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1.  Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment 
Journal of Innate Immunity  2010;3(2):167-179.
Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma; however, the early immune events induced by cockroach leading to the Th2 response are not fully understood. Exposure of naïve mice to German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) was sufficient to induce dendritic cell (DC) recruiting and activating chemokines C-C motif ligand 20, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α into the airways. This corresponded with an increase in myeloid DCs (mDCs) in the airways as well as increased expression of CD80 and CD86 on the mDCs. Plasmacytoid DCs in the lung were unchanged. Levels of IL-5, IL-17A and IL-6 cytokines in whole lung cultures were significantly increased 18 h following GC frass exposure demonstrating the early development of a mixed Th2/Th17 response. In addition, GC frass stimulated the production of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-12p70 from bone marrow-derived mDCs. Adoptive transfer of GC frass-pulsed mDCs induced airway reactivity, airway inflammation as well as eosinophilia and induced a strong Th2/Th17 response in the lung. MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived mDCs did not respond to GC frass treatment, suggesting a functional Toll-like receptor pathway was important to induce the Th2/Th17 response. Together, our data show that GC frass activated the innate immune response to augment DC recruitment and activation of mDCs which promoted robust T cell-skewing cytokines and ultimately drive the development of airway inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3072203  PMID: 21051864
Chemokines; Cytokines; Immune response; Pathogen associated-molecular patterns; Toll-like receptor; Dendritic cell; Airway inflammation; Cockroach
2.  Multiplex protein profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2013;8(1):38-45.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death.
The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).
At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control (n = 10), HP (n = 11), and IPF (n = 11), based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology): Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb), fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukine (IL)-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC), placental growth factor (PlGF), protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), surfactant protein-C (SP-C), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 (P = 0.022), MMP-9 (P = 0.0020), MCP-1 (P = 0.0006), MDC (P = 0.0048), IL-8 (P = 0.013), MPO (P = 0.019), and protein-C (P = 0.0087), whereas VEGF was decreased (P = 0.0003) compared with control. HGF was upregulated in HP (P = 0.0089) and active PAI-1 was upregulated (P = 0.019) in IPF compared with control. Differences in expression between IPF and HP were observed for IL-12p40 (P = 0.0093) and TGF-β1 (P = 0.0045).
Using BAL, we demonstrated not only expected similarities but also important differences in both disorders, many related to the innate immunity. These findings provide new clues for further research in both disorders.
PMCID: PMC3573557  PMID: 23440593
Bronchoalveolar lavage; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
3.  Early Myeloid Dendritic Cell Dysregulation is Predictive of Disease Progression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 
PLoS Pathogens  2010;6(12):e1001235.
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are lost from blood in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but the mechanism for this loss and its relationship to disease progression are not known. We studied the mDC response in blood and lymph nodes of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques with different disease outcomes. Early changes in blood mDC number were inversely correlated with virus load and reflective of eventual disease outcome, as animals with stable infection that remained disease-free for more than one year had average increases in blood mDC of 200% over preinfection levels at virus set-point, whereas animals that progressed rapidly to AIDS had significant loss of mDC at this time. Short term antiretroviral therapy (ART) transiently reversed mDC loss in progressor animals, whereas discontinuation of ART resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in mDC over preinfection levels only in stable animals, approaching 10-fold in some cases. Progressive SIV infection was associated with increased CCR7 expression on blood mDC and an 8-fold increase in expression of CCL19 mRNA in lymph nodes, consistent with increased mDC recruitment. Paradoxically, lymph node mDC did not accumulate in progressive infection but rather died from caspase-8-dependent apoptosis that was reduced by ART, indicating that increased recruitment is offset by increased death. Lymph node mDC from both stable and progressor animals remained responsive to exogenous stimulation with a TLR7/8 agonist. These data suggest that mDC are mobilized in SIV infection but that an increase in the CCR7-CCL19 chemokine axis associated with high virus burden in progressive infection promotes exodus of activated mDC from blood into lymph nodes where they die from apoptosis. We suggest that inflamed lymph nodes serve as a sink for mDC through recruitment, activation and death that contributes to AIDS pathogenesis.
Author Summary
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are essential innate immune system cells that are lost from blood in human immunodeficiency virus infection through an ill-defined mechanism. We studied the kinetics of the mDC response in blood and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques infected with the closely related simian immunodeficiency virus. We found that differences in the number of blood mDC correlated with eventual disease outcome, as at virus set-point mDC were increased in blood in animals remaining disease free but lost from blood in animals that progressed rapidly to AIDS. mDC loss was linked to an increase in the chemokine axis responsible for mDC recruitment to lymph nodes; however, mDC did not accumulate in tissues but rather died from apoptosis. Lymph node mDC remained responsive to stimulation with a TLR7/8 agonist during infection. Importantly, mDC dysregulation was partially reversed by antiretroviral therapy. These data indicate that chronic mDC recruitment, activation and death within lymph nodes precede development of disease in SIV infected monkeys and may play a role in AIDS pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3009592  PMID: 21203477
4.  Intra-articular CD1c-expressing myeloid dendritic cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients express a unique set of T cell-attracting chemokines and spontaneously induce Th1, Th17 and Th2 cell activity 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(5):R155.
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are potent T cell-activating antigen-presenting cells that have been suggested to play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses in many disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite this, studies that have reported on the capacity of naturally occurring circulating mDCs to regulate T cell activation in RA are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and functional properties of naturally occurring CD1c (BDCA-1)+ mDCs from synovial fluid (SF) compared to those from peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients.
CD1c+ mDC numbers and expression of costimulatory molecules were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis in SF and PB from RA patients. Ex vivo secretion of 45 inflammatory mediators by mDCs from SF and PB of RA patients was determined by multiplex immunoassay. The capacity of mDCs from SF to activate autologous CD4+ T cells was measured.
