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1.  Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness of the influenza vaccination and the pneumococcal vaccination in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in reducing the incidence of influenza-related illness or pneumococcal pneumonia.
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Influenza Disease
Influenza is a global threat. It is believed that the risk of a pandemic of influenza still exists. Three pandemics occurred in the 20th century which resulted in millions of deaths worldwide. The fourth pandemic of H1N1 influenza occurred in 2009 and affected countries in all continents.
Rates of serious illness due to influenza viruses are high among older people and patients with chronic conditions such as COPD. The influenza viruses spread from person to person through sneezing and coughing. Infected persons can transfer the virus even a day before their symptoms start. The incubation period is 1 to 4 days with a mean of 2 days. Symptoms of influenza infection include fever, shivering, dry cough, headache, runny or stuffy nose, muscle ache, and sore throat. Other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can occur.
Complications of influenza infection include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and other secondary bacterial infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. In viral pneumonia, patients develop acute fever and dyspnea, and may further show signs and symptoms of hypoxia. The organisms involved in bacterial pneumonia are commonly identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Hemophilus influenza. The incidence of secondary bacterial pneumonia is most common in the elderly and those with underlying conditions such as congestive heart disease and chronic bronchitis.
Healthy people usually recover within one week but in very young or very old people and those with underlying medical conditions such as COPD, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, influenza is associated with higher risks and may lead to hospitalization and in some cases death. The cause of hospitalization or death in many cases is viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. Influenza infection can lead to the exacerbation of COPD or an underlying heart disease.
Streptococcal Pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus, is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium that often colonizes in the nasopharynx of healthy children and adults. Pneumococcus can be transmitted from person to person during close contact. The bacteria can cause illnesses such as otitis media and sinusitis, and may become more aggressive and affect other areas of the body such as the lungs, brain, joints, and blood stream. More severe infections caused by pneumococcus are pneumonia, bacterial sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and in rare cases, endocarditis and pericarditis.
People with impaired immune systems are susceptible to pneumococcal infection. Young children, elderly people, patients with underlying medical conditions including chronic lung or heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sickle cell disease, and people who have undergone a splenectomy are at a higher risk for acquiring pneumococcal pneumonia.
Technology
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccines
Trivalent Influenza Vaccines in Canada
In Canada, 5 trivalent influenza vaccines are currently authorized for use by injection. Four of these are formulated for intramuscular use and the fifth product (Intanza®) is formulated for intradermal use.
The 4 vaccines for intramuscular use are:
Fluviral (GlaxoSmithKline), split virus, inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months;
Vaxigrip (Sanofi Pasteur), split virus inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months;
Agriflu (Novartis), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months; and
Influvac (Abbott), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in persons ≥ 18 years of age.
FluMist is a live attenuated virus in the form of an intranasal spray for persons aged 2 to 59 years. Immunization with current available influenza vaccines is not recommended for infants less than 6 months of age.
Pneumococcal Vaccine
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have progressed from 2-valent vaccines to the current 23-valent vaccines to prevent diseases caused by 23 of the most common serotypes of S pneumoniae. Canada-wide estimates suggest that approximately 90% of cases of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are caused by these 23 serotypes. Health Canada has issued licenses for 2 types of 23-valent vaccines to be injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously:
Pneumovax 23® (Merck & Co Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), and
Pneumo 23® (Sanofi Pasteur SA, Lion, France) for persons 2 years of age and older.
Other types of pneumococcal vaccines licensed in Canada are for pediatric use. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is injected only once. A second dose is applied only in some conditions.
Research Questions
What is the effectiveness of the influenza vaccination and the pneumococcal vaccination compared with no vaccination in COPD patients?
What is the safety of these 2 vaccines in COPD patients?
What is the budget impact and cost-effectiveness of these 2 vaccines in COPD patients?
Research Methods
Literature search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on July 5, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2000 to July 5, 2010. The search was updated monthly through the AutoAlert function of the search up to January 31, 2011. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. Data extraction was carried out by the author.
Inclusion Criteria
studies comparing clinical efficacy of the influenza vaccine or the pneumococcal vaccine with no vaccine or placebo;
randomized controlled trials published between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2011;
studies including patients with COPD only;
studies investigating the efficacy of types of vaccines approved by Health Canada;
English language studies.
Exclusion Criteria
non-randomized controlled trials;
studies investigating vaccines for other diseases;
studies comparing different variations of vaccines;
studies in which patients received 2 or more types of vaccines;
studies comparing different routes of administering vaccines;
studies not reporting clinical efficacy of the vaccine or reporting immune response only;
studies investigating the efficacy of vaccines not approved by Health Canada.
Outcomes of Interest
Primary Outcomes
Influenza vaccination: Episodes of acute respiratory illness due to the influenza virus.
Pneumococcal vaccination: Time to the first episode of community-acquired pneumonia either due to pneumococcus or of unknown etiology.
Secondary Outcomes
rate of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation
mortality rate
adverse events
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses. The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Efficacy of the Influenza Vaccination in Immunocompetent Patients With COPD
Clinical Effectiveness
The influenza vaccination was associated with significantly fewer episodes of influenza-related acute respiratory illness (ARI). The incidence density of influenza-related ARI was:
All patients: vaccine group: (total of 4 cases) = 6.8 episodes per 100 person-years; placebo group: (total of 17 cases) = 28.1 episodes per 100 person-years, (relative risk [RR], 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06−0.70; P = 0.005).
Patients with severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] < 50% predicted): vaccine group: (total of 1 case) = 4.6 episodes per 100 person-years; placebo group: (total of 7 cases) = 31.2 episodes per 100 person-years, (RR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.003−1.1; P = 0.04).
Patients with moderate airflow obstruction (FEV1 50%−69% predicted): vaccine group: (total of 2 cases) = 13.2 episodes per 100 person-years; placebo group: (total of 4 cases) = 23.8 episodes per 100 person-years, (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.05−3.8; P = 0.5).
Patients with mild airflow obstruction (FEV1 ≥ 70% predicted): vaccine group: (total of 1 case) = 4.5 episodes per 100 person-years; placebo group: (total of 6 cases) = 28.2 episodes per 100 person-years, (RR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.003−1.3; P = 0.06).
The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant difference between the vaccinated group and the placebo group regarding the probability of not acquiring influenza-related ARI (log-rank test P value = 0.003). Overall, the vaccine effectiveness was 76%. For categories of mild, moderate, or severe COPD the vaccine effectiveness was 84%, 45%, and 85% respectively.
With respect to hospitalization, fewer patients in the vaccine group compared with the placebo group were hospitalized due to influenza-related ARIs, although these differences were not statistically significant. The incidence density of influenza-related ARIs that required hospitalization was 3.4 episodes per 100 person-years in the vaccine group and 8.3 episodes per 100 person-years in the placebo group (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.04−2.5; P = 0.3; log-rank test P value = 0.2). Also, no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups were observed for the 3 categories of severity of COPD.
Fewer patients in the vaccine group compared with the placebo group required mechanical ventilation due to influenza-related ARIs. However, these differences were not statistically significant. The incidence density of influenza-related ARIs that required mechanical ventilation was 0 episodes per 100 person-years in the vaccine group and 5 episodes per 100 person-years in the placebo group (RR, 0.0; 95% CI, 0−2.5; P = 0.1; log-rank test P value = 0.4). In addition, no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups were observed for the 3 categories of severity of COPD. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-related ARIs and influenza-related hospitalization was not related to age, sex, severity of COPD, smoking status, or comorbid diseases.
safety
Overall, significantly more patients in the vaccine group than the placebo group experienced local adverse reactions (vaccine: 17 [27%], placebo: 4 [6%]; P = 0.002). Significantly more patients in the vaccine group than the placebo group experienced swelling (vaccine 4, placebo 0; P = 0.04) and itching (vaccine 4, placebo 0; P = 0.04). Systemic reactions included headache, myalgia, fever, and skin rash and there were no significant differences between the 2 groups for these reactions (vaccine: 47 [76%], placebo: 51 [81%], P = 0.5).
With respect to lung function, dyspneic symptoms, and exercise capacity, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups at 1 week and at 4 weeks in: FEV1, maximum inspiratory pressure at residual volume, oxygen saturation level of arterial blood, visual analogue scale for dyspneic symptoms, and the 6 Minute Walking Test for exercise capacity.
There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to the probability of not acquiring total ARIs (influenza-related and/or non-influenza-related); (log-rank test P value = 0.6).
Summary of Efficacy of the Pneumococcal Vaccination in Immunocompetent Patients With COPD
Clinical Effectiveness
The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no significant differences between the group receiving the penumoccocal vaccination and the control group for time to the first episode of community-acquired pneumonia due to pneumococcus or of unknown etiology (log-rank test 1.15; P = 0.28). Overall, vaccine efficacy was 24% (95% CI, −24 to 54; P = 0.33).
With respect to the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (vaccine: 0/298; control: 5/298; log-rank test 5.03; P = 0.03).
Hospital admission rates and median length of hospital stays were lower in the vaccine group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mortality rate was not different between the 2 groups.
Subgroup Analysis
The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant differences between the vaccine and control groups for pneumonia due to pneumococcus and pneumonia of unknown etiology, and when data were analyzed according to subgroups of patients (age < 65 years, and severe airflow obstruction FEV1 < 40% predicted). The accumulated percentage of patients without pneumonia (due to pneumococcus and of unknown etiology) across time was significantly lower in the vaccine group than in the control group in patients younger than 65 years of age (log-rank test 6.68; P = 0.0097) and patients with a FEV1 less than 40% predicted (log-rank test 3.85; P = 0.0498).
Vaccine effectiveness was 76% (95% CI, 20−93; P = 0.01) for patients who were less than 65 years of age and −14% (95% CI, −107 to 38; P = 0.8) for those who were 65 years of age or older. Vaccine effectiveness for patients with a FEV1 less than 40% predicted and FEV1 greater than or equal to 40% predicted was 48% (95% CI, −7 to 80; P = 0.08) and −11% (95% CI, −132 to 47; P = 0.95), respectively. For patients who were less than 65 years of age (FEV1 < 40% predicted), vaccine effectiveness was 91% (95% CI, 35−99; P = 0.002).
Cox modelling showed that the effectiveness of the vaccine was dependent on the age of the patient. The vaccine was not effective in patients 65 years of age or older (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.61−a2.17; P = 0.66) but it reduced the risk of acquiring pneumonia by 80% in patients less than 65 years of age (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06−0.66; P = 0.01).
safety
No patients reported any local or systemic adverse reactions to the vaccine.
PMCID: PMC3384373  PMID: 23074431
2.  IL10 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Airflow Obstruction in Severe α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency 
Severe α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in individuals who smoke. There is marked variability in the development of lung disease in individuals homozygous (PI ZZ) for this autosomal recessive condition, suggesting that modifier genes could be important. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of obstructive lung disease may be modifiers of airflow obstruction in individuals with severe AAT deficiency. To identify modifier genes, we performed family-based association analyses for 10 genes previously associated with asthma and/or COPD, including IL10, TNF, GSTP1, NOS1, NOS3, SERPINA3, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and EPHX1. All analyses were performed in a cohort of 378 PI ZZ individuals from 167 families. Quantitative spirometric phenotypes included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC). A qualitative phenotype of moderate-to-severe COPD was defined for individuals with FEV1 ⩽ 50 percent predicted. Six of 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 (P = 0.0005–0.05) and 3 of 5 SNPs in TNF (P = 0.01–0.05) were associated with FEV1 and/or FEV1/FVC. IL10 SNPs also demonstrated association with the qualitative COPD phenotype. When phenotypes of individuals with a physician's diagnosis of asthma were excluded, IL10 SNPs remained significantly associated, suggesting that the association with airflow obstruction was independent of an association with asthma. Haplotype analysis of IL10 SNPs suggested the strongest association with IL10 promoter SNPs. IL10 is likely an important modifier gene for the development of COPD in individuals with severe AAT deficiency.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2007-0107OC
PMCID: PMC2176135  PMID: 17690329
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetic modifiers; interleukin 10; family-based association analysis
3.  Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to examine the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the following patient populations: patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); weaning of COPD patients from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); and prevention of or treatment of recurrent respiratory failure in COPD patients after extubation from IMV.
Clinical Need and Target Population
Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
Respiratory failure occurs when the respiratory system cannot oxygenate the blood and/or remove carbon dioxide from the blood. It can be either acute or chronic and is classified as either hypoxemic (type I) or hypercapnic (type II) respiratory failure. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure frequently occurs in COPD patients experiencing acute exacerbations of COPD, so this is the focus of this evidence-based analysis. Hypercapnic respiratory failure occurs due to a decrease in the drive to breathe, typically due to increased work to breathe in COPD patients.
Technology
There are several treatment options for ARF. Usual medical care (UMC) attempts to facilitate adequate oxygenation and treat the cause of the exacerbation, and typically consists of supplemental oxygen, and a variety of medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. The failure rate of UMC is high and has been estimated to occur in 10% to 50% of cases.
The alternative is mechanical ventilation, either invasive or noninvasive. Invasive mechanical ventilation involves sedating the patient, creating an artificial airway through endotracheal intubation, and attaching the patient to a ventilator. While this provides airway protection and direct access to drain sputum, it can lead to substantial morbidity, including tracheal injuries and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
While both positive and negative pressure noninvasive ventilation exists, noninvasive negative pressure ventilation such as the iron lung is no longer in use in Ontario. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation provides ventilatory support through a facial or nasal mask and reduces inspiratory work. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation can often be used intermittently for short periods of time to treat respiratory failure, which allows patients to continue to eat, drink, talk, and participate in their own treatment decisions. In addition, patients do not require sedation, airway defence mechanisms and swallowing functions are maintained, trauma to the trachea and larynx are avoided, and the risk for VAP is reduced. Common complications are damage to facial and nasal skin, higher incidence of gastric distension with aspiration risk, sleeping disorders, and conjunctivitis. In addition, NPPV does not allow direct access to the airway to drain secretions and requires patients to cooperate, and due to potential discomfort, compliance and tolerance may be low.
In addition to treating ARF, NPPV can be used to wean patients from IMV through the gradual removal of ventilation support until the patient can breathe spontaneously. Five to 30% of patients have difficultly weaning. Tapering levels of ventilatory support to wean patients from IMV can be achieved using IMV or NPPV. The use of NPPV helps to reduce the risk of VAP by shortening the time the patient is intubated.
Following extubation from IMV, ARF may recur, leading to extubation failure and the need for reintubation, which has been associated with increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia and mortality. To avoid these complications, NPPV has been proposed to help prevent ARF recurrence and/or to treat respiratory failure when it recurs, thereby preventing the need for reintubation.
Research Questions
What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of NPPV for the treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of COPD compared with
usual medical care, and
invasive mechanical ventilation?
What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of NPPV compared with IMV in COPD patients after IMV for the following purposes:
weaning COPD patients from IMV,
preventing ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV, and
treating ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV?
Research Methods
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on December 3, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Wiley Cochrane, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2004 until December 3, 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Since there were numerous studies that examined the effectiveness of NPPV for the treatment of ARF due to exacerbations of COPD published before 2004, pre-2004 trials which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for this evidence-based review were identified by hand-searching reference lists of included studies and systematic reviews.
Inclusion Criteria
English language full-reports;
health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs);
studies performed exclusively in patients with a diagnosis of COPD or studies performed with patients with a mix of conditions if results are reported for COPD patients separately;
patient population: (Question 1) patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to an exacerbation of COPD; (Question 2a) COPD patients being weaned from IMV; (Questions 2b and 2c) COPD patients who have been extubated from IMV.
Exclusion Criteria
< 18 years of age
animal studies
duplicate publications
grey literature
studies examining noninvasive negative pressure ventilation
studies comparing modes of ventilation
studies comparing patient-ventilation interfaces
studies examining outcomes not listed below, such as physiologic effects including heart rate, arterial blood gases, and blood pressure
Outcomes of Interest
mortality
intubation rates
length of stay (intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital)
health-related quality of life
breathlessness
duration of mechanical ventilation
weaning failure
complications
NPPV tolerance and compliance
Statistical Methods
When possible, results were pooled using Review Manager 5 Version 5.1, otherwise, the results were summarized descriptively. Dichotomous data were pooled into relative risks using random effects models and continuous data were pooled using weighted mean differences with a random effects model. Analyses using data from RCTs were done using intention-to-treat protocols; P values < 0.05 were considered significant. A priori subgroup analyses were planned for severity of respiratory failure, location of treatment (ICU or hospital ward), and mode of ventilation with additional subgroups as needed based on the literature. Post hoc sample size calculations were performed using STATA 10.1.
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
NPPV for the Treatment of ARF due to Acute Exacerbations of COPD
NPPV Plus Usual Medical Care Versus Usual Medical Care Alone for First Line Treatment
A total of 1,000 participants were included in 11 RCTs1; the sample size ranged from 23 to 342. The mean age of the participants ranged from approximately 60 to 72 years of age. Based on either the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), 4 of the studies included people with severe COPD, and there was inadequate information to classify the remaining 7 studies by COPD severity. The severity of the respiratory failure was classified into 4 categories using the study population mean pH level as follows: mild (pH ≥ 7.35), moderate (7.30 ≤ pH < 7.35), severe (7.25 ≤ pH < 7.30), and very severe (pH < 7.25). Based on these categories, 3 studies included patients with a mild respiratory failure, 3 with moderate respiratory failure, 4 with severe respiratory failure, and 1 with very severe respiratory failure.
The studies were conducted either in the ICU (3 of 11 studies) or general or respiratory wards (8 of 11 studies) in hospitals, with patients in the NPPV group receiving bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilatory support, except in 2 studies, which used pressure support ventilation and volume cycled ventilation, respectively. Patients received ventilation through nasal, facial, or oronasal masks. All studies specified a protocol or schedule for NPPV delivery, but this varied substantially across the studies. For example, some studies restricted the amount of ventilation per day (e.g., 6 hours per day) and the number of days it was offered (e.g., maximum of 3 days); whereas, other studies provided patients with ventilation for as long as they could tolerate it and recommended it for much longer periods of time (e.g., 7 to 10 days). These differences are an important source of clinical heterogeneity between the studies. In addition to NPPV, all patients in the NPPV group also received UMC. Usual medical care varied between the studies, but common medications included supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics, diuretics, and respiratory stimulators.
The individual quality of the studies ranged. Common methodological issues included lack of blinding and allocation concealment, and small sample sizes.
Need for Endotracheal Intubation
Eleven studies reported the need for endotracheal intubation as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in the need for endotracheal intubation in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC alone group (relative risk [RR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28−0.50). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the mild, severe, and very severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Inhospital Mortality
Nine studies reported inhospital mortality as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in inhospital mortality in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC group (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35−0.81). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the moderate and severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Hospital Length of Stay
Eleven studies reported hospital length of stay (LOS) as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant decrease in the mean length of stay for the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC alone group (weighted mean difference [WMD], −2.68 days; 95% CI, −4.41 to −0.94 days). When subgrouped by severity of respiratory failure, the results remained significant for the mild, severe, and very severe respiratory failure groups.
GRADE: moderate
Complications
Five studies reported complications. Common complications in the NPPV plus UMC group included pneumonia, gastrointestinal disorders or bleeds, skin abrasions, eye irritation, gastric insufflation, and sepsis. Similar complications were observed in the UMC group including pneumonia, sepsis, gastrointestinal disorders or bleeds, pneumothorax, and complicated endotracheal intubations. Many of the more serious complications in both groups occurred in those patients who required endotracheal intubation. Three of the studies compared complications in the NPPV plus UMC and UMC groups. While the data could not be pooled, overall, the NPPV plus UMC group experienced fewer complications than the UMC group.
GRADE: low
Tolerance/Compliance
Eight studies reported patient tolerance or compliance with NPPV as an outcome. NPPV intolerance ranged from 5% to 29%. NPPV tolerance was generally higher for patients with more severe respiratory failure. Compliance with the NPPV protocol was reported by 2 studies, which showed compliance decreases over time, even over short periods such as 3 days.
NPPV Versus IMV for the Treatment of Patients Who Failed Usual Medical Care
A total of 205 participants were included in 2 studies; the sample sizes of these studies were 49 and 156. The mean age of the patients was 71 to 73 years of age in 1 study, and the median age was 54 to 58 years of age in the second study. Based on either the GOLD COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted FEV1, patients in 1 study had very severe COPD. The COPD severity could not be classified in the second study. Both studies had study populations with a mean pH less than 7.23, which was classified as very severe respiratory failure in this analysis. One study enrolled patients with ARF due to acute exacerbations of COPD who had failed medical therapy. The patient population was not clearly defined in the second study, and it was not clear whether they had to have failed medical therapy before entry into the study.
Both studies were conducted in the ICU. Patients in the NPPV group received BiPAP ventilatory support through nasal or full facial masks. Patients in the IMV group received pressure support ventilation.
Common methodological issues included small sample size, lack of blinding, and unclear methods of randomization and allocation concealment. Due to the uncertainty about whether both studies included the same patient population and substantial differences in the direction and significance of the results, the results of the studies were not pooled.
Mortality
Both studies reported ICU mortality. Neither study showed a significant difference in ICU mortality between the NPPV and IMV groups, but 1 study showed a higher mortality rate in the NPPV group (21.7% vs. 11.5%) while the other study showed a lower mortality rate in the NPPV group (5.1% vs. 6.4%). One study reported 1-year mortality and showed a nonsignificant reduction in mortality in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (26.1% vs. 46.1%).
GRADE: low to very low
Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay
Both studies reported LOS in the ICU. The results were inconsistent. One study showed a statistically significant shorter LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (5 ± 1.35 days vs. 9.29 ± 3 days; P < 0.001); whereas, the other study showed a nonsignificantly longer LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (22 ± 19 days vs. 21 ± 20 days; P = 0.86).
GRADE: very low
Duration of Mechanical Ventilation
Both studies reported the duration of mechanical ventilation (including both invasive and noninvasive ventilation). The results were inconsistent. One study showed a statistically significant shorter duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (3.92 ± 1.08 days vs. 7.17 ± 2.22 days; P < 0.001); whereas, the other study showed a nonsignificantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (16 ± 19 days vs. 15 ± 21 days; P = 0.86). GRADE: very low
Complications
Both studies reported ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheotomies. Both showed a reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were only significant in 1 study (13% vs. 34.6%, P = 0.07; and 6.4% vs. 37.2%, P < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, both studies showed a reduction in tracheotomies in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were only significant in 1 study (13% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.29; and 6.4% vs. 34.6%; P < 0.001).
GRADE: very low
Other Outcomes
One of the studies followed patients for 12 months. At the end of follow-up, patients in the NPPV group had a significantly lower rate of needing de novo oxygen supplementation at home. In addition, the IMV group experienced significant increases in functional limitations due to COPD, while no increase was seen in the NPPV group. Finally, no significant differences were observed for hospital readmissions, ICU readmissions, and patients with an open tracheotomy, between the NPPV and IMV groups.
NPPV for Weaning COPD Patients From IMV
A total of 80 participants were included in the 2 RCTs; the sample sizes of the studies were 30 and 50 patients. The mean age of the participants ranged from 58 to 69 years of age. Based on either the GOLD COPD stage criteria or the mean percent predicted FEV1, both studies included patients with very severe COPD. Both studies also included patients with very severe respiratory failure (mean pH of the study populations was less than 7.23). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients receiving IMV were enrolled in the study if they failed a T-piece weaning trial (spontaneous breathing test), so they could not be directly extubated from IMV.
Both studies were conducted in the ICU. Patients in the NPPV group received weaning using either BiPAP or pressure support ventilation NPPV through a face mask, and patients in the IMV weaning group received pressure support ventilation. In both cases, weaning was achieved by tapering the ventilation level.
The individual quality of the studies ranged. Common methodological problems included unclear randomization methods and allocation concealment, lack of blinding, and small sample size.
Mortality
Both studies reported mortality as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in ICU mortality in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23−0.97; P = 0.04).
GRADE: moderate
Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay
Both studies reported ICU LOS as an outcome. The pooled results showed a nonsignificant reduction in ICU LOS in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (WMD, −5.21 days; 95% CI, −11.60 to 1.18 days).
GRADE: low
Duration of Mechanical Ventilation
Both studies reported duration of mechanical ventilation (including both invasive and noninvasive ventilation) as an outcome. The pooled results showed a nonsignificant reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD, −3.55 days; 95% CI, −8.55 to 1.44 days).
GRADE: low
Nosocomial Pneumonia
Both studies reported nosocominal pneumonia as an outcome. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in nosocomial pneumonia in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03−0.71; P = 0.02).
GRADE: moderate
Weaning Failure
One study reported a significant reduction in weaning failure in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group, but the results were not reported in the publication. In this study, 1 of 25 patients in the NPPV group and 2 of 25 patients in the IMV group could not be weaned after 60 days in the ICU.
NPPV After Extubation of COPD Patients From IMV
The literature was reviewed to identify studies examining the effectiveness of NPPV compared with UMC in preventing recurrence of ARF after extubation from IMV or treating acute ARF which has recurred after extubation from IMV. No studies that included only COPD patients or reported results for COPD patients separately were identified for the prevention of ARF postextubation.
One study was identified for the treatment of ARF in COPD patients that recurred within 48 hours of extubation from IMV. This study included 221 patients, of whom 23 had COPD. A post hoc subgroup analysis was conducted examining the rate of reintubation in the COPD patients only. A nonsignificant reduction in the rate of reintubation was observed in the NPPV group compared with the UMC group (7 of 14 patients vs. 6 of 9 patients, P = 0.67). GRADE: low
Conclusions
NPPV Plus UMC Versus UMC Alone for First Line Treatment of ARF due to Acute Exacerbations of COPD
Moderate quality of evidence showed that compared with UMC, NPPV plus UMC significantly reduced the need for endotracheal intubation, inhospital mortality, and the mean length of hospital stay.
Low quality of evidence showed a lower rate of complications in the NPPV plus UMC group compared with the UMC group.
NPPV Versus IMV for the Treatment of ARF in Patients Who Have Failed UMC
Due to inconsistent and low to very low quality of evidence, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the comparison of NPPV versus IMV for patients who failed UMC.
NPPV for Weaning COPD Patients From IMV
Moderate quality of evidence showed that weaning COPD patients from IMV using NPPV results in significant reductions in mortality, nosocomial pneumonia, and weaning failure compared with weaning with IMV.
Low quality of evidence showed a nonsignificant reduction in the mean LOS and mean duration of mechanical ventilation in the NPPV group compared with the IMV group.
NPPV for the Treatment of ARF in COPD Patients After Extubation From IMV
Low quality of evidence showed a nonsignificant reduction in the rate of reintubation in the NPPV group compared with the UMC group; however, there was inadequate evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of NPPV for the treatment of ARF in COPD patients after extubation from IMV
PMCID: PMC3384377  PMID: 23074436
4.  Wood Smoke Exposure and Gene Promoter Methylation Are Associated with Increased Risk for COPD in Smokers 
Rationale: Wood smoke–associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common in women in developing countries but has not been adequately described in developed countries.
Objectives: Our objective was to determine whether wood smoke exposure was a risk factor for COPD in a population of smokers in the United States and whether aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum may modify this association.
Methods: For this cross-sectional study, 1,827 subjects were drawn from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort, a predominantly female cohort of smokers. Wood smoke exposure was self-reported. Postbronchodilator spirometry was obtained, and COPD outcomes studied included percent predicted FEV1, airflow obstruction, and chronic bronchitis. Effect modification of wood smoke exposure with current cigarette smoke, ethnicity, sex, and promoter methylation of lung cancer-related genes in sputum on COPD outcomes were separately explored. Multivariable logistic and poisson regression models were used for binary and rate-based outcomes, respectively.
Measurements and Main Results: Self-reported wood smoke exposure was independently associated with a lower percent predicted FEV1 (point estimate [± SE] −0.03 ± 0.01) and a higher prevalence of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–2.52 and 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.31–2.06, respectively). These associations were stronger among current cigarette smokers, non-Hispanic whites, and men. Wood smoke exposure interacted in a multiplicative manner with aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 or GATA4 genes on lower percent predicted FEV1.
Conclusions: These studies identify a novel link between wood smoke exposure and gene promoter methylation that synergistically increases the risk for reduced lung function in cigarette smokers.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201002-0222OC
PMCID: PMC3001253  PMID: 20595226
wood smoke; cigarette smokers; airflow obstruction; gene promoter methylation in sputum DNA
5.  Clinical and computed tomographic predictors of chronic bronchitis in COPD: a cross sectional analysis of the COPDGene study 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):52.
Background
Chronic bronchitis (CB) has been related to poor outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). From a clinical standpoint, we have shown that subjects with CB in a group with moderate to severe airflow obstruction were younger, more likely to be current smokers, male, Caucasian, had worse health related quality of life, more dyspnea, and increased exacerbation history compared to those without CB. We sought to further refine our clinical characterization of chronic bronchitics in a larger cohort and analyze the CT correlates of CB in COPD subjects. We hypothesized that COPD patients with CB would have thicker airways and a greater history of smoking, acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and occupational exposures compared to those without CB.
Methods
We divided 2703 GOLD 1–4 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene®) Study into two groups based on symptoms: chronic bronchitis (CB+, n = 663, 24.5%) and no chronic bronchitis (CB-, n = 2040, 75.5%). Subjects underwent extensive clinical characterization, and quantitative CT analysis to calculate mean wall area percent (WA%) of 6 segmental airways was performed using VIDA PW2 (http://www.vidadiagnostics.com). Square roots of the wall areas of bronchi with internal perimeters 10 mm and 15 mm (Pi10 and Pi15, respectively), % emphysema, %gas trapping, were calculated using 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org).
Results
There were no differences in % emphysema (11.4 ± 12.0 vs. 12.0 ± 12.6%, p = 0.347) or % gas trapping (35.3 ± 21.2 vs. 36.3 ± 20.6%, p = 0.272) between groups. Mean segmental WA% (63.0 ± 3.2 vs. 62.0 ± 3.1%, p < 0.0001), Pi10 (3.72 ± 0.15 vs. 3.69 ± 0.14 mm, p < 0.0001), and Pi15 (5.24 ± 0.22 vs. 5.17 ± 0.20, p < 0.0001) were greater in the CB + group. Greater percentages of gastroesophageal reflux, allergic rhinitis, histories of asthma and acute bronchitis, exposures to dusts and occupational exposures, and current smokers were seen in the CB + group. In multivariate binomial logistic regression, male gender, Caucasian race, a lower FEV1%, allergic rhinitis, history of acute bronchitis, current smoking, and increased airway wall thickness increased odds for having CB.
Conclusions
Histories of asthma, allergic rhinitis, acute bronchitis, current smoking, a lower FEV1%, Caucasian race, male gender, and increased airway wall thickness are associated with CB. These data provide clinical and radiologic correlations to the clinical phenotype of CB.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-15-52
PMCID: PMC4067738  PMID: 24766722
Chronic bronchitis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Airway thickening; Asthma
6.  Association of IREB2 and CHRNA3 polymorphisms with airflow obstruction in severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency 
Respiratory Research  2012;13(1):16.
Background
The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).
We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.
Methods
The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.
Results
Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.
Conclusions
IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-13-16
PMCID: PMC3306733  PMID: 22356581
CHRNA3; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Genetic association analysis; Genetic modifiers; IREB2
7.  Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary care (MDC) compared with usual care (UC, single health care provider) for the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive disorder with episodes of acute exacerbations associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking is linked causally to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide and has an enormous impact on individuals, families, and societies through reduced quality of life and increased health resource utilization and mortality.
The estimated prevalence of COPD in Ontario in 2007 was 708,743 persons.
