The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CAG repeat polymorphism and X-chromosome Inactivation (XCI) pattern in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions among Indian women which has not been hitherto explored. 117 RSA cases and 224 Controls were included in the study. Cases were recruited from two different hospitals - Lakshmi Fertility Clinic, Nellore and Fernandez Maternity Hospital, Hyderabad. Controls were roughly matched for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The CAG repeats of the Androgen Receptor gene were genotyped using a PCR-based assay and were analysed using the GeneMapper software to determine the CAG repeat length. XCI analysis was also carried out to assess the inactivation percentages. RSA cases had a significantly greater frequency of allele sizes in the polymorphic range above 19 repeats (p = 0.006), which is the median value of the controls, and in the biallelic mean range above 21 repeats (p = 0.002). We found no evidence of abnormal incidence of skewed X-inactivation. We conclude that longer CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased odds for RSA with statistical power estimated to be ∼90%.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is known to be characterized by metabolic disorder in which hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance are central features. Given the physiological overlap between PCOS and type-2 diabetes (T2DM), and calpain 10 gene (CAPN10) being a strong candidate for T2DM, a number of studies have analyzed CAPN10 SNPs among PCOS women yielding contradictory results. Our study is first of its kind to investigate the association pattern of CAPN10 polymorphisms (UCSNP-44, 43, 56, 19 and 63) with PCOS among Indian women. 250 PCOS cases and 299 controls from Southern India were recruited for this study. Allele and genotype frequencies of the SNPs were determined and compared between the cases and controls. Results show significant association of UCSNP-44 genotype CC with PCOS (p = 0.007) with highly significant odds ratio when compared to TC (OR = 2.51, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 1.37–4.61) as well as TT (OR = 1.94, p = 0.016, 95% CI = 1.13–3.34). While the haplotype carrying the SNP-44 and SNP-19 variants (21121) exhibited a 2 fold increase in the risk for PCOS (OR = 2.37, p = 0.03), the haplotype containing SNP-56 and SNP-19 variants (11221) seems to have a protective role against PCOS (OR = 0.20, p = 0.004). Our results support the earlier evidence for a possible role of UCSNP-44 of the CAPN10 gene in the manifestation of PCOS.
The majority of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) are characterized by a striking female predominance superimposed on a predisposing genetic background. The role of extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) has been questioned in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases.
We examined XCI profiles of females affected with RA (n = 106), AITDs (n = 145) and age-matched healthy women (n = 257). XCI analysis was performed by enzymatic digestion of DNA with a methylation sensitive enzyme (HpaII) followed by PCR of a polymorphic CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The XCI pattern was classified as skewed when 80% or more of the cells preferentially inactivated the same X-chromosome.
Skewed XCI was observed in 26 of the 76 informative RA patients (34.2%), 26 of the 100 informative AITDs patients (26%), and 19 of the 170 informative controls (11.2%) (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0015, respectively). More importantly, extremely skewed XCI, defined as > 90% inactivation of one allele, was present in 17 RA patients (22.4%), 14 AITDs patients (14.0%), and in only seven controls (4.1%, P < 0.0001; P = 0.0034, respectively). Stratifying RA patients according to laboratory profiles (rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies), clinical manifestations (erosive disease and nodules) and the presence of others autoimmune diseases did not reveal any statistical significance (P > 0.05).
These results suggest a possible role for XCI mosaicism in the pathogenesis of RA and AITDs and may in part explain the female preponderance of these diseases.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenic, complex common genetic disease. Multiple pathways are involved in its pathogenesis, including the androgen signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein alpha (SGTA) is a putative member of the androgen receptor-chaperone-cochaperone complex, and may play a role in androgen signaling as a co-chaperone. Polymorphisms in the SGTA gene have not been evaluated for a role in PCOS.
Women with and without PCOS (287 cases, 187 controls) were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SGTA. SNPs and haplotypes were determined and tested for association with PCOS and component traits of PCOS.
For SNP rs1640262, homozygotes for the minor allele were protected against PCOS (P=0.009). Haplotype 1 (G-A-T) was associated with increased risk of PCOS (P=0.015). In women with PCOS, haplotype 2 (A-G-C) was associated with increased insulin resistance (P=0.013), consequently resulting in increased insulin secretion (P=0.014).
