To determine the longitudinal association of components of health-related functioning (HRF) with incident impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, longitudinal study of adults aged ≥25 years from 42 randomly selected areas of Australia. Diabetes status was defined using the World Health Organization criteria, and HRF was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire in 1999–2000 and 2004–2005.
Incident impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were associated with increased bodily pain at baseline compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (IFG P = 0.005, IGT P < 0.004, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes P = 0.005), after adjustment. In addition, those with incident IGT and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes had significantly reduced physical functioning, general health, mental health, and vitality at baseline compared with those with NGT. After we controlled for factors associated with incident diabetes, those in the lowest quartile of the physical component summary scale at baseline had at least a 50% higher risk of progression to impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes 5 years later.
These findings show that incident IFG, IGT, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes are associated with reduced HRF independent of cardiovascular disease and that this is evident before the onset of these conditions. If future health promotion campaigns are to effectively target those at high risk of developing diabetes, an understanding of the process of declining health before onset of the disease is essential.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have different pathophysiological abnormalities, and their combination may influence the effectiveness of the primary prevention tools. The hypothesis was tested in this analysis, which was done in a pooled sample of two Indian Diabetes Prevention Programmes (IDPP-1 and IDPP-2).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Researchers analyzed and followed up on the details of 845 of the 869 IGT subjects in the two studies for 3 years. Incidence of diabetes and reversal to normoglycemia (normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) were assessed in group 1 with baseline isolated IGT (iIGT) (n = 667) and in group 2 with IGT + IFG (n = 178). The proportion developing diabetes in the groups were analyzed in the control arm with standard advice (IDPP-1) (n = 125), lifestyle modification (LSM) (297 from both), metformin (n = 125, IDPP-1), and LSM + metformin (n = 121, IDPP-1) and LSM + pioglitazone (n = 298, IDPP-2). Cox regression analysis was used to assess the influence of IGT + IFG versus iIGT on the effectiveness of the interventions.
Group 2 had a higher proportion developing diabetes in 3 years (56.2 vs. 33.6% in group 1, P = 0.000) and a lower rate of reversal to NGT (18 vs. 32.1%, P = 0.000). Cox regression analysis showed that effectiveness of intervention was not different in the presence of fasting and postglucose glycemia after adjusting for confounding variables.
The effectiveness of primary prevention strategies appears to be similar in subjects with iIGT or with combined IGT + IFG. However, the possibility remains that a larger study might show that the effectiveness is lower in those with the combined abnormality.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single greatest contributor to the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our objective is to determine if holistic CVD risk assessment, introduced as part of the new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Adult Health Check (AHC), results in better identification of elevated CVD risk, improved delivery of preventive care for CVD and improvements in the CVD risk profile for Aboriginal adults in a remote community.
Interrupted time series study over six years in a remote primary health care (PHC) service involving Aboriginal adults identified with elevated CVD risk (N = 64). Several process and outcome measures were audited at 6 monthly intervals for three years prior to the AHC (the intervention) and three years following: (i) the proportion of guideline scheduled CVD preventive care services delivered, (ii) mean CVD medications prescribed and dispensed, (iii) mean PHC consultations, (iv) changes in participants' CVD risk factors and estimated absolute CVD risk and (v) mean number of CVD events and iatrogenic events.
Twenty-five percent of AHC participants were identified as having elevated CVD risk. Of these, 84% had not been previously identified during routine care. Following the intervention, there were significant improvements in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD (30% to 53%), and prescription of CVD related medications (28% to 89%) (P < 0.001). Amongst participants there was a 20% relative reduction in estimated absolute CVD risk (P = 0.004) following the intervention. However, there were no significant changes in the mean number of PHC consultations or mean number of CVD events or iatrogenic events.
Holistic CVD risk assessment during an AHC can lead to better and earlier identification of elevated CVD risk, improvement in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD, intensification of treatment for CVD, and improvements in participants' CVD risk profile. Further research is required on strategies to reorient and restructure PHC services to the care of chronic illness for Aboriginal peoples in remote areas for there to be substantial progress in decreasing excess CVD related mortality.
Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people.
A cohort study.
A remote Aboriginal region.
1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20 years.
Main outcome measures
During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes.
Participants were followed up for 17 126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48 years for men and 49 years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60 years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women.
Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50 years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.