Technology
Multidisciplinary care involves professionals from a range of disciplines, working together to deliver comprehensive care that addresses as many of the patient’s health care and psychosocial needs as possible.
Two variables are inherent in the concept of a multidisciplinary team: i) the multidisciplinary components such as an enriched knowledge base and a range of clinical skills and experiences, and ii) the team components, which include but are not limited to, communication and support measures. However, the most effective number of team members and which disciplines should comprise the team for optimal effect is not yet known.
Research Question
What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MDC compared with UC (single health care provider) for the treatment of stable COPD?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on July 19, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 1995 until July 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Inclusion Criteria
health technology assessments, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials
studies published between January 1995 and July 2010;
COPD study population
studies comparing MDC (2 or more health care disciplines participating in care) compared with UC (single health care provider)
Exclusion Criteria
grey literature
duplicate publications
non-English language publications
study population less than 18 years of age
Outcomes of Interest
hospital admissions
emergency department (ED) visits
mortality
health-related quality of life
lung function
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed, taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Six randomized controlled trials were obtained from the literature search. Four of the 6 studies were completed in the United States. The sample size of the 6 studies ranged from 40 to 743 participants, with a mean study sample between 66 and 71 years of age. Only 2 studies characterized the study sample in terms of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD stage criteria, and in general the description of the study population in the other 4 studies was limited. The mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% predicted FEV1) among study populations was between 32% and 59%. Using this criterion, 3 studies included persons with severe COPD and 2 with moderate COPD. Information was not available to classify the population in the sixth study.
Four studies had MDC treatment groups which included a physician. All studies except 1 reported a respiratory specialist (i.e., respiratory therapist, specialist nurse, or physician) as part of the multidisciplinary team. The UC group was comprised of a single health care practitioner who may or may not have been a respiratory specialist.
A meta-analysis was completed for 5 of the 7 outcome measures of interest including:
health-related quality of life,
lung function,
all-cause hospitalization,
COPD-specific hospitalization, and
mortality.
There was only 1 study contributing to the outcome of all-cause and COPD-specific ED visits which precluded pooling data for these outcomes. Subgroup analyses were not completed either because heterogeneity was not significant or there were a small number of studies that were meta-analysed for the outcome.
Quality of Life
Three studies reported results of quality of life assessment based on the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). A mean decrease in the SGRQ indicates an improvement in quality of life while a mean increase indicates deterioration in quality of life. In all studies the mean change score from baseline to the end time point in the MDC treatment group showed either an improvement compared with the control group or less deterioration compared with the control group. The mean difference in change scores between MDC and UC groups was statistically significant in all 3 studies. The pooled weighted mean difference in total SGRQ score was −4.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], −6.47 to 1.63; P = 0.001). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as low for this outcome.
Lung Function
Two studies reported results of the FEV1 % predicted as a measure of lung function. A negative change from baseline infers deterioration in lung function and a positive change from baseline infers an improvement in lung function. The MDC group showed a statistically significant improvement in lung function up to 12 months compared with the UC group (P = 0.01). However this effect is not maintained at 2-year follow-up (P = 0.24). The pooled weighted mean difference in FEV1 percent predicted was 2.78 (95% CI, −1.82 to −7.37). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as very low for this outcome indicating that an estimate of effect is uncertain.
Hospital Admissions
All-Cause
Four studies reported results of all-cause hospital admissions in terms of number of persons with at least 1 admission during the follow-up period. Estimates from these 4 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically significant 25% relative risk (RR) reduction in all-cause hospitalizations in the MDC group compared with the UC group (P < 0.001). The index of heterogeneity (I2) value is 0%, indicating no statistical heterogeneity between studies. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome, indicating that further research may change the estimate of effect.
COPD-Specific Hospitalization
Three studies reported results of COPD-specific hospital admissions in terms of number of persons with at least 1 admission during the follow-up period. Estimates from these 3 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically significant 33% RR reduction in all-cause hospitalizations in the MDC group compared with the UC group (P = 0.002). The I2 value is 0%, indicating no statistical heterogeneity between studies. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome, indicating that further research may change the estimate of effect.
Emergency Department Visits
All-Cause
Two studies reported results of all-cause ED visits in terms of number of persons with at least 1 visit during the follow-up period. There is a statistically nonsignificant reduction in all-cause ED visits when data from these 2 studies are pooled (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.31 to −1.33; P = 0.24). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as very low for this outcome indicating that an estimate of effect is uncertain.
COPD-Specific
One study reported results of COPD-specific ED visits in terms of number of persons with at least 1 visit during the follow-up period. There is a statistically significant 41% reduction in COPD-specific ED visits when the data from these 2 studies are pooled (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43−0.81; P < 0.001). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome.
Mortality
Three studies reported the mortality during the study follow-up period. Estimates from these 3 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically nonsignificant reduction in mortality between treatment groups (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.52−1.27; P = 0.36). The I2 value is 19%, indicating low statistical heterogeneity between studies. All studies had a 12-month follow-up period. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as low for this outcome.
Conclusions
Significant effect estimates with moderate quality of evidence were found for all-cause hospitalization, COPD-specific hospitalization, and COPD-specific ED visits (Table ES1). A significant estimate with low quality evidence was found for the outcome of quality of life (Table ES2). All other outcome measures were nonsignificant and supported by low or very low quality of evidence.
Summary of Dichotomous Data
Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; n, number.
Summary of Continuous Data
Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; n, number; SGRQ, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire.
PMCID: PMC3384374  PMID: 23074433
8.  Causal and Synthetic Associations of Variants in the SERPINA Gene Cluster with Alpha1-antitrypsin Serum Levels 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(8):e1003585.
Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation, these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood.
We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort.
Five common SNPs, defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >5%, reached genome-wide significance, all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of β = −0.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10−12). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis, as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410), suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF<1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1–5%) variants only, in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S, PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P<0.0001), as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z, P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397), associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall, our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in the SERPINA gene cluster in the general population.
Author Summary
Low levels of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood are a well-established risk factor for accelerated loss in lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While a few infrequent genetic polymorphisms are known to influence the serum levels of this enzyme, the role of common genetic variants has not been examined so far. The present genome-wide scan for associated variants in approximately 1400 Swiss inhabitants revealed a chromosomal locus containing the functionally established variants of AAT deficiency and variants previously associated with lung function and emphysema. We used dense genotyping of this genetic region in more than 5500 individuals and subsequent conditional analyses to unravel which of these associated variants contribute independently to the phenotype's variability. All associations of common variants could be attributed to the rarer functionally established variants, a result which was then replicated in an independent population-based Danish cohort. Hence, this locus represents a textbook example of how a large part of a trait's heritability can be hidden in infrequent genetic polymorphisms. The attempt to transfer these results to lung function furthermore suggests that effects of common variants in this genetic region in ever-smokers may also be explained by rarer variants, but only in individuals with hampered pulmonary health.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003585
PMCID: PMC3749935  PMID: 23990791
9.  Asthma and irreversible airflow obstruction. 
Thorax  1984;39(2):131-136.
To determine whether asthma alone can cause irreversible airflow obstruction 42 men and 47 women with chronic asthma (mean duration 22 (SD 13) years) without evidence of other disease likely to cause irreversible airflow obstruction were treated with theophylline orally and a beta agonist both orally and by inhalation for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment the FEV1 was less than 85% of the predicted normal value (%P) in 48 patients and these individuals then received prednisolone 0.6 mg/kg/day for two weeks. Duration and severity of asthma and smoking history were quantified by questionnaire; 38 patients were current smokers or ex-smokers. FEV1 was measured at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. The mean difference between the best FEV1 during the study and the predicted normal value was 0.29 l (p less than 0.001); FEV1 %P decreased with age (r = -0.30, p less than 0.01) and with the duration (r = -0.47, p less than 0.001) and severity (r = -0.55, p less than 0.001) of asthma. Similar findings were noted when the results for non-smokers and those whose asthma started in adult life were analysed separately. We conclude that asthma alone can cause irreversible airflow obstruction and that the degree of obstruction is a function of the duration and severity of previous asthma. The results suggest the possibility that irreversible airflow obstruction in asthma may be preventable by minimising the degree of persistent asthma.
PMCID: PMC459739  PMID: 6701824
10.  Hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and its clinical consequences 
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder that manifests as pulmonary emphysema, liver cirrhosis and, rarely, as the skin disease panniculitis, and is characterized by low serum levels of AAT, the main protease inhibitor (PI) in human serum. The prevalence in Western Europe and in the USA is estimated at approximately 1 in 2,500 and 1 : 5,000 newborns, and is highly dependent on the Scandinavian descent within the population. The most common deficiency alleles in North Europe are PI Z and PI S, and the majority of individuals with severe AATD are PI type ZZ. The clinical manifestations may widely vary between patients, ranging from asymptomatic in some to fatal liver or lung disease in others. Type ZZ and SZ AATD are risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea, coughing), early onset emphysema, and airflow obstruction early in adult life. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, and dust exposure are additional risk factors and have been linked to an accelerated progression of this condition. Type ZZ AATD may also lead to the development of acute or chronic liver disease in childhood or adulthood: prolonged jaundice after birth with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and abnormal liver enzymes are characteristic clinical signs. Cirrhotic liver failure may occur around age 50. In very rare cases, necrotizing panniculitis and secondary vasculitis may occur. AATD is caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding AAT, and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The diagnosis can be established by detection of low serum levels of AAT and isoelectric focusing. Differential diagnoses should exclude bleeding disorders or jaundice, viral infection, hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease and autoimmune hepatitis. For treatment of lung disease, intravenous alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy, annual flu vaccination and a pneumococcal vaccine every 5 years are recommended. Relief of breathlessness may be obtained with long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. The end-stage liver and lung disease can be treated by organ transplantation. In AATD patients with cirrhosis, prognosis is generally grave.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-3-16
PMCID: PMC2441617  PMID: 18565211
11.  XXIV World Allergy Congress 2015 
Lee, Heung-Man | Park, Il-Ho | Shin, Jae-Min | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Park, Gyeong Yul | Zeher, Margit | Matsui, Katsuhiko | Tamai, Saki | Ikeda, Reiko | Suri, Drsushil | Suri, Dranu | Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh | Lubis, Azwin | Endaryanto, Anang | Koga, Shinichiro | Suk, Lee Ju | Tsuzuki, Yasunobu | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Shin, Jung U. | Noh, Ji Yeon | Jin, Shan | Jin, Shan | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Tepetam, Fatma Merve | Park, Chun Wook | Son, Jee Hee | Cho, Soo Ick | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Hee Jin | Katada, Yoshinori | Tanaka, Toshio | Nakabayashi, Akihiko | Nishida, Koji | Aoyagi, Kenichi | Tsukamoto, Yuki | Konma, Kazushi | Matsuura, Motoo | Park, Jung-Won | Harada, Yoshinori | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yura, Akiko | Yoshimura, Maiko | Kyung, Tae-Suk | Kim, Young Hyo | Park, Chang-Shin | Jang, Tae Young | Heo, Min-Jeong | Jung, Ah-Yeoun | Yang, Seung-Chan | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Son, Jee Hee | Park, Chun Wook | Cho, Hee Jin | Pfaar, Oliver | Sager, Angelika | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Chatterjee, Bishnupda | Chauhan, Anil | Striz, Ilja | Cecrdlova, Eva | Petrickova, Katerina | Kolesar, Libor | Sekerkova, Alena | Svachova, Veronika | Petricek, Miroslav | Kwon, Hyuck Hoon | Kim, Kyu Han | Kumar, Suman | Manzon, Lou Ver Leigh Arciaga | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Oh, Youngjun | Suh, Dongwoo | Sim, Woo-Young | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Siavashi, Mohammadreza | Yun, Hey Suk | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Donnikov, Andrey | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Lee, Ji Hyun | Park, Young Min | Choi, Sang Soo | Han, Kyung Do | Jung, Han Mi | Youn, Young Hoon | Lee, Jun Young | Park, Yong Gyu | Lee, Seung-Hwan | Li, Jing | Feng, Mulin | Roponen, Marjut | Schaub, Bianca | Wong, Gary W. K. | Yang, Zhaowei | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Sun, Baoqing | Zheng, Peiyan | Park, Yoon-Sung | Son, Sang Wook | Kose, Sukran | Kiraz, Kemal | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lim, Young Hee | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Jin-Young | Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako | Narita, Masami | Futamura, Masaki | Ohya, Yukihiro | Kim, Jihyun | Choi, Jinwha | Kim, Kwanghoon | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Chang, Sun-Ho/Brian | Li, Lisha | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Kanatani, Kumiko Tsuji | Narabayashi, Shigeyuki | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Tsuruta, Satoru | Takamatsu, Nobue | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Do Hyun | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hwan Soo | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Hyun Hee | Won, Sul Mui | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Chow, Chung Mo | Leung, Ting Fan | Kim, Do Hyun | Kim, Soo Whan | Esguerra, Gemmalyn | Resurreccion, Emily | Kionisala, Kristine Elisa | Dela Cruz, Jenni Rose | Imran, Muhammad | Choe, Yun Seon | Kim, Kyu Han | Choi, Mira | Kim, Byung Soo | Lee, Hyun-Joo | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Yoon, Sun-Young | Kandhare, Amit | Yahiro, Noriko | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Kaur, Jasleen | Pawankar, Ruby | Pant, Pankaj | Singh, Sukhmanjeet | Kim, Hwan Soo | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Hwan Soo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Jin Tack | Kampitak, Thatchai | Kim, So Min | Lee, Hyun Joo | Kim, Hei Sung | Lee, Jeong Deuk | Cho, Sang Hyun | Godse, Kiran | Soekarno, Juwita | Ratnasari, Sarie | Datau, E. Alwi | Surachmanto, Eko | Matheos, JC | Leung, Ting Fan | Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam | Tung, Christine Kit-Ching | Tang, Man Fung | Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing | Wong, Gary WK | Hon, Kam Lun Ellis | Tam, Wing Hung | Sy, Hing Yee | Lee, Sohee | Shin, Hyun-Woo | Lee, Mingyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Khalmuratova, Roza | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Jeong, Jaewon | Park, Chansun | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Chu, Ka Hou | Lee, Hee Seon | Lee, Kyung Eun | Hong, Jung Yeon | Kim, Mi Na | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Ji Hye | Park, Hae-Sim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Seo, Daehong | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young Mok | Seo, Daehong | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Young-Mok | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga Young | Cho, Kumsun | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kwon, Yong Eun | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Park, Hae-Sim | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Ban, Ga Young | Jung, Chang Gyu | Lee, Seung-Ihm | Le Pham, Duy | Suh, Dong-Hyeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Wang, Wan Jun | Xian, MO | Xie, Yan Qing | Zheng, Jing Ping | Li, Jing | Savilahti, Emma Merike | Mäkitie, Outi | Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina | Andersson, Sture | Viljakainen, Heli | Savilahti, Erkki | Kuitunen, Mikael | Godse, Kiran | Le Pham, Duy | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Yang, Eun-Mi | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Ji-Ho | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Chin, Li-Ming | Shieh, Chi-Chang | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ban, Ga Young | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Sung, Myong Soon | Choi, Jin Uck | Kim, Sung Won | Hwang, Yong Jin | Park, Arum | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Lee, Dong Hun | Kim, Eun Ju | Kim, Yeon Kyung | Doh, Eun Jin | Eun, Hee Chul | Chung, Jin Ho | Lee, Young Mee | Jin, Seon Pil | Li, Xingnan | Kaminski, Naftali | Wenzel, Sally | Bleecker, Eugene | Meyers, Deborah | Huasong, Zeng | Mo, Ji-Hun | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Bae, Jun-Sang | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Dae Woo | Lee, Eun | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Hong, Soo-Jong | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ji Hye | Yang, Eun-Mi | Sibunruang, Suda | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Timopheeva, Anna | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Sokolnikov, Andrey | Nisihino, Makoto | Okada, Yu | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Sato, Sakura | Ogura, Kiyotake | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Unno, Hirotoshi | Rodrigues, Pedro M. | Schrama, Denise | Mohamed, Gadija | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Ndimba, Bongani | Shim, Jae-Uoong | Koh, Young Il | Rhee, Joon Haeng | Jeong, Ji-Ung | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Chu, Hieu Chi | Tran, Mui Thi | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Than, Sy | Feng, Mulin | Li, Jing | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Hong, Seung-No | Eun, Kyoung Mi | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dae Woo | Bao, Jun | Bao, Yi-Xiao | Podder, Sanjoy | Kumar, Goutam | Dutta, Shampa | Ghosh, Amlan | Saha, Goutam Kumar | Podder, Sanjoy | Gupta, Salil Kumar | Trinh, Tu/Hoang Kim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Liu, Jing-Nan | Le Pham, Duy | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Özbudak, Ömer | Üzer, Fatih | Al-Ahmad, Mona | Alowayesh, Maryam | Carroll, Norman | Singh, Anand Bahadur | Pérez-Llano, Yordanis | Lorenzo, María Del Carmen Luzardo | González, Wendy Ramírez | Cruz, Carlos Calcines | Quintana, Rady Laborde | Morejón, Alain | Bourg, Virgilio | Stoker, Marilé Hechavarría | Bae, Jun-Sang | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Hanaoka, Keiko | Hide, Michihiro | Tanaka, Akio | Hiragun, Makiko | Kawai, Mikio | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Hye-Young | Kim, Jihyun | Ahn, Kangmo | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Gun-Wook | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Song, Margaret | Matsubara, Takeshi | Iwamoto, Hiroshi | Nakazato, Yuki | Namba, Kazuyoshi | Takeda, Yasuhiro | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | De Schryver, Els | Calus, Lien | Gevaert, Philippe | Van Zele, Thibaut | Bachert, Claus | Mori, Akio | Kouyama, Satoshi | Yamaguchi, Miyako | Iijima, Yo | Abe-Ohtomo, Akemi | Hayashi, Hiroaki | Watai, Kentaroh | Mitsui, Chihiro | Oshikata, Chiyako | Sekiya, Kiyoshi | Tsuburai, Takahiro | Ohtomo, Mamoru | Fukutomi, Yuma | Taniguchi, Masami | Kang, Ju Wan | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kim, Jeong Hong | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Hye-Sook | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Jaechun | Seo, Ji Won | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Kuznecova, Galina | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Zuberbier, Torsten | Salame, Joseph | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Kim, Yoo Suk | Chang, Jung Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Ko, Young-Joo | Kim, Young Hyo | Kim, Dae-Young | Jang, Tae Young | Yokooji, Tomoharu | Hirano, Taiki | Matsuo, Hiroaki | Kuznecova, Galina | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Wani, Roohi Rasool | Syed, Shafia Alam | Hassan, Ghulam | Gul, Ayaz | Nissar, Saniya | Shah, Zaffar Amin | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Fernandez, Carmen | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Acosta, Veronica | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Almendarez, Claudia | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Sisul, Juan C. | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Castillo, Antonio | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Avila, Jennifer | Badellino, Hector | Manotas, Maria Carolina | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | León, Mayda González | Kim, Woo Kyung | Yoon, Hae-Sun | Kobayashi, Takehito | Noguchi, Tooru | Soma, Tomoyuki | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nakamoto, Hidetomo | Kita, Hirohito | Nagata, Makoto | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | Sisul, Juan C. | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Badellino, Hector | Avalos, Miguel Alejandro Medina | Castillo, Antonio | Almendarez, Claudia | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Silot, Caridad Sanchez | Avila, Jennifer | Rodriguez, Felicia Berroa | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Fernandez, Carmen | Soh, Wai Tuck | Jacquet, Alain | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Nony, Emmanuel | Le Mignon, Maxime | Lee-Wong, Mary | McClelland, Suzanne | McClelland, Suzanne | Silverberg, Nanette B. | Song, Christian E. | Yang, Zhaowei | Zhang, Jiukai | Zheng, Wentao | Zhong, Nanshan | Li, Jing | Bae, Jung Ho | Cho, Young Joo | Kim, Joo Yeon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Grigoreas, Christos | Petalas, Konstantinos | Zhang, Yuan | Shin, Seung-Heon | Ye, Mi-Kyung | Kim, Jeong-Kyu | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Kim, Dohyeong | Yoo, Young | Lim, Hyunwook | Zhu, Wenjing | Liu, Chuanhe | Sha, Li | Chang, Li | Zhao, Min | Zhao, Linqing | Qian, Yuan | Chen, Yuzhi | Kim, Min-Hye | Cho, Young Joo | Rho, Mina | Kim, Jung-Won | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Wang, Xueyan | Kim, Woo Kyung | Nam, Yu Ran | Nam, Joo Hyun | Kim, Jung-Won | Kim, Min-Hye | Rho, Mina | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Cho, Young Joo | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Narita, Hiroshi | Hirose, Junko | Kizu, Kumiko | Matsunaga, Ayu | Li, Jingyun | Zhang, Yuan | Zhang, Luo | Choi, Yean Jung | Shin, Hye Lim | Yang, Song-I | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Sung-Ok | Jung, Young-Ho | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Oh, Se-Young | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Lee, Eun | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Yun-Jeong | Kim, Joonil | Choi, Joon Young | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Seok Chan | Kim, Sei Won | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Hea Yon | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Koh, Tae Kyung | Kim, Sung Wan | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Byun, Young Seok | Song, Charles | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Kim, Sei Won | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Seok Chan | Lee, Sook Young | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kwon, Soon Seog | Choi, Joon Young | Park, Pona | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Hogenkamp, Astrid | Knippels, Leon | Van Esch, Betty C.a.m. | Van Bilsen, Jolanda | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Gros, Marjan | Garssen, Johan | Smit, Joost J. | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Soo Whan | Lleonart, Ramon | Lay, Christophe | Benamor, Kaouther | Chen, Chua Mei | Knol, Jan | Chew, Charmaine | Chongsrisawat, Voranush | Goh, Anne | Chiang, Wen Chin | Rao, Rajeshwar | Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith | Khemapech, Nipon | Yhi, Ji Young | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Dong Won | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Tae Hyung | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Sang-Heon | Moon, Ji-Yong | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Sujeong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Kim, Joo-Hee | Kim, Min-Hye | Park, Chan-Sun | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, You Sook | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Oh, Yeon-Mok | Lee, Sang-Rok | Julge, Kaja | Vasar, Maire | Vasar, Maire | Voor, Tiia | Rebane, Tiina | Kim, Yu Jin | Lee, Sang Min | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Sojeong | Kyung, Sun Young | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Park, Jeong-Woong | Hwang, Hyunjung | Seon, Yong Han | Park, Sanghui | Lee, Sang Pyo | Iordache, Marius | Jeong, Yeongsang | Eun, Sohee | Choi, Byung Min | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Wonhee | Zhang, Liang | Pawankar, Ruby | Nonaka, Manabu | Hayashi, Miyuki | Yamanishi, Shingo | Suzaki, Harumi | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Watanabe, So | Kobayashi, Hitome | Zotter, Zsuzsanna | Farkas, Henriette | Varga, Lilian | Veszeli, Nora | Imreh, Eva | Kovacs, Gabor | Nallbani, Marsel | Zheleznov, Semen | Urzhumtseva, Galina | Petrova, Natalia | Sarsaniia, Zhanna | Didkovskii, Nikolai | Zuberbier, Torsten | Gerdabi, Nader Dashti | Khodadadi, Ali | Abdoli, Zahra | Ghafourian, Mehri | Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali | Ghorban, Khodayar | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Zhou, Hui | Kim, Jeong Hee | Habre, Rima | Bastain, Theresa | Gilliland, Frank | Bae, Jong-Wook | Han, Kyu-Hyung | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Misoo | Hong, Seung-Phil | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Choi, Gil-Soon | Heo, Jeonghoon | Kim, Young-Ho | Park, Eun-Kee | Inoue, Takashi | Ogura, Kiyotake | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Unno, Hirotoshi | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Sato, Sakura | Okada, Yu | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kim, Min-Gu | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Lee, Jaemoon | Lee, Taehoon | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Kim, Jieun | Kim, Inok | Kim, Haejin | Chang, Younhee | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Nishimura, Koji | Okamoto, Michiko | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Ye, Young Min | Hur, Gyu Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Sang-Heon | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Choi, Hyunna | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Van Khanh, Bui | Chu, Hieu Chi | Nguyet, Nguyen Nhu | Phuong, Nguyen Hoang | Roh, Joo Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Kim, Jung Eun | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Lee, Kyung Ho | Hong, Seung-Phil | Jang, Yong Hyun | Park, Kui Young | Seo, Seong Jun | Bae, Jung Min | Choi, Eung Ho | Suhr, Ki Beom | Lee, Seung Chul | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Park, Young Lip | Son, Sang Wook | Seo, Young Jun | Lee, Yang Won | Cho, Sang Hyun | Park, Chun Wook | Lee, Kun Hee | Kim, Sung Wan | Chu, Chia-Yu | Aw, Derrick | Ye, Young-Min | Bader, Giovanni | Dolfi, Fabrizio | Oliveira, Nathalie | Choi, Jae Chol | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Kijeong | Choi, Byoung Whui | Shin, Jong Wook | Jung, Jae Woo | Choi, Jae Chol | Park, In Won | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Jae Yeol | Lee, Jin-Young | Ha, Kyoung Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Lee, Eui Jun | Suh, Dongin | Suh, Dongin | Woo, Sung-Il | Woo, Sung-Il | Cho, Hwa Jin | Cho, Hwa Jin | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Soo Youn | Shah, Ashok | Gera, Kamal | Ha, Kyoung Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Jin-Young | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Lim, Young Hee | Oh, Mi-Jung | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Ito, Takahiro | Lee, Jin-Young | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Kim, Young Eun | Kim, Young Nam | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Jihye | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Sei Won | Lee, Hea Yon | Choi, Joon Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Aranzabal, Maria Ascension | Joral, Alejandro | Lizarza, Susana | Echenagusia, Miguel | Lasa, Eva Maria | Navarro, Jose Antonio | Jo, Eun-Jung | Jang, Sun-Mi | Song, Seung-Eon | Na, Hae-Jung | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Lee, Woo-Seop | Park, Hye-Kyung | Miyauchi, Sachiko | Uchida, Yoshitaka | Soma, Tomoyuki | Yamazaki, Susumu | Noguchi, Toru | Kobayashi, Takehito | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nagata, Makoto | Oh, Hea Lin | Kim, Do Kyun | Suh, Dongin | Koh, Young Yull | Lee, Jin-Young | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Sohn, Jang Won | Yoon, Ho Joo | Shin, Dong Ho | Lee, Jae Hyung | Lee, Byoung Hoon | Kim, Youn-Seup | Park, Jae-Seuk | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Sang-Heon | Lee, Jin-Young | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Young Eun | Yune, Sehyo | Yoon, Jisun | Zhang, Li | Cai, Xuxu | Feng, Yong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Jeong, Kyunguk | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Hae-Jin | Lee, Noo Ri | Kim, Bo-Kyung | Jung, Minyoung | Kim, Dong Hye | Moniaga, Catharina S. | Kabashima, Kenji | Choi, Eung Ho | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Sato, Sakura | Sugizaki, Chizuko | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kiehm, Jamie | Ponda, Punita | Farzan, Sherry | Weiss, Jared | Elera, Claudia | Destio, Catherine | Sison, Cristina | Lee, Annette | Ri, Soo Hyun | Lim, Chang Hoon | Pulido, Iñaki Izquierdo | Taubel, Jorg | Ferber, Georg | Masdeu, Eva Santamaria | Khayatzadeh, Alireza | Movahedi, Masoud | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Gharagozlou, Mohammad | Atasoy, Ulus | Techasintana, Patsharaporn | Gubin, Matt | Glascock, Jacqueline | Ridenhour, Suzanne | Magee, Joseph | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo | Dela Bianca, Ana Caroline | Aranda, Carolina | Sole, Dirceu | Mallol, Javier | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Toh, Jennifer | Lee, Yoomie | Huang, Joyce | Jerschow, Elina | Shliozberg, Jenny | Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn | Suratannon, Narissara | Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee | Chatchatee, Pantipa | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Jacquet, Alain | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, Jin Yong | Kim, Ja Yeun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Ju-Young | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Si-Heon | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Su-Chin | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Hwang, Yoon Ha | Sim, Da Woon | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Jung-Won | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Allen, Katrina | Beck, Cara | Koplin, Jennifer | Matheson, Melanie | Tang, Mimi | Ponsonby, Anne-Louise | Gurrin, Lyle | Dharmage, Shyamali | Wake, Melissa | Mcwilliam, Vicki | Liu, Xiaoying | Wang, Jing | Xiang, Li | Wang, Qun | Lee, Ji-Eun | Kim, Dong-Young | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Vazquez-Nava, Francisco | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lin, Jiangtao | Semernik, Olga | Kim, Ha-Su | Jung, Jin-a | Jung, Ji-in | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Lin, Jiangtao | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lee, Hyun Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Su Chin | Farrokhi, Shokrollah | Gheiby, Mohammadkazem | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Jee, Young-Koo | Park, Sunjoo | Moon, Keun Ai | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Lee, Kyoung Young | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Ha, Eun Hee | Han, Heejae | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Yoon Hee | Kim, Yoon-Jo | Lee, Kangtaek | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Slavyanskaya, Tatiana | Derkach, Vladislava | Park, Hye Jung | Hong, Chein-Soo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Kim, Sungryeol | Park, Kyung Hee | Lee, Choong-Kun | Kang, Beodeul | Beom, Seung-Hoon | Shin, Sang Joon | Jung, Minku | Park, Jung-Won | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Mi-Ae | Park, Hae-Sim | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young-Soo | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Li, Ying-Ji | Shimizu, Takako | Inagaki, Hirofumi | Hirata, Yukiyo | Takizawa, Hajime | Azuma, Arata | Yamamoto, Masayuki | Kawada, Tomoyuki | Kim, Min-Gu | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Lee, Kyoung Young | Ha, Eun Hee | Moon, Keun Ai | Park, Sunjoo | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Ji-Hye | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Chung, Young-Jun | Mo, Ji-Hun | Soumya, M. S. | Inbaraj, G. | Chellaa, R. | Pawankar, Ruby | Choi, Wonsun | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Braber, Saskia | Verheijden, Kim | Kraneveld, Aletta | Garssen, Johan | Folkerts, Gert | Willemsen, Linette | Eichhorn, Stephanie | Ferreira, Fatima | Pablos, Isabel | Kastner, Bianca | Schweidler, Bettina | Wildner, Sabrina | Briza, Peter | Park, Jung-Won | Arora, Naveen | Vieths, Stefan | Gadermaier, Gabriele | Park, Sung-Min | Lee, Won-Ku | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Eun | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Goh, Si Hui | Lee, Bee Wah | Soh, Jian Yi | Kang, Hyungoo | Kim, Hyunhee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga-Young | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Takizawa, Takumi | Tabata, Masahiko | Aizawa, Akira | Yagi, Hisako | Nishida, Yutaka | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Morikawa, Akihiro | Orosoo, Solongo | Braber, Saskia | Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne | Akbari, Peyman | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | De Graaff, Priscilla | Smit, Joost J. | Van Esch, Betty C. A. M. | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Fink-Gremmels, Johanna | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Gun-Woo | Jo, Eun-Jung | Kim, Sujeong | Song, Woo-Jung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Faruqi, Shoaib | Kim, Ju-Young | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Min-Hye | Plevkova, Jana | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, Sang-Heon | Morice, Alyn | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sun-Sin | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Gemicioglu, Bilun | Misirligil, Zeynep | Cimrin, Arif Hikmet | Gunen, Hakan | Ozlu, Tevfik | Cilli, Aykut | Akyildiz, Levent | Bayram, Hasan | Uzaslan, Esra | Abadoglu, Oznur | Suerdem, Mecit | Kainuma, Keigo | Kim, Hyun-a | Kim, Ha-Su | Bae, Woo Yong | Jung, Jin-a | Kamenwa, Rose | Macharia, William | Said, Nusrat | Nerurkar, Vidya | Patel, Meenal | Bhatia, Simi | Choi, Inseon S. | Kim, Soo-Jeong | Won, Joo-Min | Park, Myeong-Soo | Nagao, Mizuho | Park, Dong Won | Sohn, Jang Won | Yhi, Ji Young | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Hyo, Yukiyoshi | Lee, Jaechun | Kim, Su Hee | Lee, Eunkyoung | Jung, Hahn Jin | Lim, Jaehyun | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Lee, Kun Song | Lee, Jaechun | Yang, Sun Young | Ahn, Mi Young | Lee, Jong Hoo | Golez, Jasmina | Tian, Hui-Qin | Cheng, Lei | Chen, Xin-Yuan | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Yhi, Ji Young | Yoon, Ho Joo | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Park, Dong Won | Cho, Won Im | Choi, Jong Sub | Suh, Dongin | Kang, Gyeong Hoon | Moon, Jin Soo | Ko, Jae Sung | Lee, Kyung Jae | Choi, Shin Jie | Luo, Wenting | Sun, Baoqing | Gao, Qi | Xiang, Li | Shen, Kunling | Jang, Yong Hyun | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Berger, Uwe | Zuberbier, Torsten | Kolodziejczyk, Joanna | Wojciechowska, Milena | Hnatyszyn-Dzikowska, Anna | Chojnacki, Micha | Bartuzi, Zbigniew | Masaki, Katsunori | Fukunaga, Koichi | Kamatani, Takashi | Ohtsuka, Kengo | Tanosaki, Takae | Matsusaka, Masako | Mochimaru, Takao | Kabata, Hiroki | Ueda, Soichiro | Suzuki, Yusuke | Kamei, Katsuhiko | Asano, Koichiro | Betsuyaku, Tomoko | Trafford, Karlee | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Horimukai, Kenta | Morita, Hideaki | Narita, Masami | Niizeki, Hironori | Matsumoto, Kenji | Ohya, Yukihiro | Saito, Hirohisa | Kabashima, Shigenori | Kondo, Mai | Inoue, Eisuke | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Ting, Ming-Hui | Laio, Hung-En | Kuo, Tsung-Huai | Lee, Pei-Yuan | Maddox, Daniel Eugene | Ryu, Gwanghui | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung-Kyu | Higuchi, Osamu | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Itazawa, Toshiko | Adachi, Yoko | Hamamichi, Miki | Nakabayashi, Motokazu | Ito, Yasunori | Wada, Takuya | Murakami, Gyoukei | Takao, Miki | Yamamoto, Junko | Jin, Hyun Jung | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Park, Hae-Sim | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Lee, So-Yeon | Kim, Hyun Hee | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yu, Jinho | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Sooyoung | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Jeong Hee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Kim, Kyung Won | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Ahn, Kangmo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Lee, Hae Ran | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Hong, Soo-Jong | Cho, Su-Mi | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Kim, Myoung-Eun | Lee, Jin Hwa | Rhee, Chin Kook | Park, Hye Yun | Kim, Woo Jin | Park, Yong Bum | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Kang, Heejeong | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Suk, Lee Ju | Kim, Cheol Hong | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Lee, Sang Hyun | Seo, Wonhee | Kim, Kang-in | Park, Young Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Sujeong | Jin, Sun | Lee, Jong-Myung | Jung, Hye-Jin | Park, Jung-Wha | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Park, So Young | Park, So-Young | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Kim, Youn Yee | Lee, Yena | Min, Taek-Ki | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Han, Suk Hee | Park, Suyeon | Lee, Jeongho | Hahn, Won-Ho | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Joo-Hee | Shin, Tae-Rim | Kim, Cheol-Hong | Hyun, In-Gyu | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Jang, Sun-Mi | Na, Hae-Jung | Song, Seung-Eon | Park, Hye-Kyung | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Dong Hun | Lee, Jin-Young | Park, Yang | Oh, Jae-Won | Lee, Mi Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Joon Soo | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Yum, Hye-Yung | Yum, Hye-Yung | Choi, Kyu Young | Kim, Dong-Young | Palapinyo, Sirinoot | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Chen, Xing | Jin, Yuting | Hou, Xiaoming | Liu, Fengqin | Guo, Chunyan | Wang, Yulin | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Narabayashi, Shegeyuki | Tsuruta, Satoru | Jang, Yong Hyun | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Lee, Dong-Won | Chung, Jin Hong | Jin, Hyun Jung | Sohn, Min-Su | Park, Young a | Jeong, Kyunguk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Ho | Kim, Ja Yeun | Lee, So-Yeon | Min, Taek-Ki | Song, Tae-Won | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kwon, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Sung-Won | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hye-Young | Jeon, Youhoon | Lim, Chang Hoon | Jeong, Yeongsang | Kim, Su Jung | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Lee, Jong-Uk | Kim, Ji-Na | Min, Chang-Gi | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Liu, Jing-Nan | Choi, Youngwoo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Rezaei, Nima | Mahneh, Sedigheh Bahrami | Rezaei, Arezou | Sadr, Maryam | Movahedi, Masoud | Gang, Jun Seak | Park, Joon Soo | Kim, Seung Soo | Bang, Hyun Ho | Park, Kyeong Bae | Kim, Hye Sun | Kim, Tae Ho | Hwangbo, Young | Lee, Hyun Jung | Yoo, Gyeong Hee | Kim, Young Chang | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ri-Yeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Lee, Li Yuan Gabriella Nadine | Aw, Marion | Aw, Marion | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Chan, Yiong Huak | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Kuo, I-Chun | Kuo, I-Chun | Quah, Phaik Ling | Quah, Phaik Ling | Llanora, Genevieve | Irvin, Gerez | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Kim, Seon Tae | Park, Hyoungmin | Kim, Seon Tae | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Park, Hyoungmin | Ko, Kwang-Pil | Lee, Jungsoo | Chu, Howard | Lee, Hemin | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Dong Chang | Kim, Geun Jeon | Hwang, Jae Hyung | Ha, Jin Bu | Jeong, Su Hee | Kim, Ho | Hwang, Shinha | Lee, Whahee | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Lee, Hyun-Hee | Lee, Chang-Jong | Lim, Huynsun | Soh, Ji-Eun | Song, Dae-Jin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Kim, Woo Kyung | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Shim, Jung Yeon | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Pv, Prabhakarrao | Nadendla, Ranjitha | Fang, Juan | Zhao, Jing | Song, Dae-Jin | Seo, Sungchul | Yoo, Young | Kim, Yu-Ri | Choung, Ji Tae | Lee, Jee Hoo | Berings, Margot | De Ruyck, Natalie | Bachert, Claus | Gevaert, Philippe | Holtappels, Gabriële | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Kim, Byeong-Gon | Park, Choon-Sik | Leikauf, George D. | Jang, An-Soo | Kimc, Byeong-Gon | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Yang | Sohn, Min-Su | Jin, Hyun Jung | Lee, Dong-Won | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Chung, Jin Hong | Kim, Sae-in | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Do-Yeon | Rho, Mina | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kamchaisatian, Wasu | Hiranras, Thitikul | Wongpun, Surinda | Chiraphorn, Phornthip | Tantachun, Anupan | Wongrassamee, Wannipa | Vatanasurkitt, Planee | Somboonkul, Naratip | Juthacharoenwong, Nattipat | Techapaitoon, Surangkana | Tuchinda, Montri | An, Sejin | Lee, Jae Ho | Shin, Ji-Hyeon | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Si Won | Kang, Jun Myung | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Byung-Guk | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Shim, Jung Yeon | Lee, Jung-Won | Kim, Kyung Ho | Yoo, Young | Yoon, Won Suck | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Choi, Jae Won | Lim, Hye-Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Buela, Michelle | Nishimura, Koji | Park, Sang Chul | Chung, Hyo Jin | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Hye-Sook | Kim, Jeong Hong | Logii, Narantsetseg | Nyamdavaa, N. | Enkhbayar, B. | Oyuntsatsral, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Omarjee, Bashir | Li, Shuo | Hayashi, Miyuki | Pawankar, Ruby | Yamanishi, Shingo | Igarashi, Toru | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Gantulga, B. | Enkhbayar, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Narantsetseg, L. | Batsaikhan, Oyuntsatsral | Chen, Pei-Chi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Chu, Ka Hou | Doh, Eun Jin | Lee, Dong Hun | Choi, Mira | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Kim, Kyu Han | Lim, Ji Soo | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Han, Man Yong | Lee, Seung Jin | Jeon, Youhoon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Jiang, Yi | Liu, Miao | Naing, Chaw Su | Tan, Tze Chin | Chong, Yong Yeow | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Hyung Young | Kwon, Ji-Won | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Soo Hyun | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Soumya, M. S. | Pawankar, Ruby | Kumar, Harshitha | Yang, Sohyoung | Woo, Sung-Il | Rezaei, Nima | Kose, Sukran | Serin, Basak Gol | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Senger, Süheyla Serin | Erden, Mehmet | Serin, Ertan | Leung, Ting Fan | Leung, Agnes Sze-Yin | Kumar, Harshitha | Soumya, M. S. | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Pawankar, Ruby | Chung, Eun Hee | Kim, Eunji | Yoo, Young | Yoo, Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Sungchul | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Lee, Jue Seong | Hwang, Ji Hyen | Lee, Sang Min | Jung, Joo Hyun | Choi, Seung Joon | Joe, Eugene | Hwang, Hyunjung | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Gaisina, Alina | Shilovskiy, Igor | Nikonova, Aleksandra | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Khaitov, Musa | Mitin, Alexander | Viktoriya, Komogorova | Litvina, Marina | Sharova, Nina | Faiah, M. J. | Ismail, Intan H. | Miles, E. A. | Jamli, Faizah Mohamed | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Choi, Han-Byul | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Yoon, Da-Il | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Sujeong | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Song, Woo-Jung | Lee, Sang Min | Park, Chansun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Lee, Jaechun | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Inseon S. | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Laskin, Anton | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Babakhin, Alexander | Berzhets, Valentina | Khaitov, Musa | Lee, Jae Ho | An, Sejin | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Yong Eun | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Hye-Kyung | Kang, Sung-Yoon | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Lee, Ji-Hyun | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kim, Sang-Yoon | Hwang, Hyunjung | Joe, Eugene | Lee, Sang Min | Choi, Seung Joon | Jung, Joo Hyun | Seon, Yong Han | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Khramykhoverchenko, Natalya | Sultana, Asma | Halwani, Rabih | Bahammam, Ahmed | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Kim, Sun Kyung | Nam, Kwang Il | Yang, Hyung Chae | Kim, Jeong-Eun | Lee, Ju Suk | Lee, Ji Hyun | Kang, Kyung Woo | Kim, Je-Kyung | Hahn, Youn-Soo | Jung, Jae-Yub | Baba, Yosuke | Yamazaki, Sususmu | Inage, Eisuke | Mori, Mari | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Kantake, Masato | Shimizu, Toshiaki | Honjoh, Asuka | Yokokura, Tomoaki | Elhassan, Shaza Ali Mohammed | Beck, Caroline | Adeli, Mehdi | Baek, Heysung | Lee, Seung Jin | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Yoon, Jungwon | Choi, Sun Hee | Jung, Young-Ho | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Na, Min Sun | Compalati, Enrico | Marogna, Maurizio | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Bai, Mingyu | Huo, Yiting | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Andiappan, Anand | Minisini, Rosalba | Rötzschke, Olaf | Boggio, Elena | Gigliotti, Luca | Clemente, Nausicaa | Chiocchetti, Annalisa | Dianzani, Umberto | Pirisi, Mario | Villa, Elisa | Yamaide, Fumiya | Yonekura, Syuji | Shimojo, Naoki | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Setyoningrum, Retno Asih | Setiawati, Landia | Sumei, Sri | Iskandar, Deddy | Kompiyang, Indriyani Sang Ayu | Oguma, Tsuyoshi | Tanaka, Jun | Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi | Asano, Koichiro | Uno, Keisuke | Matsuwaki, Yoshinori | Omura, Kazuhiro | Hayashi, Eika | Tatsumi, Norifumi | Kita, Hirohito | Otori, Nobuyoshi | Kojima, Hiromi | Khorasgani, Mohammadreza Fatemi | Lew, Dukhee/Betty | Lemessurier, Kim/S. | Moore, Joseph/a | Park, Jeoung-Eun | Yi, Ae-Kyung | Song, Chi/Young | Malik, Kafait/U | Kim, Ja Kyoung | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Kim, Bong-Seong | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Geunhwa | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Baek, Heysung | Lim, Dae Hyun | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jin Tack | Suh, Dongin | Nano, Aimee Lou Manalo | Sun, Baoqing | Luo, Wenting | Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin | Erdem, Semiha Bahceci | Sumer, Ozlem | Karaman, Sait | Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal | Asilsoy, Suna | Gunay, Ilker | Can, Demet | Kiers, Danielle | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Yin, Hsu Han | Kaplan, Allen | Joseph, Kusumam | Tholanikunnel, Baby G. | Dudek, Radim | Bilgin, Gulden | Surer, Hatice | Kilinc, Aytun Sadan | Yucel, Dogan | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Jihyun | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Kim, Minji | Lee, Sang-Il | Ahn, Kangmo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Ju-Young | Sohn, Kyonghee | Won, Ha Kyung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Bachert, Claus | Hsieh, Miao-Hsi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Smith, Helen | Brown, Clare | Jones, Christina | Davies, Mark | Yoon, Won Suck | Lee, Hemin | Chu, Howard | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Noh, Ji Yeon | Kim, Ji Hye | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoon, Won Suck | L’huillier, Jean-Pierre | Autegarden, Jean-Eric | Bertrand, Catherine | Tardy, Dominique | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Tang, Mimi | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Boyle, Robert | Robins-Browne, Roy | Yagi, Hisako | Koyama, Harumi | Nishida, Yutaka | Takizawa, Takumi | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Chu, Howard | Park, Chang Ook | Yoon, Na Young | Lee, Hyeyoung | Seo, Seong Jun | Choi, Eunhee | Wang, Hye-Young | Jung, Minyoung | Choi, Eung Ho | Kim, Dong Hye | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jang, Young-Sook | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kang, Mi-Jin | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Eun | Choi, Kil Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Bong-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Koh, Juneyoung | Kim, Hyun-Jin | Ahn, Kangmo | Shin, Youn Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Jung, Yean | Mamura, Mizuko | Yoon, Jeong-Hwan | Nakae, Susumu | Lee, Inkyu | Matsumoto, Isao | Sumida, Takayuki | Han, Jin Soo | Sudo, Katsuko | Ju, Ji Hyeon | Yap, Gaik Chin | Liu, Wen Tso | Oh, Seungdae | Hong, Pei Ying | Huang, Chiung Hui | Aw, Marion | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Bee Wah | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Koh, Tae Kyung | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Kim, Myung Shin | Park, Chansun | Cho, Han Seok | Kim, Min-Ju | Kim, Min Ji | Park, Young Ok | Lee, Hye Yeong | Kim, Hee Seong | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hwang, Keum Hee | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Yoo, Mira | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Shin, Bomi | Park, So Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Jin-Ah | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Jaemoon | Jeong, Jin Hyeok | Kang, Tae Wook | Yoo, Han Seok | Cho, Yong Hee | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Kyung Rae | Lee, Jue Seong | Kee, Sun-Ho | Kim, Sewon | Yoo, Young | Na, Heung Sik | Back, Seung Keun | Lee, Seung Jin | Seo, Bo Seon | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Jisun | Moon, Seung Hyun | Lin, Rong Jun | Guan, Ren Zheng | Park, Gyeong Yul | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Callaway, Zac | Kim, Chang-Keun | Fujisawa, Takao | Zhang, Qingling | Qiu, Rihuang | Li, Naijian | Yang, Zhaowei | Li, Jing | Chung, Kian Fan | Zhong, Nanshan | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Tsang, Yin Ching K. | Leung, Ting Fan | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Lee, Seung Gook | Na, Ji Hyun | Lee, Jong Hoon | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Yamamoto, Mikita | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ogawa, Ayako | Ogura, Kanako | Takahashi, Kyohei | Nagakura, Kenichi | Emura, Shigehito | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Iikura, Katsuhito | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Okada, Yu | Luo, Jiaying | Lan, Xiao | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Zhao | Sun, Guiyuan | Li, Shimin | Hu, Jiaqing | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Choi, Yean Jung | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Chang, Hyoung Yoon | Choi, In Ae | Lee, Kyung-Sook | Shin, Yee-Jin | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | a Park, Young | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Yong Ju | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Yoon, Seo Hee | Lee, Yong Ju | Kim, Kyung Won | a Park, Young | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Park, Sung Joo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Yang, Yun Seok | Shim, Jung Yeon | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Hyun Seok | Lee, Chang Ho | Cho, Changbum | Lim, Yun-Kyu | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Kim, Baek-Jo | Kim, Young-Min | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Jihyun | Cheong, Hae-Kwan | Jeon, Byoung-Hak | Ahn, Kangmo | Ming, Chuang/Yao | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Ling, Ye/Yi | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Yun | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Lee, Do Hyeong | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Park, Han Su | Park, So-Young | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Min-Gu | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Yoon Su | Shin, Eun-Soon | Tanaka, Akio | Morioke, Satoshi | Ohya, Yukihiro | Shimojo, Naoki | Akasawa, Akira | Hide, Michihiro | Shizukawa, Hiroko | Watanabe, Naoto | Shin, Meeyong | Jang, Myeong Sun | Nam, Young-Hee | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Jung, Ji-in | Kim, Ha-Su | Kim, Hyun-a | Jung, Jin-a | Goh, Anne | Rao, Rajeshwar | Nandanan, Bindu | Van Elburg, Ruurd | Chien, Chua Mei | Jo, Juandy | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Knippels, Leon | Sandalova, Elena | Chiang, Wen Chin | Nam, Young-Hee | Juong, Ji Young | Kim, Soo Jin | Kim, Eun Young | Lee, Su Mi | Son, Young Ki | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Ki-Ho | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Lee, Hyun Seung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Jung-Won | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Song, Woo-Jung | Lim, Hyunwook | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Yoo, Young | Park, Jun-Sik | Kim, Byung Kwan | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Byung-Keun | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Ju-Young | Lee, So-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Kim, Ki-Woong | Jang, Hak Chul | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Leung, Ting Fan | Tang, Man Fung | Sy, Hing Yee | Chan, Wa Cheong | Tam, Wilson Wai San | Chung, Seung Kyu | Kim, Sujin | Hong, Sang Duk | Kim, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Jeong, Jong in | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Ji Won | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Soon-Hee | Bae, Boram | Kim, Sujeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Da-Eun | Lee, Hyun Seung | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Jung-Won | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Hou, Yung-I | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Hee, Seol Jae | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Soma, Yuta | Watanabe, So | Pawankar, Ruby | Suzaki, Harumi | Kobayashi, Hitome | Nam, Young-Hee | Park, Chansun | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Jongrok | Roh, Jooyoung | Ryu, Haryeong | Kim, Cheol-Woo | Cho, Jae Hwa | Eom, Mi Ra | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hye Gyeung | Choi, Hae Young | Lee, Hye Jin | Woo, Ju Yun | Byun, Ji Yeon | Choi, You Won | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Eusom | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Hae Young | Byun, Ji Yeon | Woo, Ju Yun | Choi, You Won | Jin, Hyun-Ju | Son, Jin-Hwa | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Kim, Byung Soo | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Elias, Anthony | Lauer, Susannah Olivia | Lee, Seung-Chul | Lee, Ho-June | Bae, Jung Min | Ono, Emi | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Koh, Tae Kyung | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Kwon, Chul | Lee, Kun Hee | Liu, Li-Fan | Lee, Sunghee | Chen, Wei-Leng | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Bae, Youin | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Kim, Suk Yeon | Lee, Hyun Seung | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Kim, Hye-Young | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Lee, Ji-Won | Bae, Boram | Park, Jung-Won | Suzuki, Yasuhiro | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Boyle, Robert | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Robins-Browne, Roy | Tang, Mimi | Lee, Ji Won | Lee, Hyun Seung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Da-Eun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Soon-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Bae, Boram | Shieh, Grace | Kim, Min Jung | Hong, Jung Yeon | Yoon, Seo Hee | Shim, Doo Hee | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Mi Na | Lee, Kyung Eun | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Jae Myun | Chng, Hiok Hee | Kim, Dong Chan | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Hae Ran | Seo, An Deok | Lee, So Yeon | Artesani, Maria Cristina | Francalanci, Paola | Dahdah, Lamia | Schreiner, Thomas | Fiocchi, Alessandro | Chakraborty, Kaushik | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kim, Ju-Young | Jo, Eun-Jung | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Yonekura, Syuji | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Hur, Gyu Young | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kim, Junga | Shim, Jae Jeong | Park, Hae-Sim | Sekimoto, Kazuhiro | Sugai, Kazuko | Tsuchimoto, Keiji | Uehara, Hiromi | Ikeda, Masanori | Chung, Euncho | Park, Kang Seo | Choi, Yean Jung | Park, Jeewon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So Yeon | Jacquet, Alain | Buaklin, Arun | Malainual, Nat | Roopashree, S. | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Cho, Changbum | Kim, Baek-Jo | Oh, Jae-Won | Han, Mae Ja | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, Eun | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Darae | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Won, Hye-Sung | Kim, Soo Hyun | Choi, Suk-Joo | Kim, Young Han | Jun, Jong Kwan | Kim, Eun-Jin | Lee, Jeom Gyu | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Suh, Dongin | Amagai, Yosuke | Tanaka, Akane | Matsuda, Hiroshi | Mösges, Ralph | Dieterich, Pauline | Astvatsatourov, Anatoli | Hüser, Christoph | Singh, Jaswinder | Shah-Hosseini, Kija | Allekotte, Silke | Compalati, Enrico | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Woo-Sung | Do, Ji-Hye | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Yoon, Dankyu | Lim, Hye-Sun | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Thong, Bernard | Cheng, Yew Kuang | Hou, Jinfeng | Leong, Khai Pang | Tan, Justina | Chia, Faith | Chan, Grace | Tan, Sze-Chin | Tan, Teck Choon | Tang, Chwee Ying | Chng, Hiok Hee | Park, Chan-Sun | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Eun-Young | Shin, Jae-Gook | Choi, Jae-Hyeog | Park, Saegwang | Kim, Yeonye | Lim, Kyung-Hwan | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Woo, Yeon-Ju | Jung, Soo-Youn | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Porée, Thierry | Boukhettala, Nabile | Furon, Emeline | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Hewings, Simon | Skinner, Murray | Kurowski, Marcin | Krysztofiak, Hubert | Wardzynska, Aleksandra | Jarzebska, Marzanna | Jurczyk, Janusz | Kowalski, Marek L. | Kim, So Ri | Lee, Yong Chul | Kim, Dong Im | Rhee, Yang Keun | Lee, Heung Bum | Park, Seoung Ju | Choe, Yeong Hun Choe | Park, Seung Yong | Kim, Joo-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Min, Jiang | Guang-Min, Nong | Nag, Nalin | Indawati, Wahyuni | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Skinner, Murray | Seo, Seong Jun | Oh, Won Jong | Bullimore, Alan David | Skinner, Murray | Heath, Matthew | Bell, Andrew | Hasanzadeh, Hournaz | Sadeghzade, Salman | Rezaei, Nima | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Cho, Kyu-Sup | Oh, Moo-Young | Kim, Sung-Woo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Park, Kui Young | Oh, Won Jong | Babaie, Delara | Nabavi, Mohammad | Zandieh, Fariborz | Moini, Mehrdad Amir | Chavoshzadeh, Zahra | Seifi, Hamideh | Sahragard, Mitra | Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz | Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan | Choi, Sun Young | No, Yeon a | Kiedik, Dorota | Muszynska, Agnieszka | Pirogowicz, Iwona | Fal, Andrzej M. | Motomura, Chikako | Wakatsuki, Masatoshi | Akamine, Yuko | Iwata, Mihoko | Matsuzaki, Hiroshi | Taba, Naohiko | Murakami, Yoko | Odajima, Hiroshi | Ghrahani, Reni | Takaoka, Yuri | Lee, Jong-Uk | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Park, Jong-Sook | Cho, Jae Hoon | Choi, Ji Ho | Febriana, Fiska | Ghrahani, Reni | Sapartini, Gartika | Setiabudiawan, Budi | Nam, Young-Hee | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Choi, Gil-Soon | Park, Chan-Sun | Huang, Chiung-Hui | Soh, Jian Yi | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Delsing, Dianne J. | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Goh, Si Hui | Chiang, Wen Chin | Loh, Wenyin | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Minji | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Kim, Young-Min | Kim, Hye-Young | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Woo Kyung | Lee, So-Yeon | Jeong, Jongin | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung Kyu | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Kim, Sujin | Bak, Hana | Son, Hye-Rim | Lee, Si-Eun | Kim, Kwang-Jin | Lim, Young-Wook | Kim, Ho-Hyun | Lee, Yong-Won | Han, Man Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Lee, Seung Jin | Lee, Kyung Suk | Kim, Mi-Ae | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Eunkyoung | Golez, Jasmina | Bae, Da-Jeong | Min, Chang-Gi | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Kim, Young-Joon | Jung, Bok Kyoung | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Kang, Mi-Jin | Jeong, Sekyoo | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Seo Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Halwani, Rabih | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Sultana, Asma | Al-Faraj, Achraf | Kanana, Rosan | Afzal, Sibtain | Al Kufaidi, Roaa | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Oak, Chul-Ho | Choi, Gil-Soon | Moon, Ye-Jin | Park, Eun-Kee | Abrari, Mina | Amirzargar, Ali Akbar | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Ha, Mina | Hong, Soo-Jong | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kang, Mingyu | Cho, Byung-Ha | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Chang-Han | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Suk-Il | Min, Kyung-up | Min, Kyung-up | Morice, Alyn | Choi, Jungi | Han, Yusok | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Kim, Chang-Keun | Sapartini, Gartika | Kim, Ji-Na | Shin, Seungwoo | Chang, Hun Soo | Shim, Eun-Young | Jun, Ji Ah | Lee, Hyeonju | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Sepiashvili, Revaz | Khachapuridze, Darejan | Gamkrelidze, Sofio | Chikhladze, Manana | Lee, Seung-Eun | Kim, Yun-Seong | Jeon, Doo-Soo | Cho, Woo-Hyun | Yeo, Hye-Ju | Yoon, Seong-Hoon | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Lee, Taehyeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Yoon, Dankyu | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Chang, Woo-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Park, Minkee | Lee, Nanju Alice | Rost, Johanna | Muralidharan, Sridevi | Campbell, Dianne | Mehr, Sam | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Yoon, Seon-Joo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kim, Hee-Suk | Park, Yeon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Jun-Sung | Jun, Hyun Ok | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Min-Koo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Shim, Ji-Su | Chung, Soo Jie | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Jihyun | Lee, Jiyoung | Park, Bo Bae | Nho, In Young | Park, Chang-Han | Kim, Jang Min | Chang, Suk-Il | Kim, Sun Kyung | Yang, Hyung Chae | Nam, Kwang Il | Lee, Jeongmin | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeong, Kyunguk | Jeon, Se-Ah | Fujiwara, Midori | Shindo, Shoko | Murota, Hiroyuki | Tahara, Mayuko | Takahashi, Aya | Katayama, Ichiro | Jung, Jae Woo | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Min-Hye | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Jang, An-Soo | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, Young Joo | Park, Choon-Sik | Mun, Sue Jean | Kuroda, Etsushi | Ozasa, Koji | Ishii, Ken | Kim, Sunmi | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Kim, Mi-Ae | Shin, Seungwoo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, You Sook | Park, Hae-Sim | Park, Choon-Sik | Min, Zhang | Yoon, Seo Hee | Sol, In Suk | a Park, Young | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Shiquan, Wu | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Ching, Maricar Wisco | Ramos, John Donnie | Jeong, Kyunguk | Lee, Sooyoung | Ahn, Kangmo | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyung Won | Lee, So-Yeon | Song, Tae Won | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Jihyun | Min, Taek Ki | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Lee, Hae Ran | Ahn, Youngmin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hee | Suh, Dongin | Ki, Hyung Young | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeon, Se-Ah | Park, Kyu Jung | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Yean Jung | Choi, Kil Yong | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Lee, So-Yeon | K, Eun-Jin | Dario, Roccatello | Liao, Jing | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, Eun | Lee, So-Yeon | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Park, Hee Ju | Min, Zhang | Guang-Min, Nong | Min, Jiang | Hur, Gyu Young | Sim, Eun Jung | Yoon, Sora | Choi, Juwhan | Kim, Junga | Sim, Jae Keom | Oh, Jee Youn | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Jeong-Min | Lee, Sooyoung | Cheon, Eunjae | Na, Youngjoo | Park, Kyu Jung | Lee, Eunjoo | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Yang, Jimmy | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Karsh, Jacob | Yang, Jimmy | Badellino, Hector | Teijeiro, Alvaro | Cuello, Mabel | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Egues, Gustavo | Aktas, Ayse | Chun, Jin-Kyong | Mujuru, Hilda Angela | Sibanda, Elopy N. | Popescu, Andreea Ioana | Greblescu, Raluca | Rahman, Suheyla | Aktas, Ayse | Tataurshchikova, Nataly | Dissanayake, Eishika | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Nakano, Taiji | Tanjung, Conny | Jensen-Jarolim, Erika | Fazekas, Judit | Singer, Josef | Lukschal, Anna | Horvat, Reinhard | Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude | Achatz, Gernot | Fujita, Yuji | Ikegami, Shuji | Nakamura, Yoshitaka | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Kohno, Yoichi | Suzuki, Shuichi | Ozawa, Naoko | Kubota, Takayuki | Nonaka, Ken | Ohara, Osamu | Masuda, Kentaro | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Sook Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Hea Yon | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Sei Won | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kim, Gun-Woo | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Hyo-Soo | Han, Jung Gyu | Lee, Jin | Lee, Ji Young | Go, Ji Young | Park, So Jung | Kim-Chang, Julie | Love, Cassandra | Lugar, Patricia | Citraresmi, Endah | Kaswandani, Nastiti | Utami, Cynthia | Said, Mardjanis | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hwan-Cheol | Leem, Jong-Han | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Hyung Young | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yamazaki, Susumu | Nakano, Nobuhiro | Honjoh, Asuka | Inage, Eisuke | Baba, Yosuke | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Shimizu, Toshiaki | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Goh, Anne | Teoh, Oon Hoe | Chan, Yiong Huak | Saw, Seang Mei | Kwek, Kenneth | Gluckman, Peter D | Godfrey, Keith M | Van Bever, Hugo | Chong, Yap Seng | Lee, Bee Wah | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Alison Joanne | Rossi, Daniela | Nemeth, Agnes | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Goergen, Frank | Ehlayel, Mohammad S. | Bener, Abdul Bari | Chu, Hieu Chi | Do, Nga Thi Quynh | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu | Le, Huong Thi Minh | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Psarros, Fotis | Syrigou, Ekaterini | Politi, Ekaterini | Chrysoulakis, Spyridon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Petalas, Konstantinos | Saha, Mouli | Bhattacharya, Kashinath | Jain, Subir | Song, Xiaolian | Lin, Haiyan | Nishikawa, Kyohei | Shimada, Takashi | Yasueda, Hiroshi | Enomoto, Tadao | Aizawa, Daisuke | Kobayashi, Takayoshi | R., Chellaa | Jain, Subir | Jain, Subir | Yudina, Marina | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Saito, Mayako | Sari, Nurul Iman Nilam | Kim, Jae Young | Song, Jaechul | Kim, Inah | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Park, Soo Jin | Roh, Soo Yong | Billamay, Somxay | Udin, Muchammad Fahrul | Han, Mae Ja | Oh, Jae-Won | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Baek-Jo | Mazza, Jorge A. | Ko, Jason Kangeun | Huang, David J. T. | Furuya, Kanae | Kainuma, Keigo | Ito, Takahiro | Nagao, Mizuho | Fujisawa, Takao | Hirayama, Junya | Kuwahara, Yu | Qualizza, Rosanna | Incorvaia, Cristoforo | Maraschini, Anna | Hasnain, Syed Mohammed | Al-Frayh, Abdulrahman | Hartog, Anita | Bastiaans, Jacqueline | Loonstra, Reinilde | Rutten, Lieke | Harthoorn, Lucien | Van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen | Garssen, Johan | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Cho, Sang-Heon | Ghoshal, AG | Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul | Lin, Horng- Chyuan | Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak | Bagga, Shalini | Faruqi, Rab | Baidya, Santwona | Taylor, Colman | Wang, De Yun | Ahn, Hae-Ryun | Hong, Soon-Kwan | Kim, Jong-Woong | Nam, Gui-Hyun | Kim, Mee-Ja | Park, Jae-Kyoung | Yi, Myung-Hee | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Kim, Ju-Yeong | Yong, Tai-Soon | Kim, Bum Joon | Joo, Hs | Lim, Kj | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Park, Jung-Won | Yoon, Kh | Choi, DS | Joo, Hanseung | Kim, Bum Joon | Lim, Kj | Kim, MJ | Choi, DS | Yoon, Kh | Kim, Bum Joon | Joo, Hanseung | Jung, Woo Sang | Lim, Kj | Choi, DS | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Lee, Soo-Jin | Roh, Soo Yong | Kim, Hogil | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Van De Loo, Aurora | Fernstrand, Amanda | Garssen, Johan | Verster, Joris | Van De Loo, Aurora | Garssen, Johan | Verster, Joris | Golez, Jasmina | Ozasa, Koji | Kuroda, Etsushi | Ishii, Ken | Imran, Muhammad | Gierer, Selina | Martinez, John | Wong, Lydia | Lee, Bee Wah | Yap, Gaik Chin | Llanora, Genevieve | Thong, Bernard | Shek, Lynette | Ehlayel, Mohammad S. | Soliman, Ashraf | Martins, Pedro | Marques, João | Gomes-Belo, Joana | Palmeiro, Teresa | Caires, Iolanda | Belo, Joana | Botelho, Maria Amália | Leiria-Pinto, Paula | Neuparth, Nuno | Suratannon, Narissara | Mekaroonkamol, Jaichat | Ngamphaiboon, Jarungchit | Lertchanaruengrith, Piyawadee | Chatchatee, Pantipa | Kardar, Gholamali | Majd, Ahmad | Shahali, Youcef | Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh | Pourpak, Zahra | Mousavi, Fateme | Sadeghi-Shabestari, Mahnaz | Van Bilsen, K. | Manusama, O. | Dik, W.a. | Van Der Burg, M. | Van Der Velden, V. H. J. | Dalm, V.a.S. H. | Van Hagen, P. M. | Liu, Yongping | Jeong, Yi Yeong | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ban, Ga Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Jung, Hye Min | Roh, Soo Yong | Song, Jaechul | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Kim, Hogil | Kim, Jae Young | Lee, Kyeong Joon | Wong, Lydia | Rajakulendran, Mohana | Santhanam, Haripriya | Shek, Lynette | Lim, Tow Keang | Kim, Hogil | Lee, Soo-Jin | Lee, Ji-Hoon | Roh, Soo Yong | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Wistiani, Ani | H, Galuh | Kardar, Gholam Ali | Sharifshoushtari, Maryam | Majd, Ahmad | Nejadsattari, Taher | Pourpak, Zahra | Moin, Mostafa | Kim, Ji Hye | Seo, Daehong | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Shin, Yoo Seob | Kowalski, Marek L. | Wardzynska, Aleksandra | Kurowski, Marcin | Pawelczyk, Malgorzata/Ewa | Wysokinski, Adam | Kloszewska, Iwona | Grzegorczyk, Janina | Piotrowski, Wojciech | Makowska, Joanna | Kwon, Soon-Chan | Song, Jaechul | Kim, Yong-Kyu | Bostanci, Ilknur | Emeksiz, Zeynep Sengul | Ertugrul, Aysegul | Ozmen, Serap | Sahin, Soner | Kim, Sang-Ha | Lee, Myoung Kyu | Lee, Won Yeon | Yong, Suk Joong | Lee, Seok Jeong | Jung, Ye-Ryung | Kim, Myung Shin | Park, Jong-Sook | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Wulandari, Diah Asri | Kartasasmita, Cissy | Yani, Finny Fitry | Machmud, Rizanda | Lestari, Dhina Lydia | Rusdi, Rusdi | Yurmalina, Yurmalina | Darwin, Eryati | Bostanci, Ilknur | Karacan, Gulin | Ercan, Nazli | Colak, Asuman | Alisik, Murat | Basarir, Gulay | Erel, Ozcan | Bostanci, Ilknur | Keskin, Yasemin | Lopata, Andreas/Ludwig | Zenger, Kyall | Nugraha, Roni | Kamath, Sandip | Bielory, Leonard | Georgopoulos, Panos | Zhang, Yong | Mi, Wheat | Cai, Ting | Xian, MO | Li, Jing | Feng, Mulin
Table of Contents
A1 Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-b1-induced extracellular matrix production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts
Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee, Il-Ho Park
A2 The efficacy of a 2-week course of oral steroid in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria refractory to antihistamines
Hyun-Sun Yoon, Gyeong Yul Park
A3 The altered distribution of follicular t helper cells may predict a more pronounced clinical course of primary sjögren’s syndrome
Margit Zeher
A4 Betamethasone suppresses Th2 cell development induced by langerhans cell like dendritic cells
Katsuhiko Matsui, Saki Tamai, Reiko Ikeda
A5 An evaluation of variousallergens in cases of allergic bronchial asthma at lucknow and neighbouring districts by intradermal skintest
Drsushil Suri, Dranu Suri
A6 Evaluation ferqency of ADHD in childhood asthma
Marzieh Heidarzadeh Arani
A7 Steven johnson syndrome caused by typhoid fever in a child
Azwin Lubis, Anang Endaryanto
A8 Chronic Bronchitis with Radio Contrast Media Hypersensitivity: A Case with Hypothesized GINA Step 1 Asthma
Shinichiro Koga
A9 The association between asthma and depression in Korean adult : An analysis of the fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2010-2012)
Lee Ju Suk
A10 Management of allergic disease exacerbations in pregnancy
Yasunobu Tsuzuki
A11 Subcutaneous immunotherapy mouse model for atopic dermatitis
Seo Hyeong Kim, Jung U Shin, Ji Yeon Noh, Shan Jin, Shan Jin, Hemin Lee, Jungsoo Lee, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee
A12 Atopic disease and/or atopy are risk factors for local anesthetic allergy in patients with history of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs?