CD1c+ mDC numbers were significantly increased in SF versus PB of RA patients (mean 4.7% vs. 0.6%). mDCs from SF showed increased expression of antigen-presenting (human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, CD1c) and costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86 and CD40). Numerous cytokines were equally abundantly produced by mDCs from both PB and SF (including IL-12, IL-23, IL-13, IL-21). SF mDCs secreted higher levels of interferon γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monokine induced by interferon γ (MIG) and, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), but lower macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels compared to mDCs from PB. mDCs from SF displayed a strongly increased capacity to induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells associated with a strongly augmented IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-4 production.
This study suggests that increased numbers of CD1c+ mDCs in SF are involved in the inflammatory cascade intra-articularly by the secretion of specific T cell-attracting chemokines and the activation of self-reactive T cells.
PMCID: PMC3979121  PMID: 24286358
5.  Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Mediates Intracrine Survival in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells through Internally Expressed VEGFR1/FLT1 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(6):e186.
While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast tumors has been correlated with a poor outcome in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the expression, localization, and function of VEGF receptors VEGFR1 (also known as FLT1) and VEGFR2 (also known as KDR or FLK1), as well as neuropilin 1 (NRP1), in breast cancer are controversial.
Methods and Findings
We investigated the expression and function of VEGF and VEGF receptors in breast cancer cells. We observed that VEGFR1 expression was abundant, VEGFR2 expression was low, and NRP1 expression was variable. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, transfected with antisense VEGF cDNA or with siVEGF (VEGF-targeted small interfering RNA), showed a significant reduction in VEGF expression and increased apoptosis as compared to the control cells. Additionally, specifically targeted knockdown of VEGFR1 expression by siRNA (siVEGFR1) significantly decreased the survival of breast cancer cells through down-regulation of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation, while targeted knockdown of VEGFR2 or NRP1 expression had no effect on the survival of these cancer cells. Since a VEGFR1-specific ligand, placenta growth factor (PGF), did not, as expected, inhibit the breast cancer cell apoptosis induced by siVEGF, and since VEGFR1 antibody also had no effects on the survival of these cells, we examined VEGFR1 localization. VEGFR1 was predominantly expressed internally in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Specifically, VEGFR1 was found to be colocalized with lamin A/C and was expressed mainly in the nuclear envelope in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancer tumors. Breast cancer cells treated with siVEGFR1 showed significantly decreased VEGFR1 expression levels and a lack of VEGFR1 expression in the nuclear envelope.
This study provides, to our knowledge for the first time, evidence of a unique survival system in breast cancer cells by which VEGF can act as an internal autocrine (intracrine) survival factor through its binding to VEGFR1. These results may lead to an improved strategy for tumor therapy based on the inhibition of angiogenesis.
Shalom Avraham and colleagues' study provides evidence of a survival system in breast cancer cells by which VEGF acts as an internal autocrine survival factor through its binding to VEGFR1.
Editors' Summary
One woman in eight will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Most of these women live for many years after their diagnosis and many are cured of their cancer. However, sometimes the cancer grows inexorably and spreads (metastasizes) around the body despite the efforts of oncologists. Characteristics of the tumor known as prognostic factors can indicate whether this spreading is likely to happen. Large tumors that have metastasized have a poorer prognosis than small tumors that are confined to the breast. The expression of specific proteins within the tumor also provides prognostic information. One protein whose expression is associated with a poor prognosis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF stimulates angiogenesis—the growth of new blood vessels. Small tumors get the nutrients needed for their growth from existing blood vessels but large tumors need to organize their own blood supply. They do this, in part, by secreting VEGF. This compound binds to proteins (receptors) on the surface of endothelial cells (the cells lining blood vessels), which then send a signal into the cell instructing it to make new blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors, including molecules that block the activity of VEGF receptors, are being developed for the treatment of cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some breast cancer cell lines (cells isolated from breast cancers and grown in the laboratory) make VEGF and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and neuropilin 1 [NRP1]). But, although some studies have reported an association between VEGFR1 expression in breast tumors and a poor prognosis, other studies have found no expression of VEGFR1 in breast tumors. Consequently, the role of VEGF receptors in breast cancer is unclear. In this study, the researchers analyzed the expression and function of VEGF and its receptors in breast cancer cells to investigate whether and how VEGF helps these cells to survive.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first examined the expression of VEGF receptors in several human breast cancer cell lines. All of them expressed VEGFR1, some expressed NRP1, but VEGFR2 expression was universally low. They then investigated the function of VEGF and its receptors in two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). In both cell lines, blocking the expression of VEGF or of VEGFR1 (but not of the other two receptors) reduced cell survival by stimulating a specific process of cell death called apoptosis. Unexpectedly, adding VEGF to the cultures did not reverse the effect of blocking VEGF expression, a result that suggests that VEGF and VEGFR1 do not affect breast cancer cell survival by acting at the cell surface. Accordingly, when the researchers examined where VEGFR1 occurs in the cell, they found it on the membranes around the nucleus of the breast cancer cell lines and not on the cell surface; several primary breast tumors and normal breast tissue had the same localization pattern. Finally, the researchers showed that inhibitors of VEGF action that act at the cell surface did not affect the survival of the breast cancer cell lines.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that VEGF helps breast cancer cells to survive in a unique way: by binding to VEGFR1 inside the cell. In other words, whereas VEGF normally acts as a paracrine growth factor (it is released by one cell and affects another cell), in breast cancer cells it might act as an internal autocrine (intracrine) survival factor, a factor that affects the cells in which it is produced. These findings need confirming in more cell lines and in primary breast cancers but could have important implications for the treatment of breast cancer. Inhibitors of VEGF and VEGFR1 that act inside the cell (small molecule drugs) might block breast cancer growth more effectively than inhibitors that act at the cell surface (for example, proteins that bind to the receptor), because internally acting inhibitors might both kill the tumor directly and have antiangiogenic effects, whereas externally acting inhibitors could only have the second effect.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
US National Cancer Institute information for patients and professionals on breast cancer (in English and Spanish) and on angiogenesis (in English and Spanish)
MedlinePlus Encyclopedia information for patients on breast cancer (in English and Spanish)
CancerQuest, information from Emory University on cancer biology and on angiogenesis and angiogenesis inhibitors (in several languages)
Wikipedia pages on VEGF (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
PMCID: PMC1885450  PMID: 17550303
6.  Comparative analysis of circulating dendritic cell subsets in patients with atopic diseases and sarcoidosis 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):29.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in the initiation and modulation of immune responses. Human circulating blood DCs are divided into two major subsets: myeloid DCs (mDCs); and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Furthermore, mDCs are subdivided into two subsets: Th1-promoting mDCs (mDC1s); and Th2-promoting mDCs (mDC2s). Although CD1a, CD1c, and CD141 are generally used for classifying mDC subsets, their adequacy as a specific marker remains unclear. We performed this study to compare circulating mDC, pDC, mDC1, and mDC2 subsets between Th1- and Th2-mediated diseases using CD1a and CD141, and to analyze the adequacy of CD1a and CD141 as a marker for mDC1s and mDC2s, respectively.
