Metastasis remains the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. ErbB2, a metastasis-promoting oncoprotein, is overexpressed in 50–60% of noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, only 25% of invasive breast cancer (IBC) overexpress ErbB2, indicating that ErbB2 alone is not sufficient to drive metastasis and additional risk factors are necessary for the progression of ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS to IBC. A recent study published in Cancer Cell identified 14-3-3ξ as a risk factor aiding the transition of ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS into IBC. Furthermore, the study elucidated molecular mechanisms by which ErbB2 and 14-3-3ξ co-overexpression drives metastasis. Namely, ErbB2 promotes cell motility and migration via the activation of Src, while 14-3-3ξ induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating TGFβ pathway to reduce cell adhesion. On the other hand, two studies recently published in British Journal of Cancer and Oncogene provide mechanistic insight into how ErbB signalling is transduced via Src, focal adhesion kinase and Ste20-like kinase to regulate focal adhesion turnover and modulate cell motility and migration. Taken together, these studies reveal that metastasis engages a variety of players that must show team spirit to win the game of spreading.
ErbB2; 14-3-3ξ; metastasis; invasive breast cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; focal adhesion; cell motility; cell adhesion
AIMS: To assess c-erbB-2 immunostaining in relation to morphological type of in situ and invasive breast carcinoma. METHODS: Formalin fixed, wax embedded archival tissue was used. Invasive carcinomas comprised 50 infiltrating ductal (NOS); seven medullary, 10 tubular, 15 mucinous and 24 classic invasive lobular. In situ carcinomas comprised 48 ductal (DCIS) and 10 cases of lobular (LCIS). The antibodies used were pAB1 (polyclonal) which stains cell lines that over express the c-erbB-2 oncogene, and ICR 12 (monoclonal) which stains sections of breast carcinoma known to show c-erbB-2 amplification. RESULTS: Immunostaining consistent with c-erbB-2 overexpression was found in 10 out of 50 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (NOS), one of 24 infiltrating lobular carcinomas and one of seven medullary carcinomas only. Seventy per cent of ICR 12 positive cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma also had extratumoral DCIS. Forty six per cent of pure DCIS lesions also showed strong membrane staining for c-erbB-2 protein, confined to large cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Immunostaining for c-erb B-2 oncoprotein occurs mainly in large cell DCIS and infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS, especially those with an extratumoral DCIS component. There is a low incidence in other types of breast cancer, including those associated with a better prognosis. Different biological mechanisms may be responsible for histologically distinct types of breast carcinoma.
Expression of c-erbB3 protein was investigated in 104 primary breast carcinomas comprising nine comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 91 invasive ductal carcinomas and four invasive lobular carcinomas using two monoclonal antibodies, RTJ1 and RTJ2. Of the 91 invasive ductal carcinomas, seven contained the comedo DCIS component adjacent to the invasive component. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate the association between expression of c-erbB3 and clinical parameters and tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB2, cathepsin-D and p53 in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissues. Our results indicated that RTJ1 and RTJ2 gave identical staining patterns and concordant results. It was found that the overexpression of c-erbB3 protein was observed in 67% (6/9) of comedo DCIS, 52% (44/84) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 71% (5/7) of carcinomas containing both the in situ and invasive lesions and 25% (1/4) of invasive lobular carcinomas. A significant relationship (P < 0.05) was observed between strong immunoreactivity of c-erbB3 protein and histological grade, EGFR and cathepsin-D, but not with expression of c-erbB2, p53, oestrogen receptor status, lymph node metastases or age of patient. However, we noted that a high percentage of oestrogen receptor-negative tumours (59%), lymph node-positive tumours (63%) and c-erbB2 (63%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3 protein. We have also documented that a high percentage of EGFR (67%), c-erbB2 (67%), p53 (75%) and cathepsin-D-positive DCIS (60%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3. These observations suggest that overexpression of c-erbB3 protein could play an important role in tumour progression from non-invasive to invasive and, also, that it may have the potential to be used as a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer.
