The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Few studies exist that consider health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (TASCT). Eighteen patients with advanced MM who underwent dose-modified TASCT were enrolled in this study between March 2006 and March 2008. Patients <60 year old (10) received conditioning with melphalan 140 mg/m2 and patients who were ≥60 years (8) received 100 mg/m2. The median age was 57.5 years (range 35–69). We conducted the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-MY24 questionnaires via interviews at presentation, after each ASCT and thereafter every 3 months for 24 months. Mean global health measure improved from 3.44 before transplant to 4.50 (1=very poor, 7=excellent) at the second and subsequent follow-up visits (P<0.001) and the mean global quality of life score improved from 3.61 to 4.71 (P<0.001). Pain symptoms were reduced (P=0.001), and physical functioning improved (P<0.001) throughout the period of post-transplant follow-up. Our study showed that dose-reduced TASCT is well tolerated with low toxicity albeit the transient reduction in QoL during both transplants. Post-transplant follow-up showed significant improvement in overall HR-QoL that reflects positively on the overall disease-outcome. Furthermore, a sole focus on patient-survival does not adequately provide indication regarding the tolerability and effectiveness of a proposed treatment on the patient’s perceived quality of life. As clinicians, our primary concern should be toward patient-welfare as well as survival. Therefore, we should employ the tools of QoL in conjunction with overall survival in order to deliver the best possible patient outcomes. The EORTC-QLQ-MY24 is a practical tool in measuring QoL in myeloma patients.
In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and treatment results of osteosarcoma during the past 7 years, and evaluated the role of high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients who were diagnosed as osteosarcoma at our center from January, 2000 to December, 2007.
The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival of the patients were 72.6% and 55.9%, respectively. Seventeen (41.5%) patients showed disease progression during treatment or relapse after the end of treatment. The patients who had metastasis at diagnosis or who had a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed decreased overall and event-free survival. Four patients received ASCT after HDCT, and 3 of them are alive without disease.
The patients who relapsed or had refractory osteosarcoma or who had metastasis at diagnosis or a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed poor prognosis. HDCT with ASCT could be an alternative treatment option for these patients.
Osteosarcoma; Autologous stem cell transplantation; High dose chemotherapy; Pediatrics
The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a phase I-II trial whether low doses of recombinant human interleukin 2 (rHuIL-2) over a prolonged period of time are safe and effective in eradicating or controlling minimal residual disease in children with neuroblastoma given high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). From January 1992 to July 1996, 17 consecutive patients, with either stage IV or relapsed neuroblastoma, were enrolled. Patients received rHuIL-2 after a median time interval (min-max) of 105 days (56-153) after HDCT and ASCT. The protocol consisted of 2 'priming' courses of rHuIL-2 at escalating doses administered intravenously at 72-h intervals, followed by 'maintenance' with 11 monthly and six bimonthly boosting 5-day courses administered subcutaneously on an outpatient basis. At April 1997, 7 out of the 17 patients had completed the treatment schedule, four had discontinued treatment because of toxicity and four because of relapse; the remaining two patients are still on treatment, having completed 15 courses. Expansion of T lymphocytes, together with an increase in both natural killer cells and in activated T lymphocytes was evidenced. After a median (min-max) follow-up time of 30 (16-64) months, 12 out of 17 patients are alive and well. Two patients relapsed and died 14 and 35 months after transplant. Three patients are alive after having relapsed at 41, 21 and 13 months. The actuarial 2-year event-free survival and overall survival are 67% and 92% respectively. Intermittent administration of low doses of rHuIL-2 given for a long period of time is well tolerated and seems capable of controlling minimal residual disease after HDCT and ASCT in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is a rare clinico-pathological entity with a poor prognosis, lagging far behind any other form of non metastatic breast cancer. Since the advent of systemic chemotherapy over 35 years ago, only minimal progress has been made in long term outcome. Although multiple randomized trials of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous progenitor cell transplantation (ASCT) for the treatment of breast cancer have yielded disappointing results, these data are not necessarily relevant to IBC, a distinct clinical and pathological entity. Therefore, the optimal multimodality therapy for IBC is not well established and remains unsatisfactory. We treated 21 women with non metastatic IBC with a multi-modality strategy including high-dose melphalan / etoposide and ASCT. The treatment was overall tolerated with acceptable morbidity and no post ASCT 100-day mortality. With a median potential follow-up of approximately 8 years, the estimated PFS, EFS and OS at 6 years from on-study date are: 67%, 55% and 69% respectively. These results from a small phase II study are among the most promising of mature outcome data for IBC. They strongly suggest, along with results of several already published phase II trials, that ASCT could play a significant role in the first line treatment of IBC.