Thirty patients with sarcoidosis, 23 patients with atopic diseases, such as atopic bronchial asthma, and 23 healthy subjects as controls were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood DC subsets were analyzed with flow cytometry according to expressions of CD11c, CD123, CD1a, and CD141. For functional analysis, we measured interleukin (IL) 12p40 levels produced by the sorted mDC subsets.
The sarcoidosis group showed decreased total DC (P < 0.05) and mDC counts (P < 0.05) compared to controls. The atopy group showed decreased CD1a+mDC count (P < 0.05), and increased CD1a-mDC count (P < 0.05) compared to controls. CD141+mDC count in the atopy group was higher than controls (P < 0.05). Sorted CD1a+mDCs produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than CD1a-mDCs (P = 0.025) and CD141+mDCs (P = 0.018).
We conclude that decreased count of CD1a+mDC and increased count of CD141+mDC may reflect the Th2-skewed immunity in atopic diseases. The results of IL-12 levels produced by the sorted mDC subsets suggested the adequacy of CD1a and CD141 as a marker for mDC1 and mDC2, respectively, in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3599330  PMID: 23497225
Dendritic cells; Peripheral blood; Sarcoidosis; Myeloid DC (mDC); CD1a; CD141
7.  Innate Immune Responses and Rapid Control of Inflammation in African Green Monkeys Treated or Not with Interferon-Alpha during Primary SIVagm Infection 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(7):e1004241.
Chronic immune activation (IA) is considered as the driving force of CD4+ T cell depletion and AIDS. Fundamental clues in the mechanisms that regulate IA could lie in natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs). Here we investigated the role of innate immune cells and IFN-α in the control of IA in AGMs. AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. Moreover, we detected cytotoxic NK cells in lymph nodes during the early acute phase of SIVagm infection. Both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell (pDC and mDC) homing receptors were increased, but the maturation of mDCs, in particular of CD16+ mDCs, was more important than that of pDCs. Monitoring of 15 cytokines showed that those, which are known to be increased early in HIV-1/SIVmac pathogenic infections, such as IL-15, IFN-α, MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10, were significantly increased in AGMs as well. In contrast, cytokines generally induced in the later stage of acute pathogenic infection, such as IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α, were less or not increased, suggesting an early control of IA. We then treated AGMs daily with high doses of IFN-α from day 9 to 24 post-infection. No impact was observed on the activation or maturation profiles of mDCs, pDCs and NK cells. There was also no major difference in T cell activation or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression profiles and no sign of disease progression. Thus, even after administration of high levels of IFN-α during acute infection, AGMs were still able to control IA, showing that IA control is independent of IFN-α levels. This suggests that the sustained ISG expression and IA in HIV/SIVmac infections involves non-IFN-α products.
Author Summary
Chronic inflammation is considered as directly involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The role of IFN-α as a driving force of chronic inflammation is under debate. Natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), avoid chronic inflammation. We show for the first time that NK cells are strongly activated during acute SIVagm infection. This further demonstrates that AGMs mount a strong early innate immune response. Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDCs and pDCs) homed to lymph nodes; however mDCs showed a stronger maturation profile than pDCs. Monitoring of cytokine profiles in plasma suggests that the control of inflammation in AGMs is starting earlier than previously considered, weeks before the end of the acute infection. We tested whether the capacity to control inflammation depends on the levels of IFN-α produced. When treated with high doses of IFN-α during acute SIVagm infection, AGMs did not show increase of immune activation or signs of disease progression. Our study provides evidence that the control of inflammation in SIVagm infection is not the consequence of weaker IFN-α levels. These data indicate that the sustained interferon-stimulated gene induction and chronic inflammation in HIV/SIVmac infections is driven by factors other than IFN-α.
PMCID: PMC4081777  PMID: 24991927
8.  Restoration of TLR3-Activated Myeloid Dendritic Cell Activity Leads to Improved Natural Killer Cell Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(8):4102-4109.