Epidemiology; Public Health
Aboriginal status has been unreliably and incompletely recorded in health and vital registration data collections for the most populous areas of Australia, including NSW where 29% of Australian Aboriginal people reside. This paper reports an assessment of Aboriginal status recording in NSW cancer registrations and estimates incidence, mortality and survival from cancer in NSW Aboriginal people using multiple imputation of missing Aboriginal status in NSW Central Cancer Registry (CCR) records.
Logistic regression modelling and multiple imputation were used to assign Aboriginal status to those records of cancer diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 with missing Aboriginality (affecting 12-18% of NSW cancers registered in this period). Estimates of incidence, mortality and survival from cancer in NSW Aboriginal people were compared with the NSW total population, as standardised incidence and mortality ratios, and with the non-Aboriginal population.
Following imputation, 146 (12.2%) extra cancers in Aboriginal males and 140 (12.5%) in Aboriginal females were found for 1999-2007. Mean annual cancer incidence in NSW Aboriginal people was estimated to be 660 per 100,000 and 462 per 100,000, 9% and 6% higher than all NSW males and females respectively. Mean annual cancer mortality in NSW Aboriginal people was estimated to be 373 per 100,000 in males and 240 per 100,000 in females, 68% and 73% higher than for all NSW males and females respectively. Despite similar incidence of localised cancer, mortality from localised cancer in Aboriginal people is significantly higher than in non-Aboriginal people, as is mortality from cancers with regional, distant and unknown degree of spread at diagnosis. Cancer survival in Aboriginal people is significantly lower: 51% of males and 43% of females had died of the cancer by 5 years following diagnosis, compared to 36% and 33% of non-Aboriginal males and females respectively.
The present study is the first to produce valid and reliable estimates of cancer incidence, survival and mortality in Australian Aboriginal people from NSW. Despite somewhat higher cancer incidence in Aboriginal than in non-Aboriginal people, substantially higher mortality and lower survival in Aboriginal people is only partly explained by more advanced cancer at diagnosis.
We prospectively studied Japanese workers with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and analysed possible risk factors for diabetes, including psychosocial factors such as stress.
The participants were 128 male Japanese company employees (mean age, 49.3 ± 5.9 years) with IFG and/or IGT diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants were prospectively studied for 5 years with annual OGTTs. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard model were used to analyse the incidence of diabetes and the factors affecting glucose tolerance, including anthropometric, biochemical and social–psychological factors.
Of 128 participants, 36 (28.1%) developed diabetes and 39 (30.5%) returned to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Independent risk factors for diabetes were night duty [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.48, P = 0.002], higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels within 6.1–6.9 mmol/l (HR = 1.05, P = 0.031), stress (HR = 3.81, P = 0.037) and administrative position (HR = 12.70, P = 0.045), while independent factors associated with recovery were lower FPG levels (HR = 0.94, P = 0.017), being a white-collar worker (HR = 0.34, P = 0.033), non-smoking (HR = 0.31, P = 0.040) and lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (HR = 0.97, P = 0.042).
In addition to FPG levels at baseline, psychosocial factors (night duty, stress and administrative position) are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes, while being a white-collar worker, a non-smoker and lower serum ALT levels are factors associated with return to NGT in Japanese workers with IFG and/or IGT.
impaired fasting glucose; impaired glucose tolerance; psychosocial factors; Type 2 diabetes
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes remain poorly characterized among Aboriginal Canadians. We aimed to determine the incidence of type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community and to evaluate prospective associations with metabolic syndrome and its components.
Of 606 participants in the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project from 1993 to 1995 who were free of diabetes at baseline, 540 (89.1%) participated in 10-year follow-up assessments. Baseline anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting insulin and serum lipid levels were measured. Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels were obtained at follow-up to determine incident cases of type 2 diabetes.
The 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was 17.5%. High adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension at baseline were associated with an increased risk of diabetes after adjustment for age and sex (all p ≤ 0.03). Metabolic syndrome had high specificity (75%–88%) and high negative predictive value (85%–87%) to correctly detect diabetes-free individuals at follow-up. It had low sensitivity (26%–48%) and low positive predictive value (29%–32%) to detect future diabetes. Metabolic syndrome at baseline was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment for age and sex, regardless of whether the syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria (odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.75) or the International Diabetes Federation criteria (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.29– 3.55). The association was to the same degree as that for impaired glucose tolerance assessed using the oral glucose tolerance test (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.52–5.40; p > 0.05 for comparison of C statistics).