The overexpression of members of the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor family has been associated with cancer progression. We demonstrate that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is essential for oncogenic transformation and cell invasion that is induced by ErbB-2 and -3 receptor signaling. ErbB-2/3 overexpression in FAK-deficient cells fails to promote cell transformation and rescue chemotaxis deficiency. Restoration of FAK rescues both oncogenic transformation and invasion that is induced by ErbB-2/3 in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the inhibition of FAK in FAK-proficient invasive cancer cells prevented cell invasion and metastasis formation. The activation of ErbB-2/3 regulates FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-397, -861, and -925. ErbB-induced oncogenic transformation correlates with the ability of FAK to restore ErbB-2/3–induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation; the inhibition of MAPK prevented oncogenic transformation. In contrast, the inhibition of Src but not MAPK prevented ErbB–FAK-induced chemotaxis. In migratory cells, activated ErbB-2/3 receptors colocalize with activated FAK at cell protrusions. This colocalization requires intact FAK. In summary, distinct FAK signaling has an essential function in ErbB-induced oncogenesis and invasiveness.
Pathways involved in DCIS stem and progenitor signalling are poorly understood yet are critical to understand DCIS biology and to develop new therapies. Notch and ErbB1/2 receptor signalling cross talk has been demonstrated in invasive breast cancer, but their role in DCIS stem and progenitor cells has not been investigated. We have utilised 2 DCIS cell lines, MCF10DCIS.com (ErbB2-normal) and SUM225 (ErbB2-overexpressing) and 7 human primary DCIS samples were cultured in 3D matrigel and as mammospheres in the presence, absence or combination of the Notch inhibitor, DAPT, and ErbB1/2 inhibitors, lapatinib or gefitinib. Western blotting was applied to assess downstream signalling. In this study we demonstrate that DAPT reduced acini size and mammosphere formation in MCF10DCIS.com whereas there was no effect in SUM225. Lapatinb reduced acini size and mammosphere formation in SUM225, whereas mammosphere formation and Notch1 activity were increased in MCF10DCIS.com. Combined DAPT/lapatinib treatment was more effective at reducing acini size in both DCIS cell lines. Mammosphere formation in cell lines and human primary DCIS was reduced further by DAPT/lapatinib or DAPT/gefitinib regardless of ErbB2 receptor status. Our pre-clinical human models of DCIS demonstrate that Notch and ErbB1/2 both play a role in DCIS acini growth and stem cell activity. We report for the first time that cross talk between the two pathways in DCIS occurs regardless of ErbB2 receptor status and inhibition of Notch and ErbB1/2 was more efficacious than either alone. These data provide further understanding of DCIS biology and suggest treatment strategies combining Notch and ErbB1/2 inhibitors should be investigated regardless of ErbB2 receptor status.
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is often characterized by ErbB2 overexpression. ErbB2 targeting is clinically relevant using trastuzumab (anti-ErbB2 antibody) and lapatinib (small molecule ErbB1/2 inhibitor). However, acquired resistance is a common outcome even in IBC patients who show an initial clinical response, which limits the efficacy of these agents. In the present study, using a clonal population of GW583340 (lapatinib analog, ErbB1/2 inhibitor)-resistant IBC cells, we identified overexpression of an anti-apoptotic protein, XIAP, in acquired resistance to GW583340 in both ErbB2 overexpressing SUM190 and ErbB1 activated SUM149 cell lines derived from primary IBC tumors. A marked decrease in p-ErbB2, p-ErbB1, and downstream signaling was evident in the GW583340-resistant cells (rSUM190 and rSUM149) similar to parental counterparts treated with the drug, suggesting the primary mechanism of action of GW583340 was not compromised in resistant cells. However, rSUM190 and rSUM149 cells growing in GW583340 had significant XIAP overexpression and resistance to GW583340-mediated apoptosis. Additionally, stable XIAP overexpression using a lentiviral system reversed sensitivity to GW583340 in parental cells. The observed overexpression was identified to be caused by IRES-mediated XIAP translation. XIAP downregulation in rSUM190 and rSUM149 cells using a small molecule inhibitor (embelin), which abrogates the XIAP/procaspase 9 interaction, resulted in decreased viability, demonstrating that XIAP is required for survival of cells with acquired resistance to GW583340. These studies establish the feasibility of development of an XIAP inhibitor that potentiates apoptosis for use in IBC patients with resistance to ErbB2-targeting agents.
