Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Here we summarize molecular genetic and biochemical analyses of selected Arabidopsis
ALDH genes. Aldehyde molecules are very reactive and are involved in many metabolic processes but when they accumulate in excess they become toxic. Thus activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases is important in regulating the homeostasis of aldehydes. Overexpression of some ALDH genes demonstrated an improved abiotic stress tolerance. Despite the fact that several reports are available describing a role for specific ALDHs, their precise physiological roles are often still unclear. Therefore a number of genetic and biochemical tools have been generated to address the function with an emphasis on stress-related ALDHs. ALDHs exert their functions in different cellular compartments and often in a developmental and tissue specific manner. To investigate substrate specificity, catalytic efficiencies have been determined using a range of substrates varying in carbon chain length and degree of carbon oxidation. Mutational approaches identified amino acid residues critical for coenzyme usage and enzyme activities.
aldehyde dehydrogenases; aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases; betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases; coenzyme binding; enzyme activities; stress tolerance
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is manifested as cardiac hypertrophy, disrupted contractile function and myofibrillary architecture. An ample amount of clinical and experimental evidence has depicted a pivotal role for alcohol metabolism especially the main alcohol metabolic product acetaldehyde, in the pathogenesis of this myopathic state. Findings from our group and others have revealed that the mitochondrial isoform of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), which metabolizes acetaldehyde, governs the detoxification of acetaldehyde formed following alcohol consumption and the ultimate elimination of alcohol from the body. The ALDH2 enzymatic cascade may evolve as a unique detoxification mechanism for environmental alcohols and aldehydes to alleviate the undesired cardiac anomalies in ischemia-reperfusion and alcoholism. Polymorphic variants of the ALDH2 gene encode enzymes with altered pharmacokinetic properties and a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases associated with alcoholism. The pathophysiological effects of ALDH2 polymorphism may be mediated by accumulation of acetaldehyde and other reactive aldehydes. Inheritance of the inactive ALDH2*2 gene product is associated with a decreased risk of alcoholism but an increased risk of alcoholic complications. This association is influenced by gene-environment interactions such as those associated with religion and national origin. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy with a special focus on ALDH2 enzymatic metabolism. It will be important to dissect the links between ALDH2 polymorphism and prevalence of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, in order to determine the mechanisms underlying such associations. The therapeutic value of ALDH2 as both target and tool in the management of alcoholic tissue damage will be discussed.
Alcohol; ALDH2; enzyme; metabolism; myocardial; transgenic mice
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent large family members of NAD(P)+-dependent dehydrogenases responsible for the irreversible metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Among 19 ALDH isozymes, mitochondrial ALDH2 is a low Km enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde and lipid peroxides such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, both of which are highly reactive and toxic. Consequently, inhibition of ALDH2 would lead to elevated levels of acetaldehyde and other reactive lipid peroxides following ethanol intake and/or exposure to toxic chemicals. In addition, many East Asian people with a dominant negative mutation in ALDH2 gene possess a decreased ALDH2 activity with increased risks for various types of cancer, myocardial infarct, alcoholic liver disease, and other pathological conditions. The aim of this review is to briefly describe the multiple post-translational modifications of mitochondrial ALDH2, as an example, after exposure to toxic chemicals or under different disease states and their pathophysiological roles in promoting alcohol/drug-mediated tissue damage. We also briefly mention exciting preclinical translational research opportunities to identify small molecule activators of ALDH2 and its isozymes as potentially therapeutic/preventive agents against various disease states where the expression or activity of ALDH enzymes is altered or inactivated.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases; post-translational modifications; cellular defense; drug toxicity; disease states; translational research
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an enzyme that detoxifies aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDH2 deficiency is known to increase oxidative stress, which is the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant defense activity. Increased ROS contribute to vascular dysfunction and structural remodeling in hypertension. We hypothesized that ALDH2 plays a protective role to reduce vascular contraction in angiotensin II (AngII) hypertensive mice.
