Intracranial aneurysms are relatively common, with a prevalence of approximately 4%. Unruptured aneurysms may cause symptoms mainly due to a mass effect, but the real danger is when an aneurysm ruptures, leading to a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most aneurysms are asymptomatic and will not rupture, but they grow unpredictably and even small aneurysms carry a risk of rupture. Intracranial aneurysms are diagnosed and monitored with imaging including intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and recently transcranial Doppler ultrasonograpy has been proposed as a potential modality. Treatment options include observation, endovascular coiling, and surgical clipping. This paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, natural history, and management of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms.
Cerebral mycotic aneurysms (MAs) also called infective aneurysms, are uncommon and are usually encountered in patients with infective endocarditis. These aneurysms often present with intracranial hemorrhage. MAs may resolve on treatment with antibiotics alone. However prognosis with medical management alone is unpredictable. Good prognosis with surgery has been reported for single accessible ruptured MAs. However surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Endovascular treatment of MAs along with appropriate antibiotics is emerging as an acceptable option for these patients.
We describe two cases of infective endocarditis complicated by ruptured MA treated successfully by liquid embolic glue material.
mycotic aneurysm, infective endocarditis, endovascular treatment, liquid embolic glue material
Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience.
subarachnoid hemorrhage; aneurysms; endovascular surgery; coiling; clipping; stents; flow diversion
Mycotic aneurysms are rarely seen in patients who have infective endocarditis, and the management of these patients remains controversial. We present the case of a patient who had infective endocarditis complicated by a mycotic aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery. There was substantial mitral regurgitation, and Streptococcus viridans was isolated from the blood samples. Dysarthria appeared during the 4th week of the antibiotic therapy, but resolved completely 8 hours after onset. The left middle cerebral artery was embolized with platinum detachable coils. On the 7th day after the radiologic intervention, the native mitral valve was replaced with a 33-mm St. Jude Medical® bileaflet mechanical mitral prosthesis. Most mycotic aneurysms show notable regression of symptoms with effective antibiotic treatment, and a very few may diminish in size. However, it is impossible to predict the response of these aneurysms to therapy. To prevent the perioperative rupture of mycotic aneurysms and intracranial hemorrhage, priority should be given to endovascular interventions to treat cerebrovascular aneurysms in patients such as ours.
Aneurysm, infected; embolization, therapeutic; endocarditis, bacterial; intracranial aneurysm/therapy; mitral valve/surgery
This study was conducted to evaluate the de Novo aneurysm formation in the long-term follow-up of patients with clipped intracranial aneurysms.
A total of 459 patients underwent the clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in our institution during 1997 -2008. Of them, 119 patients were available in good condition and agreed to undergo 64 detector row computed tomography (CT) angiography. In addition, 8 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) underwent CT angiography.
The mean ± SD interval from surgery was 7.2±2.3 years for CT-angiography controlled patents. De novo aneurysms were detected in 5 of 119 (4.5%) patients and 4 of 8 patients with new subarachnoid hemorrhage. A history of multiple aneurysms was associated with the de novo aneurysm formation (p less than 0.001).
The risk of the de novo aneurysm formation in patients with clipped aneurysm is significant in long term follow-up. CT-angiography can be used as a non-invasive method for detection of de novo aneurysms in these patients.
Cerebral aneurysm, Ct-angiography, De Novo aneurysm, Surgical clipping
Introduction. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. About 20% of the stroke is hemorrhagic and about 50% of these is due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A troublesome neuropsychiatric complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is agitation/aggression. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history, sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial stabilization for 2 days, he underwent craniotomy and clipping of anterior cerebral communicating artery aneurysm. Treatment was continued with labetalol, nimodipine, and levetiracetam. Beginning postoperative day 4, patient developed episodes of confusion and agitation/aggression. Switching of Levetiracetam to valproate did not show any improvement. Psychiatry team tried to manage him with intense nursing intervention and different medications like olanzapine, valproate, lorazepam, and haloperidol. However, patient continued to be agitated and aggressive. Switching from labetalol to metoprolol resulted in dramatic improvement within 3 days. Discussion. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are often not sufficiently effective in the control of agitation/aggression in patients with traumatic brain injury and similar conditions. Our case report and the literature review including a cochrane review suggests that beta-blockers may be helpful in this situation.
