The mammalian Phospholipase D MitoPLD facilitates mitochondrial fusion by generating the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). The Drosophila MitoPLD homolog Zucchini (Zuc), a proposed cytoplasmic nuclease, is required for piRNA generation, a critical event in germline development. We show that Zuc localizes to mitochondria and has MitoPLD-like activity. Conversely, MitoPLD−/− mice exhibit the meiotic arrest, DNA damage, and male sterility characteristic of mice lacking piRNAs. The primary function of MitoPLD appears to be the generation of mitochondrial-surface PA. This PA in turn recruits the phosphatase Lipin 1, which converts PA to diacylglycerol and promotes mitochondrial fission, suggesting a mechanism for mitochondrial morphology homeostasis. MitoPLD and Lipin 1 have opposing effects on mitochondria length and on intermitochondrial cement (nuage), a structure found between aggregated mitochondria that is implicated in piRNA generation. We propose that mitochondrial-surface PA generated by MitoPLD / Zuc recruits or activates nuage components critical for piRNA production.
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important intermediate in membrane lipid metabolism that acts as a key component of signaling networks, regulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of the endomembrane system and the cytoskeleton. Using tobacco pollen tubes as a model, we addressed the signaling effects of PA by probing the functions of three most relevant enzymes that regulate the production and degradation of PA, namely, phospholipases D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), and lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a highly dynamic evolution of all three lipid-modifying enzymes in land plants, with many clade-specific duplications or losses and massive diversification of the C2-PLD family. In silico transcriptomic survey revealed increased levels of expression of all three PA-regulatory genes in pollen development (particularly the DGKs). Using specific inhibitors we were able to distinguish the contributions of PLDs, DGKs, and LPPs into PA-regulated processes. Thus, suppressing PA production by inhibiting either PLD or DGK activity compromised membrane trafficking except early endocytosis, disrupted tip-localized deposition of cell wall material, especially pectins, and inhibited pollen tube growth. Conversely, suppressing PA degradation by inhibiting LPP activity using any of three different inhibitors significantly stimulated pollen tube growth, and similar effect was achieved by suppressing the expression of tobacco pollen LPP4 using antisense knock-down. Interestingly, inhibiting specifically DGK changed vacuolar dynamics and the morphology of pollen tubes, whereas inhibiting specifically PLD disrupted the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, our results demonstrate the critical importance of all three types of enzymes involved in PA production and degradation, with strikingly different roles of PA produced by the PLD and DGK pathways, in pollen tube growth.
phosphatidic acid; pollen tube; phospholipase D; diacylglycerol kinase; lipid phosphate phosphatase; tobacco; signaling; tip growth
DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded lipid phosphate phosphatases are integral membrane proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They catalyze the Mg2+-independent dephosphorylation of bioactive lipid phosphate molecules such as diacylglycerol pyrophosphate and phosphatidate. These enzymes possess a three-domain lipid phosphatase motif that is localized to the hydrophilic surface of the membrane. The lipid phosphate phosphatase activities of DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded enzymes are measured by following the release of water-soluble radioactive inorganic phosphate from chloroform-soluble radioactive lipid phosphate substrate following a chloroform/methanol/water phase partition. The DPP1-encoded enzyme, commonly referred to as diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase, is purified from wild-type S. cerevisiae membranes by detergent solubilization with Triton X-100 followed by chromatography with DEAE-cellulose (DE53), Affi-Gel blue, hydroxylapatite, and Mono Q. The purification scheme yields an essentially homogeneous enzyme preparation that is stable for several years upon storage at −80°. The properties of the DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded lipid phosphate phosphatase enzymes are summarized.