There is increasing evidence that the function of NK cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is impaired. The underlying mechanism for the impaired NK cell function is still unknown. Since myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are potent inducers of NK cells, we investigated the functional interaction of mDC and NK cells in CHB and the influence of antiviral therapy. Blood BDCA1+ mDC and NK cells were isolated from 16 healthy controls or 39 CHB patients at baseline and during 6 months of antiviral therapy. After activation of mDC with poly(I · C) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), mDC were cocultured with NK cells. Phenotype and function were analyzed in detail by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings demonstrate that on poly(I · C)/IFN-γ-stimulated mDC from CHB patients, the expression of costimulatory molecules was enhanced, while cytokine production was reduced. In cocultures of poly(I · C)/IFN-γ-stimulated mDC and NK cells obtained from CHB patients, reduced mDC-induced NK cell activation (i.e., CD69 expression) and IFN-γ production compared to those in healthy individuals was observed. Antiviral therapy normalized mDC activity, since decreased expression of CD80 and CD86 on DC and of HLA-E on NK cells was observed, while poly(I · C)/IFN-γ-induced cytokine production by mDC was enhanced. In parallel, successful antiviral therapy resulted in improved mDC-induced NK cell activation and IFN-γ production. These data demonstrate that CHB patients display a diminished functional interaction between poly(I · C)/IFN-γ activated mDC and NK cells due to impaired mDC function, which can be partially restored by antiviral therapy. Enhancing this reciprocal interaction could reinforce the innate and thus the adaptive T cell response, and this may be an important step in achieving effective antiviral immunity.
PMCID: PMC3318629  PMID: 22318141
9.  Early Alpha/Beta Interferon Production by Myeloid Dendritic Cells in Response to UV-Inactivated Virus Requires Viral Entry and Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 but Not MyD88 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(16):10376-10385.
Alpha/beta interferons (IFN-α/β) are key mediators of innate immunity and important modulators of adaptive immunity. The mechanisms by which IFN-α/β are induced are becoming increasingly well understood. Recent studies showed that Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 expressed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) mediate the endosomal recognition of incoming viral RNA genomes, a process which requires myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Here we investigate the requirements for virus-induced IFN-α/β production in cultures of bone marrow-derived murine myeloid DCs (mDCs). Using recombinant Semliki Forest virus blocked at different steps in the viral life cycle, we show that replication-defective virus induced IFN-α/β in mDCs while fusion-defective virus did not induce IFN-α/β. The response to replication-defective virus was largely intact in MyD88−/− mDC cultures but was severely reduced in mDC cultures from mice lacking IFN regulatory factor 3. Our observations suggest that mDCs respond to incoming virus via a pathway that differs from the fusion-independent, MyD88-mediated endosomal pathway described for the induction of IFN-α/β in pDCs. We propose that events during or downstream of viral fusion, but prior to replication, can activate IFN-α/β in mDCs. Thus, mDCs may contribute to the antiviral response activated by the immune system at early time points after infection.
PMCID: PMC1182635  PMID: 16051830
10.  NK cell activation in visceral leishmaniasis requires TLR9, myeloid DCs, and IL-12, but is independent of plasmacytoid DCs 
Natural killer (NK) cells are sentinel components of the innate response to pathogens, but the cell types, pathogen recognition receptors, and cytokines required for their activation in vivo are poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), myeloid DCs (mDCs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and of NK cell stimulatory cytokines for the induction of an NK cell response to the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In vitro, pDCs did not endocytose Leishmania promastigotes but nevertheless released interferon (IFN)-α/β and interleukin (IL)-12 in a TLR9-dependent manner. mDCs rapidly internalized Leishmania and, in the presence of TLR9, produced IL-12, but not IFN-α/β. Depletion of pDCs did not impair the activation of NK cells in L. infantum–infected mice. In contrast, L. infantum–induced NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production were abolished in mDC-depleted mice. The same phenotype was observed in TLR9−/− mice, which lacked IL-12 expression by mDCs, and in IL-12−/− mice, whereas IFN-α/β receptor−/− mice showed only a minor reduction of NK cell IFN-γ expression. This study provides the first direct evidence that mDCs are essential for eliciting NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ release in vivo and demonstrates that TLR9, mDCs, and IL-12 are functionally linked to the activation of NK cells in visceral leishmaniasis.
PMCID: PMC2118560  PMID: 17389237
11.  Plasmacytoid DCs, exposed to TSLP in synergy with TLR ligands, acquire significant potential towards Th2 polarization 
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been reported to activate myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) to induce Th2 T lymphocyte responses. Its effect on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) with TLR ligands has not yet been studied. We investigated the effects of TSLP and TLR ligands on mDCs and pDCs subsets.
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were stimulated by TLR ligands (mDC with TLR1/2 LTA, TLR2 PGN, TLR3 poly I: C, TLR4 LPS, TLR5 Flagellin) (pDC with TLR9 CpG2006, CpG 2216, TLR7 loxoribine) in the presence or absence of TSLP. Supernatants from mDCs and pDCs were analyzed for cytokine production. mDCs and pDCs were collected and cultured with allogeneic naïve T cells and after 7 days of co-culture. DC-primed CD4+ T cells were washed and restimulated with PMA and ionomycin. Cytokine production in supernatants from restimulated cells - IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α was analyzed by Luminex.
TSLP alone induced the expression of maturation markers on mDCs and increased their ability to polarize lymphocytes into the Th2 phenotype. We demonstrated that pDCs also have the capacity to become even more potent inducers of Th2 immune responses, but only after combined treatment with TSLP and TLR ligands, particularly with TLR9 ligand CpG 2006.
TSLP plays a major role in Th2 polarization of immune response mediated by myeloid DCs. Here, we demonstrate that plasmacytoid DCs, exposed to TSLP together with TLR ligands, acquire significant potential towards Th2 polarization.
PMCID: PMC3867402  PMID: 24335833
dendritic cell; T cell; allergy; TLR ligand
12.  Human Macrophage–derived Chemokine (MDC), a Novel Chemoattractant for Monocytes, Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells, and Natural Killer Cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1997;185(9):1595-1604.