Even though intracerebral hematoma (ICH) due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm has been treated by aneurysm clipping at the same time of removal of ICH through craniotomy, such management strategy is controversial in an aged patients with poor clinical grade. In this regards, stereotactic aspiration of hematoma following coil embolization can be an alternative treatment modality. Thus, the authors report a case of an aged patient who underwent stereotactic aspiration of ICH following coil embolization for the ruptured aneurysm with a brief review of literature.
Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Stereotactic aspiration; Intracerebral hematoma
A rare case of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from newly developed cerebral aneurysm in glioblastoma patient is presented. A 57-year-old man was presented with headache and memory impairment. On the magnetic resonance image and the magnetic resonance angiography, a large enhancing mass was found at right frontal subcortex and intracranial aneurysm was not found. The mass was removed subtotally and revealed as glioblastoma. He took concurrent PCV chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the mass recurred one month later after radiotherapy. He was then treated with temozolomide for 7 cycles. Three months after the completion of temozolomide therapy, he suffered from a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a rupture of a small de novo aneurysm at distal anterior cerebral artery. He underwent an aneurysm clipping and discharged without neurologic complication.
Glioblastoma; Intracranial aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Radiation therapy; Chemotherapy
The blood blister-like aneurysm (BBA) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare but clinically important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for 0.5% of incidences of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. BBA is a thin-walled, broad-based aneurysm that lacks an identifiable neck and is one of the most difficult lesions to treat. In this paper, a case is presented of a 57-year-old woman with SAH. Her cerebral angiography demonstrated a small BBA on the dorsal wall of her right ICA. Endovascular treatment that consisted of a stent-within-a-stent was attempted, but the replacement of the second stent failed, and the aneurysm became bigger. Surgery was performed by clipping the BBA with a Sundt slim-line encircling graft clip. The patient completely recovered with no complications. This treatment may be a salvageable option for BBA, especially when endovascular treatment has failed.
Blood-blister like aneurysm; Internal carotid artery; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Encircling graft clip; Endovascular stent
Retroperitoneal hematoma (RH) due to radiologic intervention for an intracranial lesion is relatively rare, difficult to diagnose, and can be life-threatening. We report a case of RH that developed in a patient on anticoagulant therapy following endovascular coiling of a ruptured anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysm. An 82-year-old man presented with a 12-day history of headache. Computed tomography (CT) on admission demonstrated slight subarachnoid hemorrhage, and left carotid angiography revealed an AcoA aneurysm. The next day, the aneurysm was occluded with coils via the femoral approach under general anesthesia. The patient received a bolus of 5,000 units of heparin immediately following the procedure, and an infusion rate of 10,000 units/day was initiated. The patient gradually became hypotensive 25 hours after coiling. Abdominal CT showed a huge, high-density soft-tissue mass filling the right side of the retroperitoneum space. The patient eventually died of multiple organ failure five days after coiling. RH after interventional radiology for neurological disease is relatively rare and can be difficult to diagnose if consciousness is disturbed. This case demonstrates the importance of performing routine physical examinations, sequentially measuring the hematocrit and closely monitoring systemic blood pressures following interventional radiologic procedures in patients with abnormal mental status.
Cerebral aneurysm; Coil; Interventional radiology; Complication; Retroperitoneal hematoma
We present the first case of a coccidioidomycosis mycotic anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm that was clipped under hypothermic cardiac standstill in a pregnant acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 24-year-old pregnant AIDS patient presented with intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. Angiography revealed an 8-mm basilar trunk aneurysm with the right AICA protruding from the side wall of the aneurysm. The patient underwent a retrosigmoid craniotomy and direct clipping of the aneurysm under hypothermic cardiac standstill. At presentation, the patient had a poor grade due to subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. Despite her large posterior circulation aneurysm in the setting of AIDS with extensive coccidioidomycosis meningitis, the lesion was clipped successfully. To do so required the full range of neurosurgical repertoire, including a skull base approach and hypothermic cardiac standstill.
Coccidioidomycosis meningitis; hypothermic cardiac standstill; mycotic aneurysm
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms in children are rare and mostly related to skull fracture or rapid decelerating closed head injury. We report the case of an infant who developed intracranial aneurysm after minor head trauma and managed by endovascular treatment.