IRES; embelin; survivin; FOXO3a; p-AKT
Ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is regarded as a precursor to invasive breast cancer. The progression from in situ to invasive cancer is however little understood. We compared some tumour markers in invasive and in situ breast carcinomas trying to find steps in this progression. We designed a semi-experimental setting and compared histopathological grading and tumour marker expression in pure DCIS (n = 194), small invasive lesions (n = 127) and lesions with both an invasive and in situ component (n = 305). Grading was done according to the Elston–Ellis and EORTC classification systems, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for p53, c-erbB-2, Ki-67, ER, PR, bcl-2 and angiogenesis. All markers correlated with grade rather than with invasiveness. No marker was clearly associated with the progression from in situ to invasiveness. The expression of tumour markers was almost identical in the 2 components of mixed lesions. DCIS as a group showed a more ‘malignant picture' than invasive cancer according to the markers, probably, due to a higher proportion of poorly differentiated lesions. The step between in situ and invasive cancer seems to occur independently of tumour grade. The results suggest that well-differentiated DCIS progress to well-differentiated invasive cancer and poorly differentiated DCIS progress to poorly differentiated invasive cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
breast cancer; invasive; in situ; progression
Hyperactivation of ErbB signaling is implicated in metastatic breast cancer. However, the mechanisms that cause dysregulated ErbB signaling and promote breast carcinoma cell invasion remain poorly understood. One pathway leading to ErbB activation that remains unexplored in breast carcinoma cell invasion involves transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a GPCR activated by extracellular proteases, is overexpressed in invasive breast cancer. PAR1 is also proposed to function in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but how PAR1 contributes to these processes is not known. In this study, we report that proteolytic activation of PAR1 by thrombin induces persistent transactivation of EGFR and ErbB2/HER2 in invasive breast carcinoma, but not in normal mammary epithelial cells. PAR1-stimulated EGFR and ErbB2 transactivation leads to prolonged extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and −2 signaling and promotes breast carcinoma cell invasion. We also show that PAR1 signaling through Gαi/o and metalloprotease activity is critical for ErbB transactivation and cellular invasion. Finally, we demonstrate that PAR1 expression in invasive breast carcinoma is essential for tumor growth in vivo assessed by mammary fat pad xenografts. These studies reveal a critical role for PAR1, a receptor activated by tumor-generated proteases, in hyperactivation of ErbB signaling that promotes breast carcinoma cell invasion.
thrombin; GPCR; metalloprotease; MDA-MB-231; G protein
AIM--To investigate overexpression of c-erbB2, expression of the p53 protein product and proliferation rates in benign breast lesions with specific reference to apocrine adenosis. METHODS--Twenty one cases of apocrine adenosis were stained with monoclonal antibodies to p185, the protein product of the c-erbB2 oncogene, the protein product of the p53 tumour suppressor gene and to the cell cycle related protein Ki67. Three cases were associated with concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ of large cell type and two were associated with invasive tubular or cribriform carcinoma. RESULTS--Twelve (57.1%) cases showed membrane staining for c-erbB2 oncoprotein of apocrine cells within sclerosing adenosis and six (28.6%) had occasional p53 protein positive cells. One case not associated with carcinoma showed extensive staining of apocrine metaplasia outside the area of apocrine adenosis. The proliferation rate, as measured by Ki67 staining, was increased in some of the lesions and all lesions showed at least some of the cells to be in the cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS--The expression of abnormal oncogene products and increased proliferation in some of these apocrine lesions questions the supposed degenerative nature of the atypia seen in such cases and suggests that there may be an association between these lesions and large cell ductal carcinoma in situ and hence invasive carcinoma.
Human ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is now diagnosed quite frequently, due largely to the introduction of mammographic screening. It has been shown in a cell culture system that activation of c-erbB-2, but not the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in a DCIS-like phenotype. Since overexpression of c-erbB-2 occurs in 60% of DCIS, this suggests that it could be a target for treatment in this disease.
ductal carcinoma in situ; growth factor receptor; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Transforming Growth Factor β is a potent modifier of the malignant phenotype in ErbB2-expressing breast cancers. We demonstrate that epithelial-derived breast cancer cells, which undergo a TGFβ-induced EMT, engage signaling molecules that normally facilitate cellular migration and invasion of mesenchymal cells. We identify Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP) as an indispensable regulator of TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. We show that LPP re-localizes to focal adhesion complexes upon TGFβ stimulation and is a critical determinant in TGFβ-mediated focal adhesion turnover. Finally, we have determined that the interaction between LPP and α-Actinin, an actin cross-linking protein, is necessary for TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. Thus, our data reveals that LPP, which is normally operative in cells of mesenchymal origin, can be co-opted by breast cancer cells during an EMT to promote their migration and invasion.