This study presents genetic evidence suggesting a potential role of SGTA in the pathogenesis of PCOS. SGTA may provide a connection between multiple pathways in PCOS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing; alpha; single nucleotide polymorphism; haplotype; association
An increased frequency of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is found in clinically overt autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) compared with controls. Whether skewed XCI is involved in the pathogenesis of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) in euthyroid subjects is unknown. To examine the impact of XCI on the serum concentration of TPOAb, we studied whether within-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in XCI are associated with differences in serum concentrations of TPOAb. A total of 318 euthyroid female twin individuals distributed in 159 pairs were investigated. XCI was determined by PCR analysis of a polymorphic CAG repeat in the first exon of the androgen receptor gene. TPOAb concentrations were measured using a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunometric assay. Overall (within cohort), there was a significant association between XCI and serum concentrations of TPOAb; regression coefficient (β)=1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–2.38), P=0.003. The association remained significant in the within-pair analysis; β=1.74 (0.79–2.69), P<0.001. The relationship was nonsignificant within the 82 monozygotic pairs (β=0.57 (−0.78–1.92), P=0.405), whereas the association was significant in the 77 dizygotic pairs (β=2.17 (0.81–3.53), P=0.002). This preliminary finding of a significant association between TPOAb concentrations and XCI within cohort and within dizygotic but not within monozygotic twin pairs may indicate that XCI per se does not have a major role in the pathogenesis of TPOAb. More likely, XCI and TPOAb are influenced by shared genetic determinants.
X-chromosome inactivation; thyroid peroxidase antibodies; thyroid autoantibodies; thyroid autoimmunity; twins; epigenetics
Objective: Androgen receptor (AR) was detected in leiomyoma. AR gene has a polymorphic microsatellite encoding cytosine, adenine, and guanine (CAG) repeats. We aimed to investigate the association between the AR gene CAG repeats and leiomyoma.
Methods: Women were divided into two groups: (1) leiomyoma (n=159); (2) non- leiomyoma groups (n=129). Their CAG repeats were detected by polymerase chain reaction. The CAG repeats ranged in length from 168 bp (9 CAG repeats, genotype A) to 234 bp (31 CAG repeats, genotype W). Distributions of CAG repeats in both groups were compared.
Results: Genotype proportions of different CAG repeats for AR gene in both groups were significantly different. The genotype S (27 CAG repeats) is associated with higher susceptibility of leiomyoma. Distribution of CAG repeats in both groups appeared mono-peak distributions. Percentages of genotypes K-S (19–27 CAG repeats) in leiomyoma and non-leiomyoma groups were: (1) 5, 11, 19.5, 10.4, 12.9, 8.8, 7.5, 5.7, 4.4%; (2) 5.4, 14.3, 16.7, 12.8, 12.4, 5.8, 9.3, 7, 1.2%.
Conclusions: AR trinucleotide polymorphism is associated with leiomyoma susceptibility. The 27 CAG repeats is related with higher risk of leiomyoma.