Metabolic syndrome and its components can be identified with readily available clinical measures. As such, the syndrome may be useful for identifying individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes in remote Aboriginal communities.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of heart disease and type 2 diabetes than non-Indigenous Australian women. Increasing physical activity, improving diets and losing weight have been shown to reduce cardio metabolic risk. The primary aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-week structured exercise and nutrition program in a cohort of urban Indigenous Australian women on waist circumference, weight and biomedical markers of metabolic functioning from baseline (T1) to program completion (T2). The secondary aim assessed whether these outcomes were maintained at 3-month follow-up.
One hundred Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18–64 years living in the Adelaide metropolitan area were recruited. The program included two 60-minute group cardiovascular and resistance training classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Participants were randomly assigned to an ‘active’ group or ‘waitlisted’ control group. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at baseline (T1), immediately after the program (T2) and three months post program (T3).
The active group showed modest reductions in weight and body mass index (BMI). Compared to the waitlisted group, the active group had a statistically significantly change in weight and BMI from baseline assessments; at T2, -1.65 kg and -0.66 kg/m2 and at T3, -2.50 kg and -1.03 kg/m2, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also had a statistically significant difference from baseline in the active group compared to the waitlisted group at T2, -1.24 mmHg and -2.46 mmHg and at T3, -4.09 mmHg and -2.17 mmHg, respectively. The findings were independent of the baseline measure of the outcome variable, age, households with children and employment status. Changes in waist circumference and other clinical measures were not significant at T2 or T3. The primary outcome measure, waist circumference, proved problematic to assess reliably. Missing data and participants lost to follow-up were significant.
This 12-week exercise program demonstrated modest reductions in weight, BMI and blood pressure at T2, which improved further at 3-month follow-up (T3). Positive intervention effects were observed despite low attendance at exercise classes. Structured exercise programs implemented in community settings require attention to understanding the barriers to participation for this high risk group.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000224022
Aboriginal; Torres strait islander; Physical activity; Women; Lifestyle program; Health promotion
OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the development of isolated impaired fasting glycemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Baseline and 5-year follow-up data from the Inter99 study were used. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline and i-IFG, i-IGT, combined IFG/IGT, or NGT at the 5-year follow-up were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 3,145). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), early-phase insulin release (EPIR), and insulin secretion relative to insulin action (disposition index) were estimated.
RESULTS—Five years before the pre-diabetes diagnoses (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG/IGT), ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index were lower than in individuals who maintained NGT. During the 5-year follow-up, individuals developing i-IFG experienced a significant decline only in HOMA-IS, whereas individuals developing i-IGT experienced significant declines in ISI, EPIR, and disposition index. Individuals with IFG/IGT exhibited pronounced declines in ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index during the 5-year follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS—A stationary reduced insulin secretion followed by a decline in primarily hepatic insulin sensitivity characterizes the transition from NGT to i-IFG. In contrast, low whole-body insulin sensitivity with a secondary lack of β-cell compensation is associated with the development of i-IGT. Thereby, i-IFG and i-IGT appear to result from different underlying mechanisms, which may have implications for the prevention and treatment of the diabetes that succeeds them.
Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described.
We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years.
Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age < 22 yr, v. white people) were 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.38) for boys and 3.24 (95% CI 2.60–4.05) for girls. Compared with white people, congenital diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55–3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older.
The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population.
OBJECTIVE—Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are considered to constitute “pre-diabetes.” We estimated the prevalence of IFG, IGT, and pre-diabetes among U.S. adolescents using data from a nationally representative sample.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We analyzed data from participants aged 12–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. We used fasting plasma glucose and 2-h glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test to assess the prevalence of IFG, IGT, and pre-diabetes and used the log-binomial model to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs.
RESULTS—The unadjusted prevalences of IFG, IGT, and pre-diabetes were 13.1, 3.4, and 16.1%, respectively. Boys had a 2.4-fold higher prevalence of pre-diabetes than girls (95% CI 1.3–4.3). Non-Hispanic blacks had a lower rate than non-Hispanic whites (PR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9). Adolescents aged 16–19 years had a lower rate than those aged 12–15 years (0.6, 0.4–0.9). Overweight adolescents had a 2.6-fold higher rate than those with normal weight (1.3–5.1). Adolescents with two or more cardiometabolic risk factors had a 2.7-fold higher rate than those with none (1.5–4.8). Adolescents with hyperinsulinemia had a fourfold higher prevalence (2.2–7.4) than those without. Neither overweight nor number of cardiometabolic risk factors was significantly associated with pre-diabetes after adjustment for hyperinsulinemia.
