: PMC3387803  PMID: 21614020
systemic lupus erythematosus; autoimmunity; major histocompatibility complex; HLA; CIITA; MHC2TA
17.  European Genetic Ancestry is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Lupus Nephritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2012;64(10):10.1002/art.34567.
Objective
African Americans, East Asians, and Hispanics with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are more likely to develop renal disease than SLE patients of European descent. We investigated whether European genetic ancestry protects against the development of lupus nephritis and explored genetic and socioeconomic factors that might explain this effect.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study of 1906 adults with SLE. Participants were genotyped for 126 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) informative for ancestry. A subset of participants was also genotyped for 80 SNPs in 14 candidate genes for renal disease in SLE. We used logistic regression to test the association between European ancestry and renal disease. Analyses adjusted for continental ancestries, socioeconomic status, and candidate genes.
Results
Participants (n=1906) had on average 62.4% European, 15.8% African, 11.5% East Asian, 6.5% Amerindian, and 3.8% South Asian ancestry. Among participants, 34% (n=656) had renal disease. A 10% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 15% reduction in the odds of having renal disease after adjustment for disease duration and sex (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.87, p=1.9 × 10−30). Adjusting for other genetic ancestries, measures of socioeconomic status, or SNPs in genes most associated with renal disease (IRF5 (rs4728142), BLK (rs2736340), STAT4 (rs3024912), ITGAM (rs9937837) and HLA-DRB1*0301 and DRB1*1501, p<0.05) did not substantively alter this relationship.
Conclusion
European ancestry is protective against the development of renal disease in SLE, an effect independent of other genetic ancestries, common risk alleles, and socioeconomic status.
doi:10.1002/art.34567
PMCID: PMC3865923  PMID: 23023776
18.  Transancestral mapping of the MHC region in systemic lupus erythematosus identifies new independent and interacting loci at MSH5, HLA-DPB1 and HLA-G 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2012;71(5):777-784.
Objectives
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem genetically complex autoimmune disease characterised by the production of autoantibodies to nuclear and cellular antigens, tissue inflammation and organ damage. Genome-wide association studies have shown that variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6 confer the greatest genetic risk for SLE in European and Chinese populations. However, the causal variants remain elusive due to tight linkage disequilibrium across disease-associated MHC haplotypes, the highly polymorphic nature of many MHC genes and the heterogeneity of the SLE phenotype.
Methods
A high-density case-control single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) study of the MHC region was undertaken in SLE cohorts of Spanish and Filipino ancestry using a custom Illumina chip in order to fine-map association signals in these haplotypically diverse populations. In addition, comparative analyses were performed between these two datasets and a northern European UK SLE cohort. A total of 1433 cases and 1458 matched controls were examined.
Results
Using this transancestral SNP mapping approach, novel independent loci were identified within the MHC region in UK, Spanish and Filipino patients with SLE with some evidence of interaction. These loci include HLA-DPB1, HLA-G and MSH5 which are independent of each other and HLA-DRB1 alleles. Furthermore, the established SLE-associated HLA-DRB1*15 signal was refined to an interval encompassing HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1. Increased frequencies of MHC region risk alleles and haplotypes were found in the Filipino population compared with Europeans, suggesting that the greater disease burden in non-European SLE may be due in part to this phenomenon.
Conclusion
These data highlight the usefulness of mapping disease susceptibility loci using a transancestral approach, particularly in a region as complex as the MHC, and offer a springboard for further fine-mapping, resequencing and transcriptomic analysis.
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200808
PMCID: PMC3329227  PMID: 22233601
19.  The HLA Class I A Locus Affects Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes 
Human immunology  2002;63(8):657-664.
Human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A) genotypes were determined for samples from 283 multiplex, Caucasian, type 1 diabetes families from the Human Biological Data Interchange (HBDI) using an immobilized probe assay. Distribution of HLA-A alleles transmitted to patients was significantly different from that in affected family-based controls (AFBAC) (p = 0.004). Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis revealed differential transmission of several HLA-A alleles from parents to affected offspring. HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 loci were also typed, allowing assignment of HLA-A alleles to haplotypes and calculation of linkage disequilibrium values. Some of the apparent effects of HLA-A alleles on type 1 diabetes susceptibility were attributable to linkage disequilibrium with DR and DQ alleles, although others were not. The differences in frequencies between patients and controls of alleles A*0101, A*2402, and A*3002 could not be explained by linkage disequilibrium alone. Our results suggest an important role for class I antigens in modulating susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4049513  PMID: 12121673
HLA-A genotypes; type 1 diabetes
20.  Polymorphisms of the TAP1 and TAP2 transporter genes in Japanese SLE. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(12):924-926.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how polymorphism of transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2 (TAP1 and 2) alleles contributed to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Japanese patients. METHODS: TAP1 and TAP2 typing was carried out in 52 Japanese patients with SLE and 95 normal subjects by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. HLA-DR typing and HLA-DRB1*15 genotyping were carried out by the PCR method and PCR-SSCP (single stranded DNA conformation polymorphism) method, respectively. RESULTS: No particular TAP 1 allele was associated with Japanese SLE or with immunological subgroup of SLE. TAP2H showed a tendency towards increased frequency in SLE (5.8% v 0% in control), but the corrected P value was not significant. No other particular association of TAP2 allele was observed. Furthermore, these was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between any TAP1/TAP2 alleles and HLA-DRB1*1501--which is reported to be weakly but significantly association with Japanese SLE--in either the normal control or the SLE patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the TAP1 nor the TAP2 gene appears to determine disease susceptibility to SLE in Japanese, and these results are in keeping with those reported in Caucasian SLE patients.