A cDNA encoding a novel human chemokine was isolated by random sequencing of cDNA clones from human monocyte-derived macrophages. This protein has been termed macrophagederived chemokine (MDC) because it appears to be synthesized specifically by cells of the macrophage lineage. MDC has the four-cysteine motif and other highly conserved residues characteristic of CC chemokines, but it shares <35% identity with any of the known chemokines. Recombinant MDC was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified by heparin– Sepharose chromatography. NH2-terminal sequencing and mass spectrophotometry were used to verify the NH2 terminus and molecular mass of recombinant MDC (8,081 dalton). In microchamber migration assays, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and IL-2–activated natural killer cells migrated to MDC in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal chemotactic response at 1 ng/ml. Freshly isolated monocytes also migrated toward MDC, but with a peak response at 100 ng/ml MDC. Northern analyses indicated MDC is highly expressed in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not in monocytes, natural killer cells, or several cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast origin. High expression was also detected in normal thymus and less expression in lung and spleen. Unlike most other CC chemokines, MDC is encoded on human chromosome 16. MDC is thus a unique member of the CC chemokine family that may play a fundamental role in the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes.
PMCID: PMC2196293  PMID: 9151897
13.  Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) isoform expression and activity in human and murine lung injury 
Respiratory Research  2009;10(1):27.
The properties of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a potent vascular permogen and mitogen have led to investigation of its potential role in lung injury. Alternate spliced VEGF transcript generates several isoforms with potentially differing functions. The purpose of this study was to determine VEGF isoform expression and source in normal and ARDS subjects and investigate the expression and regulation of VEGF isoforms by human alveolar type 2 (ATII) cells.
VEGF protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically in archival normal and ARDS human lung tissue. VEGF isoform mRNA expression was assessed in human and murine lung tissue. Purified ATII cells were cultured with proinflammatory cytokines prior to RNA extraction/cell supernatant sampling/proliferation assay.
Measurements and Main Results
VEGF was expressed on alveolar epithelium, vascular endothelium and alveolar macrophages in normal and ARDS human lung tissue. Increases in VEGF expression were detected in later ARDS in comparison to both normal subjects and early ARDS (p < 0.001). VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189 isoform mRNA expression increased in later ARDS (p < 0.05). The ratio of soluble to cell-associated isoforms was lower in early ARDS than normal subjects and later ARDS and also in murine lung injury. ATII cells constitutionally produced VEGF165 and VEGF121 protein which was increased by LPS (p < 0.05). VEGF165 upregulated ATII cell proliferation (p < 0.001) that was inhibited by soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sflt) (p < 0.05).
These data demonstrate that changes in VEGF isoform expression occur in ARDS which may be related to their production by and mitogenic effect on ATII cells; with potentially significant clinical consequences.
PMCID: PMC2674417  PMID: 19358726
14.  Systemic Immune Activation in HIV Infection Is Associated with Decreased MDC Responsiveness to TLR Ligand and Inability to Activate Naive CD4 T-Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e23884.
HIV infection is characterized by ineffective anti-viral T-cell responses and impaired dendritic cell (DC) functions, including response to Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) ligands. Because TLR responsiveness may affect a host's response to virus, we examined TLR ligand induced Myeloid and Plasmacytoid DC (MDC and PDC) activation of naïve T-cells in HIV+ subjects.
Freshly purified MDC and PDC obtained from HIV+ subjects and healthy controls were cultured in the presence and absence of TLR ligands (poly I∶C or R-848). We evaluated indices of maturation/activation (CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR expression), cytokine secretion (IFN-alpha and IL-6), and ability to activate allogeneic naïve CD4 T-cells to secrete IFN-gamma and IL-2.
MDC from HIV+ subjects had increased spontaneous IL-6 production and increased CD83 and CD86 expression when compared to MDC of controls. MDC IL-6 expression was associated with plasma HIV level. At the same time, poly I∶C induced HLA-DR up-regulation on MDC was reduced in HIV+ persons when compared to controls. The latter finding was associated with impaired ability of MDC from HIV+ subjects to activate allogeneic naïve CD4 T-cells. PDC from HIV+ persons had increased spontaneous and TLR ligand induced IL-6 expression, and increased HLA-DR expression at baseline. The latter was associated with an intact ability of HIV PDC to activate allogeneic naïve CD4 T-cells.
These results have implications for the ability of the HIV+ host to form innate and adaptive responses to HIV and other pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3164669  PMID: 21912648
15.  Enumeration and phenotypical analysis of distinct dendritic cell subsets in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis 
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets of professional antigen-presenting cells, linking innate and adaptive immunity. Analysis of DC subsets has been hampered by a lack of specific DC markers and reliable quantitation assays. We characterised the immunophenotype and functional characteristics of psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-derived and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-derived myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) to evaluate their potential role in arthritis. Circulating peripheral blood (PB) pDC numbers were significantly reduced in PsA patients (P = 0.0098) and RA patients (P = 0.0194), and mDCs were significantly reduced in RA patients (P = 0.0086) compared with healthy controls. The number of circulating mDCs in RA PB was significantly inversely correlated to C-reactive protein (P = 0.021). The phenotype of both DC subsets in PsA PB and RA PB was immature as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, CD62L expression was significantly decreased on both mDCs (PsA, P = 0.0122; RA, P = 0.0371) and pDCs (PsA, P = 0.0373; RA, P = 0.0367) in PB. Both mDCs and pDCs were present in PsA synovial fluid (SF) and RA SF, with the mDC:pDC ratio significantly exceeding that in matched PB (PsA SF, P = 0.0453; RA SF, P = 0.0082). pDCs isolated from RA SF and PsA SF displayed an immature phenotype comparable with PB pDCs. RA and PsA SF mDCs, however, displayed a more mature phenotype (increased expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86) compared with PB mDCs. Functional analysis revealed that both SF DC subsets matured following toll-like receptor stimulation. pDCs from PB and SF produced interferon alpha and tumour necrosis factor alpha on TLR9 stimulation, but only SF pDCs produced IL-10. Similarly, mDCs from PB and SF produced similar tumour necrosis factor alpha levels to TLR2 agonism, whereas SF mDCs produced more IL-10 than PB controls. Circulating DC subset numbers are reduced in RA PB and PsA PB with reduced CD62L expression. Maturation is incomplete in the inflamed synovial compartment. Immature DCs in SF may contribute to the perpetuation of inflammation via sampling of the inflamed synovial environment, and in situ presentation of arthritogenic antigen.