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is commonly used in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Several trials report the role of ASCT for high risk patients. We evaluated the results and the prognostic factors influencing the therapeutic effects on the patients who were treated with high dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the data of 40 cases with NHL who underwent ASCT after HDC. Twenty-four patients had high-risk disease, 12 cases sensitive relapse, and two cases resistant relapse or primary refractory each. The median age of patients was 34 years (range, 14-58 years). The median follow-up duration from transplantation was 16 months (range, 0.6-94 months). Estimated overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were 40% and 30%, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for survival included older age (≥ 45 years), poor performance status in all patient analysis, and a longer interval between first complete remission and transplantation in high risk patients. In high risk NHL patients, transplantation should be done early after first complete remission to overcome chemo-resistance.
Transplantation; autologous; stem cells; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has become the treatment of choice for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Studies have shown that maintenance treatment with interferon-alpha is associated with improved survival rates following ASCT. However, despite these recent advances in regimes, relapses are inevitable; thus, the prediction of relapse following ASCT requires assessment.
We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients who received ASCT between 2003 and 2008. All patients received chemotherapy with vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (VAD), and ASCT was performed following high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy. We evaluated the influence of the post-transplant day +14 (D+14) bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPCp) (≥ 2 vs. < 2%), international scoring system (ISS) stage (II vs. III), response after 3 cycles of VAD therapy (complete response [CR] vs. non-CR), deletion of chromosome 13q (del[13q]) (presence of the abnormality vs. absence), and BMPCp at diagnosis (≥ 50 vs. < 50%) on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
During the median follow-up of 28.0 months, the median PFS and OS were 29.1 and 42.1 months, respectively. By univariate analysis, ISS stage III at diagnosis, BMPCp ≥ 50% at diagnosis, CR after 3 cycles of VAD therapy, del (13q) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and BMPCp ≥ 2% at post-transplant D+14 were correlated with PFS and OS. A multivariate analysis revealed that a post-transplant D+14 BMPCp ≥ 2% (PFS, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.426, p = 0.008; OS, HR = 3.545, p = 0.038) and CR after 3 cycles of VAD therapy (PFS, HR = 0.072, p = 0.014; OS, HR = 0.055, p = 0.015) were independent prognostic parameters.
Post-transplant D+14 BMPCp is a useful parameter for predicting the outcome for patients with MM receiving ASCT.
Multiple myeloma; Stem cell transplantation; Bone marrow; Plasma cell
Cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products can induce a number of infusion-related adverse reactions, including life-threatening cardiac, neurologic and other end-organ complications. Preliminary analyses suggested limiting the daily total nucleated cell dose infused might decrease the incidence of these adverse effects. A policy change implemented in December 2007, limiting the TNC dose to <1.63 × 109 TNC/kg/day, allowed us to assess the impact of this intervention on infusion-related safety, infusion schedules, engraftment and costs in cohorts of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplants (ASCTs) two years before (325 ASCTs in 288 patients) and two years after the policy change (519 ASCTs in 479 patients). The percentage of autologous transplant patients requiring multiple day infusions increased from 6% to 24%. Concurrently, the incidence of infusion-related grade 3–5 SAEs decreased significantly, from 4% (13/325) pre-policy change to 0.6 % (3/519) post-policy change (p<0.0004). Multi-day infusions were not associated with increased time to neutrophil or platelet engraftment or the costs of transplantation. We conclude that limiting the daily TNC dose improved the safety of this procedure without compromising engraftment or increasing the costs of the procedure.