Methods and Results
Endothelium-denuded aortic rings from C57BL6 mice, treated with AngII (3.6 μg/kg/min, 14 days), were used to measure isometric force development. Rings treated with daidzin (10 μmol/L), an ALDH2 inhibitor, potentiated contractile responses to phenylephrine (PE) in AngII mice. Tempol (1 mmol/L) and catalase (600U/ml) attenuated the augmented contractile effect of daidzin. In normotensive mice, contraction to PE in the presence of the daidzin was not different from control, untreated values. AngII aortic rings transfected with ALDH2 recombinant protein decreased contractile responses to PE compared with control.
These data suggest that ALDH2 reduces vascular contraction in AngII hypertensive mice. Since tempol and catalase blocked the contractile response of the ALDH2 inhibitor, ROS generation by AngII may be decreased by ALDH2, thereby preventing ROS-induced contraction.
Hypertension; ROS; ALDH2; Vascular contraction
Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a common comorbidity in diabetic patients, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this cardiomyopathic feature are not completely understood. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has been considered a key cardioprotective enzyme susceptible to oxidative inactivation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress would influence ALDH2 activity, and ALDH2 inhibition would lead to cardiac functional alterations in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: control, untreated diabetic, diabetic treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and diabetic treated with α-lipoic acid (α-LA). Cardiac contractile function, oxidative stress markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed. ALDH2 activity and expression also were determined. The role of ALDH2 activity in change in hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) was tested in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Myocardial MDA content and ROS were significantly higher in diabetic rats than in controls, whereas GSH content and Mn-SOD activity were decreased in diabetic rats. Compared with controls, diabetic rats exhibited significant reduction in LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening, accompanied by decreases in ALDH2 activity and expression. NAC and α-LA attenuated these changes. Mitochondrial Δψ was decreased greatly with hyperglycemia treatment, and high glucose combined with ALDH2 inhibition with daidzin further decreased Δψ. The ALDH2 activity can be regulated by oxidative stress in the diabetic rat heart. ALDH2 inhibition may be associated with LV reduced contractility, and mitochondrial impairment aggravated by ALDH2 inhibition might reflect an underlying mechanism which causes cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats.
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is emerging as a key enzyme involved in cytoprotection in the heart. ALDH2 mediates both the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO). In addition, chronic nitrate treatment results in ALDH2 inhibition and contributes to nitrate tolerance. Our lab recently identified ALDH2 to be a key mediator of endogenous cytoprotection. We reported that ALDH2 is phosphorylated and activated by the survival kinase protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) and found a strong inverse correlation between ALDH2 activity and infarct size. We also identified a small molecule ALDH2 activator (Alda-1) which reduces myocardial infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. In this review, we discuss evidence that ALDH2 is a key mediator of endogenous survival signaling in the heart, suggest possible cardioprotective mechanisms mediated by ALDH2, and discuss potential clinical implications of these findings.
In approximately one billion people, a point mutation inactivates a key detoxifying enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mitochondrial enzyme metabolizes toxic biogenic and environmental aldehydes, including the endogenously produced 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and the environmental pollutant, acrolein. ALDH2 also bioactivates nitroglycerin, but it is best known for its role in ethanol metabolism. The accumulation of acetaldehyde following the consumption of even a single alcoholic beverage leads to the Asian Alcohol-induced Flushing Syndrome in ALDH2*2 homozygotes. The ALDH2*2 allele is semi-dominant and heterozygotic individuals exhibit a similar, but not as severe phenotype. We recently identified a small molecule, Alda-1, which activates wild-type ALDH2 and restores near wild-type activity to ALDH2*2. The structures of Alda-1 bound to ALDH2 and ALDH2*2 reveal how Alda-1 activates the wild-type enzyme and how it restores the activity of ALDH2*2 by acting as a structural chaperone.