CONCLUSIONS—Pre-diabetes was highly prevalent among adolescents. Hyperinsulinemia was independently associated with pre-diabetes and may account for the association of overweight and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors with pre-diabetes.
The association between prediabetes as currently defined and incident diabetes in populations with widespread obesity, insulin resistance syndrome, and diabetes is not well defined. In this article, diabetes risk factors and incidence rates in American Indians (AI) with prediabetes are examined.
1677 AI who were nondiabetic at baseline were examined during a median 7.8-year follow up as part of the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Risk factors for incident diabetes were measured. Prediabetes was defined according to American Diabetes Association 2003 criteria as having impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (2-h plasma glucose [2-h PG] ≥140 mg/dL but <200 mg/dL) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥100 mg/dL but <126 mg/dL).
Prediabetes was identified by FPG alone in 87.5%. Diabetes incidence in those with baseline prediabetes was 66.1/1,000 person-years, with a hazard ratio of 2.35 (95% conference interval: 1.84-3.01), compared with participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline. Elevated A1c, 2-h PG, and fasting insulin (FI); albuminuria; and obesity were significantly associated with conversion from prediabetes to diabetes. Younger age, elevated FI (or BMI in models without FI), and less physical activity were significantly associated with conversion from NGT.
Prediabetes is an independent predictor of conversion to type 2 diabetes in AI, and most can be identified through a fasting glucose measure. Measures of obesity, A1c, FPG, 2-h PG, FI, albuminuria, and insulin resistance help predict this conversion. Obesity is a modifiable risk factor. Strategies to reduce obesity should be emphasized in individuals with prediabetes.
prediabetes; type 2 diabetes; risk factors
A1C has been proposed as a new indicator for high risk of type 2 diabetes. The long-term predictive power and comparability of elevated A1C with the currently used high-risk indicators remain unclear. We assessed A1C, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as predictors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at 10 years.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This prospective population-based study of 593 inhabitants from northern Finland, born in 1935, was conducted between 1996 and 2008. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at baseline and follow-up, and A1C was determined at baseline. Those with a history of diabetes were excluded from the study. Elevated A1C was defined as 5.7–6.4%. Incident type 2 diabetes was confirmed by two OGTTs. Cardiovascular outcome was measured as incident CVD or CVD mortality. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to predict diabetes, CVD, and CVD mortality at 10 years. Receiver operating characteristic curves compared predictive values of A1C, IGT, and IFG.
Incidence of diabetes during the follow-up was 17.1%. Two of three of the cases of newly diagnosed diabetes were predicted by a raise in ≥1 of the markers. Elevated A1C, IGT, or IFG preceded diabetes in 32.8, 40.6, and 21.9%, respectively. CVD was predicted by an intermediate and diabetic range of 2-h glucose but only by diabetic A1C levels in women.
A1C predicted 10-year risk of type 2 diabetes at a range of A1C 5.7–6.4% but CVD only in women at A1C ≥6.5%.
To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]) in an urbanizing rural population of Bangladesh and associated cardiometabolic risk indicators and depression.
A total of 2,293 subjects aged ≥20 years in an urbanizing rural Bangladeshi community were investigated. Socio-demographic and anthropometric details, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 hours after 75 g plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting serum insulin and lipid profiles were studied. Presence of depressive symptoms using Montogomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale was also assessed.
The prevalence of IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT, and T2DM were 3.4%, 4.0%, 1.2%, and 7.9%, respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and impaired glucose regulation differed between males and females, but, both increased with age in both sexes. FPG and 2hPG had positive correlation. Employing logistic regression, it was found that increased age, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and depression were independent risk indicators for diabetes. Both insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency were significantly related for causation of diabetes. Among the study population, 26.2% had general obesity, 39.8% central obesity, 15.5% hypertension, 28.7% dyslipidemia, 17.6% family history of diabetes, and 15.3% had depression. Physical inactivity and smoking habits were significantly higher in male.
Rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in this urbanizing rural population exist as a significant but hidden public health problem. Depression and other cardiometabolic risk indicators including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipdemia were also prevalent in this population.
Bangladesh; Diabetes mellitus; Impaired glucose regulation; Prevalence
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities.
This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome.
The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study.