A seven-month-old infant presented with delayed intracranial hemorrhage following minor head trauma. Cerebral angiography disclosed a multilobulated fusiform aneurysm involving the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) distal to the anterior communicating artery. Endovascular treatment of the aneurysm was performed and the infant made an excellent recovery during six months clinical and radiological follow-up.
Delayed presentation of intracranial hemorrhage with acute deterioration in the infant after head trauma warrants angiography for proper diagnosis and management of the traumatic aneurysm, which has a high mortality rate after rupture and rebleeding. Endovascular treatment of traumatic aneurysm is feasible in infants, and occlusion of distal intracranial arterial aneurysms can be safely and precisely achieved using current coil technology.
brain aneurysms, endovascular treatment, trauma
The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of surgical clipping in patients with unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.
A retrospective single-center database of 125 consecutive patients with 143 small MCA aneurysms (< 10 mm) who underwent surgical clipping was reviewed from January 2007 to December 2010. Clinical outcomes were assessed based on surgery-related complications and follow-up (mean: 17 months) using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Angiographic outcomes were evaluated by conventional angiography (N = 96) or computed tomography angiography (N = 29) at postoperative weeks 1 and 6.
There were no cases of mortality. There were three surgery-related complications (intracranial hemorrhage, meningitis and wound infection, respectively). The hemorrhagic event caused transient neurological deficits. All patients showed good clinical outcomes during follow-up (mRS 0-1). There was angiographic evidence of complete occlusion in 137 aneurysms (95.8%), a small residual neck in three aneurysms (2.2%) and partial for three aneurysms. In the three cases with partial clipping, the decision was made preoperatively to leave the residual sac to maintain distal flow, and muscular wrapping was performed.
Our study demonstrates that surgical clipping of unruptured small MCA aneurysms yields favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes. Aneurysmal clipping can be safely recommended for patients with small unruptured MCA aneurysms.
Aneurysm; Middle cerebral artery; Surgical clip; Treatment outcome
Recent advances in angiographic technique have raised our awareness of the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). However, the appropriate management for these lesions remains controversial. To optimize patient outcomes, the physician must weigh aneurysmal rupture risk associated with observation against the complication risks associated with intervention. In the case that treatment is chosen, the two available options are surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. Our paper summarizes the current body of literature in regards to the natural history of UIAs, the evolution of the lesion if it progresses uninterrupted, as well as the safety and efficacy of both treatment options. The risks and benefits of treatment and conservative management need to be evaluated on an individual basis and are greatly effected by both patient-specific and aneurysm-specific factors, which are presented in this paper. Ultimately, this body of data has led to multiple sets of treatment guidelines, which we have summated and presented in this paper.
To review the current knowledge of screening and treatment of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (AUIAs) using a case-based approach.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
PubMed was searched from January 1995 to January 2008 using the phrase unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Scientific statements of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association pertaining to intracranial aneurysms were also reviewed.
Most small AUIAs (≤ 5 mm) do not rupture, and the risks of treatment are substantial. Most small AUIAs can therefore be managed conservatively. Endovascular coiling or surgical clipping of larger aneurysms (> 5 mm) should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
There is currently a lack of sound scientific evidence to support treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. A prospective randomized controlled trial—Trial on Endovascular Aneurysm Management—is now under way to address this issue. It is expected to conclude in 2021.
Takayasu aortoarteritis (TA) rarely affects the nervous system, but when it does, it usually manifests as cerebral ischemia or stroke. These strokes have mainly been attributed to stenotic extracranial vessels. Stenoses of intracranial vessels, although rare in TA, can occur due to either embolization into the vessel or because of the vasculitic process itself. Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in patients with TA. Bilateral cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are rarer. They have been reported following radiation therapy and in association with fibromuscular dysplasia and juvenile Paget disease. Bilateral mycotic intracavernous aneurysms also occur. Bilateral giant cavernous ICA aneurysms with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) consequent to rupture into the cavernous sinus in a case of TA are extremely unusual. We report a case that fulfilled both American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatology criteria for TA. The patient had bilateral cavernous sinus giant aneurysms and CCF because the right-sided aneurysm had ruptured and was leaking into the cavernous sinus.