Androgen receptor; leiomyoma; multiallele polymorphism; trinucleotide repeat polymorphism
The length of the polymorphic CAG repeat in the N-terminal of the androgen receptor (AR) gene is inversely correlated with the transactivation function of the AR. Some studies have indicated that short CAG repeats are related to higher risk of prostate cancer. We performed a case–control study to investigate relations between CAG repeat length and prostate cancer risk, tumour grade, tumour stage, age at diagnosis and response to endocrine therapy. The study included 190 AR alleles from prostate cancer patients and 186 AR alleles from female control subjects. All were whites from southern Sweden. The frequency distribution of CAG repeat length was strikingly similar for cases and controls, and no significant correlation between CAG repeat length and prostate cancer risk was detected. However, for men with non-hereditary prostate cancer (n = 160), shorter CAG repeats correlated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 0.03). There were also trends toward associations between short CAG repeats and high grade (P = 0.07) and high stage (P = 0.07) disease. Furthermore, we found that patients with long CAG repeats responded better to endocrine therapy, even after adjusting for pretreatment level of prostate-specific antigen and tumour grade and stage (P = 0.05). We conclude that short CAG repeats in the AR gene correlate with young age at diagnosis of prostate cancer, but not with higher risk of the disease. Selection of patients with early onset prostate cancer in case–control studies could therefore lead to an over-estimation of the risk of prostate cancer for men with short CAG repeats. An association between long CAG repeats and good response to endocrine therapy was also found, but the mechanism and clinical relevance are unclear. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
prostatic neoplasms; cancer risk; androgen receptor; genetics; epidemiology
We investigated the cellular mechanisms of the unique disorder of insulin action found in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Approximately 50% of PCOS women (PCOS-Ser) had a significant increase in insulin-independent beta-subunit [32P]phosphate incorporation (3.7-fold, P < 0.05 vs other groups) in skin fibroblast insulin receptors that was present in serine residues while insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased (both P < 0.05 vs other groups). PCOS skeletal muscle insulin receptors had the same abnormal phosphorylation pattern. The remaining PCOS women (PCOS-n1) had basal and insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation similar to control. Phosphorylation of the artificial substrate poly GLU4:TYR1 by the PCOS-Ser insulin receptors was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to control and PCOS-n1 receptors. The factor responsible for excessive serine phosphorylation appeared to be extrinsic to the receptor since no insulin receptor gene mutations were identified, immunoprecipitation before autophosphorylation corrected the phosphorylation defect and control insulin receptors mixed with lectin eluates from affected PCOS fibroblasts displayed increased serine phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that increased insulin receptor serine phosphorylation decreases its protein tyrosine kinase activity and is one mechanism for the post-binding defect in insulin action characteristic of PCOS.
Given the high rate of pregnancy and perinatal complications recently observed in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the lack of data on the serum variations in androgens and insulin sensitivity indexes in pregnant women with PCOS, the current study was aimed to assess these changes and their potential effect on pregnancy outcomes in a population of women with PCOS.
Forty-five pregnant patients with ovulatory PCOS (PCOS group) and other 42 healthy pregnant women (control group) were studied assaying serum androgen levels and insulin sensitivity indexes throughout pregnancy serially, and recording obstetrical outcomes.
Serum androgen levels and insulin resistance indexes were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PCOS than in control group at study entry, these differences were sustained throughout pregnancy, and their changes resulted significantly (p < 0.05) different between PCOS and control group. In PCOS patients, women who had a complicated pregnancy showed serum androgen levels and insulin sensitivity indexes significantly (p < 0.05) worse in comparison to subjects without any pregnancy and/or neonatal complications.
PCOS patients have impaired changes in serum androgen levels and insulin sensitivity indexes during pregnancy. These alterations could be implicated in the pregnancy and neonatal complications frequently observed in women affected by PCOS.
Adrenal androgen excess is frequently observed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to determine whether adrenal gland function varies among PCOS phenotypes, women with hyperandrogenism (H) only and healthy women.
The study included 119 non-obese patients with PCOS (age: 22.2 ± 4.1y, BMI:22.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2), 24 women with H only and 39 age and BMI- matched controls. Among women with PCOS, 50 had H, oligo-anovulation (O), and polycystic ovaries (P) (PHO), 32 had O and H (OH), 23 had P and H (PH), and 14 had P and O (PO). Total testosterone (T), SHBG and DHEAS levels at basal and serum 17-hydroxprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (A4), DHEA and cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation were measured.
T, FAI and DHEAS, and basal and AUC values for 17-OHP and A4 were significantly and similarly higher in PCOS and H groups than controls (p < 0.05 for all) whereas three groups did not differ for basal or AUC values of DHEA and cortisol. Three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes (PHO, OH, and PH) compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype (PO) had significantly and similarly higher T, FAI, DHEAS and AUC values for 17-OHP, A4 and DHEA (p < 0.05). All subphenotypes had similar basal and AUC values for cortisol.
PCOS patients and women with H only have similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen levels than controls. All three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes of PCOS exhibit similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen secretion patterns compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype.
Adrenal androgen; PCOS; ACTH; DHEAS
To study the risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a group of non-obese and obese PCOS and control women. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether this risk is independent of obesity is not clear.