Regulated production and elimination of the signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2) creates a complex and interconnected signaling network that modulates a wide variety of eukaryotic cell biological events. PA production at the plasma membrane and on trafficking membrane organelles by classical Phospholipase D (PLD) through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been studied widely. In this chapter, we review a newly identified, non-canonical member of the PLD superfamily, MitoPLD, which localizes to the mitochondrial surface and plays a role in mitochondrial fusion via the hydrolysis of cardiolipin (CL) to generate PA. The role of PA in facilitating the mitochondrial fusion event carried out by proteins known as Mitofusins is intriguing in light of the role classic PLD-generated PA plays in facilitating SNARE-mediated fusion of secretory membrane vesicles into the plasma membrane. In addition, however, PA on the mitochondrial surface may also trigger a signaling cascade that elevates DAG, leading to downstream events that affect mitochondrial fission and energy production. PA production on the mitochondrial surface may also stimulate local production of PI4,5P2 to facilitate mitochondrial fission and subcellular trafficking or facilitate Ca2+ influx.
phosphatidic acid; MitoPLD; mitochondrial fusion; fission; insulin signaling; calcium homeostasis
Lipin family proteins are emerging as critical regulators of lipid metabolism. In triglyceride synthesis, lipins act as lipid phosphatase enzymes at the endoplasmic reticular membrane, catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol, which is the penultimate step in this process. However, lipin proteins are not integral membrane proteins and can rapidly translocate within the cell. In fact, emerging evidence suggests that lipins also play critical roles in the nucleus as transcriptional regulatory proteins. Thus, lipins are poised to regulate cellular lipid metabolism at multiple regulatory nodal points. This review summarizes the history of lipin proteins and discusses the current state of our understanding of lipin biology.
The lipin proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins with roles in lipid metabolism and disease. There are three lipin protein family members in mammals and one or two orthologs in plants, invertebrates, and single-celled eukaryotes. Studies in yeast and mouse led to the identification of two distinct molecular functions of lipin proteins. Lipin proteins have phosphatidate phosphatase activity and catalyze the formation of diacylglycerol in the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway, implicating them in the regulation of triglyceride and phospholipid biosynthesis. Mammalian lipin proteins also possess transcriptional coactivator activity and have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic gene expression. Here we review key findings in the field that demonstrate roles for lipin family members in metabolic homeostasis and in rare human diseases, and we examine evidence implicating genetic variations in lipin genes in common metabolic dysregulation such as obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes.
triglyceride; obesity; insulin resistance; phosphatidate phosphatase; transcriptional coactivator
Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) are integral membrane proteins believed to dephosphorylate bioactive lipid messengers, so modifying or attenuating their activities. Wunen, a Drosophila LPP homologue, has been shown to play a pivotal role in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival during embryogenesis. It has been hypothesised that LPPs may form oligomeric complexes, and may even function as hexamers. We were interested in exploring this possibility, to confirm whether LPPs can oligomerise, and if they do, whether oligomerisation is required for either in vitro or in vivo activity.
We present evidence that Wunen dimerises, that these associations require the last thirty-five C-terminal amino-acids and depend upon the presence of an intact catalytic site. Expression of a truncated, monomeric form of Wunen in Drosophila embryos results in perturbation of germ cell migration and germ cell loss, as observed for full-length Wunen. We also observed that murine LPP-1 and human LPP-3 can also form associations, but do not form interactions with Wunen or each other. Furthermore, Wunen does not form dimers with its closely related counterpart Wunen-2. Finally we discovered that addition of a trimeric myc tag to the C-terminus of Wunen does not prevent dimerisation or in vitro activity, but does prevent activity in vivo.
LPPs do form complexes, but these do not seem to be specifically required for activity either in vitro or in vivo. Since neither dimerisation nor the C-terminus seem to be involved in substrate recognition, they may instead confer structural or functional stability through dimerisation. The results indicate that the associations we see are highly specific and occur only between monomers of the same protein.
