It is generally accepted that ER protein export is largely influenced by the transmembrane domain (TMD). The situation is unclear for membrane-anchored proteins such as SNAREs, which are anchored to the membrane by their TMD at the C-terminus. For example, in plants, Sec22 and SYP31 (a yeast Sed5 homologue) have a 17 aa TMD but different locations (ER/Golgi and Golgi), indicating that TMD length alone is not sufficient to explain their targeting. To establish the identity of factors that influence SNARE targeting, mutagenesis and live cell imaging experiments were performed on SYP31. It was found that deletion of the entire N-terminus domain of SYP31 blocked the protein in the ER. Several deletion mutants of different parts of this N-terminus domain indicated that a region between the SNARE helices Hb and Hc is required for Golgi targeting. In this region, replacement of the aa sequence MELAD by GAGAG or MALAG retained the protein in the ER, suggesting that MELAD may function as a di-acidic ER export motif EXXD. This suggestion was further verified by replacing the established di-acidic ER export motif DLE of a type II Golgi protein AtCASP and a membrane-anchored type I chimaera, TMcCCASP, by MELAD or GAGAG. The MELAD motif allowed the proteins to reach the Golgi, whereas the motif GAGAG was found to be insufficient to facilitate ER protein export. Our analyses indicate that we have identified a novel and transplantable di-acidic motif that facilitates ER export of SYP31 and may function for type I and type II proteins in plants.
Di-acidic motif; ER export; ER–Golgi interface; SNARE; syntaxin
Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) contain localization signals necessary for targeting to their resident subcellular compartments. To define signals that mediate localization to the Golgi complex, we have analyzed a resident IMP of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Golgi complex, guanosine diphosphatase (GDPase). GDPase, which is necessary for Golgi-specific glycosylation reactions, is a type II IMP with a short amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain (TMD), and a large catalytic lumenal domain. Regions specifying Golgi localization were identified by analyzing recombinant proteins either lacking GDPase domains or containing corresponding domains from type II vacuolar IMPs. Neither deletion nor substitution of the GDPase cytoplasmic domain perturbed Golgi localization. Exchanging the GDPase TMD with vacuolar protein TMDs only marginally affected Golgi localization. Replacement of the lumenal domain resulted in mislocalization of the chimeric protein from the Golgi to the vacuole, but a similar substitution leaving 34 amino acids of the GDPase lumenal domain intact was properly localized. These results identify a major Golgi localization determinant in the membrane-adjacent lumenal region (stem) of GDPase. Although necessary, the stem domain is not sufficient to mediate localization; in addition, a membrane-anchoring domain and either the cytoplasmic or full-length lumenal domain must be present to maintain Golgi residence. The importance of lumenal domain sequences in GDPase Golgi localization and the requirement for multiple hydrophilic protein domains support a model for Golgi localization invoking protein–protein interactions rather than interactions between the TMD and the lipid bilayer.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ORF7b (also called 7b) protein is an integral membrane protein that is translated from a bicistronic open reading frame encoded within subgenomic RNA 7. When expressed independently or during virus infection, ORF7b accumulates in the Golgi compartment, colocalizing with both cis- and trans-Golgi markers. To identify the domains of this protein that are responsible for Golgi localization, we have generated a set of mutant proteins and analyzed their subcellular localizations by indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The N- and C-terminal sequences are dispensable, but the ORF7b transmembrane domain (TMD) is essential for Golgi compartment localization. When the TMD of human CD4 was replaced with the ORF7b TMD, the resulting chimeric protein localized to the Golgi complex. Scanning alanine mutagenesis identified two regions in the carboxy-terminal portion of the TMD that eliminated the Golgi complex localization of the chimeric CD4 proteins or ORF7b protein. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the Golgi complex retention signal of the ORF7b protein resides solely within the TMD.