The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily encodes enzymes that are critical for certain life processes and detoxification via the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of numerous endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates, including pharmaceuticals and environmental pollutants. Analysis of the ALDH gene superfamily in the latest databases showed that the human genome contains 19 putatively functional genes and three pseudogenes. A number of ALDH genes are upregulated as a part of the oxidative stress response and inexplicably overexpressed in various tumours, leading to problems during cancer chemotherapy. Mutations in ALDH genes cause inborn errors of metabolism -- such as the Sjögren - Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinaemia and γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria -- and are likely to contribute to several complex diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The ALDH gene products appear to be multifunctional proteins, possessing both catalytic and non-catalytic properties.
human genome; aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family; genetic polymorphism; evolution; crystallins
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) belong to a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes to their corresponding acids. Increased expression and/or activity of ALDHs, particularly ALDH1A1, have been reported to occur in human cancers. It is proposed that the metabolic function of ALDH1A1 confers the “stemness” properties to normal and cancer stem cells. Nevertheless, the identity of ALDH isozymes that contribute to the enhanced ALDH activity in specific types of human cancers remains to be elucidated. ALDH1B1 is a mitochondrial ALDH that metabolizes a wide range of aldehyde substrates including acetaldehyde and products of lipid peroxidation (LPO). In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression profile of ALDH1A1 and ALDH1B1 in human adenocarcinomas of colon (N=40), lung (N=30), breast (N=33) and ovary (N=33) using an NIH tissue array. The immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1A1 or ALDH1B1 in tumor tissues was scored by their intensity (scale = 1–3) and extensiveness (% of total cancer cells). Herein we report a 5.6-fold higher expression score for ALDH1B1 in cancerous tissues than that for ALDH1A1. Remarkably, 39 out of 40 colonic cancer specimens were positive for ALDH1B1 with a staining intensity of 2.8 ± 0.5. Our study demonstrates that ALDH1B1 is more profoundly expressed in the adenocarcinomas examined in this study relative to ALDH1A1 and that ALDH1B1 is dramatically upregulated in human colonic adenocarcinoma, making it a potential biomarker for human colon cancer.
ALDH1B1; epithelial cancer; colon cancer; cancer stem cell; biomarker
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes to their corresponding acids. Some ALDHs have been identified as corneal crystallins and thereby contribute to the protective and refractive properties of the cornea. ALDH3A1 is highly expressed in the cornea of most mammals with the exception of rabbit, who abundantly expresses ALDH1A1 in the cornea instead of ALDH3A1. In this study, we examined the gene expression of other ALDHs and found high messenger levels of ALDH1B1, ALDH2 and ALDH7A1 in mouse cornea and lens. Substantial evidence supports a protective role for ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1 against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced oxidative damage to ocular tissues. The mechanism by which this protection occurs includes UVR filtering, detoxification of reactive aldehydes generated by UVR exposure and antioxidant activity. We recently have identified ALDH3A1 as a nuclear protein in corneal epithelium. Herein, we show that ALDH3A1 is also found in the nucleus of rabbit keratocytes. The nuclear presence of ALDH3A1 may be involved in cell cycle regulation.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), a detoxifying enzyme responsible for the oxidation of intracellular aldehydes, was shown to play a role in the early differentiation of stem cells, through its role in oxidizing retinol to retinoic acid. It has been shown that ALDH1 is a predictor of poor clinical outcome in breast cancer. The authors hypothesized that the level of ALDH1 expression may be correlated with the clinical outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of ALDH1 expression was analyzed in 442 primary ovarian carcinomas using tissue microarray. The associations between the expression of the ALDH1 and clinical factors (diagnosis, tumor grade, stage, and clinical response to chemotherapy), as well overall and disease-free survival were analyzed. Expression of ALDH1 was found in 48.9% of the samples. Fisher's exact test suggested that high expression of ALDH1 was significantly associated with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001), early-stage disease (P = 0.006), complete response to chemotherapy (P <0.05) and a low serum level of CA125 (P = 0.02). High percentage of cells expressing ALDH1 was associated with a longer overall survival time (P =0.01) and disease free survival time (P = 0.006) by Log rank test. In contrast to its role in breast cancer, ALDH1 was a favorable prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma. ALDH1 therefore may play a different role in ovarian cancer than it does in breast cancer.
ALDH1; Ovarian Cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation.
This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes.
Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings.