The role of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment armamentarium of aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is still a matter of debate. In the pre-Rituximab era, the PARMA study demonstrated the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage chemotherapy in chemosensitive, relapsed patients. Subsequently, HDT/ASCT has become a standard approach for relapsed NHL. With the advent of Rituximab in the landscape of NHL, transplantation as part of first-line therapy has been challenged. However, no benefit in terms of disease-free or overall survival of HDT/ASCT over standard therapy was shown when Rituximab was added to both arms. Moreover, the superiority of HDT/ASCT over conventional salvage therapy in patients relapsing from first-line therapy including Rituximab was not confirmed. From these disappointing results, novel strategies, which can enhance the anti-lymphoma effect, at the same time reducing toxicity have been developed, with the aim of improving the outcome of HDT/ASCT in aggressive NHL. In T-cell lymphoma, few publications demonstrated that consolidation of complete remission with HDT/ASCT is safe and feasible. However, up to one-third of patients may never receive transplant, mostly due to progressive disease, and relapse still remains a major concern even after transplant.
Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are usually cured by primary therapy using chemotherapy alone or combined modality therapy with external beam radiation. Patients who do not experience a complete remission or those who experience relapse may by salvaged by high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Success of this approach is largely dependent on the tumor being sensitive to salvage chemotherapy before transplant. More studies are showing the predictive value of functional imaging in this setting. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has greater risk of nonrelapse mortality and is generally reserved for patients who experience relapse post-ASCT, but may provide long-term survival for some patients through graft-versus-tumor immune effects.
Hodgkin lymphoma; autologous; allogeneic; transplantation
The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of HDC with cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin (CTCb) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) for MBC patients.
Materials and Methods
From September 1994 to December 1999, 23 MBC patients were enrolled. All the patients received 2 to 10 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Before transplantation, 12 patients were in complete response (CR), nine were in partial response (PR), and two had progressive disease (PD). The HDC regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide 1,500 mg/m2/day, thiotepa 125 mg/m2/day and carboplatin 200 mg/m2/day intravenously for 4 consecutive days.
After ASCT, 13 patients (56%) had a CR, five (22%) had a PR, three (13%) had no change, while two (9%) showed a PD. Seventeen patients relapsed or progressed during the median follow-up of 78 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 11 months and the median overall survival (OS) time was 23 months. The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 22% and 25%, respectively. On the multivariate analyses, less than 4 involved lymph nodes was predictive of a better PFS and OS.
HDC with CTCb for MBC has acceptable toxicity; however, this treatment does not show a survival benefit.
Metastatic breast neoplasms; High-dose chemotherapy; Cyclophosphamide; Thiotepa; Carboplatin
Although multiple myeloma remains incurable outside of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, novel agents made available only in the last few decades have nonetheless tremendously improved the landscape of myeloma treatment. Lenalidomide, of the immunomodulatory class of drugs, is one of those novel agents. In the non-transplant and relapsed/refractory settings, lenalidomide clearly benefits patients in terms of virtually all meaningful outcomes including overall survival. Data supporting the usage of lenalidomide as part of treatment approaches incorporating high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support (ASCT) are less mature as pertains to such long-term outcomes and toxicity, and lenalidomide is not currently approved by regulatory agencies for use in the context of ASCT in either the United States or Europe. That said, relatively preliminary efficacy data describing lenalidomide as a component of ASCT-based treatment approaches to MM are indeed promising, and consequently lenalidomide's role in ASCT-based treatment strategies is growing. In this review we summarize existing data that pertains to lenalidomide in the specific context of ASCT, and we share our thoughts on how our own group applies these data to approach this complex issue clinically.