breast cancer; ErbB2; TGFβ; EMT; LPP; migration; invasion
Amplification and overexpression of the erbB-2 oncogene is an unfavourable prognostic marker in human breast cancer and occurs in approximately 25% of breast carcinomas. We used erbB-2 antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines. erbB-2 antisense oligonucleotides (20 microM) inhibited the growth and DNA synthesis of breast cancer cell lines with an amplified erbB-2 gene by up to 60%. Control complementary sense oligonucleotides did not inhibit cellular proliferation at the same concentration but showed inhibitory effects at higher concentrations. There was no specific effect of erbB-2 antisense oligonucleotides on breast cancer cell lines that had no amplification of erbB-2. erbB-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduced erbB-2 protein levels, measured by immunohistochemistry, in a dose-dependent manner. erbB-2 sense oligonucleotides did not decrease the levels of erbB-2 protein. These data indicate that erbB-2 antisense oligonucleotides induce a specific inhibition of erbB-2 protein expression and that erbB-2 gene overexpression is important for the proliferation of the breast cancer cells that have been selected for erbB-2 amplification.
The expression of p53 protein, oestrogen receptor protein, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and overexpression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was examined in a series of 149 primary symptomatic breast carcinomas. Expression of p53 was present in 62 of 146 cases (42.5%) of the invasive carcinoma and one of three cases (33.3%) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) examined. Statistical associations of tumour oestrogen receptor positivity and lack of p53 protein expression, chi 2 = 19.78 (d.f. = 1), P less than 0.001, positive tumour p53 status and poor tumour grade; chi 2 = 14.1 (d.f. = 2), P less than 0.001, EGFR expression chi 2 = 7.07, (d.f. = 1), P less than 0.01 and tumour c-erbB-2 protein overexpression; chi 2 = 4.61 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.032 were identified. Expression of p53 is rare in invasive lobular carcinoma of classical type (8.3% of cases examined) in contrast to other common types of mammary carcinoma. Non-significant trends of p53 protein expression and increased regional tumour recurrence; chi 2 = 3.20 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.074 and also poorer patient survival; chi 2 = 3.76 (d.f. = 1), P = 0.053 were identified. p53 protein expression is a common event in human breast cancer and is present in both DCIS and invasive mammary carcinoma. Abnormal expression of p53 protein is a feature of both in situ and invasive breast carcinoma, implying that the abnormal p53 protein expression may be implicated in the early stages of mammary carcinoma progression.
The ErbB1 and ErbB2 receptors are oncogenes with therapeutic significance in human cancer, whereas the transforming potential of the related ErbB4 receptor has remained controversial. Here, we have addressed whether four alternatively spliced ErbB4 isoforms differ in regulating cellular responses relevant for tumor growth. We show that the two tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE)-cleavable ErbB4 isoforms (the juxtamembrane [JM]-a isoforms) were overexpressed in a subset of primary human breast cancers together with TACE. The overexpression of the JM-a cytoplasmic (CYT)-2 ErbB4 isoform promoted ErbB4 phosphorylation, survival of interleukin-3-dependent cells, and proliferation of breast cancer cells even in the absence of ligand stimulation, whereas activation of the other three ErbB4 isoforms required ligand stimulation. Ligand-independent cellular responses to ErbB4 JM-a CYT-2 overexpression were regulated by both tyrosine kinase activity and a two-step proteolytic generation of an intracellular receptor fragment involving first a TACE-like proteinase, followed by γ-secretase activity. These data suggest a novel transforming mechanism for the ErbB4 receptor in human breast cancer that is 1) specific for a single receptor isoform and 2) depends on proteinase cleavage and kinase activity but not ligand activation of the receptor.