PMCID: PMC1526567  PMID: 16507115
16.  Platelet Factor 4 Is Highly Upregulated in Dendritic Cells after Severe Trauma 
Molecular Medicine  2009;15(11-12):384-391.
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent an important linkage between the innate and adaptive immune system and express proinflammatory transcriptomic products early after trauma. The use of a genomic approach recently revealed that platelet factor 4 (PF4) is significantly upregulated in DCs in patients after multiple trauma. However, knowledge about subsequent PF4 alteration and its potential clinical relevance in the context of multiple trauma is still limited. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to analyze PF4 expression in both myeloid DCs (MDCs) and plasmocytoid DCs (PDCs) isolated from 10 patients after multiple trauma. Intracellular PF4 as well as HLA-DR expression were detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated on a monolayer of human umbilical endothelial cells and their adhesion properties were analyzed. The ratio of the DC subtypes (MDC and PDC) was assessed by flow cytometry. PF4 expression significantly increased on d 1 and d 2 as measured by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Intracellular PF4 content in MDCs and PDCs was significantly elevated in trauma patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, the surface antigen HLA-DR on MDCs was significantly elevated on d 1 and d 4 after trauma in patients compared with controls. However, cell adhesion of DCs did not show any significant differences between patients and controls. PF4 concentration in MDCs and PDCs significantly correlated with the injury severity score. These results confirm an early and subsequent posttraumatic activation of PF4 in DCs. PF4 also participates in the posttraumatic activation of DCs in relation to injury severity, a role that might be preferably based on the modification of receptor expression, whereas adhesion properties are largely unaffected.
PMCID: PMC2741291  PMID: 19750196
17.  Kinetics of Myeloid Dendritic Cell Trafficking and Activation: Impact on Progressive, Nonprogressive and Controlled SIV Infections 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(10):e1003600.
We assessed the role of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in the outcome of SIV infection by comparing and contrasting their frequency, mobilization, phenotype, cytokine production and apoptosis in pathogenic (pigtailed macaques, PTMs), nonpathogenic (African green monkeys, AGMs) and controlled (rhesus macaques, RMs) SIVagmSab infection. Through the identification of recently replicating cells, we demonstrated that mDC mobilization from the bone marrow occurred in all species postinfection, being most prominent in RMs. Circulating mDCs were depleted with disease progression in PTMs, recovered to baseline values after the viral peak in AGMs, and significantly increased at the time of virus control in RMs. Rapid disease progression in PTMs was associated with low baseline levels and incomplete recovery of circulating mDCs during chronic infection. mDC recruitment to the intestine occurred in all pathogenic scenarios, but loss of mucosal mDCs was associated only with progressive infection. Sustained mDC immune activation occurred throughout infection in PTMs and was associated with increased bystander apoptosis in blood and intestine. Conversely, mDC activation occurred only during acute infection in nonprogressive and controlled infections. Postinfection, circulating mDCs rapidly became unresponsive to TLR7/8 stimulation in all species. Yet, stimulation with LPS, a bacterial product translocated in circulation only in SIV-infected PTMs, induced mDC hyperactivation, apoptosis and excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. After infection, spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines by mucosal mDCs increased only in progressor PTMs. We thus propose that mDCs promote tolerance to SIV in the biological systems that lack intestinal dysfunction. In progressive infections, mDC loss and excessive activation of residual mDCs by SIV and additional stimuli, such as translocated microbial products, enhance generalized immune activation and inflammation. Our results thus provide a mechanistic basis for the role of mDCs in the pathogenesis of AIDS and elucidate the causes of mDC loss during progressive HIV/SIV infections.
Author Summary
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and act as “watch-dogs”, sensing and controlling aberrant immune activation; as such, they may significantly impact the outcome of HIV/SIV infection. By comparing and contrasting the frequency, function, migration to tissues and levels of activation and apoptosis in progressive, nonprogressive and elite-controlled SIV infections, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for mDC loss in HIV/SIV infection and their role in driving progression to AIDS. We report that progression to AIDS is associated with low mDC preinfection levels and depletion throughout infection, due to massive migration of these cells to mucosal sites and excessive cell death by apoptosis. We also show that residual mDCs from blood and intestine have a high capacity to produce proinflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to the increased immune activation and inflammation characteristic of progressive infections.
PMCID: PMC3789723  PMID: 24098110
18.  Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prime IL-10–producing T regulatory cells by inducible costimulator ligand 
Although there is evidence for distinct roles of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs [mDCs]) and plasmacytoid pre-DCs (pDCs) in regulating T cell–mediated adaptive immunity, the concept of functional DC subsets has been questioned because of the lack of a molecular mechanism to explain these differences. In this study, we provide direct evidence that maturing mDCs and pDCs express different sets of molecules for T cell priming. Although both maturing mDCs and pDCs upregulate the expression of CD80 and CD86, only pDCs upregulate the expression of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS-L) and maintain high expression levels upon differentiation into mature DCs. High ICOS-L expression endows maturing pDCs with the ability to induce the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells to produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) but not the T helper (Th)2 cytokines IL-4, -5, and -13. These IL-10–producing T cells are T regulatory cells, and their generation by ICOS-L is independent of pDC-driven Th1 and Th2 differentiation, although, in the later condition, some contribution from endogenous IL-4 cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, in contrast to mDCs, pDCs are poised to express ICOS-L upon maturation, which leads to the generation of IL-10–producing T regulatory cells. Our findings demonstrate that mDC and pDCs are intrinsically different in the expression of costimulatory molecules that drive distinct types of T cell responses.