PMCID: PMC1010346  PMID: 9014588
21.  Family Analysis of Linkage and Association of HLA-DRB1, CTLA4, TGFB1, IL4, CCR5, RANTES, MMP9 and TIMP1 Gene Polymorphisms with Multiple Sclerosis  
Acta Naturae  2011;3(1):85-92.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Proteins of the immune system, as well as proteins that are involved in the infiltration of activated immune cells in the CNS, play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. We investigated the association and linkage with MS of the following immune-system genes polymorphisms: HLA-DRB1,CTLA4,TGFB1,IL4,CCR5 andRANTES, as well as of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase  1 (TIMP1) genes polymorphisms. For this purpose we used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). The group investigated was comprised of 100 nuclear families of Russian ethnicity, each consisting of an affected offspring and his nonaffected parents. It was found that HLA-DRB1*15alleleandMMP9*-1562C allele were transmitted from healthy heterozygous parents to affected children more frequently than alternative alleles (p  =  0.02 andp  =  0.04, respectively). Another family-based method, AFBAC (affected family-based control), showed MS association with HLA-DRB1*15, but not with theMMP9*-1562C allele.
PMCID: PMC3347600  PMID: 22649676
functional genomics; human; multiple sclerosis; genotyping; CCR5 gene; CTLA4 gene ; HLA-DRB1 gene; IL4 gene; MMP9 gene; RANTES gene; TGFB1 gene; TIMP1 gene; allelic polymorphism; TDT; AFBAC
22.  Genetic analysis of hydatidiform moles in paraffin wax embedded tissue using rapid, sequence specific PCR-based HLA class II typing. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1997;50(4):288-293.
AIMS: To determine the applicability of rapid, sequence specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based HLA class II genotyping for the distinction of complete from partial hydatidiform moles (HM) using DNA extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS: Nine HM were studied. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue after mechanical separation of decidual and molar components. HLA class II DRB (DRB1, -3, -4, and -5) and DQB1 genotyping was performed using a parallel series of PCR reactions, each of which contained sequence specific primers designed to amplify different HLA DRB and DQB1 alleles or allele groups (PCR-SSP analysis). In each case the HLA DRB and DQB1 genotypes identified within the decidua and HM were compared. RESULTS: Within the decidual tissue, HLA DRB genotypes were assignable in all nine cases, and HLA DQB1 genotypes were identified in seven cases. Within the molar tissue, HLA DRB genotypes were assignable in seven cases, and at least one HLA DQB1 allele was identified in seven cases. Interpretation based on HLA class II genotyping was therefore possible in two cases classified on histological appearances as complete HM, in four classified as partial HM, and in one HM of uncertain type. Different HLA DRB and DQB1 haplotypes were identified within the decidual and molar tissue from both complete HM, consistent with a solely paternal origin and supporting the histological diagnosis. HLA DRB and DQB1 alleles common to the decidual and molar tissue were present within the four partial HM and the HM of histologically uncertain type, consistent with combined maternal and paternal genetic input to these HM, supporting the histological diagnosis in four cases and suggesting that the histologically equivocal case was also a partial HM. CONCLUSION: PCR-SSP HLA class II DRB and DQB1 typing is reliably applicable to DNA extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue. Therefore, in a suitably equipped HLA typing laboratory, this technique provides a useful adjunct to histological examination for differentiation of complete from partial HM.
Images
PMCID: PMC499877  PMID: 9215143
23.  The granulocyte colony stimulating factor pathway regulates autoantibody production in a murine induced model of systemic lupus erythematosus 
Introduction
An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced systemic lupus erythematosus contains a polymorphism in the gene encoding the G-CSF receptor. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the Sle2c2 suppression is associated with an impaired G-CSF receptor function that can be overcome by exogenous G-CSF.
Methods
Leukocytes from B6.Sle2c2 and B6 congenic mice, which carry a different allele of the G-CSF receptor, were compared for their responses to G-CSF. Autoantibody production was induced with the chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) model by adoptive transfer of B6.bm12 splenocytes. Different treatment regimens varying the amount and frequency of G-CSF (Neulasta®) or carrier control were tested on cGVHD outcomes. Autoantibody production, immune cell activation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were compared between the two strains with the various treatments. In addition, the effect of G-CSF treatment was examined on the production autoantibodies in the B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) spontaneous model of lupus.