Design/Patients/Interventions/Main Outcome Measures
In a prospective study, 44 women with PCOS and 34 control women completed the Berlin questionnaire for assessment of OSA risk. All women underwent fasting determination of androgens, glucose and insulin.
Women with PCOS were more obese compared to control women (p=0.02). However, there were no differences in BMI once subjects were divided into non-obese (PCOS n=17 and control n=26) and obese (PCOS n=26 and control n=8) groups. Women with PCOS had higher prevalence of high risk OSA compared to control women on the Berlin questionnaire (47% vs. 15%, P<0.01). However, none of the non-obese PCOS and control women screened positive for high risk OSA. Among the obese group, the risk did not differ between groups (77% vs. 63%, P= 0.65).
Our findings indicate that even though the risk for OSA in PCOS is high, it is related to the high prevalence of severe obesity. The risk for OSA among non-obese women with PCOS is very low. However, our findings are limited by lack of polysomnographic confirmation of OSA.
Berlin questionnaire; Obesity; Insulin resistance; Body mass index
To investigate associations between the androgen receptor (AR) polymorphisms as CAG repeats, GGC repeats and c.211G>A polymorphism and the risk of preeclampsia.
The AR polymorphisms were experienced in 184 preeclamptic patients and 190 normal pregnancies and analyzed by multiple logistic regression.
Women with GGC repeats>16 were more frequently observed in preeclampsia, compared to those with GGC repeats≤16 [adjOR (95% CI): 3.64 (1.71–6.23)]. However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to CAG repeats. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of c.211G>A variant were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05 for both). In the combined distribution of these polymorphisms, the highest risk of preeclampsia was found among women with the haplotype as CAG > 20/GA/GGC>16 [adjOR (95% CI): 4.26 (1.92–12.23)].
Our findings suggest that longer GGC repeats and c.211G>A variant in the AR gene are associated with increased susceptibility to the risk of preeclampsia.
Androgen receptor; CAG repeats; GGC repeats; c.211G>A polymorphism; Preeclampsia
Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS.
Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women) aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25). Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1) oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2) hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3) polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment.
Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01), increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001), total testosterone (p < 0.001), and androstenedione (p < 0.001) levels, and lower SHBG concentrations (p < 0.001) compared to control women. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were also higher in women with PCOS (p < 0.000 and p < 0.001, respectively). Women with PCOS also showed increased total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p < 0.001), and apolipoprotein B (p < 0.001) levels. Vascular data showed women with PCOS had a higher anteroposterior diameter than control women (p < 0.005). However, when analysis of covariance was performed and BMI was entered into the model as a covariate, anteroposterior diameter did not maintain a significant association with PCOS.
This study shows that anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, but not IMT of common carotid arteries or common femoral arteries, is higher in women with PCOS than in women without this disease. This represents the earliest atherosclerotic change in women with PCOS. However, this alteration seems to be due to body weight secondary to PCOS and not due to PCOS per se.
polycystic ovary syndrome; antero-posterior diameter; infrarenal abdominal aorta; intimia-media thickness
It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million Canadian women may be afflicted with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although PCOS is heralded as one of the most common endocrine disorders occurring in women, its diagnosis, management, and associated long-term health risks remain controversial. Historically, the combination of androgen excess and anovulation has been considered the hallmark of PCOS. To date, while these symptoms remain the most prevalent among PCOS patients, neither is considered an absolute requisite for the syndrome. Inclusion of ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic marker has substantially broadened the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, yet much debate surrounds the validity of these newly identified milder variants of the syndrome. Difficulty in resolving the spectrum of PCOS stems from the continued use of inconsistent and inaccurate methods of evaluating androgen excess, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. At present, there is no clear-cut definition of biochemical hyperandrogenemia, particularly since we depend on poor laboratory standards for measuring androgens in women. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism are ill-defined in women with PCOS, and the diagnosis of both hirsutism and polycystic ovarian morphology remains alarmingly subjective. Lastly, there is an inappropriate tendency to assign ovulatory status solely on the basis of menstrual cycle history or poorly timed endocrine measurements. In this review, we elaborate on these limitations and propose possible resolutions for clinical and research settings. By stimulating awareness of these limitations, we hope to generate a dialogue aimed at solidifying the evaluation of PCOS in Canadian women.