Oral health; Aboriginal families; Health promotion
To investigate 1-year outcomes of a national diabetes prevention program in Finland.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Altogether 10,149 individuals at high risk for diabetes were identified with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC; scoring ≥15 points), by a history of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), cardiovascular disease, or gestational diabetes mellitus in 400 primary health care centers. One-year follow-up data were available for 2,798 participants who were nondiabetic at baseline (919 men and 1,879 women, aged 56.0 ± 9.9 and 54.0 ± 10.7 years [mean ± SD] with BMI 30.9 ± 4.6 and 31.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2).
The incidence of diabetes was 2.0 and 1.2% in men and women with normal glucose tolerance at baseline, 13.5 and 7.4% in those with IFG, and 16.1 and 11.3% in those with IGT, respectively. Altogether 17.5% of the subjects lost ≥5% weight with no sex difference. The relative risk of diabetes was 0.31 (95% CI 0.16–0.59) in the group who lost ≥5% weight, 0.72 (0.46–1.13) in the group who lost 2.5–4.9% weight, and 1.10 (0.77–1.58) in the group who gained ≥2.5% compared with the group who maintained weight.
The FIN-D2D was the first national effort to implement the prevention of diabetes in a primary health care setting. Methods for recruiting high-risk subjects were simple and easy to use. Moderate weight loss in this very high-risk group was especially effective in reducing risk of diabetes among those participating in the program.
To evaluate the role of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before transplantation and to examine the risk factors for new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) during long-term follow-up of renal transplant recipients receiving FK-based therapy.
The study evaluated 378 patients pre-transplantation using the OGTT and assigned them to one of three groups: Group 1, normal pattern; Group 2, impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) pattern (IFG/IGT); and Group 3, DM pattern.
Although the incidence of NODAT was higher in Group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, no significant difference was found between the three groups with regard to graft survival during long-term follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that only a family history of diabetes was a significant factor determining NODAT progression.
Impaired glucose tolerance appears to be a threshold influencing NODAT; however, it was not a significant factor in graft survival. Careful monitoring and management based on the result of the pre-transplantation OGTT appear to prevent the deterioration of impaired glucose tolerance in renal transplant recipients receiving FK-based therapy, even when a pre-operative OGTT shows impaired glycemic control.
NODAT; FK506; Renal transplantation; Pre-transplantation oral glucose tolerance test
Within the frame of a randomized clinical trial to examine whether training of general practitioners (the intervention group) in intensive lifestyle modification and pharmacological treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes has a spillover effect on individuals with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
A high-risk screening study for type 2 diabetes with an intervention programme, where general practices were randomized to provide standard treatment versus intensive lifestyle modification and pharmacological treatment to newly diagnosed diabetic patients.
General practices in Denmark.
Of 1821 individuals identified with IFG or IGT, results from oral glucose tolerance tests after one and three years were available in 1510 individuals.
Main outcome measures
Progression rates from IFG and IGT to diabetes and effect of intervention were estimated in a regression model using interval censoring.
A total of 442 persons developed diabetes. There was no significant overall effect of intervention on progression rates. For risk factors, no difference in rate of change was found between randomization groups, but a difference was found between general practices within the same randomization groups.
General practitioners identify a high number of incident diabetes cases in individuals with IFG or IGT found by high-risk screening. Intervention at the general practitioner's level in intensive treatment type 2 diabetes does not have a significant spillover effect reducing the risk of diabetes from pre-diabetic conditions. This could indicate that intervention strategies should be specifically targeted at individuals with IFG or IGT, either by training general practitioners or directly at the individual level.
Clustering; family practice; general practice; impaired fasting glucose; impaired glucose tolerance; intervention studies; risk management; type 2 diabetes
In a recent report of large-scale association analysis, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus near HNF1A was identified in predominantly European descent populations. A population-specific G319S polymorphism in HNF1A was previously identified in Aboriginal Canadians who have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association of the HNF1A G319S polymorphism with incident type 2 diabetes and to assess whether clinical risk variables for type 2 diabetes influence the association in an Aboriginal population.
Of 606 participants who were free of diabetes at baseline in 1993-1995, 540 (89.1%) participated in 10-year follow-up assessments in 2003-2005. Fasting glucose and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were obtained to determine incident type 2 diabetes. Participants were genotyped for the HNF1A G319S polymorphism. Interviewers administered questionnaires on smoking behavior.