Bilateral giant ICA aneurysms; carotid cavernous fistula; Takayasu arteritis
Several de novo intracranial aneurysms have been described related to changes in hemodynamics after therapeutic occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA); however, de novo aneurysms related to a supraclinoid arteriosclerotic stenosis of the ICA have not been described yet. Authors consider that it is important to bear in mind the possibility of developing an aneurysm in these special conditions.
The evolution of a 62-year-old patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal frontal hematoma with some atypical circumstances that were presented together as well as the treatment he received are shown in this report. We can see this patient suffered a right thalamic hemorrhage at the age of 51 years; this condition was associated to a severe atherosclerotic stenosis of right supraclinoid ICAy. A long term had elapsed since the diagnosis of the stenosis and the discovery of a ruptured ipsilateral de novo supraclinoid internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PcomA) aneurysm.
It seems like both conditions: the atherosclerotic supraclinoid ICA which tells of an Samano et at: Ruptured De Novo PcomA Aneurysm Associated with Arteriosclerotic Stenosis of Supraclinoid ICA. Altered vessel environment coupled to a long exposure time, hemodynamic changes, unbalance in the wall sheer stress could all of them lead to the development of the de novo aneurysm.
Aneurysm; atherosclerosis; de novo; intracranial carotid artery; stenosis; subarachnoid hemorrhage
To describe the therapeutic effect and possibility of the ultra-early surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt-Hess grades IV - V).
Materials and Methods
Nine cases with intracranial aneurysms, demonstrated by computed tomographic angiography (CTA), were treated by ultra-early surgery under general anesthesia within 24 hours from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 5 cases were treated within 6 hours and 4 cases in 6 - 24 hours. Preoperative Hunt-Hess grade: 6 cases were IV and 3 cases were V. The clinical outcome was evaluated by Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS).
In operation, difficult dissection occurred in 5 cases (55.6%), and rupture of aneurysm occurred and temporary obstructions were performed in 4 cases (44.4%). After clipping of aneurysm, 2 cases underwent V-P shunt because of hydrocephalus, pulmonary infection occurred in 3 cases, hypothalamus reaction accompanied with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 2 cases. The clinical outcome were favorable (GOS 4 - 5) in 4 cases (44.4%), dissatisfied (GOS 2 - 3) in 3 cases (33.3%), and dead (GOS 1) in 2 cases (22.2%) when patients departed from our hospital.
The ultra-early surgery can avoid early rebleeding of intracranial aneurysm, therefore, should be considered in the treatment of Hunt-Hess grade IV-V intracranial aneurysms. The appliance of CTA can make it possible to use of ultra-early surgery and improve the therapeutic effect.
Intracranial aneurysm; ultra-early; surgery
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysm are rare. Presentation is variable but invasive and non-invasive investigations collectively facilitate diagnosis and guide operative procedures. Definitive treatment generally utilizes surgical intervention with excision and reconstruction using autologous vein graft. Prolonged targeted antibiotic therapy is an important adjuvant.
We describe the clinical presentation, radiological investigations and strategies on the management of a 47-year-old Caucasian Irish man who presented with a mycotic aneurysm of the popliteal artery due to thromboembolisation from Streptococus pneumoniae endocarditis.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysms are rare. To the best of our knowledge this is the first documented case of a popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm developing secondary to Streptococus pneumoniae highlighting the changing profile of causative microorganisms.
Simultaneous occurrence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is very rare and only two cases have been previously reported in the literatures. We present a case of 68-yr-old man with a history of untreated hypertension, who suffered from sudden onset of headache followed by right hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed SAH in the basal cistern and remote ICH at the left putamen. Cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery. No other vascular anomaly could be found at left putaminal area. Nine days after the ictal attack of SAH, the neck of aneurysm was clipped via the left frontotemporal craniotomy. Because of the ICH at the left frontal lobe and intraventricular hematoma on postoperative CT, we performed hematoma removal and external ventricular drainage 3 hours after the first operation. Postoperative neurological status had been improved to be drowsy and he was discharged in a severely disabled state 4 weeks after surgery. We suggest that the rupture of aneurysm possibly caused a rapid increase in blood pressure and subsequently resulted in hypertensive ICH.