We reported that the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat induced apoptosis in erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells via downregulation of erbB2 and erbB3. Here, we study the molecular mechanism by which entinostat dual-targets erbB2/erbB3. Treatment with entinostat had no effect on erbB2/erbB3 mRNA, suggesting a transcription-independent mechanism. Entinostat decreased endogenous but not exogenous erbB2/erbB3, indicating it did not alter their protein stability. We hypothesized that entinostat might inhibit erbB2/erbB3 protein translation via specific miRNAs. Indeed, entinostat significantly upregulated miR-125a, miR-125b, and miR-205, that have been reported to target erbB2 and/or erbB3. Specific inhibitors were then used to determine whether these miRNAs had a causal role in entinostat-induced downregulation of erbB2/erbB3 and apoptosis. Transfection with a single inhibitor dramatically abrogated entinostat induction of miR-125a, miR-125b, or miR-205; however, none of the inhibitors blocked entinostat action on erbB2/erbB3. In contrast, co-transfection with two inhibitors not only reduced their corresponding miRNAs, but also significantly abrogated entinostat-mediated reduction of erbB2/erbB3. Moreover, simultaneous inhibition of two, but not one miRNA significantly attenuated entinostat-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, although the other HDAC inhibitors, such as SAHA and panobinostat, exhibited activity as potent as entinostat to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, they had no significant effects on the three miRNAs. Instead, both SAHA- and panobinostat-decreased erbB2/erbB3 expression correlated with the reduction of their mRNA levels. Collectively, we demonstrate that entinostat specifically induces expression of miR-125a, miR-125b, and miR-205, which act in concert to downregulate erbB2/erbB3 in breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that epigenetic regulation via miRNA-dependent or -independent mechanisms may represent a novel approach to treat breast cancer patients with erbB2-overexpressing tumors.
entinostat; HDAC; miRNA; erbB2; erbB3; breast cancer
Diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer is associated with a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic targets are urgently needed, but their development is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor metastasis. Exemplifying this is the fact that the approximately 30% of all breast cancers overexpressing the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB-2 are characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis, but the signaling events downstream of ErbB-2 that drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis remain incompletely understood. Here we show that overexpression of ErbB-2 in human breast cancer cell lines leads to phosphorylation and activation of the semaphorin receptor Plexin-B1. This was required for ErbB-2–dependent activation of the pro-metastatic small GTPases RhoA and RhoC and promoted invasive behavior of human breast cancer cells. In a mouse model of ErbB-2–overexpressing breast cancer, ablation of the gene encoding Plexin-B1 strongly reduced the occurrence of metastases. Moreover, in human patients with ErbB-2–overexpressing breast cancer, low levels of Plexin-B1 expression correlated with good prognosis. Our data suggest that Plexin-B1 represents a new candidate therapeutic target for treating patients with ErbB-2–positive breast cancer.
Tissues from 323 methacarn-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancers were assessed for c-erbB-2 gene amplification by differential polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). The sensitivity of dPCR was ascertained using cell lines with c-erbB-2 amplification, and the relationship between dPCR ratio value and gene copy number was established. In clinical material the technique was not affected by the DNA contribution of normal tissue elements or by cancer DNA ploidy change. c-erbB-2 gene amplification was detected in 55% of invasive cancers and in 66% of in situ cancers. c-erbB-2 protein overexpression in breast cancer cells, as determined by specific immunohistochemistry, was only detected in 11% of invasive cancers and 43% of in situ cancers. Comparisons show that a substantial number of cancers with c-erbB-2 amplification lack detectable protein overexpression. This illustrates the complex nature of c-erbB-2 gene disregulation in cancer and suggests that multiple combinations of biological events and consequences are possible.
Changes in expression and localization of proteins that regulate cell and tissue polarity are frequently observed in carcinoma. However, the mechanisms by which changes in cell polarity proteins regulate carcinoma progression are not well understood. Here, we report that loss of polarity protein expression in epithelial cells primes them for cooperation with oncogenes or changes in tissue microenvironment to promote invasive behavior. Activation of ErbB2 in cells lacking the polarity regulators Scribble, Dlg1 or AF-6, induced invasive properties. This cooperation required the ability of ErbB2 to regulate the Par6/aPKC polarity complex. Inhibition of the ErbB2-Par6 pathway was sufficient to block ErbB2-induced invasion suggesting that two polarity hits may be needed for ErbB2 to promote invasion. Interestingly, in the absence of ErbB2 activation, either a combined loss of two polarity proteins, or exposure of cells lacking one polarity protein to cytokines IL-6 or TNFα induced invasive behavior in epithelial cells. We observed the invasive behavior only when cells were plated on a stiff matrix (Matrigel/Collagen-1) and not when plated on a soft matrix (Matrigel alone). Cells lacking two polarity proteins upregulated expression of EGFR and activated Akt. Inhibition of Akt activity blocked the invasive behavior identifying a mechanism by which loss of polarity promotes invasion of epithelial cells. Thus, we demonstrate that loss of polarity proteins confers phenotypic plasticity to epithelial cells such that they display normal behavior under normal culture conditions but display aggressive behavior in response to activation of oncogenes or exposure to cytokines.