Fatma Merve Tepetam
A13 Food hypersensitivity in patients with atopic dermatitis in Korea
Chun Wook Park, Jee Hee Son, Soo Ick Cho, Yong Se Cho, Yun Sun Byun, Yoon Seok Yang, Bo Young Chung, Hye One Kim, Hee Jin Cho
A14 Anaphylaxis caused by an ant (Brachyponera chinensis) in Japan
Yoshinori Katada, Toshio Tanaka, Akihiko Nakabayashi, Koji Nishida, Kenichi Aoyagi, Yuki Tsukamoto, Kazushi Konma, Motoo Matsuura, Jung-Won Park, Yoshinori Harada, Kyoung Yong Jeong, Akiko Yura, Maiko Yoshimura
A15 Anti-allergic effect of anti-IL-33 by suppression of immunoglobulin light chain and inducible nitric oxide synthase
Tae-Suk Kyung, Young Hyo Kim, Chang-Shin Park, Tae Young Jang, Min-Jeong Heo, Ah-Yeoun Jung, Seung-Chan Yang
A16 Food hypersensitivity in patients with chronic urticaria in Korea
Hye One Kim, Yong Se Cho, Yun Sun Byun, Yoon Seok Yang, Bo Young Chung, Jee Hee Son, Chun Wook Park, Hee Jin Cho
A17 Dose optimizing study of a depigmented polymerized allergen extract of phleum pollen by means of conjunctival provocation test (CPT)
Angelika Sager, Oliver Pfaar
A18 Correlation of cutaneous sensitivity and cytokine response in children with asthma
Amit Agarwal, Meenu Singh, Bishnupda Chatterjee, Anil Chauhan
A19 Colabomycin E, a Streptomycete-Derived Secondary Metabolite, Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Monocytes/Macrophages
Ilja Striz, Eva Cecrdlova, Katerina Petrickova, Libor Kolesar, Alena Sekerkova, Veronika Svachova, Miroslav Petricek
A20 Intravenous immunoglobluin treatment in a child with resistant atopic dermatitis: A brief review on this therapeutic regimen
Hyuck Hoon Kwon, Kyu Han Kim
A21 Wheat allergy is difficult to diagnose then other food allergens
Suman Kumar
A22 The effects of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) dietary supplement as an adjunct therapy for children aged 7 to 14 years old with asthma: A randomized - double blind placebo controlled clinical trial
Lou Ver Leigh Arciaga Manzon, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A23 The study about cause and clinicopathological findings of injection induced dermatitis
Bark-Lynn Lew, Youngjun Oh, Dongwoo Suh, Woo-Young Sim
A24 IgE reactivity of recombinant allergen pac c 3 of the Asian needle ant pachycondyla chinensis
Kyoung Yong Jeong, Myung-Hee Yi, Mina Son, Dongpyo Lyu, Jae-Hyun Lee, Tai-Soon Yong, Chein-Soo Hong, Jung-Won Park
A25 Characterization of specific IgE antibody related to antigen 5 of echinococcus granulosus
Mohammadreza Siavashi
A26 Development of binary forecast model of asthma exacerbation: Asthma index
Hey Suk Yun, Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh, Young Jin Choi
A27 Different levels in rantes, IL-5 and TNF-á between the nasal polyps of adolescents with allergic, local allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh, Young Jin Choi
A28 Tgfβ1 level is associated with VDR gene polymorphism in children with allergy diseases
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Anna Timopheeva, Andrey Donnikov
A29 Dynamics of immunological biomarkers in children with food allergy fed goat milk formula
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Anna Timopheeva
A30 Association between obesity, abdominal obesity and adiposity and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in young Korean adults: The korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008–2010
Ji Hyun Lee, Young Min Park, Sang Soo Choi, Kyung Do Han, Han Mi Jung, Young Hoon Youn, Jun Young Lee, Yong Gyu Park, Seung-Hwan Lee
A31 Associations of natural history and environmental factors with asthma among children in rural and urban areas of guangdong, China
Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Mulin Feng, Marjut Roponen, Bianca Schaub, Gary WK Wong
A32 The effect of CO2-enriched atmospheres to producing of allergenic pollen by ragweed
Young Jin Choi, Ha-Na Kang, Jae-Won Oh
A33 Application evaluation of house dust mite and components specific-IgE and IgG4 in specific immunotherapy with allergic diseases
Baoqing Sun, Peiyan Zheng
A34 Effect of Asian dust events on asthma according to the socioeconomic status using claim data in KOREA
Yoon-Sung Park
A35 TSLP downregulates human â-defensin 2 through STAT3-dependent pathway in keratinocytes
Sang Wook Son
A36 Effects of anti-IgE on IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, and CD19,20,200 in a case of netherton syndrome (SPINK5 mutation)
Arzu Didem Yalcin, Sukran Kose, Kemal Kiraz
A37 Augmentation of arginase 1 expression exacerbates airway inflammation in murine asthma models
Jin-Young Lee, Sehyo Yune, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jung Oh, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Young Hee Lim, Kyoung Won Ha
A38 Caregivers of children with no food allergy – their experiences and perception of the condition
Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Masami Narita, Masaki Futamura, Yukihiro Ohya
A39 Evaluation of Drug Provocation Tests in Korean Children: A Single Center Experience
Jihyun Kim, Jinwha Choi, Kwanghoon Kim, Jaehee Choi, Kangmo Ahn
A40 Danyoung classification 2015 update by digital HD endoscopic evaluation
SUN-HO/Brian Chang
A41 Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy in polysensitized patients
Lisha Li
A42 Ambient desert dust and allergic symptoms: A time series analysis from a national birth cohort (JECS)
Kumiko Tsuji Kanatani, Yu-Ichi Adachi
A43 Individuals Allergic to Cow’s Milk Should be Vigilant When Consuming Beef Because It May be Injected Beef
Shigeyuki Narabayashi, Ikuo Okafuji, Yuya Tanaka, Satoru Tsuruta, Nobue Takamatsu
A44 Quality of life of chronic rhinosinusitis patients with or without nasal polyps in Korea
Soo Whan Kim, Do Hyun Kim
A45 House dust mite sensitization and exacerbation of asthma in the fall in children
Jong-Seo Yoon, Jin Tack Kim, Hwan Soo Kim, Yoon Hong Chun, Hyun Hee Kim, Sul Mui Won
A46 Evidence-based health advice for childhood eczema and household pets
Kam Lun E. Hon, Chung Mo Chow, Ting Fan Leung
A47 Relationship between allergic rhinitis and mental health in korea
Do Hyun Kim, Soo Whan Kim
A48 Oscillometric bronchodilator response in 3 to 5 years old healthy and asthmatic Filipino children
Gemmalyn Esguerra, Emily Resurreccion, Kristine Elisa Kionisala, Jenni Rose Dela Cruz
A49 The use of aeroallergen immunotherapy to treat eosinophilic esophagitis
Muhammad Imran
A50 A study of the eczema herpeticum in Korean
Yun Seon Choe, Kyu Han Kim, Mira Choi
A51 Specific sublingual immunotherapy in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis
Byung Soo Kim, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Je-Ho Mun, Hoon-Soo Kim, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim
A52 Association between polymorphisms in bitter taste receptors genes and clinical features in Korean asthmatics
Sun-Young Yoon
A53 Effect of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
Amit Kandhare
A54 A kampo formula, ogi-kenchu-to, decreases side-effects of steroid ointment for infantile atopic dermatitis: Three cases report
Noriko Yahiro
A55 To test use of jet nebulizers NE-C802 as a drug delivery system in the children with asthma
Amit Agarwal, Meenu Singh, Jasleen Kaur, Ruby Pawankar, Pankaj Pant, Sukhmanjeet Singh
A56 Immunoglobulin e to allergen components of house dust mite in Korean children with allergic disease
Hwan Soo Kim, Jong-Seo Yoon, Sul Mui Won, Yoon Hong Chun, Jin Tack Kim, Hyun Hee Kim
A57 Effectiveness of premedication and rapid desensitization in hypersensitivity to l-asparaginase
Hwan Soo Kim, Sul Mui Won, Yoon Hong Chun, Jong-Seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim
A58 Angioedema with Eosinophilia: The First Report from Thailand
Thatchai Kampitak
A59 Evaluation of anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng extract on atopic dermatitis murine model
So Min Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Hei Sung Kim, Jeong Deuk Lee, Sang Hyun Cho
A60 Subcutaneous autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria
Kiran Godse
A61 Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in asthma and lung tuberculosis
Juwita Soekarno, Sarie Ratnasari, E. Alwi Datau, Eko Surachmanto, JC Matheos
A62 Infantile eczema is associated with campylobacter and roseburia subpopulations but not microbial diversity in stool samples of Chinese newborns
Ting Fan Leung, Jamie Sui-Lam Kwok, Christine Kit-Ching Tung, Man Fung Tang, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Gary WK Wong, Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Wing Hung Tam, Hing Yee Sy
A63 Association between serum chitinase level and toll-like receptor polymorphisms in bakery workers
Sohee Lee
A64 IFN-gamma contributes to nasal polypogenesis by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via non-smad pathway
Hyun-Woo Shin, Mingyu Lee, Dae Woo Kim, Roza Khalmuratova
A65 Management and education status of anaphylaxis patients who visit our emergency room (ER)
Mi Yeoung Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Chansun Park
A66 Hypoallergen-Encoding DNA Plasmids As Immunoprophylactic Vaccines of Shrimp Tropomyosin Hypersensitivity
Christine Yee Yan Wai, Patrick S.C. Leung, Nicki Y.H. Leung, Ka Hou Chu
A67 The relationship between sputum pentraxin 3 levels and childhood asthma
Hee Seon Lee, Kyung Eun Lee, Jung Yeon Hong, Mi Na Kim, Min Jung Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim
A68 The role of local antibody responses in the nasal inflammation of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients
Ji Hye Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Daehong Seo, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Mok Lee
A69 A case of ofloxacin-induced anaphylaxis by non-IgE, but specific IgG4-mediated responses
Daehong Seo, Ji Hye Kim, Young-Mok Lee, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A70 Serum LTE4 metabolite as a biomarker for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease
Ga Young Ban, Kumsun Cho, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yong Eun Kwon, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Ji Hye Kim, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Dong-Ho Nahm, Hae-Sim Park
A71 Local and systemic reactions of dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) among children in a tertiary care hospital
Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A72 Effects of carboxymethyl glucan (CM-glucan) in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma: A randomized controlled trial
Pilar Agnes Gonzalez Andaya
A73 Autophagy mechanisms in patients with severe asthma: A new therapeutic target
Ga Young Ban, Chang Gyu Jung, Seung-Ihm Lee, Duy Le Pham, Dong-Hyeon Suh, Eun-Mi Yang, Young Min Ye, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park
A74 Aggravation of airway inflammation and hypperresponsiveness following nasal challenge with dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in perennial allergic rhinitis patients without symptoms of asthma
Wan Jun Wang, MO Xian, Yan Qing Xie, Jing Ping Zheng, Jing Li
A75 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d in early childhood is non-linearly associated with allergy
Emma Merike Savilahti, Outi Mäkitie, Anna Kaarina Kukkonen, Sture Andersson, Heli Viljakainen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen
A76 Fric test in dermographism
Kiran Godse
A77 Neutrophil autophagy and extracellular trap could contribute to asthma severity
Duy Le Pham, Ga Young Ban, Seung-Hyun Kim, Eun-Mi Yang, Hae-Sim Park, Ji-Ho Lee, Yong-Joon Chwae
A78 Redox Modulation for the Treatment of Toluene Diisocyanates-Induced Lung Inflammation
Li-Ming Chin, Chi-Chang Shieh
A79 A case of occupational asthma and rhinitis with anaphylaxis to Korean ginseng and sanyak
Ji Hye Kim, Hye-Soo Yoo, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Ga Young Ban, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A80 Factors of influencing epidermal permeability barrier defects in atopic dermatitis children
Myong Soon Sung, Jin Uck Choi, Sung Won Kim, Yong Jin Hwang
A81 Innate type 2 response to aspergillusfumigatus in a murine model of atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation
Arum Park, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jinho Yu
A82 Activin a receptor 1C may implicate in the development of sensitive skin
Dong Hun Lee, Eun Ju Kim, Yeon Kyung Kim, Eun Jin Doh, Hee Chul Eun, Jin Ho Chung, Young Mee Lee, Seon Pil Jin
A83 Genetic association and eQTL analyses of genes associated with allergy in atopic/non-atopic asthma
Xingnan Li, Naftali Kaminski, Sally Wenzel, Eugene Bleecker, Deborah Meyers
A84 Gastroscope feature and clinical characteristics in 172 cases of children with henoch-schonlein purpura
Zeng Huasong
A85 The role of TRPV1 in CD4+ t cell mediated inflammatory response of allergic rhinitis
Ji-Hun Mo, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Jun-Sang Bae, Young-Jun Chung, Dae Woo Kim
A86 A Phenotype of Rhinitis from School Children Is Associated with the Development of Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness
Eun Lee, Si Hyeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Hyun-Ju Cho, Ho-Sung Yu, Mi-Jin Kang, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ho-Jang Kwon, Soo-Jong Hong
A87 Increased basal activation status was noted in adult anaphylaxis patients
Sailesh Palikhe, Hae-Sim Park, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Eun-Mi Yang
A88 Clinical values of interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays for management of antibiotic hypersensitivity in hospitalized patients
Suda Sibunruang, Jettanong Klaewsongkram
A89 VDR gene polymorphism and 25-hydroxy vitamin d levels in children with food allergy
Tatiana Sentsova, Ilya Vorozhko, Anna Timopheeva, Olga Chernyak, Vera Revyakina, Andrey Sokolnikov
A90 An analysis of 145 oral almond challenge tests
Makoto Nisihino, Yu Okada, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa, Sakura Sato, Kiyotake Ogura, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Kenichi Nagakura, Tetsuharu Manabe, Hirotoshi Unno
A91 Effect of creatine supplementation in fish allergenic potential; A proteomics study
Pedro M Rodrigues, Denise Schrama, Gadija Mohamed, Lizex Hüsselmann, Lizex Hüsselmann, Bongani Ndimba
A92 Flagellin modulates the function of invariant NKT cells via dendritic cells in asthma patients
Jae-Uoong Shim, Young Il Koh, Joon Haeng Rhee, Ji-Ung Jeong
A93 Clinical and subclinical manifestations of allopurinol – induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Vietnam
Dinh Van Nguyen, Hieu Chi Chu, Mui Thi Tran, Christopher Vidal, Suran Fernando, Sheryl Van Nunen, Sy Van Than
A94 Time course of serum inhibitory activity for facilitated allergen-IgE binding during house dust mite immunotherapy
Mulin Feng, Jing Li
A95 Periostin is a novel biomarker in eosinophilic nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis
Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-No Hong, Kyoung Mi Eun, Hong Ryul Jin, Dae Woo Kim
A96 Dominance of Th1-response in children with refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Jun Bao, Yi-Xiao Bao
A97 Studies on the role of CD14 polymorphism among pollen and mold induced asthmatics of kolkata, India
Sanjoy Podder, Goutam Kumar, Shampa Dutta, Amlan Ghosh
A98 House dust mite allergy – Indian perspective
Goutam Kumar Saha, Sanjoy Podder, Salil Kumar Gupta
A99 Increased expression of purinergic (P2Y12) receptor and cysteinyl leukotriene receptors in the lung tissue of a mouse model of allergic asthma
Tu/Hoang Kim Trinh, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park, Jing-Nan Liu, Duy Le Pham
A100 Autologous serum skin test in chronic idiopathic urticaria - relationship with autoimmune markers and disease severity
Hyun-Chang Ko, Byung Soo Kim, Moon-Bum Kim
A101 Anxiety and depression levels in severe asthma patients treated with omalizumab
Ömer Özbudak, Fatih Üzer
A102 Economic burden of refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria on Kuwait health system
Mona Al-Ahmad, Maryam Alowayesh, Norman Carroll
A103 IgE-mediated maize allergy in India: A 28 kd protein responsible for food-induced allergic reaction
Anand Bahadur Singh
A104 Liposomal encapsulation of house dust mite allergens and dexamethasone modulates allergic response in a murine model of asthma
Yordanis Pérez-Llano, María Del Carmen Luzardo Lorenzo, Wendy Ramírez González, Carlos Calcines Cruz, Rady Laborde Quintana, Alain Morejón, Virgilio Bourg, Marilé Hechavarría Stoker
A105 Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Eosinophilic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in a Mouse Model
Jun-Sang Bae, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Mo
A106 Second line treatments of dermographic urticaria refractory to antihistamines
Keiko Hanaoka, Michihiro Hide, Akio Tanaka, Makiko Hiragun, Mikio Kawai
A107 Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy
Kwanghoon Kim, Kwanghoon Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Jihyun Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Youngshin Han
A108 Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema
Gun-Wook Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Byung Soo Kim, Moon-Bum Kim, Margaret Song
A109 Identification of an IgG1-mediated anaphylaxis marker and its application in evaluating the antigenicity of infant formulas
Takeshi Matsubara, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yuki Nakazato, Kazuyoshi Namba, Yasuhiro Takeda
A110 Nitric oxide as a screening tool for evaluation of postoperative state of chronic rhinosinusitis
Jae Hoon Lee, Woo Yong Bae
A111 Comparison of different medical treatment options for crswnp: Doxycycline, methylprednisolone, mepolizumab, omalizumab
Els De Schryver, Lien Calus, Philippe Gevaert, Thibaut Van Zele, Claus Bachert
A112 Successful treatment of steroid resistant asthma model by blocking CD28 signal
Akio Mori, Satoshi Kouyama, Miyako Yamaguchi, Yo Iijima, Akemi Abe-Ohtomo, Hiroaki Hayashi, Kentaroh Watai, Chihiro Mitsui, Chiyako Oshikata, Kiyoshi Sekiya, Takahiro Tsuburai, Mamoru Ohtomo, Yuma Fukutomi, Masami Taniguchi
A113 Serum periostin levels was not associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization in Korean children
Ju Wan Kang, Jeong Hong Kim, Jeong Hong Kim, Keun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Sook Lee, Seong-Chul Hong, Jaechun Lee
A114 Roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in allergic rhinitis
Ji Won Seo, Jae Hoon Lee, Woo Yong Bae
A115 Mechanism of oral and topical polyprenol action in atopic dermatitis
Ivans Sergejs Kuznecovs, Galina Kuznecova
A116 Technical and clinical validation of a mobile chamber for allergen exposure tests
Karl-Christian Bergmann, Torsten Zuberbier, Joseph Salame, Torsten Sehlinger, Georg Bölke
A117 The association between serum lead level and total immunoglobulin e according to allergic sensitization
Yoo Suk Kim, Jung Hyun Chang, Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang
A118 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of nasal obstruction dominant allergic sensitization
Seung-No Hong, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee
A119 Nasal provocation test is useful for the diagnoses of allergic, non- allergic, and local allergic rhinitis
Young-Joo Ko, Young Hyo Kim, Dae-Young Kim, Tae Young Jang
A120 Aspirin facilitates the intestinal absorption and oral sensitization of food allergens in rats
Tomoharu Yokooji, Taiki Hirano, Hiroaki Matsuo
A121 Gestational Secondhand Smoke Exposure Could Affect Maternal n-Glycosylation and Cause Filaggrin Loss in Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Galina Kuznecova, Ivans Sergejs Kuznecovs
A122 Allergen specific immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma--a randomized prospective study from kashmir valley-north of India
Roohi Rasool Wani, Shafia Alam Syed, Ghulam Hassan, Ayaz Gul, Saniya Nissar, Zaffar Amin Shah
A123 Sleep disorders in latin-American children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and normal controls
Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Carmen Fernandez, Dirceu Sole, Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Veronica Acosta, Alfonso Mario Cepeda, Mirta Alvarez Castello, Claudia Almendarez, Jose Santos Lozano Saenz, Juan C. Sisul, Nelson Rosario Filho, Antonio Castillo, Marylin Valentin Rostan, Jennifer Avila, Hector Badellino, Maria Carolina Manotas, Raúl Lázaro Castro Almarales, Mayda González León
A124 Association between respiratory symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in Afghanistan
Woo Kyung Kim, Hae-Sun Yoon
A125 ATP, a danger signal, activates human eosinophils via P2 purinergic receptors
Takehito Kobayashi, Tooru Noguchi, Tomoyuki Soma, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Hidetomo Nakamoto, Hirohito Kita, Makoto Nagata
A126 Atopic dermatitis and sleep disorders in latin American children
Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Dirceu Sole, Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Alfonso Mario Cepeda, Raúl Lázaro Castro Almarales, Juan C. Sisul, Marylin Valentin Rostan, Hector Badellino, Miguel Alejandro Medina Avalos, Antonio Castillo, Claudia Almendarez, Nelson Rosario Filho, Caridad Sanchez Silot, Jennifer Avila, Felicia Berroa Rodriguez, Jose Santos Lozano Saenz, Mirta Alvarez Castello, Carmen Fernandez
A127 Der p 23: A Major House Dust Mite Allergen in Spite of Limited Release from Fecal Pellets and Prominent Protease Sensitivity
Wai Tuck Soh, Alain Jacquet, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Emmanuel Nony, Maxime Le Mignon
A128 Anaphylactic Reaction After Inhalation of Budesonide
Mary Lee-Wong, Suzanne McClelland, Suzanne McClelland, Nanette B. Silverberg, Christian E. Song
A129 Lipidomic analysis of mattress dust from urban and rural schoolchildren in China
Zhaowei Yang, Jiukai Zhang, Wentao Zheng, Nanshan Zhong, Jing Li
A130 Improvements in quality of life in children with allergic rhinitis after adenotonsillectomy
Jung Ho Bae, Young Joo Cho, Joo Yeon Kim
A131 The seasonal variation of asthma exacerbations in patients allergic to pollens in Greece
Konstantinos Petalas, Dimitrios Vourdas, Christos Grigoreas
A132 Whole-genome sequencing study in allergic rhinitis nuclear families
Yuan Zhang
A133 Effect of the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts by eosinophils activated with airborne fungi
Seung-Heon Shin, Mi-Kyung Ye, Jeong-Kyu Kim
A134 The study of clinical characteristics, lung function and bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with RSV bronchiolitis
Yong Feng, Yunxiao Shang
A135 GIS-based association between PM10 and allergic diseases in seoul: Implication for health and environmental policy
Sungchul Seo, Ji Tae Choung, Dohyeong Kim, Young Yoo, Hyunwook Lim
A136 The relationship between rhinovirus and recurrent wheezing
Wenjing Zhu, Chuanhe Liu, Li Sha, Li Chang, Min Zhao, Linqing Zhao, Yuan Qian, Yuzhi Chen
A137 Dominancy of Staphylcoccus Aureus in the Skin of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Compared to Healthy Subjects through Metagenomic Analysis
Min-Hye Kim, Young Joo Cho, Mina Rho, Jung-Won Kim, Yeon-Mi Kang, Kyung-Eun Yum, Hyeon-Il Choi, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun, Yoon-Keun Kim
A138 Micronized Cellulose Powder Reduces the Dose of Locally Applied Glucocorticoids in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Xueyan Wang
A139 New strategy for atopic dermatitis therapy with modulation of calcium ion channels
Woo Kyung Kim, Yu Ran Nam, Joo Hyun Nam
A140 Difference in the Systemic Bacterial Composition of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Compared to Healthy Subjects through Metagenomic Analysis of Urine
Jung-Won Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Mina Rho, Yeon-Mi Kang, Kyung-Eun Yum, Hyeon-Il Choi, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Taek-Ki Min, Young Joo Cho, Bok-Yang Pyun, Yoon-Keun Kim
A141 Occurrence and physiological function of immune complexes of food proteins and IgA in human saliva
Hiroshi Narita, Junko Hirose, Kumiko Kizu, Ayu Matsunaga
A142 Association between DNA hypomethylation at IL13 gene and allergic rhinitis in house dust mite-sensitized subjects
Jingyun Li, Yuan Zhang, Luo Zhang
A143 Effect of dietary methyl donors on asthma and atopy is modified by MTHFR polymorphism
Yean Jung Choi, Hye Lim Shin, Song-I Yang, So-Yeon Lee, Sung-Ok Kwon, Young-Ho Jung, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Se-Young Oh, Ho-Jang Kwon, Eun Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Soo-Jong Hong, Yun-Jeong Lee, Joonil Kim
A144 The effect of TSLP in a murine model of allergic asthma
Joon Young Choi, Ji Young Kang, Seok Chan Kim, Sei Won Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Hea Yon Lee, Hwa Young Lee, Sook Young Lee
A145 Evaluation of Aspirin Hypersensitivity in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients
Tae Kyung Koh, Sung Wan Kim, Kun Hee Lee, Chul Kwon, Joong-Saeng Jo, Sung-Hwa Dong, Young Seok Byun
A146 Chronic cough without wheezing in young children as a manifestation of chronic sinusitis
Charles Song
A147 Expression of muscarinic receptors and effect of tiotropium bromide on chronic asthma according to age in a murine model
Ji Young Kang, Hwa Young Lee, In Kyoung Kim, Sei Won Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Seung Joon Kim, Seok Chan Kim, Sook Young Lee, Young Kyoon Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Joon Young Choi
A148 Discrimination between non-eosinophilic and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps
Pona Park, Hong Ryul Jin, Dong-Kyu Kim, Dae Woo Kim
A149 Significant reduction in allergic features in the offspring of mice supplemented with specific non-digestible oligosaccharides during lactation
Astrid Hogenkamp
A150 Allergenicity assessment of hydrolysed infant formula; A multicenter comparison of a mouse model and a Guinea pig model for cow’s milk allergy
Leon Knippels, Betty C.a.m. Van Esch, Jolanda Van Bilsen, Prescilla V. Jeurink; Marjan Gros, Johan Garssen, Joost J Smit, Raymond H.H. Pieters
A151 Clinical significance between the allergic test and serum eosinophil cationic protein
Boo-Young Kim, Soo Whan Kim
A152 Hydroclorothiazide-induced acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Ramon Lleonart
A153 A Synbiotic Mixture of Scgos/Lcfos and Bifidobacterium Breve M-16V Is Able to Restore the Delayed Colonization of Bifidobacterium Observed in C-Section Delivered Infants
Christophe Lay, Kaouther Benamor, Chua Mei Chen, Jan Knol, Charmaine Chew, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Anne Goh, Wen Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech
A154 Atopic characteristics of patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome
Ji Young Yhi, Sang-Heon Kim, Dong Won Park, Ji-Yong Moon, Tae Hyung Kim, Jang Won Sohn, Dong Ho Shin, Ho Joo Yoon, Seok Hyun Cho
A155 Perceptions and practices of severe asthma and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome among specialists: A questionnaire survey
Sang-Heon Kim, Ji-Yong Moon, Jae-Hyun Lee, Ga Young Ban, Sujeong Kim, Mi-Ae Kim, Joo-Hee Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Chan-Sun Park, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Jae-Woo Kwon, Jae Woo Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Jong-Sook Park, Tae-Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, You Sook Cho, Kwang-Ha Yoo, Yeon-Mok Oh
A156 A case of surgical diagnosed eosinophilic enteritis with intussusception in adult patient
Sang-Rok Lee
A157 Reference values of total IgE in estonian children
Kaja Julge, Maire Vasar, Tiia Voor, Tiina Rebane
A158 A case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis accompanied by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Min Lee, Shin Myung Kang, Sojeong Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Sung Hwan Jeong, Jeong-Woong Park, Hyunjung Hwang, Yong Han Seon, Sanghui Park, Sang Pyo Lee
A159 Associations Between Infectious Diseases and Urticaria
Marius Iordache
A160 Sleep in infants in korea – finding of bisq survey
Yeongsang Jeong, Sohee Eun, Byung Min Choi, Ji Tae Choung, Wonhee Seo
A161 Increased Expression of Filaggrin, TSLP, Periostin, IL13 and IL-33 in Nasal Polyps
Liang Zhang, Ruby Pawankar, Manabu Nonaka, Miyuki Hayashi, Shingo Yamanishi, Harumi Suzaki, Yasuhiko Itoh, So Watanabe, Hitome Kobayashi
A162 Asymptomatic bacteruria increases the risk of edematous attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficency (C1-INH-HAE)
Zsuzsanna Zotter, Henriette Farkas, Lilian Varga, Nora Veszeli, Eva Imreh, Gabor Kovacs, Marsel Nallbani
A163 Gastric Erosions Cause Spontaneous Urticaria Independent of Helicobacter Pylori
Semen Zheleznov, Galina Urzhumtseva, Natalia Petrova, Zhanna Sarsaniia, Nikolai Didkovskii, Torsten Zuberbier
A164 The Effect of G2 Vaccine on the Gene Expression NKG2D and Receptor Presenting on the Surface of NK Cells in Peripheral Blood
Nader Dashti Gerdabi, Ali Khodadadi, Zahra Abdoli, Mehri Ghafourian, Mohammad Ali Assarehzadegan, Khodayar Ghorban
A165 Ethnic differences in lifetime prevalence and indoor environmental factors for childhood eczema
Hyo-Bin Kim, Hui Zhou, Jeong Hee Kim, Rima Habre, Theresa Bastain, Frank Gilliland
A166 A case of methazolamide-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis
Jong-Wook Bae, Kyu-Hyung Han, Young-Koo Jee, Misoo Choi, Seung-Phil Hong, Seung-Hyun Kim
A167 Inflammatory responses of human adipose-tissue derived stem cells to LPS and nanoparticles
Hee-Kyoo Kim, Gil-Soon Choi, Jeonghoon Heo, Young-Ho Kim, Eun-Kee Park
A168 Analysis of 71 Cashew Nut Oral Challenge Tests
Takashi Inoue, Kiyotake Ogura, Noriyuki Yanagida, Hirotoshi Unno, Kenichi Nagakura, Tetsuharu Manabe, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Sakura Sato, Yu Okada, Motohiro Ebisawa
A169 Fungal sensitization is associated with asthma exacerbation
Min-Gu Kim, You Sook Cho, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Seo, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Jaemoon Lee, Taehoon Lee
A170 Individual therapeutic patient education and consultation in children with atopic dermatitis
Hye-Soo Yoo, Jieun Kim, Inok Kim, Haejin Kim, Younhee Chang, Hae-Sim Park, Sooyoung Lee
A171 Utility of Alpha-Lactalbumin Specific IgE Levels Using Immulite 2000 3gAllergy in Predicting Clinical Severity of Milk Allergy
Kazuyo Kuzume, Munemitsu Koizumi, Koji Nishimura, Michiko Okamoto
A172 Isoniazid/rifampicin-specific t-cell responses in patients with anti-tuberculosis –induced dress syndrome
Seung-Hyun Kim, Young Min Ye, Gyu Young Hur, Hae-Sim Park, Sang-Heon Kim, Young-Koo Jee
A173 Genetic biomarkers associated with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) phenotype based on genome-wide association study
Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyunna Choi, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
A174 Assessment of ORAL drug provocation test in the diagnosis of NON-steroidal ANTI-inflammatory drugs hypersensitivity
Bui VAN Khanh, Hieu Chi Chu, Nguyen Nhu Nguyet, Nguyen Hoang Phuong
A175 Korean treatment guideline of atopic dermatitis
Joo Young Roh, Hyun Jeong Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Bark-Lynn Lew, Kyung Ho Lee, Seung-Phil Hong, Yong Hyun Jang, Kui Young Park, Seong Jun Seo, Jung Min Bae, Eung Ho Choi, Ki Beom Suhr, Seung Chul Lee, Hyun-Chang Ko, Young Lip Park, Sang Wook Son, Young Jun Seo, Yang Won Lee, Sang Hyun Cho, Chun Wook Park
A176 Systemic side reaction of subcutaneous immunotherapy(SCIT) for perennial allergic rhinitis
Kun Hee Lee, Sung Wan Kim
A177 Clinical baseline characteristics of Asian patients suffering from refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in three phase 3 omalizumab clinical trials
Chia-Yu CHU, Derrick Aw, Young-Min Ye, Giovanni Bader, Fabrizio Dolfi, Nathalie Oliveira
A178 A metagenomic approach through t-RFLP to the microbiome of asthma
Jae Chol Choi, Jae Woo Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Kijeong Kim, Byoung Whui Choi
A179 Clinical characteristics and ten-year trend of peripheral blood eosinophilia among health screening program recipients at a tertiary hospital of South Korea
Jong Wook Shin, Jae Woo Jung, Jae Chol Choi, In Won Park, Byoung Whui Choi, Jae Yeol Kim
A180 The prevalence of toxocariasis and diagnostic value of serologic tests in asymptomatic Korean adults
Jin-Young Lee, Kyoung Won Ha, Yun-Jin Jeung, Sehyo Yune, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Mi-Jung Oh, Young Hee Lim
A181 Cutaneous Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction in Korean Children: An Analysis of KAERS Database on 2012-2013
Eui Jun Lee, Dongin Suh, Sung-Il Woo, Hwa Jin Cho, Eun Hee Chung, Soo Youn Chung
A182 Comparison of clinical characteristics, quality of life and sleep in patients with allergic rhinitis when categorised as “sneezers and runners” and “blockers”
Kamal Gera, Ashok Shah
A183 Role of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) in the murine strain differences of airway hyperresponsiveness
Jin-Young Lee, Kyoung Won Ha, Mi-Jung Oh, Young Hee Lim, Sehyo Yune, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi
A184 Protection from airway bronchoconstriction by gsno
Jin-Young Lee, Mi-Jin Jang, Jae-Won Paeng, Yun-Jin Jeung, Young Hee Lim, Mi-Jung Oh, Kyoung Won Ha, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Sehyo Yune
A185 Does EIA-targeted asthma treatment improve daily physical activity of children?