The feasibility and effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) were evaluated in children younger than 3 yr of age with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Tandem HDCT/autoSCT was administered following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered if the tumor relapsed or progressed, otherwise, it was administered after 3 yr of age. Tumors relapsed or progressed during induction chemotherapy in 5 of 9 patients enrolled; 3 of these 5 received tandem HDCT/autoSCT as a salvage treatment. One patient died from sepsis during induction chemotherapy. The remaining 3 patients proceeded to tandem HDCT/autoSCT; however, 2 of these patients showed tumor relapse/progression after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. All 7 relapses/progressions occurred at primary sites even in patients with leptomeningeal seeding. Toxicities during tandem HDCT/autoSCT were manageable. A total of 5 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 20 (range 16-70) months from diagnosis. Four of 5 patients who received RT after relapse/progression are alive. The probability of overall survival at 3 yr from diagnosis was 53.3% ± 17.3%. Our tandem HDCT/autoSCT is feasible; however, early administration of RT prior to tandem HDCT/autoSCT should be considered to improve the outcome after tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
Rhabdoid Tumor; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Stem Cell Transplantation; Radiotherapy; Child
Randomized trials comparing autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) to conventional chemotherapy have demonstrated superior survival among HIV negative ASCT patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Recent trials explored the feasibility of ASCT in the HIV setting. While these studies have shown that ASCT in HIV positive NHL patients (HIVpos-NHL) is well tolerated, the impact of HIV infection on long-term transplant outcome is not well characterized. Ongoing comparison of long-term survival following ASCT in HIVpos-NHL patients and HIVneg-NHL patients will allow investigators to explore whether there should be inclusion of HIVpos-NHL patients in ASCT trials.
Patients and Methods
To study long-term outcome we conducted a single institution matched case-control study in HIVpos-NHL patients (cases) and HIVneg-NHL patients (controls). Twenty-nine patients with HIVpos-NHL were matched with HIVneg-NHL controls on gender, time to ASCT, year of transplant, histology, age, disease status, number prior regimens, and conditioning regimen.
Non-relapse mortality was similar: 11% (95%CI: 4–28%) in HIVpos-NHL patients and 4% (95%CI: 1–25%) in HIVneg-NHL controls (p=0.18). Two year DFS for the HIVpos-NHL patients was 76% (95%CI: 62–85%) and 56% (95%CI: 45–66%) for the HIVneg-NHL controls (p=0.33). OS was also similar; the two-year point estimates were 75% (95%CI: 61–85%) and 75% (95%CI: 60–85%) respectively (p=0.93), despite inclusion of more poor risk HIVpos-NHL patients.
These results provide further evidence that HIV status does not affect the long-term outcome of ASCT for NHL and therefore HIV status alone should no longer exclude these patients from transplant clinical trials.
HIV; Autologous Transplantation; Non- Hodgkin Lymphoma
The concept of using high-dose immunosuppressive treatment (HDIT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) to treat patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis has been provided by animal studies and anecdotal case reports. Over the past five years, an increasing number of patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis have received HDIT with ASCT as an adjunct to intense immunosuppression. Here, we present a case of refractory rheumatoid arthritis in a 54-yr-old woman using HDIT with ASCT. Peripheral blood stem cells were mobilized with cyclophosphamide (4 g/m(2)) followed by G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day). Leukapheresis continued daily until the number of harvested progenitor cells reached 2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg after CliniMax CD34+ positive selection. For HDIT, high-dose cyclophosphamide (total dose 200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (total dose 90 mg/kg) were administered and CD34+ cells were infused 24 hr after HDIT. The patient tolerated the treatment well but experienced an episode of neutropenic fever. She achieved an early dramatic improvement of joint symptoms during therapy. Fifty percent of improvement of rheumatoid arthritis by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 50) preliminary definition was fulfilled during the 6 months following ASCT. Although further long-term follow-up is required, the patient's activity of arthritis has been stable since receiving HDIT with ASCT.