In this study, we have investigated the expression of the proto-oncogene c-erbB2 in a total of 70 human primary breast tumours. In agreement with other workers, we observed c-erbB2 gene amplification in 17.5% of the tumours studied. In addition, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of c-erbB2 mRNA expression in the tumours using RNase mapping and in situ hybridisation techniques. Our results indicated a more frequent (30%) overexpression of c-erbB2 mRNA, which was associated only with breast carcinomas of a ductal origin. Furthermore, analysis of the c-erbB2 mRNA gene locus in the same tumours demonstrated that enhanced c-erbB2 expression could occur in the presence or absence of gene amplification, suggesting that additional molecular mechanisms may result in overexpression of c-erbB2 mRNA in human mammary tumours. In situ hybridisation showed that elevated levels of c-erbB2 mRNA were specific to malignant cells within the breast tumour. Analysis of the association between c-erbB2 mRNA overexpression and clinicopathological factors revealed a significant correlation with poor tumour grade, but not with steroid receptor status or patient menopausal status. No significant correlation was observed between overexpression of c-erbB2 mRNA and early disease recurrence in our group of patients, although there was a definite trend towards poorer prognosis.
An increasingly important role for the ErbB3 receptor in the genesis and progression of breast cancer is emerging. ErbB3 is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer and coexpression of ErbB2/3 is a poor prognostic indicator. ErbB3 has also been implicated in the development of resistance to antiestrogens such as tamoxifen and ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib. Persistent activation of the AKT pathway has been postulated to contribute to ErbB3 –mediated resistance to these therapies. This activation may be due in part to the inappropriate production of the ErbB3 ligand heregulin. ErbB3 binding proteins, which negatively regulate ErbB3 protein levels and the ability of ErbB3 to transmit proliferative signals, also contribute to breast cancer progression and treatment resistance. These proteins include the intracellular RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 and the leucine-rich protein LRIG-1 that mediate receptor degradation. Ebp1, another ErbB3 binding protein, suppresses HRG driven breast cancer cell growth and contributes to tamoxifen sensitivity. These studies point to the importance of the evaluation of protein levels and functional activity of ErbB3 and its binding proteins in breast cancer prognosis and prediction of clinical response to treatment.
ErbB3; Nrdp1; Ebp1; tamoxifen; gefitinib
Overexpression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is prevalent in approximately 30% of human breast cancers and confers Taxol resistance. Our previous work has demonstrated that ErbB2 inhibits Taxol induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by transcriptionally upregulating p21Cip1. However, the mechanism of ErbB2-mediated p21Cip1 upregulation is unclear. Here we show that ErbB2 upregulates p21Cip1 transcription through increased Src activity in ErbB2 overexpressing cells. Src activation further activated STAT3 that recognizes an SIE binding site on the p21Cip1 promoter required for ErbB2-mediated p21Cip1 transcriptional upregulation. Both Src and STAT3 inhibitors restored Taxol sensitivity in resistant ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that ErbB2 overexpression can activate STAT3 through Src leading to transcriptional upregulation of p21Cip1 that confers Taxol resistance of breast cancer cells. Our study suggests a potential clinical application of Src and STAT3 inhibitors in Taxol sensitization of ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancers.
ErB2; STAT3; Src; p21Cip1; breast cancer
Biologic markers that predict development of invasive breast cancer (IBC) in patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) are needed to improve personalized therapy. In this study, we examined the incidence of early IBC in DCIS subgroups defined by immunophenotype.
Clinical and histologic materials of 143 patients with radiographically suggesting DCIS without obvious evidence of IBC were reviewed. All patients underwent initial biopsy followed by short-term subsequent resection. The presence of IBC, histopathologic features of DCIS and IBC, when present, and their estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 phenotypes were evaluated.