Large coiled-coil proteins are being found in increasing numbers on the membranes of the Golgi apparatus and have been proposed to function in tethering of transport vesicles and in the organization of the Golgi stack. Members of one class of Golgi coiled-coil protein, comprising giantin and golgin-84, are anchored to the bilayer by a single C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD). In this article, we report the characterization of another mammalian coiled-coil protein, CASP, that was originally identified as an alternatively spliced product of the CUTL1 gene that encodes CCAAT-displacement protein (CDP), the human homologue of the Drosophila homeodomain protein Cut. We find that the Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of CDP and CASP are also generated from a single gene. CASP lacks the DNA binding motifs of CDP and was previously reported to be a nuclear protein. Herein, we show that it is in fact a Golgi protein with a C-terminal TMD and shares with giantin and golgin-84 a conserved histidine in its TMD. However, unlike these proteins, CASP has a homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which we call COY1. Deletion of COY1 does not affect viability, but strikingly restores normal growth to cells lacking the Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Gos1p. The conserved histidine is necessary for Coy1p's activity in cells lacking Gos1p, suggesting that the TMD of these transmembrane Golgi coiled-coil proteins is directly involved in their function.
Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2) is a resident Golgi type-II membrane protein upregulated in liver disease. Given that GOLPH2 traffics through endosomes and can be secreted into the circulation, it is a promising serum marker for liver diseases. The structure of GOLPH2 and the functions of its different protein domains are not known. In the current study, we investigated the structural determinants for Golgi localization using a panel of GOLPH2 truncation mutants. The Golgi localization of GOLPH2 was not affected by the deletion of the C-terminal part of the protein. A truncated mutant containing the N-terminal portion (the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain (TMD)) localized to the Golgi. Sequential deletion analysis of the N-terminal indicated that the TMD with a positively charged residue in the cytoplasmic N-terminal tail were sufficient to support Golgi localization. We also showed that both endogenous and secreted GOLPH2 exist as a disulfide-bonded dimer, and the coiled-coil domain was sufficient for dimerization. This structural knowledge is important for the understanding the pathogenic role of GOLPH2 in liver diseases, and the development of GOLPH2-based hepatocellular cancer diagnostic methods.
The various membranes of eukaryotic cells differ in composition, but it is at present unclear if this results in differences in physical properties. The sequences of transmembrane domains (TMDs) of integral membrane proteins should reflect the physical properties of the bilayers in which they reside. We used large datasets from both fungi and vertebrates to perform a comprehensive comparison of the TMDs of proteins from different organelles. We find that TMDs are not generic but have organelle-specific properties with a dichotomy in TMD length between the early and late parts of the secretory pathway. In addition, TMDs from post-ER organelles show striking asymmetries in amino acid compositions across the bilayer that is linked to residue size and varies between organelles. The pervasive presence of organelle-specific features among the TMDs of a particular organelle has implications for TMD prediction, regulation of protein activity by location, and sorting of proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway.
► Transmembrane domains (TMDs) vary in length and residue composition between organelles ► TMD lengths differ pre- versus post-Golgi but not between apical and basolateral surfaces ► The differences between TMDs are large enough to have value in predicting location ► Pervasive differences mean TMDs could collectively contribute to membrane properties
Background: Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) is a regulator of intracellular Ca2+ fluxes and apoptosis.
Results: The transmembrane topology of viral GAAP is conserved in human GAAP and BI-1.
Conclusion: GAAPs and BI-1 have a six membrane-spanning topology with cytosolic N and C termini and a C-terminal reentrant loop.
Significance: The topology of the TMBIM family provides valuable structural information on these proteins.
The Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) is a hydrophobic Golgi protein that regulates intracellular calcium fluxes and apoptosis. GAAP is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and some strains of vaccinia virus (VACV) and camelpox virus. Based on sequence, phylogeny, and hydrophobicity, GAAPs were classified within the transmembrane Bax inhibitor-containing motif (TMBIM) family. TMBIM members are anti-apoptotic and were predicted to have seven-transmembrane domains (TMDs). However, topology prediction programs are inconsistent and predicted that GAAP and other TMBIM members have six or seven TMDs. To address this discrepancy, we mapped the transmembrane topology of viral (vGAAP) and human (hGAAP), as well as Bax inhibitor (BI-1). Data presented show a six-, not seven-, transmembrane topology for vGAAP with a putative reentrant loop at the C terminus and both termini located in the cytosol. We find that this topology is also conserved in hGAAP and BI-1. This places the charged C terminus in the cytosol, and mutation of these charged residues in hGAAP ablated its anti-apoptotic function. Given the highly conserved hydrophobicity profile within the TMBIM family and recent phylogenetic data indicating that a GAAP-like protein may have been the ancestral progenitor of a subset of the TMBIM family, we propose that this vGAAP topology may be used as a model for the remainder of the TMBIM family of proteins. The topology described provides valuable information on the structure and function of an important but poorly understood family of proteins.
Animal Viruses; Apoptosis; Calcium; Golgi; Membrane Proteins; Protein Domains
alpha 1,3 mannosyltransferase (Mnn1p) is a type II integral membrane protein that is localized to the yeast Golgi complex. We have examined the signals within Mnn1p that mediate Golgi localization by expression of fusion proteins comprised of Mnn1p and the secreted protein invertase. The N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mnn1p is sufficient to localize invertase to the Golgi complex by a mechanism that is not saturable by approximately 15-20 fold overexpression. Furthermore, the TMD-mediated localization mechanism is clathrin dependent, as an invertase fusion protein bearing only the Mnn1p TMD is mislocalized to the plasma membrane of a clathrin heavy chain mutant. The Mnn1-invertase fusion proteins are not retained in the Golgi complex as efficiently as Mnn1p, suggesting that other signals may be present in the wild-type protein. Indeed, the Mnn1p lumenal domain (Mnn1-s) is also localized to the Golgi complex when expressed as a functional, soluble protein by exchanging its TMD for a cleavable signal sequence. In contrast to the Mnn1-invertase fusion proteins, overexpression of Mnn1-s saturates its retention mechanism, and results in the partial secretion of this protein. These data indicate that Mnn1p has separable Golgi localization signals within both its transmembrane and lumenal domains.
Unlike simple epithelial cells that directly target newly synthesized glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and single transmembrane domain (TMD) proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the apical membrane, hepatocytes use an indirect pathway: proteins are delivered to the basolateral domain and then selectively internalized and transcytosed to the apical plasma membrane. Myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) and MAL2 have been identified as regulators of direct and indirect apical delivery, respectively. Hepatocytes lack endogenous MAL consistent with the absence of direct apical targeting. Does MAL expression reroute hepatic apical residents into the direct pathway? We found that MAL expression in WIF-B cells induced the formation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-enriched Golgi domains that contained GPI-anchored and single TMD apical proteins; polymeric IgA receptor (pIgA-R), polytopic apical, and basolateral resident distributions were excluded. Basolateral delivery of newly synthesized apical residents was decreased in MAL-expressing cells concomitant with increased apical delivery; pIgA-R and basolateral resident delivery was unchanged. These data suggest that MAL rerouted selected hepatic apical proteins into the direct pathway.