To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. Finally, ALDH enzymes display multiple catalytic and non-catalytic functions including ester hydrolysis, antioxidant properties, xenobiotic bioactivation and UV light absorption.
aldehyde dehydrogenase; aldehyde metabolism; ALDH
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes are critical in the detoxification of aldehydes. The human genome contains 19 ALDH genes, mutations in which are the basis of several diseases. The expression, subcellular localization, enzyme kinetics and role of ALDH3B1 against aldehyde- and oxidant-induced cytotoxicity were investigated. ALDH3B1 was purified from Sf9 cells using chromatographic methods and enzyme kinetics were determined spectrophotometrically. ALDH3B1 demonstrated high affinity for hexanal (Km 62 μM), octanal (Km 8 μM), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) (Km 52 μM) and benzaldehyde (Km 46 μM). Low affinity was seen towards acetaldehyde (Km 23.3 mM), malondialdehyde (Km 152 mM) and the ester p-nitrophenylacetate (Km 3.6 mM). ALDH3B1 mRNA was abundant in testis, lung, kidney and ovary. ALDH3B1 protein was highly expressed in these tissues and the liver. Immunofluorescence microscopy of ALDH3B1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and subcellular fractionation of mouse kidney and liver revealed a cytosolic protein localization. ALDH3B1-transfected HEK293 cells were significantly protected from the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes trans-2-octenal, 4HNE and hexanal, and the oxidants H2O2 and menadione. In addition, ALDH3B1 protein expression was up-regulated by 4HNE in ARPE-19 cells. The results detailed in this study support a pathophysiological role for ALDH3B1 in protecting cells from the damaging effects of oxidative stress.
aldehyde dehydrogenase 3B1 (ALDH3B1); 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; lipid peroxidation; mRNA; protein expression; enzyme kinetics; aldehyde toxicity
There is substantial interest in the development of drugs that limit the extent of ischemia-induced cardiac damage caused by myocardial infarction or by certain surgical procedures. Here an unbiased proteomic search identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent models. A high-throughput screen yielded a small-molecule activator of ALDH2 (Alda-1) that, when administered to rats prior to an ischemic event, reduced infarct size by 60%, most likely through its inhibitory effect on the formation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In vitro, Alda-1 was a particularly effective activator of ALDH2*2, an inactive mutant form of the enzyme that is found in 40% of East Asian populations. Thus, pharmacologic enhancement of ALDH2 activity may be useful for patients with wildtype or mutant ALDH2 subjected to cardiac ischemia, such as during coronary bypass surgery. (140/140 words)
Members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH) superfamily play an important role in the enzymic detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and in the formation of molecules that are important in cellular processes, like retinoic acid, betaine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. ALDHs exhibit additional, non-enzymic functions, including the capacity to bind to some hormones and other small molecules and to diminish the effects of ultraviolet irradiation in the cornea. Mutations in ALDH genes leading to defective aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, Sjögren–Larsson syndrome and type II hyperprolinaemia. Interestingly, several ALDH enzymes appear to be markers for normal and cancer stem cells. The superfamily is evolutionarily ancient and is represented within Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya taxa. Recent improvements in DNA and protein sequencing have led to the identification of many new ALDH family members. To date, the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Whole-genome sequencing allows for comparison of the entire complement of ALDH family members among organisms. This paper provides an update of ALDH genes in several recently sequenced vertebrates and aims to clarify the associated records found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) gene database. It also highlights where and when likely gene-duplication and gene-loss events have occurred. This information should be useful to future studies that might wish to compare the role of ALDH members among species and how the gene superfamily as a whole has changed throughout evolution.