High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, lymphocyte reconstitution is impaired after HDM. Recent work has suggested that the lymphopenia period occurring after various immunosuppressive or chemotherapy treatments may provide an interesting opportunity for adoptive anti-tumor immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to determine an immunotherapy window after HDM and ASCT evaluating T-cell lymphopenia and measuring circulating immune cytokine concentrations in patients with MM. The counts of T-cell subpopulations reached a nadir at day 8 post-ASCT (day 10 post HDM) and recovered by day 30. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 plasma levels increased on a median day 8 post-ASCT, respectively 35-fold, 8-fold and 10-fold compared to pre-HDM levels (P ≤ .05). The increases in IL-7 and IL-15 levels were inversely correlated to the absolute lymphocyte count, unlike monocyte or myeloid counts. Furthermore, we have shown that CD3 T cells present in the ASC graft are activated, died rapidly when they are cultured without cytokine in vitro and that addition of IL-7 or IL-15 could induce their survival and proliferation. In conclusion, the early lymphodepletion period, occurring 4 to 11 days post HDM+ASCT, is associated with an increase of circulating immune cytokines and could be an optimal window to enhance the survival and proliferation of polyclonal T cells present in the ASC autograft and also of specific anti-myeloma T cells previously expanded in vitro.
Cell Proliferation; Cell Survival; immunology; Cytokines; blood; Female; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; methods; Humans; Immunologic Factors; Immunotherapy, Adoptive; Kinetics; Lymphocyte Depletion; methods; Male; Melphalan; pharmacology; Middle Aged; Multiple Myeloma; therapy; T-Lymphocytes; cytology; Transplantation, Autologous
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
Background and Objectives
Several trials have generated conflicting results about the results of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT) for primary breast cancer. This meta-analysis summarizes the available evidence from all suitable studies.
Design and Methods
Prospective, randomized trials with HDCT as a first-line therapy for primary breast cancer were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest for our analysis was survival (disease-free survival and overall survival); secondary endpoints included treatment-related mortality (TRM) and second (non-breast) cancers. We used a median age of 47, a PR positive rate of 50% and a premenopausal rate of 70% as cutoff values to complete the subgroup analyses, which were pre-planned according to the prepared protocol.
Fourteen trials with 5747 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Compared with non-HDCT, non-significant second (non-breast) cancers (RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.82–1.98) and higher TRM (RR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.32–8.86) were associated with HDCT for primary breast cancer. A significant DFS benefit of HDCT was documented (HR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79–0.99). No difference in OS (overall survival) was found when the studies were pooled (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82–1.00, p = 0.062). In subgroup analysis, age and hormone receptor status had a significant interaction with prolonged DFS and OS.
HDCT has a benefit on DFS and OS compared to SDC in some special patients with high-risk primary breast cancer.
The infused stem cell autograft in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been viewed mainly as hematologic rescue from the myelosuppressive side effect of conditioning regimens. However, recent reports have shown that the immune effector cells collected at the same time as the stem cells can produce an autologous graft-versus-tumor effect, similar to the graft-versus-tumor effect seen in allogeneic stem cell transplantation without the detrimental effects of graft-versus-host disease. In this article, we review the different immune effector cells collected and infused from the stem cell autograft and their association with clinical outcome post-ASCT, suggesting that ASCT can be viewed not only as a therapeutic maneuver to recover bone marrow function after deliver high-dose chemotherapy, but also as an adoptive immunotherapeutic intervention capable of eradicating residual tumor cells in patients with cancer.