The membrane glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) of Bunyamwera virus (BUN; family Bunyaviridae) accumulate in the Golgi complex, where virion maturation occurs. The Golgi targeting and retention signal has previously been shown to reside within the Gn protein. A series of truncated Gn and glycoprotein precursor cDNAs were constructed by progressively deleting the coding region of the transmembrane domain (TMD) and the cytoplasmic tail. We also constructed chimeric proteins of BUN Gc, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) fusion (F) protein that contain the Gn TMD with various lengths of its adjacent cytoplasmic tails. The subcellular localization of mutated BUN glycoproteins and chimeric proteins was investigated by double-staining immunofluorescence with antibodies against BUN glycoproteins or the HRSV F protein and with antibodies specific for the Golgi complex. The results revealed that Gn and all truncated Gn proteins that contained the intact TMD (residues 206 to 224) were able to translocate to the Golgi complex and also rescued the Gc protein, which is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone, to this organelle. The rescued Gc proteins acquired endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H resistance. The Gn TMD could also target chimeric EGFP to the Golgi and retain the F protein, which is characteristically expressed on the surface of HRSV-infected cells, in the Golgi. However, chimeric BUN Gc did not translocate to the Golgi, suggesting that an interaction with Gn is involved in Golgi retention of the Gc protein. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the Golgi targeting and retention signal of BUN glycoproteins resides in the TMD of the Gn protein.
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins that contain a single C-terminal transmembrane helix. The post-translational insertion of the yeast TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the Golgi ER trafficking (GET) complex which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is an ATPase that recognizes and binds the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of the TA proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of Get3 from two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii, respectively. These high resolution crystal structures show that Get3 contains a nucleotide-binding domain and a “finger” domain for binding the TA protein TMD. A large hydrophobic groove on the finger domain of S. cerevisiae Get3 structure might represent the binding site for TMD of TA proteins. A hydrophobic helix from a symmetry-related Get3 molecule sits in the TMD-binding groove and mimics the TA binding scenario. Interestingly, the crystal structures of the Get3 dimers from S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii exhibit distinct conformations. The S. cerevisiae Get3 dimer structure does not contain nucleotides and maintains an “open” conformation, while the D. hansenii Get3 dimer structure binds ADP and stays in a “closed” conformation. We propose that the conformational changes to switch the Get3 between the open and closed conformations may facilitate the membrane insertions for TA proteins.
The FAST proteins are a unique family of virus-encoded cell-cell membrane fusion proteins. In the absence of a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide, a single-pass transmembrane domain (TMD) functions as a reverse signal-anchor to direct the FAST proteins into the plasma membrane in an Nexo/Ccyt topology. There is little information available on the role of the FAST protein TMD in the cell-cell membrane fusion reaction. We show that in the absence of conservation in the length or primary amino acid sequence, the p14 TMD can be functionally exchanged with the TMDs of the p10 and p15 FAST proteins. This is not the case for chimeric p14 proteins containing the TMDs of two different enveloped viral fusion proteins or a cellular membrane protein; such chimeric proteins were defective for both pore formation and syncytiogenesis. TMD structural features that are conserved within members of the FAST protein family presumably play direct roles in the fusion reaction. Molecular modeling suggests that the funnel-shaped architecture of the FAST protein TMDs may represent such a conserved structural and functional motif. Interestingly, although heterologous TMDs exert diverse influences on the trafficking of the p14 FAST protein, these TMDs are capable of functioning as reverse signal-anchor sequences to direct p14 into lipid rafts in the correct membrane topology. The FAST protein TMDs are therefore not primary determinants of type III protein topology, but they do play a direct, sequence-independent role in the membrane fusion reaction.
Yeast Sec12p is a type II transmembrane protein in the ER, which is essential for the formation of transport vesicles. From biochemical and morphological lines of evidence, we have proposed that Sec12p is localized to the ER by two mechanisms: static retention in the ER and dynamic retrieval from the early Golgi compartment. We have also shown that Rer1p, a membrane protein in the Golgi, is required for correct localization of Sec12p. In the present study, we have performed a systematic analysis to determine the ER localization signals in Sec12p corresponding to these two mechanisms. Both the transmembrane domain (TMD) and the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic domain of Sec12p show the ability to localize the protein to the ER. The effect of the TMD is potent and sufficient by itself for the ER localization and is strongly dependent on Rer1p. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic domain shows a moderate ER-localization capability which is independent of Rer1p. The rate of mannosyl modification has been measured to distinguish between retention and retrieval. The cytoplasmic domain significantly delays the transport from the ER to the cis-Golgi. In contrast, the TMD shows only a subtle retardation in the transport from the ER to the cis-Golgi but strictly prevents the transport beyond there. From these observations, we conclude that the TMD mainly acts as the retrieval signal and the cytoplasmic domain contains the retention signal. This study not only supports the two-mechanisms hypothesis but also provides powerful tools to dissect the two.