Lipins are the founding members of a novel family of
Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatases (PAP1 enzymes) that play
key roles in fat metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. Despite their importance,
there is still little information on how their activity is regulated. Here we
demonstrate that the functions of lipin 1 and 2 are evolutionarily conserved
from unicellular eukaryotes to mammals. The two lipins display distinct
intracellular localization in HeLa M cells, with a pool of lipin 2 exhibiting
a tight membrane association. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of
lipin 1 leads to a dramatic decrease of the cellular PAP1 activity in HeLa M
cells, whereas silencing of lipin 2 leads to an increase of lipin 1 levels and
PAP1 activity. Consistent with their distinct functions in HeLa M cells, lipin
1 and 2 exhibit reciprocal patterns of protein expression in differentiating
3T3-L1 adipocytes. Lipin 2 levels increase in lipin 1-depleted 3T3-L1 cells
without rescuing the adipogenic defects, whereas depletion of lipin 2 does not
inhibit adipogenesis. Finally, we show that the PAP1 activity of both lipins
is inhibited by phosphorylation during mitosis, leading to a decrease in the
cellular PAP1 activity during cell division. We propose that distinct and
non-redundant functions of lipin 1 and 2 regulate lipid production during the
cell cycle and adipocyte differentiation.
Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate, yielding diacylglycerol and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotic cells, PAP activity has a central role in the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerol through its product diacylglycerol, and it also generates and/or degrades lipid-signaling molecules that are related to phosphatidate. There are two types of PAP enzyme, Mg2+ dependent (PAP1) and Mg2+ independent (PAP2), but only genes encoding PAP2 enzymes had been identified until recently, when a gene (PAH1) encoding a PAP1 enzyme was found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This discovery has revealed a molecular function of the mammalian protein lipin, a deficiency of which causes lipodystrophy in mice. With molecular information now available for both types of PAP, the specific roles of these enzymes in lipid metabolism are being clarified.
Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic contents in the lysosome and plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Lipid second messengers are implicated in the regulation of autophagy but the nature of the lipids involved and their mechanisms of action have yet to be characterized. Here we demonstrate a novel signaling role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in antibacterial autophagy. DAG production was necessary for efficient autophagy of Salmonella and its localization to bacteria-containing phagosomes preceded autophagy. Previous studies have revealed a role for the ubiquitin binding adaptor molecules p62 and NDP52 in autophagy of S. Typhimurium. We observed bacteria-containing autophagosomes colocalizing individually with either DAG or ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that both signals can act independently to promote anti-bacterial autophagy. We determined that the actions of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) were required for DAG generation and autophagy. The DAG-responsive δ isoform of protein kinase C was required for anti-bacterial autophagy, as were its downstream targets JNK and NADPH oxidase. Pkc1, the single PKC isoform in yeast, was essential for starvation-induced autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These findings reveal an important role for DAG-mediated PKC function in mammalian anti-bacterial autophagy, and suggest a conserved role for PKC in autophagy regulation in eukaryotes.
Lipin family members (lipin 1, 2, 3) are bi-functional proteins that dephosphorylate phosphatidic acid (PA) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG) and act in the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Although other components of the triglyceride synthesis pathway can form oligomeric complexes, it is unknown whether lipin proteins also exist as oligomers. In this study, by using various approaches, we revealed that lipin 1 formed stable homo-oligomers with itself and hetero-oligomers with lipin 2/3. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of lipin 1 mediate its oligomerization in a head-to-head/tail-to-tail manner. We also show that lipin 1 subcellular localization can be influenced through oligomerization, and the individual lipin 1 monomers in the oligomer function independently in catalyzing dephosphorylation of PA. This study provides evidence that lipin proteins function as oligomeric complexes and that the three mammalian lipin isoforms can form combinatorial units.
lipin; oligomer; FRET; phosphatidic acid phosphatase
Human lipin1 catalyzes the highly regulated conversion of phosphatidic acids to diacylglycerides. Lipin’s cellular location, protein partners, and biological function are directed by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events catalyzed by the phosphoserine phosphatase dullard. To define the determinants of dullard substrate recognition and catalysis, and hence, lipin regulation, steady-state kinetic analysis was performed on phosphoserine-bearing nonapeptides based on the phosphorylation sites of lipin. The results demonstrate that dullard shows specificity toward the peptide corresponding to the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site (Ser106) of lipin with kcat/Km = 1 × 104 M−1 s−1. These results are consistent with a coil/loop structure for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site on human lipin1 and make the requirement for an adaptor protein to confer activity such as that proposed for the yeast homologue, unlikely.