PMID: 18786289 CAMSID: cams574
Polycystic ovary syndrome; hyperandrogenism; hirsutism; menstruation disturbances; ultrasonography
Genetic variation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) may be associated with endometrial cancer risk based on the androgen receptor’s role in regulating androgen levels. However, endometrial cancer studies reported inconsistent associations for a CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1. Only one of these studies measured haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in AR, and found statistically non-significant, decreased associations with endometrial cancer risk. In a population-based case-control study of 497 cases and 1024 controls, we examined the CAG repeat polymorphism and six htSNPs (rs962458, rs6152, rs1204038, rs2361634, rs1337080, and rs1337082), which cover an estimated 80% of the known common variation in AR among Caucasian populations. CAG repeat length was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer (OR (95%CI) per unit increase in the average number of repeats =1.02 (0.97 – 1.08); P-trend=0.29). Minor alleles in three correlated htSNPs (rs6152, rs1204038, and rs1337082; r2≥0.6) were associated with increased risk for endometrial cancer. The strongest association was observed for rs6152: the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.13 (0.89–1.44) for heterozygous and 2.40 (1.28–4.51) for homozygous minor genotypes (P-trend=0.02), compared to homozygous major allele genotype. However, these associations were not statistically significant after permutation adjustment for multiple comparisons (P-trend ≥ 0.09). Haplotype analyses did not reveal any additional associations with endometrial cancer. Results from our study taken together with previously published studies provide little evidence of a consistent association between common genetic variation in AR and endometrial cancer risk.
genetics; endometrial cancer; androgen receptor
Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS.
We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP) with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513.
AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%). None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism.
There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated risk of PCOS amongst Taiwanese subjects. This is quite different from the similar study in phylogenetically diverged Caucasian subjects.
High circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) level is a typical biochemical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) whose pathophysiology is still unclear. Certain mutations of LH and LH receptor (LHR) may lead to changes in bioactivity of these hormones. The aim of this study was determine the role of the LH and LHR polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of PCOS using a genetic approach.
315 PCOS women and 212 controls were screened for the gene variants of LH G1052A and LHR rs61996318 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
PCOS patients had significantly more A allele frequency of LH G1052A mutations than controls (p=0.001). Within PCOS group, carriers of LH 1052A allele had lower LH (p=0.05) and higher fasting glucose levels (p=0.04). No subjects were identified with LHR rs61996318 polymorphisms. A new LHR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found without clear association with PCOS.
Results suggested LH G1052A mutation might influence PCOS susceptibility and phenotypes.
Luteinizing hormone; Luteinizing hormone receptor; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Gene polymorphism
Polymorphisms in PPARG implicated in previous studies of metabolic traits do not appear to influence component phenotypes of PCOS, but do affect androgens and insulin resistance in the general population.
To investigate the relationship of the PPARG Pro12Ala and silent exon 6 (His447His) polymorphisms with the clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
PCOS and control subjects were genotyped for Pro12Ala and His447His; associations between genotype, diagnosis, and hormonal/metabolic parameters were assessed.
Subjects were recruited from the reproductive endocrinology clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; control subjects were recruited from the surrounding community. Genotyping was performed at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Participants included 285 White women with PCOS and 187 controls.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Pro12Ala and His447His genotype, hormonal and metabolic phenotypes.
Pro12Ala and His447His did not influence risk of PCOS or its component phenotypes in PCOS patients. In controls, Pro12Ala did not influence measures of insulin resistance or androgen production; however, carriers of the His447His T allele had significantly decreased free and total testosterone levels and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, haplotypes in controls bearing the His447His T allele were also associated with decreased testosterone.
does not appear to be an important modifier gene in PCOS. In controls, however, the His447His T allele may be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional variant that influences insulin resistance and testosterone production.
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; polycystic ovary syndrome; single nucleotide polymorphism; testosterone; insulin resistance
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most encountered endocrine malfunctions. PCOS patients have enhanced activation of the blood coagulation system.
Eighty-six young women with PCOS and 70 healthy control women were included in our study. PCOS patients and controls were matched for age, body mass index, and allele frequency. Genetic analysis of TPAI and PAI-1 were performed in all subjects.