The yeast Golgi membrane protein Rer1p is required for the retrieval of various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins such as Sec12p and Sec71p to the ER. We demonstrate here that the transmembrane domain (TMD) of Sec71p, a type-III membrane protein, contains an ER localization signal, which is required for physical recognition by Rer1p. The Sec71TMD-GFP fusion protein is efficiently retrieved to the ER by Rer1p. The structural feature of this TMD signal turns out to be the spatial location of polar residues flanking the highly hydrophobic core sequence but not the whole length of the TMD. On the Rer1p side, Tyr152 residue in the 4th TMD is important for the recognition of Sec12p but not Sec71p, suggesting that Rer1p interacts with its ligands at least in two modes. Sec71TMD-GFP expressed in the Δrer1 mutant cells is mislocalized from the ER to the lumen of vacuoles via the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. In this case, not only the presence of polar residues in the Sec71TMD but also the length of the TMD is critical for the MVB sorting. Thus, the Rer1p-dependent ER retrieval and the MVB sorting in late endosomes both watch polar residues in the TMD but in a different manner.
While work with viral fusion proteins has demonstrated that the transmembrane domain (TMD) can affect protein folding, stability, and membrane fusion promotion, the mechanism(s) remains poorly understood. TMDs could play a role in fusion promotion through direct TMD-TMD interactions, and we have recently shown that isolated TMDs from three paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins interact as trimers using sedimentation equilibrium (SE) analysis (E. C. Smith, et al., submitted for publication). Immediately N-terminal to the TMD is heptad repeat B (HRB), which plays critical roles in fusion. Interestingly, addition of HRB decreased the stability of the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions. This result, combined with previous findings that HRB forms a trimeric coiled coil in the prefusion form of the whole protein though HRB peptides fail to stably associate in isolation, suggests that the trimeric TMD-TMD interactions work in concert with elements in the F ectodomain head to stabilize a weak HRB interaction. Thus, changes in TMD-TMD interactions could be important in regulating F triggering and refolding. Alanine insertions between the TMD and HRB demonstrated that spacing between these two regions is important for protein stability while not affecting TMD-TMD interactions. Additional mutagenesis of the C-terminal end of the TMD suggests that β-branched residues within the TMD play a role in membrane fusion, potentially through modulation of TMD-TMD interactions. Our results support a model whereby the C-terminal end of the Hendra virus F TMD is an important regulator of TMD-TMD interactions and show that these interactions help hold HRB in place prior to the triggering of membrane fusion.
Get3 is a cytosolic ATPase which can recognize and bind the transmembrane domain of tail-anchored proteins. Yeast Get3 has been crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron X-ray source.
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single transmembrane domain (TMD) at the C-terminus. The post-translational insertion of TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the cooperation of the Golgi ER-trafficking (GET) complex, which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is a cytosolic ATPase which can recognize and bind the TMD of the TA proteins. Get1 and Get2 are ER transmembrane proteins which can recruit and form a complex with TA-bound Get3. The GET complex carries out an energy-dependent process that facilitates the insertion of the TA-protein TMD into the ER membrane. In order to investigate the mechanism by which the GET complex functions to promote protein insertion into the ER membrane, yeast Get3 has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron X-ray source. The crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 220.26, b = 112.95, c = 48.27 Å. There is one Get3 dimer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 65%.