ALDH; aldehyde dehydrogenase; nomenclature; carbonyl metabolism; evolution; gene family
Members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH) superfamily play an important role in the enzymic detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and in the formation of molecules that are important in cellular processes, like retinoic acid, betaine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. ALDHs exhibit additional, non-enzymic functions, including the capacity to bind to some hormones and other small molecules and to diminish the effects of ultraviolet irradiation in the cornea. Mutations in ALDH genes leading to defective aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and type II hyperprolinaemia. Interestingly, several ALDH enzymes appear to be markers for normal and cancer stem cells. The superfamily is evolutionarily ancient and is represented within Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya taxa. Recent improvements in DNA and protein sequencing have led to the identification of many new ALDH family members. To date, the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Whole-genome sequencing allows for comparison of the entire complement of ALDH family members among organisms. This paper provides an update of ALDH genes in several recently sequenced vertebrates and aims to clarify the associated records found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) gene database. It also highlights where and when likely gene-duplication and gene-loss events have occurred. This information should be useful to future studies that might wish to compare the role of ALDH members among species and how the gene superfamily as a whole has changed throughout evolution.
ALDH; aldehyde dehydrogenase; nomenclature; carbonyl metabolism; evolution; gene family
Although pre-menopausal females have a lower risk for cardiovascular disease, the mechanism(s) are poorly understood.
We tested the hypothesis that cardioprotection in females is mediated by altered mitochondrial protein levels and/or post-translational modifications.
Methods and Results
Using both an in vivo and an isolated heart model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), we found that females had less injury than males. Using proteomic methods we found that female hearts had increased phosphorylation and activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), an enzyme that detoxifies ROS generated aldehyde adducts, and that an activator of ALDH2 reduced I/R injury in males but had no significant effect in females. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, blocked the protection and the increased phosphorylation of ALDH2 in females, but had no effect in males. Furthermore, we found an increase in phosphorylation of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH) in female hearts. αKGDH is a major source of ROS generation particularly with a high NADH/NAD ratio which occurs during I/R. We found decreased ROS generation in permeabilized female mitochondria given αKGDH substrates and NADH, suggesting that increased phosphorylation of αKGDH might reduce ROS generation by αKGDH. In support of this hypothesis, we found that PKC dependent phosphorylation of purified αKGDH reduced ROS generation. Additionally, myocytes from female hearts had less ROS generation following I/R than males and addition of wortmannin increased ROS generation in females to the same levels as in males.
These data suggest that post-translational modifications can modify ROS handling and play an important role in female cardioprotection.
gender difference; cardioprotection; mitochondria; proteomics; aldehyde dehydrogenase
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde and other toxic lipid aldehydes. Despite many reports about the inhibition of ALDH2 by toxic chemicals, it is unknown whether nitric oxide (NO) can alter the ALDH2 activity in intact cells or in vivo animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NO on ALDH2 activity in H4IIE-C3 rat hepatoma cells. NO donors such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine significantly increased the nitrite concentration while they inhibited the ALDH2 activity. Addition of GSH-ethylester (GSH-EE) completely blocked the GSNO-mediated ALDH2 inhibition and increased nitrite concentration. To directly demonstrate the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and inactivation, ALDH2 was immunopurified from control or GSNO-treated cells and subjected to immunoblot analysis. The anti-nitrosocysteine antibody recognized the immunopurified ALDH2 only from the GSNO-treated samples. All these results indicate that S-nitrosylation of ALDH2 in intact cells leads to reversible inhibition of ALDH2 activity.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase; Glutathione; Nitric oxide; NO donors; S-Nitrosylation; ALDH2, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; BSO, l-buthionine-sulphoximine; DTT, dithiothreitol; GSH-EE, glutathioneethylester; GSNO, S-nitrosoglutathione; HNE, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; MDA, malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; S-NO-Cys, S-nitroso-cysteine; ROS/RNS, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species; SIN-1, 3-morpholinosydnonimine · HCl; SNAP, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d, l-penicillamine
Deficiency in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a tetrameric enzyme, results from inheriting one or two ALDH2*2 alleles. This allele encodes a protein subunit with a lysine for glutamate substitution at position 487 and is dominant over the wild-type allele, ALDH2*1. The ALDH2*2-encoded subunit (ALDH2K) reduces the activity of ALDH2 enzyme in cell lines expressing the wild-type subunit (ALDH2E). In addition to this effect on the enzyme activity, we now report that ALDH2*2 heterozygotes had lower levels of ALDH2 immunoreactive protein in autopsy liver samples. The half-lives of ALDH2 protein in HeLa cell lines expressing ALDH2*1, ALDH2*2, or both were determined by the rate of loss of immunoreactive protein after inhibition of protein synthesis with puromycin and by pulse-chase experiments. By either measure, ALDH2E enzyme was very stable, with a half-life of at least 22 h. ALDH2K enzyme had an enzyme half-life of only 14 h. In cells expressing both subunits, most of the subunits assemble as heterotetramers, and these enzymes had a half-life of 13 h. Thus, the effect of ALDH2K on enzyme turnover is dominant. These studies indicate that the ALDH2*2 allele exerts its dominant effect both by interfering with the catalytic activity of the enzyme and by increasing its turnover. This represents the first example of a dominantly acting allele with this effect on a mitochondrial enzyme's turnover.