Early IBC was identified on initial biopsy in 6 (4%) and subsequent resection in 24 (17%) patients. HER2 positivity in DCIS was the dominant factor associated with IBC. There was also a significant association between ER/PR/HER2+ DCIS and the presence of IBC. The ER/PR/HER2+ DCIS appeared to be the most unstable precursor, because of the highest invasion rate and frequent association with a discordant phenotype.
HER2 positivity and ER/PR/HER2 phenotype may be used to identify DCIS patients at higher risk of harboring or potentially developing IBC. Strategies targeting HER2 in DCIS may be of potential benefit in preventing IBC in patients with DCIS.
breast cancer; ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS); HER2; invasive disease; immunohistochemistry
Heregulin (HRG; also known as neuregulin) is a ligand for ErbB3. One of its isotypes, HRG-β1, binds to ErbB3 and forms heterodimers with other ErbB family members, thereby enhancing the proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. HRG stimulation may contribute to the progression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis in breast cancer. Majority of studies regarding EMT has been concentrated on TGF-β signaling. Therefore, we investigated whether the HRG-β1 and ErbB3 activate Smad2 signaling during process of EMT in breast cancer cells.
The SK-BR-3 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines were used. The expressions of phospho-Smad2 and EMT markers were observed by western blotting and immunofluorescence assays after treatment with HRG-β1. The cell motility and invasiveness were determined by wound healing and matrigel invasion assays. Smad2 and ErbB3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfections were performed to assess the involvement of ErbB3 and Smad2 in HRG-β1-induced EMT.
HRG-β1 induced EMT through activation of Smad2. The expression of E-cadherin was decreased after HRG-β1 treatment, while the expressions of Snail, vimentin, and fibronectin were increased. The HRG-β1-induced expressions of Snail, vimentin, and fibronectin, and nuclear colocalization of phospho-Smad2 and Snail were inhibited by pretreatment with a PI3k inhibitor, LY294002, or two phospho-Smad2 inhibitors, PD169316 or SB203580 and cancer cell migration by HRG-β1 was inhibited. Knockdown of Smad2 by siRNA transfection suppressed the expressions of Snail and fibronectin in response to HRG-β1 stimulation and knockdown of ErbB3 suppressed the expressions of phospho-Smad2, Snail, and fibronectin induced by HRG-β1, whereas E-cadherin was increased compared with control siRNA-transfected cells. Knockdown of ErbB3 and Smad2 also decreased SK-BR-3 and MCF7 cell invasion.
Our data suggest that HRG-β1 and ErbB3 induce EMT, cancer cell migration and invasion through the PI3k/Akt-phospho-Smad2-Snail signaling pathway in SK-BR-3 and MCF7 breast cancer cells.
Heregulin; Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β); Smad2; EMT; Breast cancer; ErbB3; Small interfering RNA (siRNA)
Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumours. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumours, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.
We have previously shown that human breast cancer cells that overexpress erbB-2 are growth factor-independent. In order to test the contribution of erbB-2 to this and other transformed phenotypes without the genetic instability of cancer cells, erbB-2 was overexpressed in human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. ErbB-2-overexpressing HME cells exhibit several transformed phenotypes including cell surface α4 integrin downregulation and invasiveness. We formulated a model for invasiveness that depends on a cell's ability to downregulate α4 integrin. As small G-proteins play a role in cytoskeleton remodeling and as this is a likely route for α4 integrin trafficking, we investigated the role of small G-proteins and their downstream signals in mediating α4 integrin downregulation and invasiveness using Rac 1. Dominant-negative Rac 1 blocked erbB-2-mediated invasion and reversed erbB-2-mediated α4 integrin downregulation. In addition, constitutively active Rac 1 induced Ó4 integrin downregulation and invasiveness. In erbB-2-overexpressing and in constitutively active Rac 1-expressing cells, a p38MAP kinase (p38MAPK) inhibitor blocked invasiveness and reversed α4 integrin downregulation. These data suggest a model in which erbB-2 signaling activates Rac 1, which, in turn, activates p38MAPK, leading to the downregulation of α4 integrin. These data strengthen the model where loss of α4 integrin at the cell surface, leading to reduced α4 integrin binding to plasma fibronectin, plays a role in erbB-2-mediated invasiveness.
Rac 1; p38MAPK; α4 integrin; invasion; erbB-2