Takahiro Ito
A186 Wheezing as a clue to the diagnosis of cough variant asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis
Jihye Kim, Jin-Young Lee, Sehyo Yune, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Mi-Jin Jang, Jae-Won Paeng, Young Eun Kim, Young Nam Kim, Yongseok Lee
A187 Antagonism of microRNA-21 suppressed the airway inflammation in a mouse model of bronchial asthma
Hwa Young Lee, Sook Young Lee, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Sei Won Kim, Hea Yon Lee, Joon Young Choi, In Kyoung Kim
A188 Chlorhexidine anaphylaxis: A report of two cases
Jose Antonio Navarro, Maria Ascension Aranzabal, Alejandro Joral, Susana Lizarza, Miguel Echenagusia, EVA Maria Lasa
A189 Effects of Particulate Matter on Respiratory Allergic Diseases Considering Meteorological Factors in Busan, Korea
Eun-Jung Jo, Sun-Mi Jang, Seung-Eon Song, Hae-Jung Na, Chang-Hoon Kim, Woo-Seop Lee, Hye-Kyung Park
A190 Clinical characteristics of neutrophilic asthma
Sachiko Miyauchi, Yoshitaka Uchida, Tomoyuki Soma, Susumu Yamazaki, Toru Noguchi, Takehito Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Makoto Nagata
A191 Current Practice of Infants and Children with Acute Urticaria at a Single Wide Regional Emergency Medical Center
Hea Lin Oh, Do Kyun Kim, Dongin Suh, Young Yull Koh
A192 Discordance between sputum eosinophilia and exhaled nitric oxide
Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Jihye Kim, Young Nam Kim
A193 Association between genetic polymorphisms of costimulatory molecules and antituberculosis drugs induced hepatitis
Sang-Heon Kim, Sang-Hoon Kim, Jang Won Sohn, Ho Joo Yoon, Dong Ho Shin, Jae Hyung Lee, Byoung Hoon Lee, Youn-Seup Kim, Jae-Seuk Park, Young-Koo Jee
A194 The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in chronic unexplained cough
Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Dong-Chull Choi, Byung-Jae Lee, Yongseok Lee, Young Eun Kim
A195 Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Clinical Utility of Feno
Jisun Yoon
A196 Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and asthma exacerbation severity in children
Yong Feng, Li Zhang, Xuxu Cai
A197 Usefulness of Specific IgE Antibody Levels to Wheat, Gluten and Ï-5 Gliadin for Wheat Allergy in Korean Children
Jong-Seo Yoon, Kyunguk Jeong, Hye-Soo Yoo, Sooyoung Lee, Sooyoung Lee
A198 Neutralization of stratum corneum accelerates the progress from atopic dermatitis to asthma-like lesion in flaky tail mice treated by house dust mite allergen
Hae-Jin Lee, Noo Ri Lee, Bo-Kyung Kim, Minyoung Jung, Dong Hye Kim, Catharina S. Moniaga, Kenji Kabashima, Eung Ho Choi
A199 Trends in oral food challenges in Japan: A six-year prospective study
Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Chizuko Sugizaki, Motohiro Ebisawa
A200 The Gut Microbiome in the Food Allergic Host
Jamie Kiehm, Punita Ponda, Sherry Farzan, Jared Weiss, Claudia Elera, Catherine Destio, Cristina Sison, Annette Lee
A201 Cord blood cytokines and maternal environmental exposure during pregnancy
Soo Hyun Ri, Chang Hoon Lim
A202 Rupatadine pharmacokinetics in Japanese healthy volunteers after single and repeated oral doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg
Iñaki Izquierdo Pulido, Jorg Taubel, Georg Ferber, Eva Santamaria Masdeu
A203 A safe and effective method to desensitize patients with wheat allergy
Alireza Khayatzadeh, Masoud Movahedi, Motohiro Ebisawa, Mohammad Gharagozlou
A204 RNA Binding Protein Hur Regulates CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Is Required for Allergic Airway Inflammation and Normal IL-2 Homeostasis
Ulus Atasoy, Patsharaporn Techasintana, Matt Gubin, Jacqueline Glascock, Suzanne Ridenhour, Joseph Magee
A205 Time Trends in the Epidemiology of Recurrent Wheezing in Infants from South America
Nelson Rosario Filho; Herberto Jose Chong Neto, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Caroline Dela Bianca, Carolina Aranda, Dirceu Sole, Javier Mallol, Luis Garcia-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Marcos
A206 Successful Cyclophosphamide Desensitization in a Pediatric Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Jennifer Toh, Yoomie Lee, Joyce Huang, Elina Jerschow, Jenny Shliozberg
A207 The Fatty Acid Binding Protein Der p 13 Is a Minor House Dust Mite Allergen Able to Activate Innate Immunity
Pattraporn Satitsuksanoa, Narissara Suratannon, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Pantipa Chatchatee, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Alain Jacquet
A208 Epidemiology of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidemal Necrolysis: An Administrative Database Study
Min Suk Yang; Jin Yong Lee, Ja Yeun Kim, Han-Ki Park, Ju-Young Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Chang-Han Park, Suk-Il Chang, Sook-Hee Song
A209 Regional Differences of Vitamin D and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis in Korea
Si-Heon Kim, Gil-Soon Choi, Su-Chin Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye
A210 Triggering Factors of Atopic Dermatitis By Severity
Yoon Ha Hwang
A211 Clinical Features of Adverse Drug Reactions of Monoclonal Antibodies in Korea
Da Woon Sim, Kyung Hee Park, Kyung Hee Park, Hye Jung Park, Hye Jung Park, Jung-Won Park, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee
A212 Food Allergy with Eczema Is Associated with Reduced Growth in the First Four Years of Life
Katrina Allen, Cara Beck, Jennifer Koplin, Melanie Matheson, Mimi Tang, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Lyle Gurrin, Shyamali Dharmage, Melissa Wake, Vicki Mcwilliam
A213 The Preliminary Study on Clinical Efficacy and Impact Factors of One Year’s Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy in Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis Children Sensitized to Dust Mite
Xiaoying Liu, Jing Wang, Li Xiang, Qun Wang
A214 Lipopolysaccharide Signaling through Toll- like Receptor 4 Could be Augmented By Dermatophagoides Farinae in the Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cell
Ji-Eun Lee, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Chae-Seo Rhee
A215 Drug Allergy in Pregnant Adolescents: Relation with Familial and Personal Atopy, and Substances Use
Francisco Vazquez-Nava
A216 Patients and Physicians Concept of Well-Controlled Asthma: Findings from Realise Asia
Sang-Heon Cho, Jaewon Jeong, Diahn-Warng Perng, David Price, Glenn Neira, Jiangtao Lin
A217 The Role of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma
Olga Semernik
A218 Comparison of Serum Cytokine Levels According to the Severity in Atopic Dermatitis
Ha-Su Kim, Jin-a Jung, Ji-in Jung
A219 The Different Influence on the Regulatory T Cell Response Between Subcutanous Immnuotherapy(SCIT) and Sublingual Immunotherapy(SLIT) in Children with Asthma
Qing Miao, Li Xiang
A220 Asthma State of Affairs in Asia: Seeing through Physicians’ and Patients’ Lenses
Sang-Heon Cho, Jaewon Jeong, Diahn-Warng Perng, Jiangtao Lin, David Price
A221 Identification of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD) Phenotypes Using Two Step Cluster Analysis
Hyun Young Lee, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye, Su Chin Kim
A222 Dusty Air Pollution Are Associated with an Increase Risk of Allergic Diseases in General Population
Shokrollah Farrokhi, Mohammadkazem Gheiby
A223 A Genome-Wide Association Study of Antituberculosis Drugs-Induced Hepatitis
Sang-Heon Kim; Heung Woo Park, Sang-Hoon Kim, Young-Koo Jee
A224 The Role of peroxiredoxin6 of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Regulating Mitochondrial Function Under Oxidative Stress By Translocation to Outside Mitochondrial Membrane
Sunjoo Park, Keun Ai Moon, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Tae-Bum Kim, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Kyoung Young Lee, Gyong Hwa Hong, Eun Hee Ha
A225 Toxic and Adjuvant Effects of 3 Types of Silica Nanoparticles on Airway System
Heejae Han, Hye Jung Park, Yoon Hee Park, Yoon-Jo Kim, Kangtaek Lee, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee
A226 Procedure for Diagnostic and Selection of Immunotherapy Method for Children with Different Immunopathogenetic Phenotypes of Atopic Dermatitis
Tatiana Slavyanskaya, Vladislava Derkach
A227 Prediction of the Success of Our Desensitization Protocol with Symptoms and Results of a Skin Prick Test in Patients with Hypersensitivity to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy
Hye Jung Park, Chein-Soo Hong, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee, Sungryeol KIM, Sungryeol KIM, Kyung Hee Park, Kyung Hee Park, Choong-Kun Lee, Beodeul Kang, Seung-Hoon Beom, Sang Joon Shin, Minku Jung, Jung-Won Park, Jung-Won Park
A228 Anti-Allergic Effect of Intralymphatic Injection of OVA-Flagelin Mixture in Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Mo, Young-Jun Chung
A229 Serum Periostin Level Is Higher in Respiratory Type of NSAID Hypersensitivity Than Cutaneous Type
Mi-Ae Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young-Soo Lee, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Hye-Soo Yoo, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Dong-Ho Nahm
A230 A Retrospective Analysis of Allergy Blood Testing in Beijing Children’s Hospital in the Year of 2013: A Single-Center Research
Qing Miao, Li Xiang
A231 Role of Nrf2 in the Allergic Airway Inflammation Differ Between BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice
Ying-Ji Li, Takako Shimizu, Hirofumi Inagaki, Yukiyo Hirata, Hajime Takizawa, Arata Azuma, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Kawada
A232 Effect of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell on Neutrophilic Asthma Model
Min-Gu Kim, Gyong Hwa Hong, Kyoung Young Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Keun Ai Moon, Sunjoo Park, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, You Sook Cho, Jung-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Seo
A233 Immunomodulatory Effect of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Ji-Hye Kim, Ramachandran Samivel, Eun-Hee Kim, Young-Jun Chung, Ji-Hun Mo
A234 Alternative Therapy Such As Yoga May be a Low Cost Tool for Improving the Quality of Life of Patient’s with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma
Soumya M. S., G. Inbaraj, R. Chellaa, Ruby Pawankar
A235 Substantial Impairment of the Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Chronic Urticaria
Wonsun Choi, Hae-Sim Park, Young Min Ye, Ji Hye Kim, Ga Young Ban, Yoo-Seob Shin
A236 Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharides Reduce Airway Eosinophilia and Enhance the Th2 Suppressive Effect of Budesonide in House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma in Mice
Saskia Braber, Kim Verheijden, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette Willemsen, Gert Folkerts
A237 Production and Characterization of Recombinant Periplaneta americana Allergens for Component Resolved Diagnosis
Stephanie Eichhorn, Fatima Ferreira, Isabel Pablos, Bianca Kastner, Bettina Schweidler, Sabrina Wildner, Peter Briza, Jung-Won Park, Naveen Arora, Stefan Vieths, Gabriele Gadermaier
A238 Assessment of Characteristics of Itch in Patients with Hand Eczema
Sung-Min Park, Won-Ku Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Hoon-Soo Kim, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Byung Soo Kim
A239 The Hidden Culprit: A Case of Repeated Anaphylaxis from Cremophor Hypersensitivity.
Young Nam Kim, Sehyo Yune, Jin-Young Lee, Jihye Kim, Young Eun Kim, Jae-Won Paeng, Mi-Jin Jang, Dong-Chull Choi, Byung-Jae Lee, Yongseok Lee
A240 Spectrum of Anaphylaxis in Children and Adults at Emergency Departments in Singapore
Si Hui Goh, Bee Wah Lee, Jian Yi Soh
A241 Improved Quality of Life through an Integrated Health Care Service for Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Hyungoo Kang; Hyunhee Kim; Hye-Yung Yum
A242 Criteria Combining Autologous Serum Skin Test and Clusterin for Predicting Antihistamine-Refractoriness in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
Young Min Ye; Hae-Sim Park; Ga-Young Ban; Ji Hye Kim; Yoo Seob Shin
A243 Urinary Leukotriene E4 Levels in Wheezing Infants
Takumi Takizawa, Masahiko Tabata, Akira Aizawa, Hisako Yagi, Yutaka Nishida, Hirokazu Arakawa, Akihiro Morikawa, Solongo Orosoo
A244 Allergic Sensitization to Whey in Mice Is Facilitated By the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Saskia Braber, Marianne Bol-Schoenmakers, Peyman Akbari, Prescilla V. Jeurink, Prescilla V. Jeurink, Priscilla De Graaff, Joost J. Smit, Betty C. A. M. Van Esch, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Raymond H. H. Pieters
A245 How to Define Chronic Cough: Based on a Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature
Gun-Woo Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Sujeong Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Yoon-Seok Chang, Shoaib Faruqi, Ju-Young Kim, Mingyu Kang, Min-Hye Kim, Jana Plevkova, Heung Woo Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Alyn Morice, So-Hee Lee, Sun-Sin Kim, Seoung-Eun Lee
A246 Asko Study: Comparison of Behavior and Habits in Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Asthma and COPD Patients
Bilun Gemicioglu, Zeynep Misirligil, Arif Hikmet Cimrin, Hakan Gunen, Tevfik Ozlu, Aykut Cilli, Levent Akyildiz, Hasan Bayram, Esra Uzaslan, Oznur Abadoglu, Mecit Suerdem
A247 Changes in Pulmonary Function in the Treatment of Obesity in Children
Keigo Kainuma
A248 Changes of Feno and Nasal Feno Levels after Treatment in Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis
Hyun-a Kim, Ha-Su Kim, Woo Yong Bae, Jin-a Jung
A249 Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breastfed Infants in Kenya
Rose Kamenwa, William Macharia, Nusrat Said
A250 In-Vitro Screening of Atopy in the Indian Population: Are Current Methods Adequate, Keeping Local IgE Seroprevalence for Common Food & Inhalant Allergens in Mind?
Vidya Nerurkar, Meenal Patel, Simi Bhatia
A251 Usefulness of House Dust Mites Nasal Provocation Test in Asthma
Inseon S Choi, Soo-Jeong Kim, Joo-Min Won, Myeong-Soo Park
A252 Biomarker-Based Treatment Option for Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze
Mizuho Nagao
A253 Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs-Induced Liver Injury in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases
Dong Won Park, Jang Won Sohn, Ji Young Yhi, Ji-Yong Moon, Sang-Heon Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Dong Ho Shin, Ho Joo Yoon
A254 Ocular Symptoms of Cedar Pollinosis in Otolaryngology Patients
Yukiyoshi Hyo
A255 The Clinical Characteristics of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported in a Regional University Hospital for 6 Years and the Suggestions for the Reporting System
Jaechun Lee, Su Hee Kim, Eunkyoung Lee
A256 Changes in Skin Prick Test Results over 3 Years in School-Aged Children
Hahn Jin Jung, Jaehyun Lim, Seung-No Hong, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee
A257 The Analysis of Risk Factors and Features of Food Allergy in Korean Children: Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey
Kun Song Lee
A258 A Sequential Indirect-Direct Bronchial Provocation Test for Diagnosis of Asthma: A Pilot Study
Jaechun Lee, Sun Young Yang, Mi Young Ahn, Jong Hoo Lee, Jasmina Golez
A259 Association of VDR and CYP2R1 Polymorphisms with Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in a Han Chinese Population
Hui-Qin Tian, Lei Cheng, Xin-Yuan Chen
A260 Associations of Metabolic Syndrome with Asthma and Atopy in Korean Adults
Ji-Yong Moon, Sang-Heon Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Ji Young Yhi, Ho Joo Yoon, Jang Won Sohn, Dong Ho Shin, Dong Won Park
A261 Clinical Manifestation and Treatment Outcome of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in Korean Children
Won Im Cho, Jong Sub Choi, Dongin Suh, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko, Kyung Jae Lee, Shin Jie Choi
A262 The Sensitization Model and Correlation of Bermuda and Timothy Grass Pollen Allergen in Allergic Patients in Southern China
Wenting Luo, Baoqing Sun
A263 A Pilot Study on the Outcomes of Respiratory Allergic Diseases at Pre-School Age in Chinese Infants with Atopic Dermatitis
Qi Gao, Li Xiang, Kunling Shen
A264 Activation of Toll like Receptor 1 and 6 By House Dust Mite Enhances the Expression of Tight Junction Protein in Epidermal Keratinocytes
Yong Hyun Jang
A265 Pollen Exposure in a Mobile Exposure Chamber: Comparing Real-Life Symptoms with Exposure Symptoms
Karl-Christian Bergmann, Torsten Sehlinger, Georg Bölke, Uwe Berger, Torsten Zuberbier
A266 Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Allergy in Patients with Contact Eczema
Joanna Kolodziejczyk, Milena Wojciechowska, Anna Hnatyszyn-Dzikowska, Micha Chojnacki, Zbigniew Bartuzi
A267 Effect of Fungal Sensitization in Patients with Severe Asthma
Katsunori Masaki, Koichi Fukunaga, Takashi Kamatani, Kengo Ohtsuka, Takae Tanosaki, Masako Matsusaka, Takao Mochimaru, Hiroki Kabata, Soichiro Ueda, Yusuke Suzuki, Katsuhiko Kamei, Koichiro Asano, Tomoko Betsuyaku
A268 SCIg Patient Preference Pump Versus Push
Karlee Trafford
A269 Fixed Drug Eruption Induced By Ornidazole and Diclofenac
Ismet Bulut, Zeynep Ferhan Ozseker
A270 Transepidermal Water Loss Measurement during Infancy Can Predict the Subsequent Development of Atopic Dermatitis
Kenta Horimukai, Hideaki Morita, Masami Narita, Hironori Niizeki, Kenji Matsumoto, Yukihiro Ohya, Hirohisa Saito, Shigenori Kabashima, Mai Kondo, Eisuke Inoue
A271 Inhalant Allergens on Soft Toys: A Literature Review
Robert Siebers, Francis FS Wu
A272 Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Elderly Asthmatics
Robert Siebers, Francis FS Wu, Ming-Hui Ting, Hung-En Laio, Tsung-Huai Kuo, Pei-Yuan Lee
A273 Dye and Preservative Challenge in Meal-Associated Urticaria and Angioedema: A Low-Yield Diagnostic Maneuver
Daniel Eugene Maddox
A274 The Changes of Allergic Sensitization with Age in Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Gwanghui RyuHyo Yeol Kim, Hun-Jong Dhong, Sang Duk Hong, Seung-Kyu Chung
A275 Component-Specific IgE and IgG4 Levels in Milk Allergy Children Tolerated Baked Milk Products
Osamu Higuchi, Yu-Ichi Adachi, Toshiko Itazawa, Yoko Adachi, Miki Hamamichi, Motokazu Nakabayashi, Yasunori Ito, Takuya Wada, Gyoukei Murakami, Miki Takao, Junko Yamamoto
A276 Serum Surfactant Protein(SP)-D Level: A Potential Biomarker for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
Hyun Jung Jin, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Min Ye, Yoo-Seob Shin, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
A277 Clinical Characteristics of Anaphylaxis in Korean Children
Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun, So-Yeon Lee, Hyun Hee Kim, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Jinho Yu, Dongin Suh, Sooyoung Lee, Yong Mean Park, Jeong Hee Kim, Hye-Yung Yum, Kyung Won Kim, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Kangmo Ahn, Ji-Won Kwon, Myung Hyun Sohn, Hae Ran Lee, Jung Hyun Kwon, Kyu-Earn Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
A278 Immunological Changes Induced By Intramuscular Injections of Autolologous Immunoglobulin in Patients with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Su-Mi Cho
A279 Identification of Subtypes in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Airflow Limitation and Their Clinical and Socioeconomic Implications
Jin Hwa Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Hye Yun Park, Woo Jin Kim, Yong Bum Park, Kwang-Ha Yoo
A280 Cephalosporin-Induced Dress (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) Syndrome in a 7-Year-Old Boy
Heejeong Kang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Taek-Ki Min, Bok-Yang Pyun
A281 Maternal Depression Is Associated with Children’s Asthma : An Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012)
Lee Ju Suk, Cheol Hong Kim
A282 Increased Length of Hospitalization Associated with Infiltration on Chest Radiography in Pediatric Asthma Patients
Jung Hyun Kwon, Sang Hyun Lee, Wonhee Seo
A283 A Case of 16-Year-Old Boy with Smoking-Induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Kang-in Kim, Young Cheon Park, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Taek-Ki Min; Bok-Yang Pyun
A284 A Case of Pranlukast Induced Anaphylactic Shock
Sujeong Kim, Sun Jin, Jong-Myung Lee, Hye-Jin Jung, Jung-Wha Park
A285 Comparison of Asthma-Related Outcomes Between Metabolically Healthy Obese and Metabolically Unhealthy Obese Asthma Patients
Hyo-Jung Kim, Tae-Bum Kim, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, So Young Park, So-Young Park, Jung-Hyun Kim, Bomi Seo, Min-Gu Kim, Youn Yee Kim
A286 Rick Factors Associated with Longer Length of Stay in Infants Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis
Yena Lee, Taek-Ki Min, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bok-Yang Pyun, Suk Hee Han, Suyeon Park, Jeongho Lee, Won-Ho Hahn
A287 Urinary Excretion of 9α, 11Î2-Prostaglandin F2 and Leukotriene E4 in Patients with Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
Youhoon Jeon, Joo-Hee Kim, Tae-Rim Shin, Cheol-Hong Kim, In-Gyu Hyun, Jeong-Hee Choi
A288 The Aeroallergen Sensitization Pattern and Effect on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Busan, Korea
Sun-Mi Jang, Hae-Jung Na, Seung-Eon Song, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Jung Jo
A289 Multicenter Questionnaires on Current Management of Atopic Dermatitis Among Korean Patients and Caregivers
Dong Hun Lee, Jin-Young Lee, Yang Park, Jae-Won Oh, Mi Hee Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Soo-Jong Hong, So-Yeon Lee, Joon Soo Park, Dong-Ho Nahm, Hye-Yung Yum, Hye-Yung Yum
A290 Der p 1, Der p 2 and Der p 10 IgE Reactivities in Allergic Rhinitis Patients in Korea
Kyu Young, Dong-Young Kim
A291 De-Labeling Beta-Lactam Hypersensitivity: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand
Sirinoot Palapinyo; Jettanong Klaewsongkram
A292 Sonic Hedgehog Signaling: Evidence for Its Protective Role in Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury Mouse Model
Xing Chen, Yuting Jin, Xiaoming Hou, Fengqin Liu, Chunyan Guo, Yulin Wang
A293 Analyses of the Factors behind the Negative Attitudes Toward the Administration of Adrenaline Auto-Injectors in School Settings
Ikuo Okafuji, Yuya Tanaka, Shegeyuki Narabayashi, Satoru Tsuruta
A294 Low Vitamin D Levels Are Related to High House Dust Mite Sensitization in Patients with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Yong Hyun Jang
A295 Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Index: A Potential Predictor of Skeletal Muscle Abnormality According to the Severity Airflow Limitation of COPD
Jun-Hong Ahn, Dong-Won Lee, Jin Hong Chung, Hyun Jung Jin, Min-Su Sohn
A296 Etiology and Clinical Feature of Oral Allergy Syndrome in Children
Young a Park, Kyunguk Jeong, Yoon Hee Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Sooyoung Lee
A297 Traffic-Related Pollution Levels and Poorly Controlled Asthma in Adults
Ho Kim, Ja Yeun Kim
A298 Anaphylaxis in Korean Children, 2009-2013 : Triggers of Anaphylaxis By Age Groups
So-Yeon Lee, Taek-Ki Min, Tae-Won Song, Kangmo Ahn, Jihyun Kim, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bok-Yang Pyun, Ji-Won Kwon, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung-Hyun Kwon, Sung-Won Kim, Sooyoung Lee, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Youhoon Jeon
A299 Maternal Allergy Is Associated with Acute Bronchiolitis Severity in Infant
Chang Hoon Lim, Yeongsang Jeong, Su Jung Kim
A300 Evaluation of Inflammatory Mediator Profiles in Sputum of Asthmatics As an Endotype for Refractory Asthma
Hun Soo Chang, Jeong-Seok Heo, Da-Jeong Bae, Jong-Uk Lee, Ji-Na Kim, Chang-Gi Min, Hyun Ji Song, Jong-Sook Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Choon-Sik Park
A301 Autophagy Is Associated with the Severity of Asthma in an Ovalbumin-Specific Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma
Jing-Nan Liu, Youngwoo Choi, Yoo Seob Shin, Hae-Sim Park
A302 Interleukin-9 and Interleukin-33 Levels in Children with Asthma
Nima Rezaei, Sedigheh Bahrami Mahneh, Arezou Rezaei, Maryam Sadr, Masoud Movahedi
A303 Pediatric Anaphylaxis at a University Hospital in Cheonan, Korea, 2013~2014
Jun Seak Gang, Joon Soo Park, Seung Soo Kim, Hyun Ho Bang, Kyeong Bae Park, Hye Sun Kim, Tae Ho Kim, Young Hwangbo, Hyun Jung Lee, Gyeong Hee Yoo, Young Chang Kim
A304 Initial Antigen-Specific IgE Levels Predict Clinical Outcome of Rush Oral Immunotherapy for Food Anaphylaxis
Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
A305 ABCC4 gene Polymorphism Is Associated with High Periostin Levels in Asthmatic Patients
Sailesh Palikhe, Hae-Sim Park, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ri-Yeon Kim, Eun-Mi Yang
A306 The Role of Clinical Phenotype and Allergen Sensitization at 2 Years As Predictors of Atopic Disorders at 5 Years
Li Yuan Gabriella Nadine Lee, Marion Aw, Marion Aw, Bee Wah Lee, Bee Wah Lee, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Yiong Huak Chan, Lynette Shek, Lynette Shek, I-Chun Kuo, I-Chun Kuo, Phaik Ling Quah, Phaik Ling Quah, Genevieve Llanora, Gerez Irvin
A307 The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on Rhinovirus Infection in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells
Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Seon Tae Kim, Hyoungmin Park
A308 The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on the Symptoms and Allergic Inflammation in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Seon Tae Kim, Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Hyoungmin Park, Kwang-Pil Ko
A309 Validation of the Newly Developed Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test in Korea
Jungsoo Lee, Howard Chu, Hemin Lee, Jung U Shin, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee, Hong Kyu Kang
A310 Assessment of Symptoms Severities of Allergic Rhinitis Patients Sensitive to Multiple Allergens in Skin Prick Test
Dong Chang Lee, Geun Jeon Kim, Jae Hyung Hwang, Jin Bu Ha, Su Hee Jeong
A311 Diurnal Temperature Range and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in Korea 6 Cities
Ho Kim, Shinha Hwang, Whahee Lee
A312 Mannan-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Atopic Mongolian Adults
Enkhbayar Bazarsad, Logii Narantsetseg, Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts
A313 Prevalence of Doctor Diagnosed Atopic Eczema, during 2003-2014 in KOREA ; Using Big Data of 48.1 Million South Korean Health-Care Records
Gwang-Cheon Jang, Hyun-Hee Lee, Chang-Jong Lee, Huynsun Lim
A314 Association of Recurrent Wheeze with Lung Function and Airway Inflammation in Preschool Children
Ji-Eun Soh, Dae-Jin Song, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Byoung-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Woo Kyung Kim, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung Yeon Shim
A315 Mannan-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Healthy Mongolian Adults
Enkhbayar Bazarsad, Logii Narantsetseg, Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts
A316 Rotanebuliser
Prabhakarrao Pv, Ranjitha Nadendla
A317 The Level of Serum Interleukin 13 and Interleukin 17A and Its Effect Factors in Children with Asthma
Juan Fang, Jing Zhao
A318 Is Vitamin D Insufficiency Also Involved in Childhood Asthma in South Korea?