The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily consists of 19 genes encoding enzymes critical for NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes, including drugs and environmental toxicants. Mutations in ALDH genes are the molecular basis of several disease states (e.g. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and type II hyperprolinemia) and may contribute to the etiology of complex diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this nomenclature update was to identify splice transcriptional variants principally for the human ALDH genes.
Data-mining methods were used to retrieve all human ALDH sequences. Alternatively-spliced transcriptional variants were determined based upon: a) criteria for sequence integrity and genomic alignment; b) evidence of multiple independent cDNA sequences corresponding to a variant sequence; and c) if available, empirical evidence of variants from the literature.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
Alternatively-spliced transcriptional variants and their encoded proteins exist for most of the human ALDH genes; however, their function and significance remain to be established. When compared with the human genome, rat and mouse include an additional gene, Aldh1a7, in the ALDH1A subfamily. In order to avoid confusion when identifying splice variants in various genomes, nomenclature guidelines for the naming of such alternative transcriptional variants and proteins are recommended herein. In addition, a web database (www.aldh.org) has been developed to provide up-to-date information and nomenclature guidelines for the ALDH superfamily.
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; ALDH; Alternatively-Spliced Variants; Nomenclature; Human
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) displays some promise in the protection against cardiovascular diseases although its role in diabetes has not been elucidated.
This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy. Friendly virus B(FVB) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were treated with streptozotocin (intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg) to induce diabetes.
Echocardiographic evaluation revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end-systolic and -diastolic diameter, and decreased wall thickness in streptozotocin-treated FVB mice. Streptozotocin led to a reduced respiratory exchange ratio; myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial damage; cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ defects, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening and relengthening; prolonged duration of shortening and relengthening; and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and Foxo3a (but not mammalian target of rapamycin), elevated PTEN phosphorylation and downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and UCP-2. Intriguingly, ALDH2 attenuated or ablated streptozotocin-induced echocardiographic, mitochondrial, apoptotic and myocardial contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies as well as changes in the phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Foxo3a and phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten, despite persistent hyperglycemia and a low respiratory exchange ratio. In vitro data revealed that the ALDH2 activator Alda-1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition protected against high glucose-induced mitochondrial and mechanical anomalies, the effect of which was cancelled by mitochondrial uncoupling.
In summary, our data revealed that ALDH2 acted against diabetes-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, possibly through regulation of apoptosis, glycogen synthase kinase-3β activation and mitochondrial function independent of the global metabolic profile.
ALDH2; cardiac contraction; diabetes; GSK3β; mitochondrial function
The completion of the rice genome sequence has made it possible to identify and characterize new genes and to perform comparative genomics studies across taxa. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily encoding for NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes is found in all major plant and animal taxa. However, the characterization of plant ALDHs has lagged behind their animal- and prokaryotic-ALDH homologs. In plants, ALDHs are involved in abiotic stress tolerance, male sterility restoration, embryo development and seed viability and maturation. However, there is still no structural property-dependent functional characterization of ALDH protein superfamily in plants. In this paper, we identify members of the rice ALDH gene superfamily and use the evolutionary nesting events of retrotransposons and protein-modeling–based structural reconstitution to report the genetic and molecular and structural features of each member of the rice ALDH superfamily in abiotic/biotic stress responses and developmental processes. Our results indicate that rice-ALDHs are the most expanded plant ALDHs ever characterized. This work represents the first report of specific structural features mediating functionality of the whole families of ALDHs in an organism ever characterized.