protein phosphoserine phosphatase; HAD superfamily; phosphatidic acid phosphatase
When cells cease migrating through the vasculature, adhere to extracellular matrix, and begin to spread, they exhibit rapid changes in contraction and relaxation at peripheral regions newly contacting the underlying substrata. We describe here a requirement in this process for myosin II disassembly at the cell cortex via the action of myosin phosphatase (MP), which in turn is regulated by a plasma membrane signaling lipid. Cells in suspension exhibit high levels of activity of the signaling enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2), elevating production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) at the plasma membrane, which in turn recruits MP and stores it there in a presumed inactive state. On cell attachment, down-regulation of PLD2 activity decreases PA production, leading to MP release, myosin dephosphorylation, and actomyosin disassembly. This novel model for recruitment and restraint of MP provides a means to effect a rapid cytoskeletal reorganization at the cell cortex upon demand.
Lipin-1 proteins are phosphatidic acid phosphatases catalyzing the conversion from phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol. Two alternative splicing isoforms, lipin-1α and -1β, are localized at different subcellular compartments. A third splicing isoform, lipin-1γ was recently cloned and its subcellular localization is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that lipin-1γ is localized to lipid droplets, an association mediated by a hydrophobic, lipin-1γ-specific domain. Additional expression of lipin-1γ altered lipid droplet morphology without affecting the triacylglycerol level. In human tissues, lipin-1γ is the main lipin-1 isoform expressed in normal human brain, suggesting a specialized role in regulating brain lipid metabolism.
Lipin; phosphatidic acid phosphatase; lipid droplets; brain
Pah1p promotes lipid droplet assembly independent of its role in triacylglycerol synthesis.
Lipins are phosphatidate phosphatases that generate diacylglycerol (DAG). In this study, we report that yeast lipin, Pah1p, controls the formation of cytosolic lipid droplets. Disruption of PAH1 resulted in a 63% decrease in droplet number, although total neutral lipid levels did not change. This was accompanied by an accumulation of neutral lipids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The droplet biogenesis defect was not a result of alterations in neutral lipid ratios. No droplets were visible in the absence of both PAH1 and steryl acyltransferases when grown in glucose medium, even though the strain produces as much triacylglycerol as wild type. The requirement of PAH1 for normal droplet formation can be bypassed by a knockout of DGK1. Nem1p, the activator of Pah1p, localizes to a single punctum per cell on the ER that is usually next to a droplet, suggesting that it is a site of droplet assembly. Overall, this study provides strong evidence that DAG generated by Pah1p is important for droplet biogenesis.
Cell migration and phagocytosis ensue from extracellular-initiated signaling cascades that orchestrate dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The reorganization is mediated by effector proteins recruited to the site of activity by locally-generated lipid second messengers. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a membrane phospholipid generated by multiple enzyme families including Phospholipase D (PLD), has been proposed to function in this role. Here, we show that macrophages prepared from mice lacking either of the classical PLD isoforms PLD1 or PLD2, or wild-type macrophages whose PLD activity has been pharmacologically inhibited, display isoform-specific actin cytoskeleton abnormalities that likely underlie decreases observed in phagocytic capacity. Unexpectedly, PA continued to be detected on the phagosome in the absence of either isoform and even when all PLD activity was eliminated. However, a disorganized phagocytic cup was observed as visualized by imaging PA, F-actin, Rac1, an organizer of the F-actin network, and DOCK2, a Rac1 activator, suggesting that PLD-mediated PA production during phagocytosis is specifically critical for the integrity of the process. The abnormal F-actin reorganization additionally impacted neutrophil migration and extravasation from the vasculature into interstitial tissues. Although both PLD1 and PLD2 were important in these processes, we also observed isoform-specific functions. PLD1-driven processes in particular were observed to be critical in transmigration of macrophages exiting the vasculature during immune responses such as those seen in acute pancreatitis or irritant-induced skin vascularization.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive phospholipid, induces diverse cellular responses, including cell proliferation, migration, and cytokine release. LPA can be generated intracellular and extracellularly through multiple synthetic pathways by action of various enzymes, such as phospholipase A1/2 (PLA1/2), phospholipase D (PLD), acylglycerol kinase (AGK), and lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD). Metabolism of LPA is regulated by a family of lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Significant amounts of LPA have been detected in various biological fluids, including serum, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The most significant effects of LPA appear to be through activation of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), termed LPA1-6. LPA regulates gene expression through activation of several transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), AP-1, and C/EBPβ. In addition to GPCRs, cross-talk between LPA receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) partly regulates LPA-induced intracellular signaling and cellular responses. Airway epithelial cells participate in innate immunity through the release of cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators, other inflammatory mediators and an increase in barrier function in response to a variety of inhaled stimuli. Expression of LPA receptors have been demonstrated in airway epithelial cells. This review summarizes our recent observations of the role of LPA / LPA-Rs in regulation of airway epithelium, especially in relation to the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and regulation of airway barrier function.
