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1.  Incidence and Risk Factors of Recurrence after Surgery for Pathology-proven Diverticular Disease 
World Journal of Surgery  2008;32(7):1501-1506.
Background
Diverticular disease is a common problem in Western countries. Rationale for elective surgery is to prevent recurrent complicated diverticulitis and to reduce emergency procedures. Recurrent diverticulitis occurs in about 10% after resection. The pathogenesis for recurrence is not completely understood. We studied the incidence and risk factors for recurrence and the overall morbidity and mortality of surgical therapy for diverticular disease.
Methods
Medical records of 183 consecutive patients with pathology-proven diverticulitis were eligible for evaluation. Mean duration of follow-up was 7.2 years. Number of preoperative episodes, emergency or elective surgeries, type of operation, level of anastomosis, postoperative complications, persistent postoperative pain, complications associated with colostomy reversal, and recurrent diverticulitis were noted. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative probability of recurrence. Cox regression was used to identify possible risk factors for recurrence.
Results
The incidence of recurrence was 8.7%, with an estimated risk of recurrence over a 15-year period of 16%. Risk factors associated with recurrence were (younger) age (p < 0.02) and the persistence of postoperative pain (p < 0.005). Persistent abdominal pain after surgery was present in 22%. Eighty percent of patients who needed emergency surgery for acute diverticulitis had no manifestation of diverticular disease prior to surgery. In addition, recurrent diverticulitis was not associated with a higher percentage of emergency procedures.
Conclusion
Estimated risk of recurrence is high and abdominal complaints after surgical therapy for diverticulitis are frequent. Younger age and persistence of postoperative symptoms predict recurrent diverticulitis after resection. The clinical implication of these findings needs further investigation. The results of this study support the careful selection of patients for surgery for diverticulitis.
doi:10.1007/s00268-008-9530-z
PMCID: PMC2480508  PMID: 18330623
2.  The Sigma-trial protocol: a prospective double-blind multi-centre comparison of laparoscopic versus open elective sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis 
BMC Surgery  2007;7:16.
Backround
Diverticulosis is a common disease in the western society with an incidence of 33–66%. 10–25% of these patients will develop diverticulitis. In order to prevent a high-risk acute operation it is advised to perform elective sigmoid resection after two episodes of diverticulitis in the elderly patient or after one episode in the younger (< 50 years) patient. Open sigmoid resection is still the gold standard, but laparoscopic colon resections seem to have certain advantages over open procedures. On the other hand, a double blind investigation has never been performed. The Sigma-trial is designed to evaluate the presumed advantages of laparoscopic over open sigmoid resections in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
Method
Indication for elective resection is one episode of diverticulitis in patients < 50 years and two episodes in patient > 50 years or in case of progressive abdominal complaints due to strictures caused by a previous episode of diverticulits. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT-scan, barium enema and/or coloscopy.
It is required that the participating surgeons have performed at least 15 laparoscopic and open sigmoid resections. Open resection is performed by median laparotomy, laparoscopic resection is approached by 4 or 5 cannula. Sigmoid and colon which contain serosal changes or induration are removed and a tension free anastomosis is created. After completion of either surgical procedure an opaque dressing will be used, covering from 10 cm above the umbilicus to the pubic bone. Surgery details will be kept separate from the patient's notes.
Primary endpoints are the postoperative morbidity and mortality. We divided morbidity in minor (e.g. wound infection), major (e.g. anastomotic leakage) and late (e.g. incisional hernias) complications, data will be collected during hospital stay and after six weeks and six months postoperative. Secondary endpoints are the operative and the postoperative recovery data. Operative data include duration of the operation, blood loss and conversion to laparotomy. Post operative recovery consists of return to normal diet, pain, analgesics, general health (SF-36 questionnaire) and duration of hospital stay.
Discussion
The Sigma-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized study to define the role of laparoscopic sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-7-16
PMCID: PMC1955435  PMID: 17683563
3.  The ladies trial: laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitisA and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitisB in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037) 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:29.
Background
Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy.
The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective treatment for patients with purulent peritonitis (LOLA-arm) and to determine the optimal resectional strategy in patients with a purulent or faecal peritonitis (DIVA-arm: perforated DIVerticulitis: sigmoidresection with or without Anastomosis).