Dae-Jin Song, Sungchul Seo, Young Yoo, Yu-Ri Kim, Ji Tae Choung, Jee Hoo Lee
A319 Collection of Nasal Secretions for Measurement of Local IgE: A Quest for the Best Method
Margot Berings, Natalie De Ruyck, Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert, Gabriële Holtappels
A320 The Role of Claudin 5 in a Murine Model of Asthma
Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Choon-Sik Park, George D Leikauf, An-Soo Jang
A321 Claudin-4 in a Murine Model of Asthma: Modulation By Acrolein, a Highly Reactive Unsaturated Aldehyde
Byeong-Gon Kim, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
A322 Efficacy and Safety of Sublingual Immunotherapy in House Dust Mite Sensitized Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Yang Park
A323 The Association of Vitamine D Deficiency and Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Airway Disease
Min-Su Sohn, Hyun Jung Jin, Dong-Won Lee, Jun-Hong Ahn, Jin Hong Chung
A324 Bacteria Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Indoor Dust Is Closely Associated with Airway Disease and Lung Cancer: Analysis of Indoor Dust’s Microbiome and IgG Sensitization of Indoor Bacteria Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Sae-in Kim, Han-Ki Park, Do-Yeon Kim, Mina Rho, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim
A325 Clinical Care Program for Childhood Asthma (CCP-Childhood Asthma); A Multidisciplinary Team Care at Samitivej International Children’s Hospital
Wasu Kamchaisatian, Thitikul Hiranras, Surinda Wongpun, Phornthip Chiraphorn, Anupan Tantachun, Wannipa Wongrassamee, Planee Vatanasurkitt, Naratip Somboonkul, Nattipat Juthacharoenwong, Surangkana Techapaitoon, Montri Tuchinda
A326 Continuous B Cell Stimulation with CD40 Ligand Induce IgE Isotype Switching
Jae Ho Lee, Sejin An
A327 Effects of Interleukin-9 on Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis
Ji-Hyeon Shin, Soo Whan Kim, Si Won Kim, Jun Myung Kang, Boo-Young Kim, Byung-Guk Kim
A328 Usefulness of Exhaled Nitric Oxide for Evaluating Wheeze and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Preschool Children
Jung-Won Lee, Ji-Won Kwon, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Byoung-Ju Kim, Dae-Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
A329 Systemic Cyclosporine Treatment in Hand Eczema Patients
Kyung Ho Kim
A330 Lipid Profiles and Adipokines in Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Young Yoo, Won Suck Yoon, Sungchul Seo, In Soon Kang, Jae Won Choi, Hye-Young Lim, Ji Tae Choung
A331 Validation of Montelukast and Levocetirizine Combination Tablet Versus Individual Tablets in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis Among Adult Filipinos Seen at the Philippine General Hospital-Outpatient Department
Michelle Buela
A332 Efficacy of Makyokansekito on Treatment of Wheezing Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children: A Retrospective Study of 68 Patients
Koji Nishimura
A333 Serum Eosinophilia and Total IgE Are Associated with the Risk of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Symptoms in Two Years Follow-up, Respectively
Sang Chul Park, Hyo Jin Chung, Chang-Hoon Kim, Ju Wan Kang, Seong-Chul Hong, Keun-Hwa Lee, Jaechun Lee, Hye-Sook Lee, Jeong Hong Kim
A334 The Sensitization to Russian Thistle on Mongolian Patients
Narantsetseg Logii
A335 The Association Between Air Pollution, Allergic Sensitization to Inhalant Allergens and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Munkhbayarlakh Sonomjamts, Enkhbayar Bazarsad
A336 Pre-Coseasonal Treatment with a 5-Grass Pollen Sublingual Tablet in Adults Demonstrated a Reduction on Asthma Symptoms in Réunion Island
Bashir Omarjee
A337 Peak Expiratory Flow Rate Reference Values for Children Aged 5-14 Years Old in Beijing Urban Area
Shuo LI
A338 Soybean Storage Proteins As the Main Allergen in a Patient with Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Due to Tofu
Miyuki Hayashi, Ruby Pawankar, Shingo Yamanishi, Toru Igarashi, Yasuhiko Itoh
A339 A Study of Allergy Skin Prick Test with Weed Pollen
Oyuntsatsral Batsaikhan, B. Gantulga, B. Enkhbayar, S. Munkhbayarlakh, L.Narantsetseg
A340 The Role of Neurotrophin in a Murine Model of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Rhinitis
Pei-Chi Chen, Jiu-Yao Wang
A341 Mimotopes of the Major Shellfish Allergen Tropomyosin Suppress Splenocyte Proliferation and Local Cytokine Expression in a Mouse Model of Shellfish Allergy
Nicki Y. H. Leung, Christine Yee Yan Wai, Patrick S.C. Leung, Ka Hou Chu
A342 A Questionnaire Survey on Understanding of Atopic Dermatitis Among Korean Patients and Caregivers
Eun Jin Doh, Dong Hun Lee, Mira Choi, Hyun-Sun Yoon, Kyu Han Kim, Ji Soo Lim
A343 Comparison of the Dosage of Bronchodilators in the Bronchodilator Response Test in Children
Ji Hyeon Baek, Man Yong Han, Seung Jin Lee, Youhoon Jeon, Kyung Suk Lee, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Youn Ho Shin
A344 The Expression and Effect of Natural Killer T Lymphocytes in Chidren with Asthma
Yi Jiang, Miao Liu
A345 Oral Provocation Test in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitive Patients Referred to Singapore General Hospital
Chaw Su Naing, Tze Chin Tan, Yong Yeow Chong
A346 Different Phenotypes of Bhr (bronchial hyperresponsiveness) By Natural Course in Children and It’s Characteristics
Young-Ho Kim, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Hyung Young Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Young-Ho Jung, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Soo Hyun Kim
A347 Spectrum of Allergens Causing Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Urban Bangalore, India − a Study of 120 Patients
Jacqueline Elizabeth Joseph, Soumya M. S, Ruby Pawankar, Harshitha Kumar
A348 High Prevalence of Wheezing Illness and Risk Factor of Atopic Asthma Progression in Korean Preschool Children
Sohyoung Yang, Sung-Il Woo
A349 Clinical and Laboratory Screening of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: International Effects
Nima Rezaei
A350 The Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Atopic Individuals
Sukran Kose, Basak Gol Serin, Arzu Didem Yalcin, Süheyla Serin Senger, Mehmet Erden, Ertan Serin
A351 Clinical Spectrum and Natural History of Chronic Urticaria in Hong Kong Children
Agnes Sze-Yin Leung, Ting Fan Leung
A352 Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Common Pollen Aeroallergens in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis − in Urban Bangalore, India
Harshitha Kumar, Soumya M.S., Jacqueline Elizabeth Joseph, Ruby Pawankar
A353 Seasonal Patterns of Asthma-Related ED Visits and Admissions in Children and Adolescents Who Visited Emergency Rooms of Korea in 2007-2012
Eun Hee Chung
A354 Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Elementary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea
Eunji Kim, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung, Sungchul Seo, In Soon Kang, Jue Seong Lee, Ji Hyen Hwang
A355 Intralymphatic Immunotherapy for Dermatophagoides Farinae, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Cat, and/or Dog Allergy in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: 1 Year Follow-up
Sang Min Lee, Joo Hyun Jung, Seung Joon Choi, Eugene Joe, Hyunjung Hwang, Shin Myung Kang, Yu Jin Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Jeong-Woong Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Sang Pyo Lee
A356 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Regulates IL-33 Expression in Bronchoalveolar Cells and Lung Tissue in Vivo
Alina Gaisina, Igor Shilovskiy, Aleksandra Nikonova, Oleg Kamyshnikov, Musa Khaitov, Alexander Mitin, Komogorova Viktoriya, Marina Litvina, Nina Sharova
A357 The Prevalence of Parent-Perceived Food Hypersensitivity in Pre-School Children Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Malaysia
Faizah Mohamed Jamli
A358 Th2 Dominant Airway Inflammation Induced By House Dust Mite Chitin Is Dependent on TNF-a and NKT Cell
Da-Il Yoon, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Byul Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Hyeon-Il Choi
A359 Geographic Variations in the Patterns of Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Korean Adults: A Multi-Center Study
Mingyu Kang, Mi Yeoung Kim, Sujeong Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Seoung-Eun Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Sang Min Lee, Chansun Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Jaechun Lee, Young-Koo Jee, Inseon S Choi, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho
A360 Experimental Mouse Model of Asthma Induced By Dust Mite Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus allergenic Extract
Anton Laskin, Oleg Kamyshnikov, Alexander Babakhin, Valentina Berzhets, Musa Khaitov
A361 Severe Refractory Pulmonary Complications in Children with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia
Sejin An, Jae Ho Lee
A362 Usefulness of Interactive e-Learning Education Program for Asthma Guideline
Sung-Yoon Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Sae-Hoon Kim, Yong Eun Kwon, Young-Koo Jee, Tae-Bum Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Hye-Kyung Park
A363 Airway Inflammation Induced By House Dust Mite Derived Vesicles Is Mainly Induced By LPS Derived from Gram Negative Bacteria in Dust Mite.
Sang-Yoon Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Han-Ki Park, Ji-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Keun Kim
A364 Changes in the Recognition of Causal Allergen, Its Avoidance, and Allergen Specific Immunotherapy after Skin Prick Test / Intradermal Test, Nasal Provocation Test, and Intralymphatic Immunotherapy in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: 1 Year Follow-up
Hyunjung Hwang, Eugene Joe, Sang Min Lee, Seung Joon Choi, Joo Hyun Jung, Yong Han Seon, Shin Myung Kang, Yu Jin Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Jeong-Woong Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Sang Pyo Lee
A365 Laboratory Diagnostic of Staphylococcal Sensitization
Natalya Khramykhoverchenko
A366 Th-17 Regulatory Cytokines Enhance Neutrophil Production of IL-17 during Asthma
Saleh Al Muhsen, Asma Sultana, Rabih Halwani, Ahmed Bahammam
A367 Diagnostic Value of Serum Total IgE and Prediction of Cut-Off Value to Recommend Mast in Allergic Rhinitis
Hyung Chae Yang, Sun Kyung Kim, Kwang Il Nam
A368 Diagnostic Value of an Increase in FEV1 and/or FVC >12% and >200 mL from Baseline after Bronchodilators for Diagnosis of Asthma
Jeong-Eun Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Kyung Woo Kang
A369 Combined Use of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Bronchodilator Response in Predicting Future Loss of Asthma Control Among Children with Atopic Asthma
Je-Kyung Kim, Youn-Soo Hahn, Jae-Yub Jung
A370 Antigen-Specific IgA Plays an Important Role in Mucosal Immune Response in Allergic Children : Measurement of Secretory IgA and Antigen-Specific IgA
Yosuke Baba, Sususmu Yamazaki, Eisuke Inage, Mari Mori, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Masato Kantake, Toshiaki Shimizu, Asuka Honjoh, Tomoaki Yokokura
A371 Why Teaching Pediatrics Trainees about Anaphylaxis and Its Acute Management Is Essential: Cross Sectional Survey.
Mehdi Adeli, Shaza Ali Mohammed Elhassan, Caroline Beck
A372 Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Local Allergic Rhinitis in Children
Min Sun Na, Heysung Baek, Seung Jin Lee, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jungwon Yoon, Sun Hee Choi, Young-Ho Jung, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
A373 House Dust Mites Sublingual Immunotherapy Can Influence the Long-Term Evolution of Severe Atopic Dermatitis and the Progression to Respiratory Allergy.
Enrico Compalati, Maurizio Marogna
A374 The Positive Distribution Characteristics of 90 Food Specific IgG in Patients with Allergic Diseases
Huimin Huang, Baoqing Sun, Mingyu BAI, Yiting Huo, Peiyan Zheng, Nili Wei, Wenting Luo
A375 Evaluation of Serum Levels of Osteopontin As a Potential Biomarker of Immune Activation in Patients with Allergic Diseases
Elisa Villa, Anand Andiappan, Rosalba Minisini, Olaf Rötzschke, Elena Boggio, Luca Gigliotti, Nausicaa Clemente, Annalisa Chiocchetti, Umberto Dianzani, Mario Pirisi
A376 Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in 3-6-Year-Old (preschool) Children in Chiba City (urban area), Japan
Fumiya Yamaide, Syuji Yonekura, Naoki Shimojo, Yuzaburo Inoue, Yoshitaka Okamoto
A377 Comparative Efficacy of Combination Nebulized Salbutamol and Fluticasone Propionate and Nebulized Salbutamol in Children with Mild Moderate Asthma Attack
Retno Asih Setyoningrum, Landia Setiawati, Sri Sumei, Deddy Iskandar
A378 Characteristics of Children Hospitalized with Asthma in West Nusa Tenggara General Hospital Mataram Indonesia
Indriyani Sang Ayu Kompiyang
A379 Identification of Phenotypes in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Using Cluster Analysis
Tsuyoshi Oguma, Jun Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu, Koichiro Asano
A380 The Roles of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2) in Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)
Keisuke Uno, Yoshinori Matsuwaki, Kazuhiro Omura, Eika Hayashi, Norifumi Tatsumi, Hirohito Kita, Nobuyoshi Otori, Hiromi Kojima
A381 Respiratory Symptoms, Signs and Spirometry Indexes Comparision in 7-12 Years Old Girls in Esfahan Metropolis and Its Far Suburb
Mohammadreza Fatemi Khorasgani
A382 Induction of Kruppel-like Transcription Factor (KLF4&5) By Baker’s Yeast Mannan in Human Bronchial Epithelial and Smooth Muscle Cells
Dukhee/Betty Lew, Kim/S. Lemessurier, Joseph/a Moore, Jeoung-Eun Park, Ae-Kyung Yi, Chi/Young Song, Kafait/U Malik
A383 Korean Profile in Childhood Asthma Severity Classification
Dongin Suh, Ja Kyoung Kim, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Bong-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Shin, So-Yeon Lee, Geunhwa Park, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Heysung Baek, Dae Hyun Lim, Dae Hyun Lim, Jin Tack Kim
A384 Prevalence of Food Sensitization, IgE-Mediated and Non-IgE-Mediated Food Allergy Among Pediatric Patients Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Aimee Lou Manalo Nano
A385 Component-Resolved Diagnostic Study of Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Major Allergen Molecules in a Southern China
Wenting Luo, Baoqing Sun
A386 Risk Factors for Systemic and Local Reactions to Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy
Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Ozlem Sumer, Sait Karaman, Canan Sule Unsal Karkiner, Suna Asilsoy, Ilker Gunay, Demet Can
A387 Literature Review and Current Treatment Options for Cyclical Anaphylaxis
Danielle Kiers
A388 The Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced By Bleomycin
Hsu Han Yin, Jiu-Yao Wang
A389 Activation of Endothelial Cells to Release Hsp90, an Activator of the Prekallikrein-High Molecular Weight Kininogen (HK) Complex
Allen Kaplan, Kusumam Joseph, Baby G. Tholanikunnel
A390 The Effect of Climatic Treatment in 51 Asthmatic Children from Areas Severely Polluted Environment of Northern Moravia, Czech Republic
Radim Dudek
A391 Comparison of Some Vitamin Groups in Asthmatic Patients
Gulden Bilgin, Hatice Surer, Aytun Sadan Kilinc, Dogan Yucel
A392 Sensitization in Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Single Center Study
Ji Young Lee, Jihyun Kim, Hea-Kyoung Yang, Minji Kim, Sang-Il Lee, Kangmo Ahn
A393 Staphylococcal Enterotoxin IgE Sensitization: A Risk Factor for COPD Overlap in the Elderly Asthma?
Sung Do Moon, Byung-Keun Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Heung Woo Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Woo-Jung Song, Min-Koo Kang, Ju-Young Kim, Kyonghee Sohn, Ha Kyung Won, Seoung-Eun Lee, Kyung-Mook Kim, Claus Bachert
A394 The Effects of Probiotics and PparÎ3 on the Murine Model of Allergic Asthma
Miao-Hsi Hsieh, Jiu-Yao Wang
A395 Adult Patients’ Views on the Design of Adrenaline Autoinjectors
Helen Smith, Clare Brown, Christina Jones, Mark Davies
A396 CCL22 miRNA modulated Th1 responses and induced therapeutic effects on OVA-induced mouse model of asthma
Won Suck Yoon
A397 Clinical, Histological, and Skin Microbiome Characteristics of Head and Neck Dermatitis in Atopic Dermatitis
Hemin Lee, Howard Chu, Jungsoo Lee, Jung U Shin, Chang Ook Park, Kwang Hoon Lee, Seo Hyeong Kim, Ji Yeon Noh, Ji Hye Kim
A398 MicroRNA-432 modulates Th1 responses and induced therapeutic effects in atopic like murine model.
Won Suck Yoon
A399 Case Report of Near-Fatal Asthma Due to Snail Allergy in a House Dust Mite-Allergic Adult
Jean-Pierre L’huillier, Jean-Eric Autegarden, Catherine Bertrand, Dominique Tardy
A400 Relationship Between Gut Microbiota in the First 3 Months of Life and Infant Immune Function at Age 12 Months
Intan Hakimah Ismail, Mimi Tang, Paul Licciardi, Frances Oppedisano, Robert Boyle, Roy Robins-Browne
A401 A Pediatric Case of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Due to Spice Allergy
Hisako Yagi, Harumi Koyama, Yutaka Nishida, Takumi Takizawa, Hirokazu Arakawa
A402 Correlations Between Objective Severity Score and Each of the Subjective Severity Intensity in Atopic Dermatitis
Hong Kyu Kang, Hemin Lee, Jungsoo Lee, Jung U Shin, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee, Howard Chu, Chang Ook Park
A403 Barrier Related Gene Mutations in Atopic Dermatitis
Na Young Yoon, Hyeyoung Lee, Seong Jun Seo, Eunhee Choi, Hye-Young Wang, Minyoung Jung, Eung Ho Choi, Dong Hye Kim
A404 Clinical Utility of Basophil Activation Test (BAT) in the Diagnosis of Drug Induced Anaphylaxis
Joo-Hee KimYoung-Sook Jang, Jeong-Hee Choi, Sunghoon Park, Young Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung
A405 Feeding Shapes the Colonization of Gut Microbiota and Associated with Total IgE in Infant
Mi-Jin KangDongin Suh, Eun Lee, Kil Yong Choi, Young-Ho Jung, Song-I Yang, Bong-Soo Kim, Ha-Jung Kim, Juneyoung Koh, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Youn Ho Shin, Hyun-Ju Cho, Byoung-Ju Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Yean Jung
A406 CD8+T Cell-Intrinsic Smad4 Suppresses Th2 Responses in the Pathogenesis of Contact Hypersensitivity
Mizuko Mamura, Jeong-Hwan Yoon, Susumu Nakae, Inkyu Lee, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida, Jin Soo Han, Katsuko Sudo, Ji Hyeon Ju
A407 Immune-Modulatory Genomic Properties Differentiate Gut Microbiotas of Infants with and without Eczema
Gaik Chin Yap, Wen Tso Liu, Seungdae Oh, Pei Ying Hong, Chiung Hui Huang, Marion Aw, Lynette Shek, Bee Wah Lee
A408 The Effect of Medication in OSA Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Young Seok Byun, Sung Wan Kim, Tae Kyung Koh, Joong-Saeng Jo, Kun Hee Lee, Chul Kwon, Sung-Hwa Dong
A409 A Case of Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Mimicking Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
Myung Shin Kim, Chansun Park
A410 Anaphylaxis Caused By Gummy Jelly Ingestion: A Case Report
Han Seok Cho, Min-Ju Kim, Min Ji Kim, Young Ok Park, Hye Yeong Lee, Hee Seong Kim, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jinho Yu, Soo-Jong Hong, Keum Hee Hwang
A411 Serum Folliculin As a Novel Biomarker for Asthma
Jung-Hyun Kim, You Sook Cho, Sae-Hoon Kim, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Mira Yoo, Hyo-Jung Kim, So-Young Park, Bomi Shin, So Young Park, Bomi Seo, Min-Gu Kim, Hee-Bom Moon, Jin-Ah Park, Tae-Bum Kim, Jaemoon Lee
A412 Corticosteroid Nasal Irrigations after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in the Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Asthma
Jin Hyeok Jeong, Tae Wook Kang, Han Seok Yoo, Yong Hee Cho, Seok Hyun Cho, Kyung Rae Kim
A413 Capsaicin Injection in Neonatal Period Potentiates Intensity and Duration of Atopic Dermatitis of Rats.
Jue Seong Lee, Sun-Ho Kee, Sewon Kim, Young Yoo, Heung Sik Na, Seung Keun Back
A414 Comparison Between the Impulse Oscillometry System, Spirometry, Feno, Lung Clearance Index and Asthma Control and Exacerbation Status.
Seung Jin Lee, Bo Seon Seo, Ji Hyeon Baek, Kyung Suk Lee, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han, Mi-Ae Kim
A415 The Association of Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with and without Asthma
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A416 Effects of Air Pollution on Allergic Rhinitis in Korea
Jisun Park
A417 Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Korean Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Seung Hyun Moon
A418 A Questionnaire of Children with Asthma or Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
Rong Jun Lin, Ren Zheng Guan
A419 A Case of Trimebutine-Induced Morbilliform Skin Eruption
Gyeong Yul Park, Hyun-Sun Yoon
A420 Comparison of Methacholine and Mannitol to Predict Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Children with Asthma
Woo-Hyeok Choi, Heysung Baek
A421 Different Inflammatory Mechanisms of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Jin-Sung Park, Eunmi Kwon, Zac Callaway, Chang-Keun Kim, Takao Fujisawa
A422 Sputum Microbiota in Chinese Adults with Eosinophilic Versus Non-Eosinophilic Asthma
Qingling Zhang, Rihuang Qiu, Naijian Li, Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Kian Fan Chung, Nanshan Zhong
A423 Which Clinical Features Are Useful in Predicting Presence of Staphylococcus Aureus colonization/Infection in Childhood Atopic Dermatitis?
Kam Lun E. Hon, Yin Ching K. Tsang, Ting Fan Leung
A424 Clinical Significance of Increased VEGF, TGF-Î21, and YKL-40, a Chitinase like Protein, in Serum of the Children with Asthma
Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Seung Gook Lee, Ji Hyun Na, Jong Hoon Lee
A425 Analysis of Follow-up Results of Mannitol Challenge Test in Asthma Patients
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A426 Analysis of 68 Oral Walnut Challenge Tests
Mikita Yamamoto, Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Ayako Ogawa, Kanako Ogura, Kyohei Takahashi, Kenichi Nagakura, Shigehito Emura, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Katsuhito Iikura, Motohiro Ebisawa, Yu Okada
A427 Effectiveness of Air Filters Intervention in Allergic Rhinitis
Jiaying Luo, Xiao Lan, Baoqing Sun, Zhao Chen, Guiyuan Sun, Shimin Li, Jiaqing Hu
A428 The Relationship Between Airway Hyperresponsiveness to Mannitol and Atopy in Asthmatic Children
Woo-Hyeok Choi, Heysung Baek
A429 Anaphylactoid Reactions to N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Aacetaminophen Overdose
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A430 Effect of Prenatal Maternal Distress and GSDMB Polymorphism on the Development of Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood: COCOA Study
Yean Jung Choi, Si Hyeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Youn Ho Shin, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Hyoung Yoon Chang, In Ae Choi, Kyung-Sook Lee, Yee-Jin Shin
A431 Vitamin D Level in Allergic Rhinitis: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Young a Park, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Yong Ju Lee
A432 Implication of Inspiratory and Expiratory Resistance and Reactance in Children with Asthma
In Suk Sol, Kyu-Earn Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, Seo Hee Yoon, Yong Ju Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Young a Park, Myung Hyun Sohn
A433 The Association of Asthma Predictive Index with Asthma in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheeze
Sung Joo Park, Ji-Won Kwon, Woo Kyung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Byoung-Ju Kim, Dae-Jin Song, Yun Seok Yang, Jung Yeon Shim
A434 Clinical Significance of Serum Total IgE Levels in Children with RSV-Associated Lower Respiratory Illness
Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Ji Hye Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Chang Ho Lee
A435 Development of a Oak Pollen Emission and Transport Modeling Framework in South Korea
Changbum Cho, Yun-Kyu Lim, Kyu Rang Kim, Mijin Kim, Baek-Jo Kim
A436 Temperature, Humidity, and Air Pollution Affect Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in Infants and Young Children
Young-Min Kim, Youngshin Han, Jihyun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Kangmo Ahn
A437 Effects of Compound V on Pulmonary Fibrosis Model
Chuang/Yao Ming, Jiu-Yao Wang, Ye/Yi Ling
A438 Vitamin D Level and the Correlation with IgE in Children with Allergic Respiratory Diseases in Guangzhou China
Huimin Huang, Baoqing Sun, Yun Chen, Peiyan Zheng, Nili Wei, Wenting Luo
A439 Two Case Reports of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Associated with Allergic Disease
Do Hyeong Lee, Gil-Soon Choi, Hee-Kyoo Kim, Han Su Park
A440 Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) May Identify Common Genetic Variations Both in Immediate and Delayed Drug
So-Young Park, Hyo-Jung Kim, Bomi Seo, Jung-Hyun Kim, Min-Gu Kim, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, You Sook Cho, Hee-Bom Moon, Tae-Bum Kim, Yoon Su Lee
A441 Development of a Questionnaire for Secular Change of Atopic Dermatitis from Birth to 19-Year-Old.