lysophosphatidic acid; airway epithelial cells; cytokine release; airway epithelium barrier function; G-protein-coupled receptors; RTKs; signal transduction; inflammation
A polybasic motif in the metabolic regulator lipin1 is both a membrane anchor and a nuclear localization sequence required for lipin1 function in phospholipid metabolism and adipogenesis.
Lipins are phosphatidic acid phosphatases with a pivotal role in regulation of triglyceride and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Lipin1 is also an amplifier of PGC-1α, a nuclear coactivator of PPAR-α responsive gene transcription. Lipins do not contain recognized membrane-association domains, but interaction of these enzymes with cellular membranes is necessary for access to their phospholipid substrate. We identified a role for a conserved polybasic amino acid motif in an N-terminal domain previously implicated as a determinant of nuclear localization in selective binding of lipin1β to phosphatidic acid, using blot overlay assays and model bilayer membranes. Studies using lipin1β polybasic motif variants establish that this region is also critical for nuclear import and raise the possibility that nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of lipin1β is regulated by PA. We used pharmacological agents and lipin1β polybasic motif mutants to explore the role of PA-mediated membrane association and nuclear localization on lipin1β function in phospholipid metabolism and adipogenic differentiation. We identify a role for the lipin1 polybasic motif as both a lipid binding motif and a primary nuclear localization sequence. These two functions are necessary for full expression of the biological activity of the protein in intracellular lipid metabolism and transcriptional control of adipogenesis.
Background: Lipins are phosphatidate phosphatases that generate diacylglycerol for lipid synthesis.
Results: Lipin 1 or lipin 2 depletion has distinct effects on differentiating adipocytes. Cells depleted of both lipins after initiation of adipogenesis accumulate triacylglycerol but display lipid droplet fragmentation.
Conclusion: Lipins have a role in lipid droplet biogenesis after initiation of adipogenesis.
Significance: Lipins play multiple roles during adipocyte differentiation.
Lipins are evolutionarily conserved Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes with essential roles in lipid biosynthesis. Mammals express three paralogues: lipins 1, 2, and 3. Loss of lipin 1 in mice inhibits adipogenesis at an early stage of differentiation and results in a lipodystrophic phenotype. The role of lipins at later stages of adipogenesis, when cells initiate the formation of lipid droplets, is less well characterized. We found that depletion of lipin 1, after the initiation of differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells but before the loading of lipid droplets with triacylglycerol, results in a reciprocal increase of lipin 2, but not lipin 3. We generated 3T3-L1 cells where total lipin protein and PAP activity levels are down-regulated by the combined depletion of lipins 1 and 2 at day 4 of differentiation. These cells still accumulated triacylglycerol but displayed a striking fragmentation of lipid droplets without significantly affecting their total volume per cell. This was due to the lack of the PAP activity of lipin 1 in adipocytes after day 4 of differentiation, whereas depletion of lipin 2 led to an increase of lipid droplet volume per cell. We propose that in addition to their roles during early adipogenesis, lipins also have a role in lipid droplet biogenesis.