Results and conclusions
No statistically significant differences have been detected about the ratios of genotypes resulting from PAI-1 promotor 4G/5G gene polymorphism. PAI-1 765 4G/5G gene polymorphism and TPA gene’s Alu-repeat insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism ratios were not different from the controls. In this study it is shown by the analysis of TPA gene’s Alu-repeat insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism the PCOS patients with genotype II had lowers total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels.
PAI-1 gene; TPA gene; Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with a strong familial component. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenemia and irregular menses. A recent genome wide association study of PCOS in a Chinese cohort identified three reproducible PCOS susceptibility loci mapping to 2p16.3 (luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor; LHCGR), 2p21 (thyroid associated protein; THADA), and 9q33.3 (DENN/MADD domain containing 1A; DENNDIA). The impact of these loci in non-Chinese PCOS cohorts remains to be determined.
We tested association with PCOS of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the three Chinese PCOS loci in two European-derived PCOS cohorts (Cohort A = 939 cases and 957 controls; Cohort B = 535 cases and 845 controls). Cases fulfilled the NICHD criteria for PCOS. Variation in DENND1A was strongly associated with PCOS in our cohort (pcombined cohorts=10−8 ); multiple variants in THADA were also associated with PCOS, while there was no significant evidence for association of LHCGR variation with PCOS. We had greater than 80% power to detect an effect of similar size as was observed by Chen et al. for DENND1A and THADA but reduced power (at <40%) for LHCGR at p=0.0001. We had sufficient power (57-88%) for LHCGR at p=0.01.
At least two of the PCOS susceptibility loci identified in the Chinese PCOS GWAS (DENND1A and THADA) are also associated with PCOS in European-derived populations, and therefore likely to be important in the etiology of PCOS regardless of ethnicity. Our analysis of the LHCGR gene was not sufficiently powered to detect modest effects.
PCOS; DENND1A; THADA; genome-wide association study
To examine the genes for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunits α2 (PRKAA2) and γ3 (PRKAG3) as candidates for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its component traits.
Design and methods
287 White PCOS women were recruited from the reproductive endocrinology clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and 187 White control subjects were recruited from the surrounding community. Seven PRKAA2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four PRKAG3 SNPs were genotyped in PCOS cases and controls. Genotyping and association analysis were performed at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Nominal associations of PRKAA2 variants with insulin-related traits and the PRKAG3 Pro71Ala variant with PCOS were not statistically significant after multiple testing correction. Among PCOS patients, there were no associations between variants in AMPK subunit genes and androgenic or reproductive traits.
Variants in genes for AMPKα2 and AMPKγ3 were not associated with PCOS or its component traits. Our evidence does not demonstrate AMPK is a major genetic risk factor for PCOS.
Increasing rates of testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) overtime suggest that environmental factors are involved in disease etiology, but familial risk and genome-wide association studies implicate genetic factors as well. We investigated whether variation in the functional CAGn polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is associated with TGCT risk, using data from a population-based family study. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CAG repeat length and TGCT risk using matched pairs logistic regression. Analyses of 273 TGCT case–mother pairs revealed no association between AR CAG repeat length and overall TGCT risk. However, risk of seminoma was significantly associated with shorter CAG repeat length [CAG 20–21 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.43–1.58), CAG 22–23 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19–0.83) and CAG ≥ 24 versus CAG ≤ 19: OR = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20–0.86)], with a highly significant trend over these four categories of decreasing CAG repeat length (Ptrend = 0.0030). This is the first report of a statistically significant association between AR CAG repeat length and seminoma risk, suggesting that increased AR transactivation may be involved in development of seminoma and/or progression of carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified to seminoma. This result provides a rationale whereby androgenic environmental compounds could contribute to increases in TGCT incidence, and identifies for the first time a potential biological pathway influencing whether TGCTs achieve seminomatous versus nonseminomatous histology, a clinically and biologically important distinction.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are prone for coronary artery disease (CAD), and hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD. MTHFR deficiency is the most common cause of hyperhomocysteinemia, thereby provoking a possible association between PCOS and MTHFR C677T polymorphism.