Post-clipping intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the contralateral hemisphere is a very unusual phenomenon in a patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, unless there is an underlying condition. We report a complicated case of 47-year-old man, who underwent uneventful clipping of ruptured aneurysm and experienced vasospasm two weeks later. Vasospasm was treated by intra-arterial nimodipine and systemic hyperdynamic therapy. One week thereafter, he became unconscious due to intraparenchymal hemorrhage on the anterior border-zone of contalateral hemisphere, but intraoperative and pathologic findings failed to disclose any vascular anomaly. We suggest that the anti-spastic regimens cause local hemodynamic redistribution through the vasodilatory effect and in turn, resulted in such an unexpected bleeding.
Border-zone; Cerebral aneurysm; Hyperdynamic therapy; Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (Intra-arterial) Nimodipine injection; Vasospasm
Although endovascular intervention is the first-line treatment of intracranial aneurysm, intraprocedural rupture or extravasation is still an endangering event. We describe two interesting cases of extravasation during embolotherapy for ruptured peripheral cerebral pseudoaneurysms. Two male patients were admitted after development of sudden headache with presentation of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. Initial angiographic assessment failed to uncover any aneurysmal dilatation in both patients. Two weeks afterwards, catheter angiography revealed aneurysms each in the peripheral middle cerebral artery and anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Under a general anesthesia, endovascular embolization was attempted without systemic heparinization. In each case, sudden extravasation was noted around the aneurysm during manual injection of contrast after microcatheter navigation. Immediate computed tomographic scan showed a large amount of contrast collection within the brain, but they tolerated and made an unremarkable recovery thereafter. Intraprocedural extravasation is an endangering event and needs prompt management, however proximal plugging with coil deployment can be sufficient alternative, if one confronts with peripheral pseudoaneurysm. Peculiar angiographic features are deemed attributable to extremely fragile, porous vascular wall of the pseudoaneurysm. Accordingly, it should be noted that extreme caution being needed to handle such a friable vascular lesion.
Endovascular embolization; Extravasation; Pseudoaneurysm
We report herein a case successful endovascular treatment with a stent-graft of a rare case of rapidly growing mycotic aneurysm of the left common carotid artery due to acute bacterial endocarditis after eradication of the infection. Infected mycotic aneurysms of the peripheral vasculature have been considered as a contraindication for stent-graft implantation because of the possibility of microorganism spreading to the stent-graft; however, if there is evidence of complete eradication of microorganism and surgery is not an option, stent-graft implantation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
Mycotic aneurysm; covered stent; endovascular therapy; infective endocarditis; carotid artery
This report concerns a 29-year-old man with recent Streptococcus viridans endocarditis on a bicuspid aortic valve who was found to have a mycotic aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery and infective erosion and thinning of the posterior wall of the ascending aorta 1.5 to 3.5 cm above the origin of the left coronary artery, a combination of lesions not previously reported. Mycotic aneurysm of the coronary arteries affects less than 1% of patients with infective endocarditis, and there are few reports of the management of these rare lesions. The surgical management of this patient is presented with a brief review of the available literature.
Trends in management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms among neurosurgeons is very variable and had not been previously described in any Latin American country. This study was conducted to determine the preferences of Colombian neurosurgeons in pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms.
A survey-based descriptive study was performed in a sample of members from the Colombian Association of Neurosurgery. Questions about pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysm were carried out. We calculated the mean and the standard deviation of the results obtained from the continuous variables. The results of the categorical variables are presented as percentages.
The preference of medication with poor clinical evidence, such as magnesium sulfate, aspirin, statins, and anti-fibrinolytics was lower than 10%. The use of intravenous nimodipine and systemic glucocorticoids was as high as 31%. The availability of endovascular therapy was 69%. The indication for treatment of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms that required intervention was less than 13.8%. In patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms, coiling was the preferred method for exclusion.
Reported compliance of evidence-based clinical guidelines was similar to that described in developed countries, and even better. However, there is little agreement in treating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. For other issues, the conducts reported by Colombian neurosurgeons are in accordance with the current guidelines.
Intracranial aneurysms; national survey; subarachnoid hemorrhage