Get3; endoplasmic reticulum; tail-anchored proteins
Rer1p, a yeast Golgi membrane protein, is required for the retrieval of a set of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins. We present the first evidence that Rer1p directly interacts with the transmembrane domain (TMD) of Sec12p which contains a retrieval signal. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of Rer1p rapidly cycles between the Golgi and the ER. Either a lesion of coatomer or deletion of the COOH-terminal tail of Rer1p causes its mislocalization to the vacuole. The COOH-terminal Rer1p tail interacts in vitro with a coatomer complex containing α and γ subunits. These findings not only give the proof that Rer1p is a novel type of retrieval receptor recognizing the TMD in the Golgi but also indicate that coatomer actively regulates the function and localization of Rer1p.
retrieval; vesicle recycling; Golgi apparatus; coatomer; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Tom20 is a major receptor of the mitochondrial preprotein translocation system and is bound to the outer membrane through the NH2-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) in an Nin-Ccyt orientation. We analyzed the mitochondria-targeting signal of rat Tom20 (rTom20) in COS-7 cells, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter by systematically introducing deletions or mutations into the TMD or the flanking regions. Moderate TMD hydrophobicity and a net positive charge within five residues of the COOH-terminal flanking region were both critical for mitochondria targeting. Constructs without net positive charges within the flanking region, as well as those with high TMD hydrophobicity, were targeted to the ER-Golgi compartments. Intracellular localization of rTom20-GFP fusions, determined by fluorescence microscopy, was further verified by cell fractionation. The signal recognition particle (SRP)–induced translation arrest and photo–cross-linking demonstrated that SRP recognized the TMD of rTom20-GFP, but with reduced affinity, while the positive charge at the COOH-terminal flanking segment inhibited the translation arrest. The mitochondria-targeting signal identified in vivo also functioned in the in vitro system. We conclude that NH2-terminal TMD with a moderate hydrophobicity and a net positive charge in the COOH-terminal flanking region function as the mitochondria-targeting signal of the outer membrane proteins, evading SRP-dependent ER targeting.
mitochondria; protein import; sorting signal; signal recognition particle; signal-anchor sequence
Golgi inheritance during mammalian cell division occurs through the disassembly, partitioning, and reassembly of Golgi membranes. The mechanisms responsible for these processes are poorly understood. To address these mechanisms, we have examined the identity and dynamics of Golgi proteins within mitotic membranes using live cell imaging and electron microscopy techniques. Mitotic Golgi fragments, seen in prometaphase and telophase, were found to localize adjacent to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export domains, and resident Golgi transmembrane proteins cycled rapidly into and out of these fragments. Golgi proteins within mitotic Golgi haze—seen during metaphase—were found to redistribute with ER markers into fragments when the ER was fragmented by ionomycin treatment. The temperature-sensitive misfolding mutant ts045VSVG protein, when localized to the Golgi at the start of mitosis, became trapped in the ER at the end of mitosis in cells shifted to 40°C. Finally, reporters for Arf1 and Sar1 activity revealed that Arf1 and Sar1 undergo sequential inactivation during mitotic Golgi breakdown and sequential reactivation upon Golgi reassembly at the end of mitosis. Together, these findings support a model of mitotic Golgi inheritance that involves inhibition and subsequent reactivation of cellular activities controlling the cycling of Golgi components into and out of the ER.