Results
B6.Sle2c2 and B6 leukocytes responded differently to G-CSF. G-CSF binding by B6.Sle2c2 leukocytes was reduced as compared to B6, which was associated with a reduced expansion in response to in vivo G-CSF treatment. G-CSF in vivo treatment also failed to mobilize bone-marrow B6.Sle2c2 neutrophils as it did for B6 neutrophils. In contrast, the expression of G-CSF responsive genes indicated a higher G-CSF receptor signaling in B6.Sle2c2 cells. G-CSF treatment restored the ability of B6.Sle2c2 mice to produce autoantibodies in a dose-dependent manner upon cGVHD induction, which correlated with restored CD4+ T cells activation, as well as dendritic cell and granulocyte expansion. Steady-state ROS production was higher in B6.Sle2c2 than in B6 mice. cGVHD induction resulted in a larger increase in ROS production in B6 than in B6.Sle2c2 mice, and this difference was eliminated with G-CSF treatment. Finally, a low dose G-CSF treatment accelerated the production of anti-dsDNA IgG in young B6.TC mice.
Conclusion
The different in vivo and in vitro responses of B6.Sle2c2 leukocytes are consistent with the mutation in the G-CSFR having functional consequences. The elimination of Sle2c2 suppression of autoantibody production by exogenous G-CSF indicates that Sle2c2 corresponds to a loss of function of G-CSF receptor. This result was corroborated by the increased anti-dsDNA IgG production in G-CSF-treated B6.TC mice, which also carry the Sle2c2 locus. Overall, these results suggest that the G-CSF pathway regulates the production of autoantibodies in murine models of lupus.
doi:10.1186/ar4208
PMCID: PMC3672747  PMID: 23566364
24.  PARP alleles within the linked chromosomal region are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;103(8):1135-1140.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by various autoantibodies that recognize autoantigens displayed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. The genetic contribution to SLE susceptibility has been widely recognized. We previously reported evidence for linkage to SLE of the human chromosome 1q41–q42 region and have now narrowed it from 15 to 5 cM in an extended sample using multipoint linkage analysis. Candidate genes within this region include (a) PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, encoding a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein that is involved in DNA repair and apoptosis; (b) TGFB2, encoding a transforming growth factor that regulates cellular interactions and responses; and (c) HLX1, encoding a homeobox protein that may regulate T-cell development. Using a multiallelic, transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT), we found overall skewing of transmission of PARP alleles to affected offspring in 124 families (P = 0.00008), preferential transmission of a PARP allele to affected offspring (P = 0.0003), and lack of transmission to unaffected offspring (P = 0.004). Similar TDT analyses of TGFB2 and HLX1 polymorphisms yielded no evidence for association with SLE. These results suggest that PARP may be (or is close to) the susceptibility gene within the chromosome 1q41–q42 region linked to SLE.
PMCID: PMC408279  PMID: 10207165
25.  Cross-sectional analysis of adverse outcomes in 1,029 pregnancies of Afro-Caribbean women in Trinidad with and without systemic lupus erythematosus 
The objective of the study was to examine pregnancy outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and population controls in Trinidad. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of adverse outcomes in pregnancies of Afro-Caribbean women with SLE and without SLE. One hundred and twenty-two female adult cases of SLE and 203 neighbourhood age-matched women without SLE were interviewed concerning details of their reproductive history, and the anticardiolipin antibody (ACL) status was established for women with SLE. A total of 1,029 pregnancies were reported (356 by women with SLE, 673 by women without SLE). In women with ≥ 1 pregnancy the total number of pregnancies was similar in women with a diagnosis of SLE and women without; however, a lower proportion of women with SLE had ever been pregnant compared with women without SLE (80% versus 91%, P = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, district of residence, pregnancy order and smoking, SLE pregnancies were more than twice as likely to end in foetal death than non-SLE pregnancies (odds ratio (OR), 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–4.7). This effect was driven by a large increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 2.5–28.8). The odds of early miscarriage (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.6–3.1) and of mid-trimester miscarriage (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.4–9.5) were higher, but were not statistically significantly different, in SLE pregnancies than in non-SLE pregnancies. The odds of ectopic pregnancy (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 0.9–62.5) and of preterm birth (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2–10.0) were higher in SLE pregnancies conceived after diagnosis than in non-SLE pregnancies. There was no evidence of raised levels of IgG or IgM ACL among the majority (93/97 women, 96%) of SLE cases who reported sporadic mid-trimester miscarriage or stillbirth, although there was evidence of high levels of IgM and IgG ACL among women reporting three or more miscarriages and three consecutive miscarriages, and of raised IgG ACL among those experiencing ectopic pregnancy. In conclusion, we found evidence for a large increase in risk of stillbirth in the pregnancies of Afro-Caribbean Trinidadian women with SLE (not accounted for by high ACL status). There was some evidence of an increased risk of preterm delivery and ectopic pregnancy in pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of maternal SLE.
doi:10.1186/ar2332
PMCID: PMC2246243  PMID: 18042277

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