Adipocyte; Lipids; Mouse; Phosphatase; Phosphatidate; Triacylglycerol; Lipin
Binding and dephosphorylation of the yeast lipin Pah1p by its phosphatase Nem1p-Spo7p is essential for its membrane targeting and is mediated by a C-terminal acidic stretch on Pah1p. This results in the recruitment of Pah1p to the vicinity of lipid droplets, where it controls triglyceride and droplet biogenesis in an acidic tail–dependent manner.
Lipins are evolutionarily conserved phosphatidate phosphatases that perform key functions in phospholipid, triglyceride, and membrane biogenesis. Translocation of lipins on membranes requires their dephosphorylation by the Nem1p-Spo7p transmembrane phosphatase complex through a poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the carboxy-terminal acidic tail of the yeast lipin Pah1p as an important regulator of this step. Deletion or mutations of the tail disrupt binding of Pah1p to the Nem1p-Spo7p complex and Pah1p membrane translocation. Overexpression of Nem1p-Spo7p drives the recruitment of Pah1p in the vicinity of lipid droplets in an acidic tail–dependent manner and induces lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic analysis shows that the acidic tail is essential for the Nem1p-Spo7p–dependent activation of Pah1p but not for the function of Pah1p itself once it is dephosphorylated. Loss of the tail disrupts nuclear structure, INO1 gene expression, and triglyceride synthesis. Similar acidic sequences are present in the carboxy-terminal ends of all yeast lipin orthologues. We propose that acidic tail–dependent binding and dephosphorylation of Pah1p by the Nem1p-Spo7p complex is an important determinant of its function in lipid and membrane biogenesis.
Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D (PLD) leads to the generation of the versatile lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival. PLD activity can be dramatically stimulated by a large number of cell surface receptors and is elaborately regulated by intracellular factors, including protein kinase C isoforms, small GTPases of the ARF, Rho and Ras families and, particularly, by the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 is well known as substrate for the generation of second messengers by phospholipase C, but is now also understood to recruit and/or activate a variety of actin regulatory proteins, ion channels and other signaling proteins, including PLD, by direct interaction. The synthesis of PIP2 by phosphoinositide 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms is tightly regulated by small GTPases and, interestingly, by PA as well, and the concerted formation of PIP2 and PA has been shown to mediate receptor-regulated cellular events. This review highlights the regulation of PLD by membrane receptors, and describes how the close encounter of PLD and PIP5K isoforms with small GTPases permits the execution of specific cellular functions.
Phospholipase D; Phosphatidic acid; PIP2; Phosphoinositide 5-kinase; ARF; Rho; Ras
Initial IgE-dependent signaling events are associated with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains. Following Ag stimulation, the IgE-receptor (FcεRI) accumulates within these domains. This facilitates the phosphorylation of FcεRI subunits by the Src kinase, Lyn, and the interaction with adaptor proteins, such as the linker for activation of T cells. Among the phospholipases (PL) subsequently activated, PLD is of interest because of its presence in lipid microdomains and the possibility that its product, phosphatidic acid, may regulate signal transduction and membrane trafficking. We find that in Ag-stimulated RBL-2H3 mast cells, the association of FcεRI with detergent-resistant membrane fractions is inhibited by 1-butanol, which subverts production of phosphatidic acid to the biologically inert phosphatidylbutanol. Furthermore, the knockdown of PLD2, and to a lesser extent PLD1 with small inhibitory RNAs, also suppressed the accumulation of FcεRI and Lyn in these fractions as well as the phosphorylation of Src kinases, FcεRI, linker for activation of T cells, and degranulation. These effects were accompanied by changes in distribution of the lipid microdomain component, ganglioside 1, in the plasma membrane as determined by binding of fluorescent-tagged cholera toxin B subunit and confocal microscopy in live cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that PLD activity plays an important role in promoting IgE-dependent signaling events within lipid microdomains in mast cells.
Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing Glut4 glucose transporters from intracellular membrane storage sites to the plasma membrane. This process requires the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles toward the cell periphery, docking at exocytic sites, and plasma membrane fusion. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key event in the fusion process. PLD1 is found on Glut4-containing vesicles, is activated by insulin signaling, and traffics with Glut4 to exocytic sites. Increasing PLD1 activity facilitates glucose uptake, whereas decreasing PLD1 activity is inhibitory. Diminished PA production does not substantially hinder trafficking of the vesicles or their docking at the plasma membrane, but it does impede fusion-mediated extracellular exposure of the transporter. The fusion block caused by RNA interference-mediated PLD1 deficiency is rescued by exogenous provision of a lipid that promotes fusion pore formation and expansion, suggesting that the step regulated by PA is late in the process of vesicle fusion.
Lipin family proteins (lipin 1, 2, and 3) are bifunctional intracellular proteins that regulate metabolism by acting as coregulators of DNA-bound transcription factors and also dephosphorylate phosphatidate to form diacylglycerol [phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity] in the triglyceride synthesis pathway. Herein, we report that lipin 1 is enriched in heart and that hearts of mice lacking lipin 1 (fld mice) exhibit accumulation of phosphatidate. We also demonstrate that the expression of the gene encoding lipin 1 (Lpin1) is under the control of the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and their coactivator the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). PGC-1α, ERRα, or ERRγ overexpression increased Lpin1 transcription in cultured ventricular myocytes and the ERRs were associated with response elements in the first intron of the Lpin1 gene. Concomitant RNAi-mediated knockdown of ERRα and ERRγ abrogated the induction of lipin 1 expression by PGC-1α overexpression. Consistent with these data, 3-fold overexpression of PGC-1α in intact myocardium of transgenic mice increased cardiac lipin 1 and ERRα/γ expression. Similarly, injection of the β2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol induced PGC-1α and lipin 1 expression, and the induction in lipin 1 after clenbuterol occurred in a PGC-1α-dependent manner. In contrast, expression of PGC-1α, ERRα, ERRγ, and lipin 1 was down-regulated in failing heart. Cardiac phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity was also diminished, while cardiac phosphatidate content was increased, in failing heart. Collectively, these data suggest that lipin 1 is the principal lipin protein in the myocardium and is regulated in response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli that impact cardiac metabolism.
lipin; PGC-1α; metabolism; heart failure
Growing evidence implicates aberrant lipid signaling in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While phospholipases A2 and C have been recently shown to mediate key actions of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) through a dysregulation of arachidonic acid and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate metabolism, respectively, the role of phospholipase D (PLD) has so far remained elusive. PLD produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a bioactive lipid involved in multiple aspects of cell physiology, including signaling and membrane trafficking processes. Here we show that oligomeric Aβ enhances PLD activity in cultured neurons and that this stimulatory effect does not occur upon ablation of PLD2 via gene targeting. Aβ fails to suppress long-term potentiation in PLD2-deficient hippocampal slices, suggesting that PLD2 is required for the synaptotoxic action of this peptide. In vivo PLD activity, as assessed by detection of phosphatidylethanol levels using mass spectrometry (MS) following ethanol injection, is also increased in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of AD (SwAPP). Furthermore, Pld2 ablation rescues memory deficits and confers synaptic protection in SwAPP mice despite a significant Aβ load. MS-based lipid analysis of pld2 mutant brains in the presence or absence of the SwAPP transgene unmasks striking crosstalks between different PA species. This lipid analysis shows an exquisite acyl chain specificity and plasticity in the perturbation of PA metabolism, with the notable elevation in SwAPP brains of a pool of PA previously linked to degeneration. Collectively, our results point to specific molecular species of PA as key modulators of AD pathogenesis and identify PLD2 as a novel potential target for therapeutics.
Beta-amyloid; lipid metabolism; phospholipid; neurodegeneration; synaptic plasticity; synaptic dysfunction