Despite the potential importance of retrieval-based targeting, few Golgi cisternae-localized proteins have been demonstrated to be targeted by retrieval, and the putative retrieval signals remain unknown. Golgi phosphoprotein of 130 kDa (GPP130) is a cis-Golgi protein that allows assay of retrieval-based targeting because it redistributes to endosomes upon treatment with agents that disrupt lumenal pH, and it undergoes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval upon drug removal. Analysis of chimeric molecules containing domains from GPP130 and the plasma membrane protein dipeptidylpeptidase IV indicated that GPP130 targeting information is contained entirely within its lumenal domain. Dissection of the lumenal domain indicated that a predicted coiled-coil stem domain adjacent to the transmembrane domain was both required and sufficient for pH-sensitive Golgi localization and endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. Further dissection of this stem domain revealed two noncontiguous stretches that each conferred Golgi localization separated by a stretch that conferred endosomal targeting. Importantly, in the absence of the endosomal determinant the Golgi targeting of constructs containing either or both of the Golgi determinants became insensitive to pH disruption by monensin. Because monensin blocks endosome-to-Golgi transport, the finding that the endosomal determinant confers monensin sensitivity suggests that the endosomal determinant causes GPP130 to traffic to endosomes from which it is normally retrieved. Thus, our observations identify Golgi and endosomal targeting determinants within a lumenal predicted coiled-coil domain that appear to act coordinately to mediate retrieval-based targeting of GPP130.
Members of the Bunyaviridae family mature by a budding process in the Golgi complex. The site of maturation is thought to be largely determined by the accumulation of the two spike glycoproteins, G1 and G2, in this organelle. Here we show that the signal for localizing the Uukuniemi virus (a phlebovirus) spike protein complex to the Golgi complex resides in the cytoplasmic tail of G1. We constructed chimeric proteins in which the ectodomain, transmembrane domain (TMD), and cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Uukuniemi virus G1 were exchanged with the corresponding domains of either vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV G), chicken lysozyme, or CD4, all proteins readily transported to the plasma membrane. The chimeras were expressed in HeLa or BHK-21 cells by using either the T7 RNA polymerase-driven vaccinia virus system or the Semliki Forest virus system. The fate of the chimeric proteins was monitored by indirect immunofluorescence, and their localizations were compared by double labeling with markers specific for the Golgi complex. The results showed that the ectodomain and TMD (including the 10 flanking residues on either side of the membrane) of G1 played no apparent role in targeting chimeric proteins to the Golgi complex. Instead, all chimeras containing the CT of G1 were efficiently targeted to the Golgi complex and colocalized with mannosidase II, a Golgi-specific enzyme. Conversely, replacing the CT of G1 with that from VSV G resulted in the efficient transport of the chimeric protein to the cell surface. Progressive deletions of the G1 tail suggested that the Golgi retention signal maps to a region encompassing approximately residues 10 to 50, counting from the proposed border between the TMD and the tail. Both G1 and G2 were found to be acylated, as shown by incorporation of [3H]palmitate into the viral proteins. By mutational analyses of CD4-G1 chimeras, the sites for palmitylation were mapped to two closely spaced cysteine residues in the G1 tail. Changing either or both of these cysteines to alanine had no effect on the targeting of the chimeric protein to the Golgi complex.
The p7B movement protein (MP) of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is a single-pass membrane protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus (GA), and plasmodesmata (Pd). Experimental data presented here revealed that the p7B transmembrane domain (TMD) was sufficient to target the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to ER membranes. In addition, the short extramembrane regions of p7B were essential for subsequent ER export and transport to the GA and Pd. Microsomal partitioning and bimolecular fluorescence assays supported a type II topology of p7B in planta. Mutations affecting conventional determinants of p7B membrane topology, such as the TMD secondary structure, the overall hydrophobicity profile, the so-called “aromatic belt,” and the net charge distribution on either side of the TMD, were engineered into infectious RNAs to investigate the relationship between the MP structure and MNSV cell-to-cell movement. The results revealed that (i) the overall hydrophobic profile and the α-helix integrity of the TMD were relevant for virus movement, (ii) modification of the net charge balance of the regions flanking both TMD sides drastically reduced cell-to-cell movement, (iii) localization of p7B to the GA was necessary but not sufficient for virus movement, and (iv) membrane insertion was essential for p7B function in virus movement. Our results therefore indicate that MNSV cell-to-cell movement requires sequential transport of p7B from the ER via the GA to Pd, which is modulated by a combination of several signals with different strengths in the extramembrane regions and TMD of the MP.
Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), a type II transmembrane protein, is directly transported to the apical plasma membrane in polarized MDCK cells. Previously, it was shown that the transmembrane domain (TMD) of NA provides a determinant(s) for apical sorting and raft association (A. Kundu, R. T. Avalos, C. M. Sanderson, and D. P. Nayak, J. Virol. 70:6508–6515, 1996). In this report, we have analyzed the sequences in the NA TMD involved in apical transport and raft association by making chimeric TMDs from NA and human transferring receptor (TR) TMDs and by mutating the NA TMD sequences. Our results show that the COOH-terminal half of the NA TMD (amino acids [aa] 19 to 35) was significantly involved in raft association, as determined by Triton X-100 (TX-100) resistance. However, in addition, the highly conserved residues at the extreme NH2 terminus of the NA TMD were also critical for TX-100 resistance. On the other hand, 19 residues (aa 9 to 27) at the NH2 terminus of the NA TMD were sufficient for apical sorting. Amino acid residues 14 to 18 and 27 to 31 had the least effect on apical transport, whereas mutations in the amino acid residues 11 to 13, 23 to 26, and 32 to 35 resulted in altered polarity for the mutant proteins. These results indicated that multiple regions in the NA TMD were involved in apical transport. Furthermore, these results support the idea that the signals for apical sorting and raft association, although residing in the NA TMD, are not identical and vary independently and that the NA TMD also possesses an apical determinant(s) which can interact with apical sorting machineries outside the lipid raft.
The N-terminal domain of fukutin-I has been implicated in the localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi Apparatus. It has been proposed to mediate this through its interaction with the thinner lipid bilayers found in these compartments. Here we have employed multiscale molecular dynamics simulations and circular dichroism spectroscopy to explore the structure, stability, and orientation of the short 36-residue N-terminus of fukutin-I (FK1TMD) in lipids with differing tail lengths. Our results show that FK1TMD adopts a stable helical conformation in phosphatidylcholine lipids when oriented with its principal axis perpendicular to the bilayer plane. The stability of the helix is largely insensitive to the lipid tail length, preventing hydrophobic mismatch by virtue of its mobility and ability to tilt within the lipid bilayers. This suggests that changes in FK1TMD tilt in response to bilayer properties may be implicated in the regulation of its trafficking. Coarse-grained simulations of the complex Golgi membrane suggest the N-terminal domain may induce the formation of microdomains in the surrounding membrane through its preferential interaction with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipids.
It is thought that residents of the Golgi stack are localized by a retention mechanism that prevents their forward progress. Nevertheless, some early Golgi proteins acquire late Golgi modifications. Herein, we describe GPP130 (Golgi phosphoprotein of 130 kDa), a 130-kDa phosphorylated and glycosylated integral membrane protein localized to the cis/medial Golgi. GPP130 appears to be the human counterpart of rat Golgi integral membrane protein, cis (GIMPc), a previously identified early Golgi antigen that acquires late Golgi carbohydrate modifications. The sequence of cDNAs encoding GPP130 indicate that it is a type II membrane protein with a predicted molecular weight of 81,880 and an unusually acidic lumenal domain. On the basis of the alignment with several rod-shaped proteins and the presence of multiple predicted coiled-coil regions, GPP130 may form a flexible rod in the Golgi lumen. In contrast to the behavior of previously studied type II Golgi proteins, overexpression of GPP130 led to a pronounced accumulation in endocytotic vesicles, and endogenous GPP130 reversibly redistributed to endocytotic vesicles after chloroquine treatment. Thus, localization of GPP130 to the early Golgi involves steps that are saturable and sensitive to lumenal pH, and GPP130 contains targeting information that specifies its return to the Golgi after chloroquine washout. Given that GIMPc acquires late Golgi modifications in untreated cells, it seems likely that GPP130/GIMPc continuously cycles between the early Golgi and distal compartments and that an unidentified retrieval mechanism is important for its targeting.