Akio Tanaka, Satoshi Morioke, Yukihiro Ohya, Naoki Shimojo, Akira Akasawa, Michihiro Hide, Hiroko Shizukawa
A442 Evaluation of the Adherence Starts with Knowledge-20 (ASK-20) to Inhaled Drug in Patients with Bronchial Asthma
Naoto Watanabe
A443 The Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestation of Hmpv Infection in Children during Recent 4 Years: 2011-2014
Meeyong Shin, Myeong Sun Jang
A444 Neutropenia Induced By Intravenous Immunoglobulin
Young-Hee Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A445 A First Case of Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonitis in Healthy Child
Ji-in Jung, Ha-Su Kim, Hyun-a Kim, Jin-a Jung
A446 Cytokine Production upon House Dust Mite Stimulation of Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells from Caesarean Section-Delivered Singaporean Infants
Anne Goh, Rajeshwar Rao, Bindu Nandanan, Ruurd Van Elburg, Chua Mei Chien, Juandy Jo, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen, Leon Knippels, Elena Sandalova, Wen Chin Chiang
A447 Dress Syndrome with Acute Interstitial Nephritis Caused By Quinolone and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Young-Hee Nam, Ji Young Juong, Soo Jin Kim, Eun Young Kim, Su Mi Lee, Young Ki Son, Hee-Joo Nam, Ki-Ho Kim, Soo-Keol Lee
A448 IL-23 Roles in the Development of House Dust Mite Allergic Sensitization and Asthma
Da-Eun Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Hyun Seung Lee, Yoon-Seok Chang, Jung-Won Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Woo-Jung Song
A449 Exposure Profile of Indoor Risk Factors in Dwellings of Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Hyunwook Lim, Sungchul Seo, Ji Tae Choung, Young Yoo, Jun-Sik Park, Byung Kwan Kim
A450 Epidemiological Characterization of Blood Eosinophils in the Elderly Population
Ha Kyeong Won, Hye-Ryun Kang, Byung-Keun Kim, Sung Do Moon, Ju-Young Kim, So-Hee Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Heung Woo Park, Min-Koo Kang, Sun-Sin Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-up Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Kyoung Hee Sohn, Kyung-Mook Kim, Ki-Woong Kim, Hak Chul Jang
A451 Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Caused By Methotrexate in the Treatment of Psoriasis
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A452 Genetic Determinants for Lung Function Growth in Asthmatic Children
Ting Fan Leung, Man Fung Tang, Hing Yee Sy, Wa Cheong Chan, Wilson Wai San Tam
A453 The Power of Allergen Specific Ig E in the Classification of Rhinitis, Korean National Hanes 2010
Seung Kyu Chung, Sujin Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol Kim, Hun-Jong Dhong, Jong in Jeong
A454 Analysis of Allergen Immunotherapy Practice and Patients’ Knowledge and Attitude about Allergen Immunotherapy in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Korea
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Soo-Keol Lee
A455 Roles of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in House Dust Mite-Induced Acute Asthma Models
Ji Won Lee, Mingyu Kang, Soon-Hee Kim
A456 A Clinical Comparison of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Korea
Young-Hee Nam, Dong Sub Jeon, Hee-Joo Nam, Yeo Myeong Noh, Sang Hee Kim Kim, Ye Suel Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A457 The Beneficial Effect of Lactobacillus Gasseri PM-A0005 and Its Immunoregulatory Protein PMA5P40 on Milk-Induced Allergic Enteritis
Yung-I Hou, Jiu-Yao Wang
A458 Relationship Between Serum Folate Levels and Risks of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases in Early Childhood: The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health Study
Ja Hyeong Kim, Seol Jae Hee, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Namsoo Chang
A459 Effects of Vitamin D in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Yuta Soma, So Watanabe, Ruby Pawankar, Ruby Pawankar, Harumi Suzaki, Harumi Suzaki, Hitome Kobayashi
A460 Clinical Features of Systemic Contact Dermatitis from Ingestion of Rhus
Young-Hee Nam, Chansun Park, Soo-Keol Lee
A461 Sublingual Immunotherapy Efficacy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea
Jongrok Lee, Jooyoung Roh, Haryeong Ryu
A462 Characteristics of Serious Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary University Hospital
Cheol-Woo Kim, Jae Hwa Cho, Mi Ra Eom, Ji Young Kang, Hye Gyeung Lee
A463 Eyelid Dermatitis: Patch Test Results during a 15-Year Period in Korea and Evaluation of Metal Contents in Eye Shadows
Hae Young Choi, Hye Jin Lee, Ju Yun Woo, Ji Yeon Byun, You Won Choi
A464 Relationship Between Lipid Levels and Risks of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases in Early Childhood: The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health Study
Ja Hyeong Kim, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Namsoo Chang
A465 IL-32 in the Induced Sputum of Patients with Asthma
Jae-Woo Kwon, Hun Soo Chang, Jeong-Seok Heo, Jong-Uk Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Eusom Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Choon-Sik Park
A466 Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Chromium Allergy in a Single University Hospital in Korea
Hae Young Choi, Ji Yeon Byun, Ju Yun Woo, You Won Choi
A467 Efficacy and Safety of Oral Acitretin in Chronic Hand Eczema
Hyun-Ju Jin, Jin-Hwa Son, Jeong-Min Kim, Gun-Wook Kim, Je-Ho Mun, Margaret Song, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Hoon-Soo Kim, Byung Soo Kim
A468 Atypical Antipsychotics and Anticholinergic Agents Mimicking Anaphylaxis
Sheryl Van Nunen, Dinh Van Nguyen, Anthony Elias, Susannah Olivia Lauer
A469 Introducing Reach (Reliable Estimation of Atopic dermatitis in ChildHood): Novel, Questionnaire-Based Diagnostic Criteria for Childhood Atopic Dermatitis
Seung-Chul Lee, Ho-June Lee, Jung Min Bae
A470 Comprehensive Assessment to Identify the Causative Factors in Oral Allergy Syndrome
Emi Ono
A471 Comparison of Interpretation Methods in Allergic Skin Test
Sung-Hwa Dong, Tae Kyung Koh, Young Seok Byun, Sung Wan Kim, Joong-Saeng Jo, Chul Kwon, Kun Hee Lee
A472 Refraining Aminophylline Use Increases Hospitalization Among Children with Acute Asthma: A 10-Years Retrospective Cohort Study
Li-Fan Liu
A473 The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atopic Dermatitis from Nationwide Study for Korean School Students
Sunghee Lee
A474 Probiotic Recombination Protein Effect on Atopic Dermatitis
Wei-Leng Chen, Jiu-Yao Wang
A475 Allergic Sensitization Status in Various Inflammatory Skin Diseases
Youin Bae, Gyeong-Hun Park
A476 Two Cases of Good’s Syndrome: A Rare Acquired Immunodeficiency Associated with Thymoma
Suk Yeon Kim
A477 IL-23 Has a Role to Play in the Development of Asthma in Short-Term Cigarette Smoke Exposure-Induced House-Dust Mite Allergic Model
Hyun Seung Lee, Woo-Jung Song, Mingyu Kang, Han-Ki Park, Da-Eun Park, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Hye-Young Kim, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Ji-Won Lee, Boram Bae, Jung-Won Park
A478 The Relationship Between the Relevance of Allergic Disease and the Value of Non-Specific IgE
Yasuhiro Suzuki
A479 Two Caces of Prawn Allergy in Adult Patients
Ismet Bulut, Zeynep Ferhan Ozseker
A480 Early Gut Bifidobacterium Breve and B. Catenulatum Colonisation Differentially Modulate Eczema Risk in Children at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease
Intan Hakimah Ismail, Robert Boyle, Paul Licciardi, Frances Oppedisano, Roy Robins-Browne, Mimi Tang
A481 Effects of Chronic Repeated Exposure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B on Allergic Asthma Model in Mice
Ji Won Lee, Hyun Seung Lee, Mingyu Kang, Da-Eun Park, Han-Ki Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Chang-Han Park, Suk-Il Chang, Sook-Hee Song, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Boram Bae
A482 Skin Prick Test Result and Allergen Immunotherapy in Children with Allergic Rhinitis
Grace Shieh
A483 Role of Brp-39 in RSV-Induced Airway Inflammation in Mice
Min Jung Kim, Jung Yeon Hong, Seo Hee Yoon, Doo Hee Shim, In Suk Sol, Yoon Hee Kim, Mi Na Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, Jae Myun Lee
A484 Long-Term Outcomes of Twenty-Four Adults with Primary Immunodeficiency from a Single Centre in Singapore
Hiok Hee Chng
A485 Breast Feeding Increases the Risk of Food Sensitization but Does Not Affect Food Allergy in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Dong Chan Kim, Song-I Yang, Hae Ran Lee, An Deok Seo, So Yeon Lee
A486 IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down Anaphylaxis.
Alessandro Fiocchi, Maria Cristina Artesani, Paola Francalanci, Lamia Dahdah, Thomas Schreiner
A487 Burden and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking and Respiratory Airway Obstruction: An Observation in Urban Adult Population of West Bengal (India)
Kaushik Chakraborty
A488 Blood Eosinophils Could Predict Sputum Eosinophilia? : A Comparison Between Asthma and Non-Asthmatic Chronic Cough in the Elderly
Ha Kyeong Won, Ju-Young Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Kyoung Hee Sohn, Kyung-Mook Kim, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sang-Heon Cho, Woo-Jung Song, Byung-Keun Kim
A489 Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Allergic Rhinitis in Japan
Syuji Yonekura, Yoshitaka Okamoto
A490 Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Asthma Control Status in Elderly Asthmatics
Gyu Young Hur, Young Min Ye, Joo-Hee Kim, Ki-Suck Jung, Junga Kim, Jae Jeong Shim, Hae-Sim Park
A491 The Association Between Respiratory Tract Infection and Reactive Oxygen Stress
Kazuhiro Sekimoto, Kazuko Sugai, Keiji Tsuchimoto, Hiromi Uehara, Masanori Ikeda
A492 The Risk Factors and Lung Function of Current Allergic Rhinitis Due to Dust Mite Sensitization
Euncho Chung, Kang Seo Park, Yean Jung Choi, Jeewon Park, Soo-Jong Hong, So Yeon Lee
A493 Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Blomia Tropicalis Dust Mite Allergen Blo t 7
Alain Jacquet, Arun Buaklin, Nat Malainual
A494 Seasonal Variations of Airborne Pollen in Bangalore, India
Roopashree S
A495 Pollen Observation and Use of Data
Kyu Rang Kim, Mijin Kim, Changbum Cho, Baek-Jo Kim, Jae-Won Oh, Mae Ja Han
A496 The Effect of Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis in First 3 Years of Life : Cocoa Study
Hyun-Ju Cho, Youn Ho Shin, Eun Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Darae Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Song-I Yang, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Hye-Sung Won, Soo Hyun Kim, Suk-Joo Choi, Young Han Kim, Jong Kwan Jun, Eun-Jin Kim, Jeom Gyu Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong, Dongin Suh
A497 Contribution of Stem Cell Factor Autocrine/Paracrine Mechanism to Aberrant Proliferation of Mast Cells
Yosuke Amagai, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
A498 A Randomized Dbpc Dose-Finding Multicenter Trial of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) Allergoid Tablets in House Dust Mites (HDM) Allergic Patients
Ralph Mösges, Pauline Dieterich, Anatoli Astvatsatourov, Christoph Hüser, Jaswinder Singh, Kija Shah-Hosseini, Silke Allekotte, Enrico Compalati
A499 Depression and Allergy in the Elderly: A Community Population Analysis
Kyoung Hee Sohn, Woo-Jung Song, Byung-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Min Suk Yang, So-Hee Lee, Sae-Hoon Kim, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung Woo Park, Sun-Sin Kim, Kyung-up Min, Sang-Heon Cho, Yoon-Seok Chang
A500 The Integrated Analysis of Correlation Between Total IgE and Other Immunological Factors in Allergic Diseases
Woo-Sung Chang, Ji-Hye Do, Yeon-Seop Kim, Dankyu Yoon, Hye-Sun Lim, Jeom-Kyu Lee, Eun-Jin Kim
A501 Pattern of Allergic Diseases Among Military Servicemen Referred to a Clinical Immunology/Allergy Service in Singapore
Bernard Thong, Yew Kuang Cheng, Jinfeng Hou, Khai Pang Leong, Justina Tan, Faith Chia, Grace Chan, Sze-Chin Tan, Teck Choon Tan, Chwee Ying Tang, Hiok Hee Chng
A502 A Case of Rifampicin-Induced Hypersensitivity Diagnosed By the Lymphocyte Activation Test with Successful Desensitization
Chan-Sun Park, Mi Yeoung Kim, Eun-Young Kim, Jae-Gook Shin, Jae-Hyeog Choi, Saegwang Park, Yeonye Kim
A503 Analysis of Individual Case Safety Reports of Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis Based on Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database
Kyung-Hwan Lim, Jae Woo Jung, Mingyu Kang, Ju-Young Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Hyun Jeong Kim, Yeon-Ju Woo, Soo-Youn Jung, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hye-Ryun Kang
A504 Impact of Processes Certification on the Liability of Anti-Dust Mites Bed Covers
Thierry Porée, Nabile Boukhettala, Emeline Furon
A505 Localisation Kinetics of Aluminium after Subcutaneous Injection in a Rat Model
Alan David Bullimore, Matthew Heath, Simon Hewings, Murray Skinner
A506 Periostin Levels in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Competitive Athletes, Asthmatics and Healthy Subjects - Associations with Outdoor Ambient Conditions
Marcin Kurowski, Hubert Krysztofiak, Aleksandra Wardzynska, Marzanna Jarzebska, Janusz Jurczyk, Marek L. Kowalski
A507 The Role of PKR Pathway in Acute Exacerbation of Severe Bronchial Asthma
So Ri Kim, Yong Chul Lee, Dong Im Kim, Yang Keun Rhee, Heung Bum Lee, Seoung Ju Park, Yeong Hun Choe Choe, Seung Yong Park
A508 Diversity of Clinical Manifestations and Treatment Responses for Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
Joo-Hee Kim, Sunghoon Park, Young Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung
A509 Effect of Dexamethasone in Th17 Cell Mediating Neutrophilic Asthma
Nong Guang-Min, Jiang Min
A510 Allergen Profile for Asthma/Rhinitis and Eczema Among Patients in North India: An Immunocap Allergen Specific IgE Antibodies Assay Based Study
Nalin Nag
A511 Clinical Profile of Allergic Rhinitis in Children in Jakarta
Wahyuni Indawati
A512 Preclinical Study on the Use of Micro Crystalline Tyrosine (MCT) Adjuvants in Allergy Immunotherapy
Alan David Bullimore, Matthew Heath, Murray Skinner
A513 Genetic Diversity of Filaggrin Mutation and Its Clinical Implication in East Asian Atopic Dermatitis Patients
Seong Jun Seo, Won Jong Oh
A514 Protein and MPL Adsorption Capacities for MCT in Candidate Therapeutic Formulations for Use in Immunotherapy, Compared Against Existing Adjuvants
Alan David Bullimore, Murray Skinner, Matthew Heath, Andrew Bell
A515 Interleukin-22 Gene Variation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Alireza Zarebidoki, Hournaz Hasanzadeh, Salman Sadeghzade, Nima Rezaei
A516 Immunomodulatory Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Secretome in a Mouse Model of Asthma
Kyu-Sup Cho
A517 Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage with Positive Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody in a Child : A Case Report
Sung-Woo Kim, Moo-Young Oh
A518 Clinical Analys the Serum TARC Levels As the Condition Index of Atopic Dermatitis in the Early Infancy
Munemitsu Koizumi, Kazuyo Kuzume
A519 An Analysis of the Filaggrin Gene Polymorphism in Korean Atopic Dermatitis Patients
Kui Young Park, Won Jong Oh
A520 A New Protocol for Wheat Oral Immunotherapy in Patients with Anaphylaxis
Delara Babaie, Mohammad Nabavi, Fariborz Zandieh, Mehrdad Amir Moini, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Hamideh Seifi, Mitra Sahragard, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian
A521 Clinical Characteristics of Filaggrin-Related Atopic Dermatitis Patients in Korea
Sun Young Choi, Yeon a No
A522 Early Allergy Diagnosis in Children - Self- Administered Questionnaire Vs Medical Verification
Andrzej M. Fal, Dorota Kiedik, Agnieszka Muszynska, Iwona Pirogowicz
A523 Asthma Impact on Children with Food Induced Anaphylaxis
Chikako Motomura, Masatoshi Wakatsuki, Yuko Akamine, Mihoko Iwata, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Naohiko Taba, Yoko Murakami, Hiroshi Odajima
A524 Case Reports of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome-Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Reni Ghrahani
A525 The Effectiveness of Oral Tolerance Induction for Wheat Allergy Using Two Different Intake Levels
Yuri Takaoka
A526 Association of Plasma Interleukin-25 Levels with Development of Aspirin Induced Airway Spasm in Asthma
Jong-Uk Lee, Jeong-Seok Heo, Da-Jeong Bae, Hyun Ji Song, Choon-Sik Park, Jong-Sook Park
A527 Transition of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis after 2 Years in Korean Children: Preliminary Study
Jae Hoon Cho, Ji Ho Choi
A528 Early Onset of Psoriasis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Budi Setiabudiawan, Fiska Febriana, Reni Ghrahani, Gartika Sapartini
A529 Clinical Features of Immediate Hypersensitivity to Histamine H2 Antagonists and Their Cross Reactivity
Chan-Sun Park, Young-Hee Nam, Mi Yeoung Kim, Gil-Soon Choi
A530 Detection of Galacto-Oligosaccharide Specific IgE in Vitro
Chiung-Hui Huang, Chiung-Hui Huang, Jian Yi Soh, Lynette Shek, Lynette Shek, Dianne J. Delsing, Bee Wah Lee, Bee Wah Lee, Si Hui Goh, Wen Chin Chiang, Wenyin Loh
A531 The Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Allergic Diseases in Elementary Schoolchildren
Hea-Kyoung Yang, Ji Young Lee, Minji Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Jihyun Kim, Young-Min Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Yong Mean Park, Woo Kyung KIM, So-Yeon Lee
A532 Serum Levels Specific IgE to Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin Type 1 in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyp in Korean
Jongin Jeong, Sang Duk Hong, Seung Kyu Chung, Hun-Jong Dhong, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol Kim, Sujin KIM
A533 Impacts of Rhizosphere Cleaning Effects of Potted Indoor Plants on the Symptoms and Stress of Students with Allergic Rhinitis in Newly Built Schools
Yong-Won Lee, Hana Bak, Hye-Rim Son, Si-Eun Lee, Kwang-Jin Kim, Young-Wook Lim, Ho-Hyun Kim
A534 A Case of Multiple Food Allergies with Recurrent Anaphylaxis Successively Controlled By Omalizumab
Mi-Ae Kim, Man Yong Han, Young-Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Seung Jin Lee, Kyung Suk Lee
A535 Bepotastine-Induced Urticaria, Cross-Reactive with Other Antihistamines
Jasmina Golez, Jaechun Lee, Eunkyoung Lee
A536 Role of SLC26a4 in Ozone - Induced Airway Reactivity and Inflammation
Da-Jeong Bae, Chang-Gi Min, Jong-Uk Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
A537 PAR2-Antagonist Suppresses Protease-Induced Allergic Inflammation Mediated By Degradation of Lung Epithelial Tight Junction and Generation of ROS
Young-Joon Kim, Bok Kyoung Jung, Seung-Hwa Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Sekyoo Jeong, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Young-Ho Kim, Song-I Yang, Seo Hee Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
A538 Novel Anti-IL-4Ra Nanocarrier Approach for the Efficient Control of Lung Tissue Inflammation during Asthma
Rabih Halwani, Saleh Al Muhsen, Asma Sultana, Achraf Al-Faraj, Rosan Kanana, Sibtain Afzal, Roaa Al Kufaidi
A539 Clinical Factors for Improved Allergen Reactivities Induced By Subcutaneous Allergen Specific Immunotherapy with House Dust Mites during 1 Year Period
Hee-Kyoo Kim, Chul-Ho Oak, Gil-Soon Choi, Ye-Jin Moon, Eun-Kee Park
A540 Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Kidney Acute Rejection
Alireza Zarebidoki, Mina Abrari, Ali Akbar Amirzargar
A541 Phthalate Exposure and Obesity in Atopic Dermatitis of Korean Children and Adolescents
Ju-Hee Seo, Mina Ha, Soo-Jong Hong
A542 Which Drives Chronicity of Cough in Adults: Based on the Knhanes 2010-2012
Mingyu Kang, Byung-Ha Cho, Han-Ki Park, Han-Ki Park, Kyung-Mook Kim, Chang-Han Park, Heung Woo Park, Heung Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sook-Hee Song, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Suk-Il Chang, Kyung-up Min, Kyung-up Min, Alyn Morice
A543 Elevated Airway CD45RO Memory Cells in Wheezing Children with Lower Respiratory Infection
Jungi Choi, Yusok Han, Jin-Sung Park, Eunmi Kwon, Chang-Keun Kim
A544 Quality of Life in Obese Children with or without Atopic Disease
Gartika Sapartini
A545 Relation of Human microRNA in Sputum of Asthma with Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Exacerbation
Ji-Na Kim, Seungwoo Shin, Hun Soo Chang, Eun-Young Shim, Ji Ah Jun, Hyeonju Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Choon-Sik Park
A546 Aeropolinologic Monitoring and Distribution of Allergoallergens in Western Georgia
Revaz Sepiashvili, Darejan Khachapuridze, Sofio Gamkrelidze, Manana Chikhladze
A547 Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation As Emergency Treatment for Patients with Near-Fatal Status Asthmaticus
Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Seong Kim, Doo-Soo Jeon, Woo-Hyun Cho, Hye-Ju Yeo, Seong-Hoon Yoon, Seung-Hyun Kim
A548 Relationship of S100calcium Binding Protein A9 with Neutophilic Inflammation in Murine Asthma Model
Taehyeong Lee, Hyun Ji Song, Choon-Sik Park, Ji Ah Jun, Jong-Sook Park
A549 Whole-Exome Sequencing of Aatopic Dermatitis in Korean Childhood
Dankyu Yoon, Yeon-Seop Kim, Woo-Sung Chang, Mi-Jin Kang, Soo-Jong Hong, Jeom-Kyu Lee, Eun-Jin Kim
A550 A Case of Generalized Molluscum Contagiosum in an Adult Patient with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Minkee Park
A551 Discovery of Putative Macadamia Nut Allergens By Patient IgE Binding and a Label-Free Shotgun Proteomics Approach
Nanju Alice Lee, Johanna Rost, Sridevi Muralidharan, Dianne Campbell, Sam Mehr
A552 Anti-FcÎμri Antibody Inhibits Allergic March in Mice By Suppressing Th17 Pathway Via Suppression of FcÎμri-Mediated Mast Cells Activation
Seung-Hwa Lee, Seon-Joo Yoon, Ha-Jung Kim, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Ho-Sung Yu, Hee-Suk Kim, Yeon Hee Park, So-Yeon Lee, Jun-Sung Park
A553 Clinical Characteristics and the Associated Factors of ATG Hypersensitivity Reaction
Ha Kyeong Won, Min-Koo Kang, Sung Do Moon, Byung-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang, Ji-Su Shim, Soo Jie Chung
A554 Reference Value and Utility of Total Serum Immunoglobulin E in Korean Schoolchildren
Jaehee Choi, Kangmo Ahn, Kwanghoon Kim, Jihyun Kim, Jiyoung Lee
A555 Two-Step Prescreening Skin Testing May be Useful for Reducing Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Nonionic Contrast Media: Results of 7-Year Period in a Secondary Hospital
Bo Bae Park, In Young Nho, Chang-Han Park, Jang Min Kim, Suk-Il Chang
A556 Prevalence of Allergic Sensitization in Patients with Allergy Rhinitis; Gwangju, Jeonnam State Study
Sun Kyung Kim, Hyung Chae Yang, Kwang Il Nam
A557 Analysis of IgE Binding Components of Walnut in Korean Children Effect of Cooking Methods on the Allergenicity of Walnut Proteins
Jeongmin Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Sooyoung Lee, Kyunguk Jeong, Se-Ah Jeon
A558 Assessment of Autonomic Nervous Function in Subjects with Cholinergic Urticaria Associated with Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis
Midori Fujiwara, Shoko Shindo, Hiroyuki Murota, Mayuko Tahara, Aya Takahashi, Ichiro Katayama
A559 Interleukin 1 Beta in Sputum of Patients with Asthma: Relation with Airway Obstruction and Neutrophilc Inflammation
Jae Woo Jung, Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, An-Soo Jang, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, Choon-Sik Park, Byoung Whui Choi
A560 Interleukin 8 in Sputum of Patients with Asthma: Relation with Neutrophilc Inflammation and Exacerbation
Min-Hye Kim, Da-Jeong Bae, Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, Ji Ah Jun, Jong-Sook Park, An-Soo Jang, Hun Soo Chang, Young Joo Cho, Choon-Sik Park
A561 Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-Î2 Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation By Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Sue Jean Mun
A562 Inhalation of Fine Particles Kill Alveolar Macrophages to Release IL-1alpha That Promote Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT) Formation
Etsushi Kuroda, Koji Ozasa, Ken Ishii
A563 Association Between Smoking and Allergic Diseases in the Korean Adult General Population
Sunmi Kim, Gyeong-Hun Park
A564 Relationship of S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 with Inflammasome Activation in Murine Asthma Model
Hyun Ji Song, Taehyeong Lee, Ji Ah Jun, Hun Soo Chang, Jong-Sook Park, Choon-Sik Park
A565 Cluster Analysis of Asthma Phenotypes to Predict Exacerbation in Korean Population
Mi-Ae Kim, Seungwoo Shin, Jong-Sook Park, Hun Soo Chang, You Sook Cho, Hae-Sim Park, Choon-Sik Park
A566 Effect of AG490 on the Expression of TH17 CELLS and Tregs in the MOUSE MODEL of Neutrophilic Asthma
Zhang Min
A567 Association Between the Clinical Characteristics and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Bronchiolitis Patients Younger Than Two Years Old
Seo Hee Yoon, In Suk Sol, Young a Park, Yoon Hee Kim, Min Jung Kim, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim
A568 Comparison Between House Dust Mite and Aspergillosis Sensitization in Patients with High Level of Tige
Wu Shiquan
A569 The Prevalence of Metal Allergy in the Patients with Orthodontic Appliance
Yongwon Lee, Hana Bak
A570 Component Resolved Diagnosis and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses: Towards the Development of Specific Immunotherapy for Allergy
Maricar Wisco Ching, John Donnie Ramos
A571 Clinical Features of Anaphylaxis Caused By Peanut, Tree Nuts and Seeds in Children and Adolescents: Multi-Center Study with 126 Patients
Kyunguk Jeong, Sooyoung Lee, Kangmo Ahn, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyung Won Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Tae Won Song, Youhoon Jeon, Jihyun Kim, Taek Ki Min, Kyu-Earn Kim, Bok-Yang Pyun, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Hae Ran Lee, Youngmin Ahn, Ji-Won Kwon, Dae Hyun Lim, Jeong Hee Kim, Dongin Suh, Hyung Young Ki
A572 A Report of Two Cases of Anaphylaxis Caused By Perilla Seed in Children
Kyunguk Jeong, Byeong Sub Park, Sooyoung Lee, Se-Ah Jeon, Kyu Jung Park
A573 Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter Affects Wheezing in Children with TLR4 Polymorphism: Cocoa Study
Song-I Yang, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Young-Ho Kim, Mi-Jin Kang, Yean Jung Choi, Kil Yong Choi, Youn Ho Shin, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Byoung-Ju Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Eun-Jin K
A574 Intensified B Lymphocyte Depletion (IBLD) without Immunosuppressive Maintenance Treatment As a Rescue Therapy in Refractory Lupus Nephritis (LN): a 4-Year Observation.
Roccatello Dario
A575 Relationship Between Th17 Cells and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Childhood Neutrophilic Asthma
Jing Liao
A576 Clinical Applications of Impulse Oscillometry in Asthma Management after Exacerbation in Preschool Children
Yong Feng, Yunxiao Shang
A577 Contact Allergy to Sodium Sulfite and Its Relationship to Facial Cosmetic Contact Dermatitis
Yongwon Lee, Hana Bak
A578 Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Asthma and Lung Function Development
Hyung Young Kim, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Ju-Hee Seo, Eun Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hee Ju Park
A579 Role and Relational Mechanism of AG490 in Airwayinflammation in the Mouse Model of Neutrophilic Asthma
Zhang Min, Nong Guang-Min, Jiang Min
A580 Incidence of Adverse Reaction to Radioconstrast Media in a Single Tertiary Hospital
Gyu Young Hur, Eun Jung Sim, Sora Yoon, Juwhan Choi, Junga Kim, Jae Keom Sim, Jee Youn Oh
A581 Cow’s Milk Oral Food Challenge: Clinical and Laboratory Features in Korean Children
Kyunguk Jeong, Byeong Sub Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Sooyoung Lee, Eunjae Cheon, Youngjoo Na, Kyu Jung Park, Eunjoo Lee
A582 Validation of the Red Maple Trials Allergen Challenge Theatre for Ragweed Pollen Challenge
William Yang, Suzanne Kelly, Rob Perrins, Jimmy Yang
A583 Preliminary Evaluation of the Red Maple Trials Allergen Challenge Theatre for Grass Pollen
William Yang, Suzanne Kelly, Rob Perrins, Jacob Karsh, Jimmy Yang
A584 The Association Between Tobacco and the Risk of Asthma in Urban and Rural Children in San Francisco, Argentina
Hector Badellino, Alvaro Teijeiro, Mabel Cuello, Marilyn Urrutia Pereira, Gustavo Egues
A585 The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in University Students in Manisa
Ayse Aktas
A586 Allergen Sensitization in Zimbabwean Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Jin-Kyong Chun, Hilda Angela Mujuru, Elopy N Sibanda
A587 Vitamin D Insufficiency in Asthmatic Patients
Andreea Ioana Popescu, Raluca Greblescu
A588 The Prevalence of Hypersensitivity Reactions Against Drugs Among University Students.
Suheyla Rahman, Ayse Aktas
A589 Sublingual Immunotherapy Among Problematic Patients, Suffering from Allergic Rhinitis.