PMCID: PMC2118437  PMID: 17200410
19.  Blood Myeloid Dendritic Cells from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Display a Proapoptotic Profile Characterized by Decreased Bcl-2 Levels and by Caspase-3+ Frequencies That Are Associated with Levels of Plasma Viremia and T Cell Activation in an Exploratory Study ▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;85(1):397-409.
Reduced frequencies of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (DC) subsets (mDCs and pDCs, respectively) have been observed in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals throughout the course of disease. Accumulation of DCs in lymph nodes (LNs) may partly account for the decreased numbers observed in blood, but increased DC death may also be a contributing factor. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to evaluate pro- and antiapoptotic markers in blood mDCs and pDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected donors, from a subset of infected donors before and after receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and from uninfected control donors. Blood mDCs, but not pDCs, from untreated HIV-1-infected donors expressed lower levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 than DCs from uninfected donors. A subset of HIV-1-infected donors had elevated frequencies of proapoptotic caspase-3+ blood mDCs, and positive correlations were observed between caspase-3+ mDC frequencies and plasma viral load and CD8+ T-cell activation levels. Caspase-3+ mDC frequencies, but not mDC Bcl-2 expression, were reduced with viral suppression on ART. Apoptosis markers on DCs in blood and LN samples from a cohort of untreated, HIV-1-infected donors with chronic disease were also evaluated. LN mDCs displayed higher levels of Bcl-2 and lower caspase-3+ frequencies than did matched blood mDCs. Conversely, LN pDCs expressed lower Bcl-2 levels than their blood counterparts. In summary, blood mDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected subjects displayed a proapoptotic profile that was partially reversed with viral suppression, suggesting that DC death may be a factor contributing to blood DC depletion in the setting of chronic, untreated HIV disease.
PMCID: PMC3014213  PMID: 20962079
20.  Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC/CCL22) is a Novel Mediator of Lung Inflammation Following Hemorrhage and Resuscitation 
Shock (Augusta, Ga.)  2014;42(6):525-531.
Resuscitation of patients after hemorrhage often results in pulmonary inflammation and places them at risk for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our previous data indicate that macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) is elevated after resuscitation, but its direct role in this inflammatory response is unknown. MDC signaling through the C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) is implicated in other pulmonary proinflammatory conditions, leading us to hypothesize that MDC may also play a role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation following hemorrhage and resuscitation. To test this, C57BL/6 mice underwent pressure-controlled hemorrhage followed by resuscitation with lactated Ringer’s solution. Pulmonary inflammation and inflammatory cell recruitment were analyzed with histological staining, and serum- and tissue-level cytokines were measured by ELISA. Pulmonary inflammation and cell recruitment following hemorrhage and resuscitation were associated with systemic MDC levels. Inhibition of MDC via injection of a specific neutralizing antibody prior to hemorrhage and resuscitation significantly reduced pulmonary levels of the chemotactic cytokines KC, MIP-2, and MIP-1α as well as inflammatory cell recruitment to the lungs. Intravenous administration of recombinant MDC prior to resuscitation augmented pulmonary inflammation and cell recruitment. Histological evaluation revealed the expression of CCR4 within the bronchial epithelium, and in vitro treatment of activated bronchial epithelial cells with MDC resulted in production and secretion of neutrophil chemokines. The present study identifies MDC as a novel mediator of lung inflammation after hemorrhage and resuscitation. MDC neutralization may provide a therapeutic strategy to mitigate this inflammatory response.
PMCID: PMC4236272  PMID: 25136780
hemorrhagic shock; pulmonary neutrophil recruitment; CCR4; bronchial epithelium
21.  Expanded Numbers of Circulating Myeloid Dendritic Cells in Patent Human Filarial Infection Reflect Lower CCR1 Expression 
APC dysfunction has been postulated to mediate some of the parasite-specific T cell unresponsiveness seen in patent filarial infection. We have shown that live microfilariae of Brugia malayi induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. This study addresses whether apoptosis observed in vitro extends to patent filarial infections in humans and is reflected in the number of circulating myeloid DCs (mDCs; CD11c−CD123lo) in peripheral blood of infected microfilaremic individuals. Utilizing flow cytometry to identify DC subpopulations (mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs [pDCs]) based on expression of CD11c and CD123, we found a significant increase in numbers of circulating mDCs (CD11c+CD123lo) in filaria-infected individuals compared with uninfected controls from the same filaria-endemic region of Mali. Total numbers of pDCs, monocytes, and lymphocytes did not differ between the two groups. To investigate potential causes of differences in mDC numbers between the two groups, we assessed chemokine receptor expression on mDCs. Our data indicate that filaria-infected individuals had a lower percentage of circulating CCR1+ mDCs and a higher percentage of circulating CCR5+ mDCs and pDCs. Finally, live microfilariae of B. malayi were able to downregulate cell-surface expression of CCR1 on monocyte-derived DCs and diminish their calcium flux in response to stimulation by a CCR1 ligand. These findings suggest that microfilaria are capable of altering mDC migration through downregulation of expression of some chemokine receptors and their signaling functions. These observations have major implications for regulation of immune responses to these long-lived parasites.
PMCID: PMC3403815  PMID: 20956349
22.  Crosstalk between human DC subsets promotes antibacterial activity and CD8+ T-cell stimulation in response to bacille Calmette-Guérin 
European Journal of Immunology  2013;44(1):80-92.