The incidence rates of type 2 diabetes were 14.2% (55/388) in major allele homozygotes and 31.2% (29/93) in minor allele carriers (p < 0.001). The HNF1A G319S carrier status was associated with incident type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 3.78 [95% CI 2.13-6.69]) after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and waist circumference. A statistical interaction was observed between HNF1A G319S and baseline active cigarette smoking on the development of type 2 diabetes with similar adjustment (p = 0.006). When participants were stratified by baseline smoking status, HNF1A G319S carriers who were active smokers had increased risk of developing diabetes (OR 6.91 [95% CI 3.38-14.12]), while the association was attenuated to non-significance among non-smokers (1.11 [0.40-3.08]).
The HNF1A G319S variant is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Canadians. Furthermore, cigarette smoking appears to amplify incident diabetes risk in carriers of HNF1A G319S.
To determine whether cigarette smoking is associated with the conversion from normoglycemia to impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
During 2003 –2004 1,455 participants (mean age 56.5, range 35–79) from the Western New York Health Study who were free of Type 2 diabetes and known cardiovascular disease at baseline (1996–2001) were reexamined (68% response rate). Incident IFG was defined as a subject whose baseline fasting plasma glucose was <100 mg/dl (normoglycemic) and between 100 and 125 mg/dl at follow-up. Prevalent IFG (n=528) was excluded.. Baseline smoking status was categorized as never, former or current.
Of the 1,455 participants, 924 were normoglycemic at baseline: 101/924 converted to IFG over six- years. Compared to those who remained normoglycemic, converters to IFG were at baseline older, had a larger BMI, more likely to be hypertensive, currently smoke, and have a family history of T2DM (all P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that compared to subjects who remained normoglycemic, the OR of incident IFG among former and current smokers (vs. never) was 1.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 2.80) and 2.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 4.72) (Ptrend =0.008), respectively.
Smoking was positively associated with incident IFG after accounting for several putative risk factors.
cigarette smoking; impaired fasting glucose; epidemiology; risk factors
Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study.
We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity.
There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children.
Aboriginal; Birth cohort; Early origins; Adiposity
Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families.
The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old.
Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with guidance from an Aboriginal Advisory Group keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start. The results of the study will provide a unique resource to inform quality improvement and strengthening of services for Aboriginal families.
Antenatal care; Health inequalities; Indigenous health; Maternal health; Participatory research; Perinatal health outcomes
To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years.
The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes.
The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4).
In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient.
Increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG), which includes impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes, is a risk factor for arterial stiffness. While IFG is widely accepted as a cardiovascular risk factor, recent studies have argued that subjects with high-normal glucose level were characterized by a high incidence of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between FPG and arterial stiffness in non-diabetic healthy subjects.
We recruited 697 subjects who visited the health promotion center of a university hospital from May 2007 to August 2008. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, smoking habits, alcohol intake, exercise, blood pressure, medical history, FPG, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were measured. We performed correlation and multiple linear regression analyses to divide the research subjects into quartiles: Q1(n = 172), 65 mg/dL ≤FPG < 84 mg/dL; Q2(n = 188), 84 mg/dL ≤FPG < 91 mg/dl; Q3(n = 199), 91 mg/dL ≤FPG < 100 mg/dL; Q4(n = 138), 100 mg/dL ≤FPG < 126 mg/dL.
FPG has an independent, positive association with ba-PWV in non-diabetic subjects after correcting for confounding variables, including age, sex, BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate, hs-CRP, lipid profile, and behavioral habits. The mean ba-PWV of the high-normal glucose group (Q3, 1384 cm/s) was higher than that of the low-normal glucose group (1303 ± 196 cm/s vs.1328 ± 167 cm/s, P < 0.05). The mean ba-PWV value in the IFG group (1469 ± 220 cm/s) was higher than that in the normoglycemic group (P < 0.05, respectively).
An increase in FPG, even within the normal range, was associated with aggravated arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to determine the glycemic target value for the prevention of arterial stiffness in clinical and public health settings.
Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer.
A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability.
Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery.
These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that facilitate better engagement of Indigenous people. Models of care and support that are more culturally-friendly, where health professionals take account of both Indigenous and Western beliefs about health and the relationship between these, and which engage and include Indigenous people need to be developed. Cultural security, removing system barriers and technical/scientific excellence are all important to ensure Indigenous people utilise healthcare to realise the benefits of modern cancer treatments.