Nataly Tataurshchikova
A590 A Novel Biomarker for Wheezing and Atopy in Early Infancy
Eishika Dissanayake, Yuzaburo Inoue, Naoki Shimojo, Taiji Nakano
A591 Prognostic Factors for Atopic Dermatitis in Spontaneously Born Babies from Low Socioeconomic Background
Conny Tanjung
A592 Higher IgE Antibody Levels Mediate Anti-Cancer Immunity in Transgenic KN1 Hyper-IgE Mice
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Judit Fazekas, Josef Singer, Anna Lukschal, Reinhard Horvat, Gertrude Achatz-Straussberger, Gernot Achatz
A593 Fructooligosaccharides Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation Increases Gut Bifidobacterium and IL-27 in Breast Milk
Yuji Fujita, Shuji Ikegami, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuzaburo Inoue, Naoki Shimojo, Yoichi Kohno, Shuichi Suzuki, Naoko Ozawa, Takayuki Kubota, Ken Nonaka, Osamu Ohara, Kentaro Masuda
A594 Effect of Nintedanib on Asthma in Mouse Model
Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee, Hwa Young Lee, Hea Yon Lee, Ji Young Kang, Sei Won Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon Kim
A595 Delayed Contrast Media Hypersensitivity after Coronary Angiography
Gun-Woo Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hyo-Soo Kim, Jung Gyu Han, Jin Lee, Ji Young Lee, Ji Young Go, So Jung Park
A596 Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria Reveals Unique Gene Signature Distinct from Healthy Controls
Julie Kim-Chang, Cassandra Love, Patricia Lugar
A597 Failure to Recognize Lymphopenia in Newborn Leads to Undetectable Primary Immunodeficiency
Endah Citraresmi
A598 The Concordance Between Lung Function Test and Indonesian Version of Childhood Asthma Control Test (CACT)
Nastiti Kaswandani, Cynthia Utami, Mardjanis Said
A599 Synergistic Interaction Between Bronchiolitis and PM10 Is Modified By IL-13 Polymorphism on Asthma Development: Replication from Cheer Study
Young-Ho Jung, Song-I Yang, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyung Young Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ho-Jang Kwon, Hyo-Bin Kim, Hyun-Ju Cho
A600 The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-b-Induced Suppression of Fceri and c-Kit Expression and Fceri-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells
Susumu Yamazaki, Nobuhiro Nakano, Asuka Honjoh, Eisuke Inage, Yosuke Baba, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Toshiaki Shimizu
A601 The Follow up of the Potential Immunosuppressant Effects of Marijuana (MJA)
Ishaq M, Sameera MI Khan, Imran Khan, Sabeen Khan
A602 Risk Factors of Allergen Sensitization at 3 Years: Results from the Gusto Study
Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Yap Seng Chong, Bee Wah Lee, Lynette Shek, Alison Joanne Lee
A603 IL-6 Blockade As a Steroid-Sparing Treatment for Rhupus Patients
Daniela Rossi
A604 Examination of Late Pulmonary Toxicity in Children Treated for Malignancies
Agnes Nemeth
A605 Technical Validation of the Repurposing of a Personal Particle Sampler to Determine House Dust Mite Exposure in the Ambient Air
Torsten Sehlinger, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Frank Goergen
A606 Zinc Deficiency in Children with Severe Atopic Dermatitis: More Common Than Generally Thought
Mohammad S. Ehlayel, Abdul Bari Bener
A607 Strong Association Between HLA-B*5801 Allele and Allopurinol – Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions in Vietnamese
Hieu Chi Chu, Nga Thi Quynh Do, Dinh Van Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu Nguyen, Huong Thi Minh Le, Sheryl Van Nunen, Christopher Vidal, Suran Fernando
A608 Successful Rapid Desensitization to Glatiramer Acetate: Report of 2 Cases
Fotis Psarros, Ekaterini Syrigou, Ekaterini Politi, Spyridon Chrysoulakis
A609 Asthma Exacerbations Seasonal Variation in Two Perennial Phenotypes during Twenty Years (1995-2014): House Dust Mite Monosensitized and Non Atopic Patients
Dimitrios Vourdas, Konstantinos Petalas
A610 Occupational Allergy to Fungal Spores Among the Farmers of Paddy Fields in West Bengal, India: An Aeromycological and Immunological Approach
Mouli SAHA, Kashinath Bhattacharya
A611 Study of Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) in Cases of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Subir Jain
A612 Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Lung Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Chronic Asthma Rat Model Via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Lung Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Chronic Asthma Rat Model Via PI3K/Akt Signaling
Xiaolian Song, Haiyan Lin
A613 Development of Allergen ELISA Kits for Dust Mites, Pollen, and Pet Dander
Kyohei Nishikawa, Takashi Shimada, Hiroshi Yasueda, Tadao Enomoto, Daisuke Aizawa, Takayoshi Kobayashi
A614 Yoga As a Lifestyle Modification to Improve the Quality of Life in Smokers with Allergic Rhinitis
Chellaa R
A615 Study of Incidence of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Different Age Groups,Sex Prevalance and Type of Allergen” Aeroallergen or Food Allergen” Responsible for Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Central India
Subir Jain
A616 Causative Allergens in Cases of Severe Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Central India
Subir Jain
A617 Atopic Dermatitis: A New Data on the Mechanisms of Chronic Pruritus
Marina Yudina
A618 The Efficacy and Safety of Peanut Oral Immunotherapy in High-Dose with Predicting Factors
Ishaq M, Sameera MI Khan, Imran Khan, Sabeen Khan
A619 Evaluation of Long-Term Prognosis and Topical Corticosteroid Usage after One Year of Proactive Treatment for Children with Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Mayako Saito
A620 Allergy Symptoms in the First Two Months of Life
Nurul Iman Nilam Sari
A621 Factors Related to the Seasonal Variation of Allergic Rhinitis
Jae Young Kim, Jaechul Song, Inah Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee, Soo Jin Park, Soo Yong Roh
A622 Allergic Risk Survey in Lao Children at out-Patient Department, Children’s Hospital, Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR
Somxay Billamay
A623 Correlation Between Food Allergy, Aeroinhalant Allergy, Allergic Rhinitis, Atopic Dermatitis, and Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Levels of Severity of Asthma in Pediatric Medicine Department Saiful Anwar Hospital Indonesia
Muchammad Fahrul Udin
A624 Comparative Study of Pine, Oak, and Ginkgo Pollen Counts in Korea during Last Four Years
Mae Ja Han, Jae-Won Oh, Kyu Rang Kim, Baek-Jo Kim
A625 Effectiveness of Allergy-Test Directed Elimination Diets in Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Jorge A Mazza, Jason Kangeun Ko, David JT Huang
A626 Comparison of Cut-Off Values and Probability Curves for Egg Specific IgE in Diagnosis of Egg Allergy in Young Children
Kanae Furuya, Keigo Kainuma, Takahiro Ito, Mizuho Nagao, Takao Fujisawa, Junya Hirayama, Yu Kuwahara
A627 A Case of Persistent Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Parasitic Infection
Rosanna Qualizza, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Anna Maraschini
A628 Aeroallergenic Profile of Indoor Allergens and Their Clinical Relevance in Allergy and Asthma Patients in Saudi Arabia
Syed Mohammed Hasnain, Abdulrahman Al-Frayh
A629 Oral Exposure to the Amino Acid Glycine Inhibits the Onset of Allergic Disorders
Anita Hartog, Jacqueline Bastiaans, Reinilde Loonstra, Lieke Rutten, Lucien Harthoorn, Jeroen Van Bergenhenegouwen, Johan Garssen, Johan Garssen
A630 Cough As a Key Symptom in Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, COPD and Rhinosinusitis and Its Impact in Korea
Kwang-Ha Yoo, Sang-Heon Cho, AG Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Horng- Chyuan Lin, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Santwona Baidya, Colman Taylor, De Yun Wang, Hae-Ryun Ahn, Soon-Kwan Hong, Jong-Woong Kim, Gui-Hyun Nam, Mee-Ja Kim, Jae-Kyoung Park
A631 Cysteine Protease Allergen Def f 1 Induces Th2 Cytokines in Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Basophils Via ERK and JNK Dependent Pathways
Myung-Hee Yi, Kyoung Yong Jeong, Ju-Yeong Kim, Tai-Soon Yong
A632 Novel Multiple Allergy Testing Kit Using Parallel Lines Array (PLA) Technology
Bum Joon Kim, Hs Joo, Kj Lim, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jung-Won Park, Kh Yoon, DS Choi
A633 Quantitative Rapid Kit for Human Immunoglobulin
Hanseung Joo, Bum Joon Kim, Kj Lim, MJ KIM, DS Choi, Kh Yoon
A634 Total IgE Measurement By Protia Allergy-Q: Comparison Study with Immunocap
Bum Joon Kim, Hanseung Joo, Woo Sang Jung, Kj Lim, DS Choi
A635 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asthma Among Korean Farmers
Ji-Hoon Lee, Soon-Chan Kwon, Soo-Jin Lee, Soo Yong Roh, Hogil Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee
A636 Dietary Intake and Perceived Immune Status in Young Dutch Women
Aurora Van De Loo, Amanda Fernstrand, Johan Garssen, Joris Verster
A637 The Effects of Antihistamine Drugs on on-Road Driving Performance
Aurora Van De Loo, Johan Garssen, Joris Verster
A638 Grass Is Guilty: A Case of Anaphylactic Shock and Asthmatic Status in the Same Time in an Individual
Jasmina Golez
A639 Cyclic Gamp-AMP(cGAMP) Induces Allergic Inflammation
Koji Ozasa, Etsushi Kuroda, Ken Ishii, Ken Ishii
A640 Role of Omalizumab in the Setting of Recalcitrate Dermatitis with Extremely Elevated IgE Levels
Muhammad Imran, Selina Gierer, John Martinez
A641 Follow-up Study on the Natural History of Prawn Allergy
Lydia Wong, Bee Wah Lee, Gaik Chin Yap, Genevieve Llanora, Bernard Thong, Lynette Shek
A642 Protein-Losing Dermopathy Impairing Growth in Children with Severe Atopic Dermatitis
Mohammad S. Ehlayel, Ashraf Soliman
A643 Airways Assessment of Aged Nursing Homes Residents
Pedro Martins, João Marques, Joana Gomes-Belo, Teresa Palmeiro, Iolanda Caires, Joana Belo, Maria Amália Botelho, Paula Leiria-Pinto, Nuno Neuparth
A644 Use of Skin Prick Test, Specific IgE to Shrimp and Rpen a1 to Determine Clinical Reaction to Shrimp in Area with High Prevalence of House Dust Mite Sensitization
Narissara Suratannon, Jaichat Mekaroonkamol, Jarungchit Ngamphaiboon, Piyawadee Lertchanaruengrith, Pantipa Chatchatee
A645 Identification of Specific IgE-Binding Proteins in Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Pollen
Gholamali Kardar, Ahmad Majd, Youcef Shahali, Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Zahra Pourpak, Fateme Mousavi
A646 Allergy Immunotherapy Well Tolerated in Children
Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari
A647 Steinert (DM1) Patients Have IgG1 Deficiency and Should be Screened for Immune Deficiency
K. Van Bilsen, O. Manusama, W.a. Dik, M. Van Der Burg, V. H. J. Van Der Velden, V.a.S. H. Dalm, P. M. Van Hagen
A648 The Change of Serous Sige and Three Evaluation before and after Sublingual Immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides Farinae for Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Yongping Liu
A649 Garlic Extracts Reduce Histamine-Induced Proliferation and Migration of Human Asthmatic Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells
Yi Yeong Jeong
A650 A Case of Occupational Contact Dermatitis Caused By N-Acetylcysteine
Ji Hye Kim, Moon Gyeong Yoon, Young Min Ye, Yoo Seob Shin, Ga Young Ban, Hae-Sim Park, Hye Min Jung
A651 The Association Between Pollen Change and Asthma Attacks
Soo Yong Roh, Jaechul Song, Ji-Hoon Lee, Hogil Kim, Jae Young Kim, Kyeong Joon Lee
A652 Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Asthma Exacerbations during the Lunar Month in Singapore
Lydia Wong, Mohana Rajakulendran, Haripriya Santhanam, Lynette Shek, Tow Keang Lim
A653 The Prevalence of Positive Reaction for Skin Prick Test in Korean Farmers and Its Occupational Risk Factors
Hogil Kim, Soo-Jin Lee, Ji-Hoon Lee, Soo Yong Roh, Soon-Chan Kwon
A654 Drug Allergy in Children: A Three-Years Experience at Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang Indonesia
Wistiani, Galuh H, Ani Wistiani
A655 The Identification of Morphology, Structure and Study of Seasonal Variation of Airborne Fraxinus Excelsior Pollen Grains in the Tehran
Gholam Ali Kardar, Maryam Sharifshoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Taher Nejadsattari, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
A656 Sublingual Immunotherapy in Elderly Rhinitis Patients Sensitized to House Dust Mites
Ji Hye Kim, Daehong Seo, Young Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park, Jung-Won Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Yoo Seob Shin
A657 Healthy Ageing Research Center (HARC) As a Platform for Multidisciplinary Approaches to Respiratory Research in the Elderly
Marek L. Kowalski, Aleksandra Wardzynska, Marcin Kurowski, Malgorzata / Ewa Pawelczyk, Adam Wysokinski, Iwona Kloszewska, Janina Grzegorczyk, Wojciech Piotrowski, Joanna Makowska
A658 Estimation of Cases of Work-Related Asthma Using Capture-Recapture Methods
Soon-Chan Kwon, Jaechul Song, Yong-Kyu Kim
A659 Primary School Students’ Parents Reported ISAAC Questionnaire in a Low Income Area of Ankara
Ilknur Bostanci, Zeynep Sengul Emeksiz, Aysegul Ertugrul, Serap Ozmen, Soner Sahin
A660 Usefulness of PC20 Adenosine Monophosphate in Diagnosis and Treatment in Bronchial Asthma
Sang-Ha Kim, Myoung Kyu Lee, Won Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Seok Jeong Lee, Ye-Ryung Jung
A661 S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 in Sputum of Patients with Steroid Naive Asthma: Relation with Airway Obstruction and Nneutrophilc Inflammation
Myung Shin Kim, Jong-Sook Park, An-Soo Jang, Choon-Sik Park
A662 Risk Factor Asthma in Pediatric Pneumonia Patients
Diah Asri Wulandari, Cissy Kartasasmita
A663 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Childhood Asthma and Allergic Disease at Exposed Area By Emission of Cement Padang Factory
Finny Fitry Yani, Rizanda Machmud, Dhina Lydia Lestari
A664 Association Between Serum Level of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Atopic Dermatitis Occurrence and Severity in Children
Rusdi Rusdi, Yurmalina Yurmalina, Eryati Darwin
A665 Thiol-Disulfide Balance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Ilknur Bostanci, Gulin Karacan, Nazli Ercan, Asuman Colak, Murat Alisik, Gulay Basarir, Ozcan Erel
A666 Recurrent Mouth Ulsers Caused By Braces after Developing a Nickel Allergy in Children
Ilknur Bostanci, Yasemin Keskin
A667 Anaphylactic Reaction to Famotidine with Pheniramine Hypersensitivity
Ilkay Koca Kalkan
A668 Novel Transcriptomic and Immunoproteotomic Approaches in Identifying Cross-Reactive Allergens Between Crustacean and Molluscs
Andreas/Ludwig Lopata, Kyall Zenger, Roni Nugraha, Sandip Kamath
A669 Pollen Season and Climate Change in the Continental United States (CONUS)
Leonard Bielory, Panos Georgopoulos, Yong Zhang, Wheat Mi, Ting Cai
A670 Differences of Change in Der p IgG4 and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg Cells Between Sublingual and Subcutaneous Immunotherapy with House Dust Mite in Chinese Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
MO Xian, Jing Li, Mulin Feng
doi:10.1186/s40413-016-0096-1
PMCID: PMC4896250
12.  Identification and characterisation of eight novel SERPINA1 Null mutations 
Background
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant circulating antiprotease and is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) superfamily. The gene encoding AAT is the highly polymorphic SERPINA1 gene, found at 14q32.1. Mutations in the SERPINA1 gene can lead to AAT deficiency (AATD) which is associated with a substantially increased risk of lung and liver disease. The most common pathogenic AAT variant is Z (Glu342Lys) which causes AAT to misfold and polymerise within hepatocytes and other AAT-producing cells. A group of rare mutations causing AATD, termed Null or Q0, are characterised by a complete absence of AAT in the plasma. While ultra rare, these mutations confer a particularly high risk of emphysema.
Methods
We performed the determination of AAT serum levels by a rate immune nephelometric method or by immune turbidimetry. The phenotype was determined by isoelectric focusing analysis on agarose gel with specific immunological detection. DNA was isolated from whole peripheral blood or dried blood spot (DBS) samples using a commercial extraction kit. The new mutations were identified by sequencing all coding exons (II-V) of the SERPINA1 gene.
Results
We have found eight previously unidentified SERPINA1 Null mutations, named: Q0cork, Q0perugia, Q0brescia, Q0torino, Q0cosenza, Q0pordenone, Q0lampedusa, and Q0dublin . Analysis of clinical characteristics revealed evidence of the recurrence of lung symptoms (dyspnoea, cough) and lung diseases (emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis) in M/Null subjects, over 45 years-old, irrespective of smoking.
Conclusions
We have added eight more mutations to the list of SERPINA1 Null alleles. This study underlines that the laboratory diagnosis of AATD is not just a matter of degree, because the precise determination of the deficiency and Null alleles carried by an AATD individual may help to evaluate the risk for the lung disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0172-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0172-y
PMCID: PMC4255440  PMID: 25425243
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; Q0 mutation; Lung diseases; Serpins
13.  Adiposity influences airway wall thickness and the asthma phenotype of HIV-associated obstructive lung disease: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2016;16:111.
Background
Airflow obstruction, which encompasses several phenotypes, is common among HIV-infected individuals. Obesity and adipose-related inflammation are associated with both COPD (fixed airflow obstruction) and asthma (reversible airflow obstruction) in HIV-uninfected persons, but the relationship to airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in HIV-infected persons is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if adiposity and adipose-associated inflammation are associated with airway obstruction phenotypes in HIV-infected persons.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 121 HIV-infected individuals assessed with pulmonary function testing, chest CT scans for measures of airway wall thickness (wall area percent [WA%]) and adipose tissue volumes (mediastinal and subcutaneous), as well as HIV- and adipose-related inflammatory markers. Participants were defined as COPD phenotype (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal) or asthma phenotype (doctor-diagnosed asthma or bronchodilator response). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between adipose measurements, WA%, and pulmonary function. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to determine associations of airflow obstruction and airway remodeling (WA%) with adipose measurements and participant characteristics.
Results
Twenty-three (19 %) participants were classified as the COPD phenotype and 33 (27 %) were classified as the asthma phenotype. Body mass index (BMI) was similar between those with and without COPD, but higher in those with asthma compared to those without (mean [SD] 30.7 kg/m2 [8.1] vs. 26.5 kg/m2 [5.3], p = 0.008). WA% correlated with greater BMI (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and volume of adipose tissue (subcutaneous, r = 0.40; p < 0.001; mediastinal, r = 0.25; p = 0.005). Multivariable regression found the COPD phenotype associated with greater age and pack-years smoking; the asthma phenotype with younger age, female gender, smoking history, and lower adiponectin levels; and greater WA% with greater BMI, younger age, higher soluble CD163, and higher CD4 counts.
Conclusions
Adiposity and adipose-related inflammation are associated with an asthma phenotype, but not a COPD phenotype, of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected persons. Airway wall thickness is associated with adiposity and inflammation. Adipose-related inflammation may play a role in HIV-associated asthma.
doi:10.1186/s12890-016-0274-5
PMCID: PMC4973076  PMID: 27488495
HIV; Asthma; COPD; Obstructive lung disease; Obesity; Lipodystrophy; Adiponectin
14.  High Mobility Group Protein B1 (HMGB1) in Asthma: Comparison of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Controls 
Molecular Medicine  2011;17(7-8):807-815.
High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the expression of HMGB1 in plasma and sputum of patients with asthma and COPD across disease severity needs to be defined. The objective of the study was to examine the induced sputum and plasma concentrations of HMGB1 in COPD and asthmatic patients to determine differences in HMGB1 levels between these diseases and their relationship with airway obstruction and inflammatory patterns. A total of 147 participants were enrolled in this study. The participants included 34 control subjects, 61 patients with persistent asthma (according to the Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] guidelines) and 47 patients with stable COPD (stratified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] status). Spirometry was performed before sputum induction. HMGB1 levels in induced sputum and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sputum and plasma concentrations of HMGB1 in patients with asthma and COPD were significantly higher than concentrations in control subjects and were significantly negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1 (% predicted) in all 147 participants. The levels of HMGB1 in induced sputum of COPD patients were significantly higher than those of asthma patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). This difference was present even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids and disease severity. There were no significant differences in HMGB1 levels between patients with eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma. HMGB1 levels in asthmatic and COPD patients were positively correlated with neutrophil counts and percentage of neutrophils. In multivariate analysis, the two diseases (asthma and COPD) and disease severity were independent predictors of sputum HMGB1, but not smoking, age or use of inhaled corticosteroids. In conclusion, these data support a potential role for HMGB1 as a biomarker and diagnostic tool for the differential diagnosis of asthma and COPD. The importance of this observation on asthma and COPD mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2010.00173
PMCID: PMC3146613  PMID: 21380479
15.  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.
PMCID: PMC3657849  PMID: 23563369
Airflow limitation; air pollution; bronchodilators; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exacerbations; lung; pulmonary rehabilitation; smoking
16.  Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):35.
Background
Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1.
Methods
In 5187 adults (2669 females) with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP) levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP.
Results
Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p < 0.001), that disappeared after adjustment for CRP (p = 0.28). In addition, the AAT and FEV1 association was modified by gender, menopausal status in women, and smoking.
Conclusion
The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-35
PMCID: PMC2413219  PMID: 18439253
17.  COPD 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:1502.
Introduction
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. Classically, it is thought to be a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, although only one of these may be present in some people with COPD. The main risk factor for the development and deterioration of COPD is smoking.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of maintenance drug treatment in stable COPD? What are the effects of smoking cessation interventions in people with stable COPD? What are the effects of non-drug interventions in people with stable COPD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 119 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alpha1 antitrypsin, antibiotics (prophylactic), anticholinergics (inhaled), beta2 agonists (inhaled), corticosteroids (oral and inhaled), general physical activity enhancement, inspiratory muscle training, nutritional supplementation, mucolytics, oxygen treatment (long-term domiciliary treatment), peripheral muscle strength training, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, and theophylline.
Key Points
The main risk factor for the development and deterioration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is smoking.
Inhaled anticholinergics and beta2 agonists improve lung function and symptoms and reduce exacerbations in stable COPD compared with placebo. It is unclear whether inhaled anticholinergics or inhaled beta2 agonists are the more consistently effective drug class in the treatment of COPD.Short-acting anticholinergics seem to be associated with a small improvement in quality of life compared with beta2 agonists. Long-acting inhaled anticholinergics may improve lung function compared with long-acting beta2 agonists.Combined treatment with inhaled anticholinergics plus beta2 agonists may improve symptoms and lung function and reduce exacerbations compared with either treatment alone, although long-term effects are unknown.
Inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbations in COPD and reduce decline in FEV1, but the beneficial effects are small. Oral corticosteroids may improve short-term lung function, but have serious adverse effects. Combined inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting beta2 agonists improve lung function, symptoms, and health-related quality of life, and reduce exacerbations compared with placebo, and may be more effective than either treatment alone.
Long-term domiciliary oxygen treatment may improve survival in people with severe daytime hypoxaemia.
Theophylline may improve lung function compared with placebo, but adverse effects limit its usefulness in stable COPD.
We don't know whether mucolytic drugs, prophylactic antibiotics, or alpha1 antitrypsin improve outcomes in people with COPD compared with placebo.
Combined psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation can slow the deterioration of lung function, but have not been shown to reduce long-term mortality compared with usual care.
Multi-modality pulmonary rehabilitation can improve exercise capacity, dyspnoea, and health-related quality of life in people with stable COPD; general physical exercises and peripheral muscle training can improve exercise capacity; inspiratory muscle training may improve lung function and exercise capacity; but nutritional supplementation has not been shown to be beneficial.
PMCID: PMC3275305  PMID: 21639960
18.  COPD 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:1502.
Introduction
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterised by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. Classically, it is thought to be a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, although only one of these may be present in some people with COPD. The main risk factor for the development and deterioration of COPD is smoking.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of maintenance drug treatment in stable COPD? What are the effects of maintenance drug treatment in stable COPD? What are the effects of non-drug interventions in people with stable COPD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alpha1 antitrypsin, antibiotics (prophylactic), anticholinergics (inhaled), beta2 agonists (inhaled), corticosteroids (oral and inhaled), general physical activity enhancement, inspiratory muscle training, maintaining healthy weight, mucolytics, oxygen treatment (long-term domiciliary treatment), peripheral muscle strength training, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, and theophylline.
Key Points
The main risk factor for the development and deterioration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is smoking.
Inhaled anticholinergics and beta2 agonists improve lung function and symptoms and reduce exacerbations in stable COPD compared with placebo. It is unclear whether inhaled anticholinergics or inhaled beta2 agonists are the more consistently effective drug class in the treatment of COPD.Short-acting anticholinergics seem to be associated with a small improvement in quality of life compared with beta2 agonists. Long-acting inhaled anticholinergic drugs may improve lung function compared with long-acting beta2 agonists.Combined treatment with inhaled anticholinergics and beta2 agonists may improve symptoms and lung function and reduce exacerbations compared with either treatment alone, although long-term effects are unknown.
Inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbations in COPD and reduce decline in FEV1, but the beneficial effects are small. Oral corticosteroids may improve short-term lung function, but have serious adverse effects. Combined inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting beta2 agonists improve lung function and symptoms and reduce exacerbations compared with placebo, and may be more effective than either treatment alone.
Long-term domiciliary oxygen treatment may improve survival in people with severe daytime hypoxaemia.
Theophylline may improve lung function compared with placebo, but adverse effects limit their usefulness in stable COPD.
We don't know whether mucolytic drugs, prophylactic antibiotics, or alpha1 antitrypsin improve outcomes in people with COPD compared with placebo.
Combined psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation can slow the deterioration of lung function, but have not been shown to reduce long-term mortality compared with usual care.
Multi-modality pulmonary rehabilitation and exercises can improve exercise capacity in people with stable COPD, but nutritional supplementation has not been shown to be beneficial.
PMCID: PMC2907933  PMID: 19445783
19.  Characteristics of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin–Deficient Individuals in the Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial and Comparison with Other Subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Rationale: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) predisposes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but is underrecognized. Oxygenation and exercise desaturation in individuals with AATD-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been sparsely studied. The Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial (LOTT) permits comparing these features of individuals with AATD with alpha-1 antitrypsin–replete (called “usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”) LOTT participants.
Objectives: Compare demographic, clinical, baseline oxygenation, and exercise desaturation features in participating AATD subjects with those of other LOTT subjects.
Methods: LOTT is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing use of supplemental oxygen versus not in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and moderate hypoxemia (resting oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, 89–93%) or normal oxygen saturation at rest and significant exercise desaturation.
Measurement and Main Results: Among the 597 LOTT participants with nonmissing alpha-1 antitrypsin levels, 11 (1.8%) had severe AATD and 44 (7.4%) had mild/moderate AATD. Comparison of the 11 severely AAT-deficient individuals with the 542 LOTT participants with usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed that the AATD subjects were younger and despite less smoking, had lower FEV1/FVC (mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC, 0.38 ± 0.06 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13; P = 0.002). Comparison with 27 age-, sex-, and FEV1-matched alpha-1 antitrypsin–normal LOTT participants showed no baseline difference in resting room air pulse oximetry saturation (AATD, 93.6% ± 2.3% vs. 92.7% ± 2.2%; P = 0.64). Exercise-related desaturation was more severe in the individuals with AATD based on desaturation to 88% or less sooner during a 6-minute-walk test, having a higher percentage of desaturation points (e.g., <90%) during exercise, and having a higher distance-saturation product (defined as the distance walked in 6 min multiplied by the nadir saturation achieved during the 6-minute-walk test).
Conclusions: These data suggest that individuals with AATD experience more profound desaturation with exercise than age-, sex-, race-, and FEV1-matched control subjects with usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00692198)
doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201506-389OC
PMCID: PMC4722829  PMID: 26653189
alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; oxygenation; Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial; desaturation
20.  Environmental correlates of impaired lung function in non-smokers with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) 
Thorax  1998;53(11):939-943.
BACKGROUND—Active smoking is the most important risk factor for pulmonary emphysema in subjects with severe α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of environmental risk factors other than active smoking on lung function and on respiratory symptoms in non-smoking PiZZ individuals.
METHODS—Lifetime exposure to passive smoking, domiciliary use of a kerosene (paraffin) heater or gas cooker, and all occupations since leaving school were reported by 205 non-smoking PiZZ individuals (95 men and 110 women) included in the Swedish AAT deficiency register. Lung function test results and histories of respiratory symptoms (chronic bronchitis, recurrent wheezing, and exertional dyspnoea) were elicited from the AAT register records.
RESULTS—After adjustment for age, agricultural employment and domiciliary kerosene heater usage, but not gas cooker usage or passive smoking, were both associated with significantly decreased lung function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed age, sex, kerosene heater usage, and agricultural employment to be independent determinants of lung function impairment. Age and passive smoking for 10 years or more, both at home and at the work place, were associated with the presence of chronic bronchitis. Age and agricultural employment for ⩾10 years were associated with recurrent wheezing and exertional dyspnoea.
CONCLUSIONS—Domiciliary kerosene heater usage and an agricultural occupation therefore appear to be environmental factors associated with decreased lung function in non-smoking PiZZ individuals, and passive smoking is associated with an increased frequency of chronic bronchitis, but not with impaired lung function.


PMCID: PMC1745103  PMID: 10193391
21.  Lung Function and Incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Improved Cooking Fuels and Kitchen Ventilation: A 9-Year Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(3):e1001621.
Pixin Ran, Nanshan Zhong, and colleagues report that cleaner cooking fuels and improved ventilation were associated with better lung function and reduced COPD among a cohort of villagers in Southern China.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD.
Methods and Findings
A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans) and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas) instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters); questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO2, CO, CO2, NO2, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less) in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions.
Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1): decline in FEV1 was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y) and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y) in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV1, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y). The longer the duration of improved fuel use and ventilation, the greater the benefits in slowing the decline of FEV1 (p<0.05). The reduction in the risk of COPD was unequivocal after the fuel and ventilation improvements, with an odds ratio of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for both improvements.
Conclusions
Replacing biomass with biogas for cooking and improving kitchen ventilation are associated with a reduced decline in FEV1 and risk of COPD.
Trial Registration
Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-OCH-12002398
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Nearly 3 billion people in developing countries heat their homes and cook by burning biomass—wood, crop waste, and animal dung—in open fires and leaky stoves. Burning biomass this way releases pollutants into the home that impair lung function and that are responsible for more than a million deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. COPD is a group of diseases that interfere with breathing. Normally, air is breathed in through the nose or mouth and travels down the windpipe into two bronchial tubes (airways) in the lungs. These tubes branch into smaller tubes (bronchioles) that end in bunches of tiny air sacs (alveoli). Oxygen in the air passes through the thin walls of these sacs into small blood vessels and is taken to the heart for circulation round the body. The two main types of COPD—chronic bronchitis (long-term irritation and swelling of the bronchial tubes) and emphysema (damage to the walls of the alveoli)—make it hard for people to breathe. Most people with COPD have both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, both of which are caused by long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, indoor air pollution, and other lung irritants. Symptoms of COPD include breathlessness during exercise and a persistent cough that produces large amounts of phlegm (mucus). There is no cure for COPD, but drugs and oxygen therapy can relieve its symptoms, and avoiding lung irritants can slow disease progression.
Why Was This Study Done?
Exposure to indoor air pollution has been associated with impaired lung function and COPD in several studies. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effects on lung function and on the incidence of COPD (the proportion of a population that develops COPD each year) of replacing biomass with biogas (a clean fuel produced by bacterial digestion of biodegradable materials) for cooking and heating, or of improving kitchen ventilation during cooking. Here, the researchers undertook a nine-year prospective cohort study in rural southern China to investigate whether these interventions are associated with any effects on lung function and on the incidence of COPD. A prospective cohort study enrolls a group of people, determines their characteristics at baseline, and follows them over time to see whether specific characteristic are associated with specific outcomes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers offered nearly 1,000 people living in 12 villages in southern China access to biogas and to improved kitchen ventilation. All the participants, who adopted these interventions according to personal preferences, completed a questionnaire about their smoking habits and occupational exposure to pollutants and had their lung function measured using a spirometry test at the start and end of the study. Some participants also completed a questionnaire and had their lung function measured three and six years into the study. Finally, the researchers measured levels of indoor air pollution in a randomly selected subset of homes at the end of the study to confirm that the interventions had reduced indoor air pollution. Compared with non-use, the use of clean fuels and of improved ventilation were both associated with a reduction in the decline in lung function over time after adjusting for known characteristics that affect lung function, such as smoking. The use of both interventions reduced the decline in lung function more markedly than either intervention alone, and the benefits of using the interventions increased with length of use. Notably, the combined use of both interventions reduced the risk of COPD occurrence among the study participants.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that, among people living in rural southern China, the combined interventions of use of biogas instead of biomass and improved kitchen ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in lung function over time and with a reduced risk of COPD. Because participants were not randomly allocated to intervention groups, the people who adopted the interventions may have shared other unknown characteristics (confounders) that affected their lung function (for example, having a healthier lifestyle). Thus, it is not possible to conclude that either intervention actually caused a reduction in the decline in lung function. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that the use of biogas as a substitute for biomass for cooking and heating and improvements in kitchen ventilation might lead to a reduction in the global burden of COPD associated with biomass smoke.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001621.
The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides detailed information for the public about COPD
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information about COPD and links to other resources (in English and Spanish)