To date, little is known about the unique contributions of specialized human DC subsets to protection against tuberculosis (TB). Here, we focus on the role of human plasmacytoid (p)DCs and myeloid (m)DCs in the immune response to the TB vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Ex vivo DC subsets from human peripheral blood were purified and infected with BCG expressing GFP to distinguish between infected and noninfected cells. BDCA-1+ myeloid DCs were more susceptible than BDCA-3+ mDCs to BCG infection. Plasmacytoid DCs have poor phagocytic activity but are equipped with endocytic receptors and can be activated by bystander stimulation. Consequently, the mutual interaction of the two DC subsets in response to BCG was analyzed. We found that pDCs were activated by BCG-infected BDCA-1+ mDCs to upregulate maturation markers and to produce granzyme B, but not IFN-α. Reciprocally, the presence of activated pDCs enhanced mycobacterial growth control by infected mDCs and increased IL-1β availability. The synergy between the two DC subsets promoted BCG-specific CD8+ T-cell stimulation and the role of BCG-infected BDCA-1+ mDCs could not be efficiently replaced by infected BDCA-3+ mDCs in the crosstalk with pDCs. We conclude that mDC–pDC crosstalk should be exploited for rational design of next-generation TB vaccines.
PMCID: PMC3992850  PMID: 24114554
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG); BDCA-1+ myeloid DCs; CD8+ T cells; human; plasmacytoid DCs; tuberculosis
23.  Hepatic stellate cells undermine the allostimulatory function of liver myeloid dendritic cells via STAT3-dependent induction of IDO 
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are critical for hepatic wound repair and tissue remodeling. They also produce cytokines and chemokines that may contribute to the maintenance of hepatic immune homeostasis and the inherent tolerogenicity of the liver. The functional relationship between HSCs and the professional migratory APCs in the liver, i.e. dendritic cells (DCs), has not been evaluated. Here, we report that murine liver DCs co-localize with HSCs in vivo under normal, steady-state conditions, and cluster with HSCs in vitro. In vitro, HSCs secrete high levels of DC chemoattractants, such as MIP1α and MCP-1, as well as cytokines that modulate DC activation, including TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β. Culture of HSCs with conventional liver myeloid (m) DCs resulted in increased IL-6 and IL-10 secretion compared to that of either cell population alone. Co-culture also resulted in enhanced expression of co-stimulatory (CD80, CD86) and co-inhibitory (B7-H1) molecules on mDCs. HSC-induced mDC maturation required cell-cell contact and could be blocked, in part, by neutralizing MIP1α or MCP-1. HSC-induced mDC maturation was dependent on activation of STAT3 in mDCs and in part on HSC-secreted IL-6. Despite up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, mDCs conditioned by HSCs demonstrated impaired ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation, which was independent of B7-H1, but dependent upon HSC-induced STAT3 activation and subsequent up-regulation of IDO. In conclusion, by promoting IDO expression, HSCs may act as potent regulators of liver mDCs and function to maintain hepatic homeostasis and tolerogenicity.
PMCID: PMC3466356  PMID: 22962681
24.  Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection of Dendritic Cells Leads to Functionally Increased Expression of the Macrophage-Derived Chemokine  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(3):1714-1722.
Gene expression in murine dendritic cells (DCs) infected with green fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BRD509 was studied by mRNA differential display. Infected DCs were sorted from uninfected cells by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression patterns of infected and uninfected cells revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts, which included the macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). Up-regulation of MDC transcription in infected DCs was confirmed by Northern blotting, and the kinetics of MDC expression was examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, with which 31- and 150-fold increases were detected at 2 and 6 h postinfection, respectively. The increased release by DCs of MDC into culture media was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological activity of MDC was investigated in in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro, supernatants from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected DCs were chemoattractive to T cells, and neutralization of MDC in these supernatants inhibited T-cell migration. Passive transfer of anti-MDC antibody to mice infected with BRD509 revealed that neither growth of the bacterium nor resistance of the mice to reinfection was affected and that in vivo inhibition of MDC did not affect T-cell responses, as measured by the gamma interferon ELISPOT method 3 days after challenge infection.
PMCID: PMC1064904  PMID: 15731072
25.  Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Prevent Cigarette Smoke and Chlamydophila pneumoniae–Induced Th2 Inflammatory Responses 
Smoking promotes the development of allergic asthma and pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumoniae lung infection is associated with an increased risk for asthma, inducing an immune response regulated by dendritic cells (DCs). This study sought to determine whether exposure to cigarette smoke modulates the functional activity of CD11c-positive DCs in the lung, with and without concomitant C. pneumoniae infection. Bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs) were exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or live C. pneumoniae (Cpn), and then adoptively transferred intratracheally into wild-type mice. Although CSE plus Cpn appeared to exert an additive effect on the production of Th2 cytokines in vitro, we did not see this effect in vivo. However, the adoptive transfer of DCs pulsed with both CSE and C. pneumoniae into the lungs of naive mice led to an influx of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) that suppressed the Th2 skewing ability of the transferred BMDCs. The depletion of pDCs by antibody restored the Th2 skewing ability of the BMDCs. The expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the lung was reduced after the depletion of pDCs, and blocking IFN-α in vitro prevented the ability of pDCs to inhibit the Th2 responses induced by myeloid DCs (mDCs), suggesting their potential involvement in the mechanism of altered polarization. In conclusion, exposure to cigarette smoke skews C. pneumoniae–induced mDCs responses toward a Th2 bias in the lung, which is prevented by pDCs. We propose that pDCs may play a major role in the immunosuppressive lung environment in smokers with C. pneumoniae infection.
PMCID: PMC2951872  PMID: 19901344
dendritic cells; Chlamydia pneumoniae; bacterial pneumonia; cigarette smoke exposure

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