The aim of this study was to investigate an association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with PCOS.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
92 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) and 95 age-matched controls were compared with respect to MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The 2 genotypes (CC and CT) obtained were compared with clinical and laboratory parameters in women with PCOS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In a case-control study, clinical, biochemical, hormonal and genetic analysis (PCR-RFLP of peripheral leucocytes) was carried out on all women with PCOS as well as controls.
Student “t” test for quantitative and Chi-square test for nominal variables was used. For estimation of risk, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated.
The odds ratio of bearing a heterozygous genotype (CT) was 1.32 in women with PCOS as compared to controls (P = 0.48). No homozygous mutation (TT) was found in the study population. Serum cholesterol was more in heterozygous (CT) genotype (215.48 ± 25.56 mg/dl) as compared to normal (CC) genotype (203.29 ± 16.35 mg/dl) in women with PCOS (P = 0.01). Similarly, serum triglyceride was more in heterozygous (CT) genotype (95.86 ± 37.34 mg/dl) as compared to normal (CC) genotype (82.36 ± 20.88 mg/dl) in women with PCOS (P = 0.04).
Although not statistically significant, there is a slightly higher prevalence of heterozygous (CT) genotype in women with PCOS. MTHFR C677T polymorphism when present may confer an increased susceptibility to develop hyperlipidemia in women with PCOS. More prospective studies are needed to confirm whether this hyperlipidemia due to MTHFR C677T polymorphism clinically manifests into CAD in long term in women with PCOS.
CAD; coronary artery disease; hyperlipidemia; MTHFR C677T polymorphism; PCOS; polycystic ovary syndrome
The androgen receptor (AR) expression and the CAG repeat length within the AR gene appear to be involved in the carcinogenesis of male breast carcinoma (MBC). Although phenotypic differences have been observed between MBC and normal control group in AR gene, there is lack of correlation analysis between AR expression and CAG repeat length in MBC. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of CAG repeat lengths and AR protein expression.
81 tumor tissues were used for immunostaining for AR expression and CAG repeat length determination and 80 normal controls were analyzed with CAG repeat length in AR gene. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were analyzed in relation to clinicopathological factors and prognostic indicators.
AR gene in many MBCs has long CAG repeat sequence compared with that in control group (P = 0.001) and controls are more likely to exhibit short CAG repeat sequence than MBCs. There was statistically significant difference in long CAG repeat sequence between AR status for MBC patients (P = 0.004). The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR-positive expression were associated with shorter survival of MBC patients (CAG repeat: P = 0.050 for 5y-OS; P = 0.035 for 5y-DFS AR status: P = 0.048 for 5y-OS; P = 0.029 for 5y-DFS, respectively).
The CAG repeat length within the AR gene might be one useful molecular biomarker to identify males at increased risk of breast cancer development. The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR protein expression were in relation to survival of MBC patients. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were two independent prognostic indicators in MBC patients.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and four major phenotypes have been identified. The precise etiology of PCOS is unknown; however, variable exposure to prenatal androgens may be responsible for the spectrum of endocrine and metabolic disturbances characteristic of this syndrome. Since prenatal testosterone exposure is known to decrease the ratio of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D), we characterized the left and right hand 2D:4D in women with clinical variants of PCOS. We hypothesized that if prenatal androgens were involved in the development of the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, then lower 2D:4D would be differentially expressed among clinical variants of the syndrome.
Digit ratios were determined in 98 women diagnosed with PCOS by the 2003 international consensus guidelines and in 51 women with regular menstrual cycles, no clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism and normal ovarian morphology. Women with PCOS were categorized into four clinical phenotypes (i.e. Frank, Non-PCO, Ovulatory and Mild) and 2D:4D among groups were compared by Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons tests.
Left (P = 0.77) and right (P = 0.68) hand 2D:4D were similar among the four clinical phenotypes and no phenotype of PCOS demonstrated a 2D:4D that differed from controls (Left Hand, P = 0.44 and Right Hand, P = 0.75).
Women with PCOS do not demonstrate finger length patterns that are consistent with increased prenatal androgen exposure. These findings do not preclude a role for prenatal androgens in the development of PCOS; however, low 2D:4D are not a characteristic of PCOS.
PMID: 19855107 CAMSID: cams561
digit ratios; polycystic ovary syndrome; prenatal androgen exposure