Adoptive immunotherapy; Autologous graft versus tumor effect; Autograft
High dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDT-ASCT) is the standard of care for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, however the role for HDT-ASCT in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is controversial. In FL, phase II and randomized data support the use of HDT-ASCT in the relapsed setting and incorporation of rituximab into mobilization regimens and post transplant maintenance appears to prolong remission durations. Allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) remains the only curative treatment option and is appropriate for patients with high bone marrow disease burdens and refractory disease. In MCL, HDT-ASCT is most often administered upfront and phase II studies using intense immunochemotherapy followed by HDT-ASCT in first complete response (CR) have shown the most impressive outcomes. Complicating the situation, however, is data supporting upfront intensive immunochemotherapy without HDT-ASCT consolidation as well as a “watch and wait” strategy for selected patients. Finally, in PTCL, phase II data supports treatment with HDT-ASCT in first CR and it is rarely appropriate in the relapsed setting. Furthermore, disease status at the time of transplant likely impacts outcome, however this needs to be evaluated further. Overall, HDT-ASCT is an important element of the treatment of relapsed FL and untreated MCL and PTCL, however large prospective studies are needed to confirm its role and identify the most optimal induction, mobilization, and maintenance regimens for each disease.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Follicular lymphoma; Mantle cell lymphoma; Peripheral T cell lymphoma
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML) are now well established as complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy. We experienced a 28-yr-old female patient who developed t-MDS/t-AML with characteristic chromosomal abnormalities including 11q23 chromosomal rearrangement following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient was admitted with bulky abdominal masses of B cell lineage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. After 2 cycles of systemic chemotherapy of the Vanderbilt regimen, the patient underwent ASCT with high dose chemotherapy of the BEAC regimen. She also received radiation of 48 Gy for the residual periportal lymphadenopathy. The initial cytogenetic analysis of the infused mononuclear cells revealed a normal karyotype. Twenty two months after the ASCT, pancytopenia was noted and her bone marrow aspirate showed dysplastic hemopoiesis with myeloblasts up to 12% of nonerythroid nucleated cells. The patient was diagnosed as t-MDS (refractory anemia with an excess of blasts). Cytogenetic analysis showed complex chromosomal abnormalities including 11q23 rearrangement, which is frequently found in topoisomerase II inhibitor-related hematologic malignancies. Four months later, it was noted that the t-MDS had evolved into an overt t-AML. Cytogenetic analysis showed an evolving pattern with more complex abnormalities. The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy, but her leukemic cells were resistant to the therapy.
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a devastating syndrome, characterized by peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cells, skin changes, papilledema, volume overload, sclerotic bone lesions, thrombocytosis and high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) ultimately yields excellent clinical responses, but there can be considerable peritransplant morbidity. We have treated 30 POEMS patients with ASCT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. During transplant period, patients had high rates of fever, diarrhea, weight gain and rash (93%, 77%, 53% and 43%, respectively). Only 13% remained outpatient, and median time to discharge from hospital was transplant day 17 (range 0–175). Splenomegaly was the baseline factor that best predicted for a complicated peritransplant course. Depending on the definition used, ∼50% of patients satisfied criteria for engraftment syndrome. Earlier and more aggressive use of corticosteroids may be associated with less complicated post-transplant courses. Median overall survival has not been reached; the treatment-related mortality was 3%. In addition, important clinical improvements and reductions in plasma VEGF levels can occur in the absence of significant decrease in the monoclonal protein. Unraveling the mechanisms of the syndrome both in the context of ASCT and in general are challenges for the future.
POEMS syndrome; monoclonal gammopathy; osteosclerotic myeloma; Castleman disease; transplantation; complications; cytokines
Poor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization predicts worse outcome for myeloma and lymphoma patients post autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). We hypothesize that PBSC harvest using plerixafor and G-CSF in poor mobilizers may improve long-term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the data on patients who had second PBSC mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF as a rescue. Nine lymphoma and 8 multiple myeloma (MM) patients received the drug. A control group of 25 MM and lymphoma patients who were good mobilizers with G-CSF only was used for comparison. Sixteen of the 17 poor mobilizers proceeded to ASCT, and one MM patient had tandem transplants. Length of hospital stay, infection incidence, granulocyte engraftment, and long-term hematopoietic recovery were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, all poor mobilizers were able to obtain adequate stem cells transplant dose and had similar transplant course and long-term outcome to that of the control good mobilizers group.