Little is known about the roles of aldehyde dehydrogenases in non-vertebrate animals. We recently showed that in Drosophila melanogaster, an enzyme with ~70% amino acid identity to mammalian ALDH2 is necessary for detoxification of dietary ethanol. To investigate other functions of this enzyme, DmALDH, encoded by the gene Aldh, we compared two strains homozygous for Aldh-null mutations to two closely related wild type strains in measures of fitness and stress resistance in the absence of ethanol. Aldh-null strains have lower total reproductive rate, pre-adult viability, resistance to starvation, and possibly longevity than wild-type strains. When maintained under hyperoxia, Aldh nulls die more quickly and accumulate higher levels of protein carbonyls than wild-types, thereby providing evidence that DmALDH is important for detoxifying reactive aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation. However no effect of Aldh was seen on protein carbonyl levels in flies maintained under normoxia. It is possible that Aldh nulls experience elevated rates of protein carbonylation under normoxia, but this is compensated (at a fitness cost) by increased rates of degradation of the defective proteins. Alternatively, the fitness defects of Aldh nulls under normoxia may result from the absence of one or more other functions of DmALDH, unrelated to protection against protein carbonylation.
protein carbonylation; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; Drosophila; balancer equilibrium method; stress resistance
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) plays an essential role in nitroglycerin (GTN) bioactivation, resulting in formation of NO or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase. ALDH2 denitrates GTN to 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate and nitrite but also catalyzes reduction of GTN to NO. To elucidate the relationship between ALDH2-catalyzed GTN bioconversion and established ALDH2 activities (dehydrogenase, esterase), we compared the function of the wild type (WT) enzyme with mutants lacking either the reactive Cys-302 (C302S) or the general base Glu-268 (E268Q). Although the C302S mutation led to >90% loss of all enzyme activities, the E268Q mutant exhibited virtually unaffected rates of GTN denitration despite low dehydrogenase and esterase activities. The nucleotide co-factor NAD caused a pronounced increase in the rates of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate formation by WT-ALDH2 but inhibited the reaction catalyzed by the E268Q mutant. GTN bioactivation measured as activation of purified soluble guanylate cyclase or release of NO in the presence of WT- or E268Q-ALDH2 was markedly potentiated by superoxide dismutase, suggesting that bioavailability of GTN-derived NO is limited by co-generation of superoxide. Formation of superoxide was confirmed by determination of hydroethidine oxidation that was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and the ALDH2 inhibitor chloral hydrate. E268Q-ALDH2 exhibited ∼50% lower rates of superoxide formation than the WT enzyme. Our results suggest that Glu-268 is involved in the structural organization of the NAD-binding pocket but is not required for GTN denitration. ALDH2-catalyzed superoxide formation may essentially contribute to oxidative stress in GTN-exposed blood vessels.
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that oxidizes ethanol-derived acetaldehyde. A nearly inactive form of the enzyme, ALDH2*2, is found in about 40% of the East Asian population. This variant enzyme is defined by a glutamate to lysine substitution at residue 487 located within the oligomerization domain. ALDH2*2 has an increased Km for its coenzyme, NAD+, and a decreased kcat, which lead to low activity in vivo. Here we report the 2.1 Å crystal structure of ALDH2*2. The structure shows a large disordered region located at the dimer interface that includes much of the coenzyme binding cleft and a loop of residues that form the base of the active site. As a consequence of these structural changes, the variant enzyme exhibits rigid-body rotations of its catalytic and coenzyme-binding domains relative to the oligomerization domain. These structural perturbations are the direct result of the inability of lysine 487 to form important stabilizing hydrogen bonds with arginines 264 and 475. Thus, the elevated Km for coenzyme exhibited by this variant likely reflects the energetic penalty for reestablishing this site for productive coenzyme binding, while the structural alterations near the active site are consistent with the lowered Vmax.