Methods/Design
In this multicentre randomised trial all patients with perforated diverticulitis are included. Upon laparoscopy, patients with purulent peritonitis are treated with laparoscopic lavage and drainage, Hartmann's procedure or sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis in a ratio of 2:1:1 (LOLA-arm). Patients with faecal peritonitis will be randomised 1:1 between Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis (DIVA-arm). The primary combined endpoint of the LOLA-arm is major morbidity and mortality. A sample size of 132:66:66 patients will be able to detect a difference in the primary endpoint from 25% in resectional groups compared to 10% in the laparoscopic lavage group (two sided alpha = 5%, power = 90%). Endpoint of the DIVA-arm is stoma free survival one year after initial surgery. In this arm 212 patients are needed to significantly demonstrate a difference of 30% (log rank test two sided alpha = 5% and power = 90%) in favour of the patients with resection with primary anastomosis. Secondary endpoints for both arms are the number of days alive and outside the hospital, health related quality of life, health care utilisation and associated costs.
Discussion
The Ladies trial is a nationwide multicentre randomised trial on perforated diverticulitis that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic lavage and drainage for purulent generalised peritonitis and on the optimal resectional strategy for both purulent and faecal generalised peritonitis.
Trial registration
Nederlands Trial Register NTR2037
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-10-29
PMCID: PMC2974662  PMID: 20955571
4.  A multicenter randomized clinical trial investigating the cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies with or without antibiotics for uncomplicated acute diverticulitis (DIABOLO trial) 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:23.
Background
Conservative treatment of uncomplicated or mild diverticulitis usually includes antibiotic therapy. It is, however, uncertain whether patients with acute diverticulitis indeed benefit from antibiotics. In most guidelines issued by professional organizations antibiotics are considered mandatory in the treatment of mild diverticulitis. This advice lacks evidence and is merely based on experts' opinion. Adverse effects of the use of antibiotics are well known, including allergic reactions, development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and other side-effects.
Methods
A randomized multicenter pragmatic clinical trial comparing two treatment strategies for uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. I) A conservative strategy with antibiotics: hospital admission, supportive measures and at least 48 hours of intravenous antibiotics which subsequently are switched to oral, if tolerated (for a total duration of antibiotic treatment of 10 days). II) A liberal strategy without antibiotics: admission only if needed on clinical grounds, supportive measures only. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they have a diagnosis of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as demonstrated by radiological imaging. Only patients with stages 1a and 1b according to Hinchey's classification or "mild" diverticulitis according to the Ambrosetti criteria are included. The primary endpoint is time-to-full recovery within a 6-month follow-up period. Full recovery is defined as being discharged from the hospital, with a return to pre-illness activities, and VAS score below 4 without the use of daily pain medication. Secondary endpoints are proportion of patients who develop complicated diverticulitis requiring surgery or non-surgical intervention, morbidity, costs, health-related quality of life, readmission rate and acute diverticulitis recurrence rate. In a non-inferiority design 264 patients are needed in each study arm to detect a difference in time-to-full recovery of 5 days or more with a power of 85% and a confidence level of 95%. With an estimated one percent of patients lost to follow up, a total of 533 patients will be included.
Conclusion
A clinically relevant difference of more than 5 days in time-to-full recovery between the two treatment strategies is not expected. The liberal strategy without antibiotics and without the strict requirement for hospital admission is anticipated to be more a more cost-effective approach.
Trial registration
Trial registration number: NCT01111253
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-10-23
PMCID: PMC2919453  PMID: 20646266
5.  Rethinking elective colectomy for diverticulitis: A strategic approach to population health 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(44):16609-16614.
Diverticulitis is one of the leading indications for elective colon resection. Surgeons are trained to offer elective operations after a few episodes of diverticulitis in order to prevent future recurrences and potential emergency. However, most emergency surgery happens during the initial presentation. After recovery from an episode, much of the subsequent management of diverticulitis occurs in the outpatient setting, rendering inpatient “episode counting” a poor measure of the severity or burden of disease. Evidence also suggests that the risk of recurrence of diverticulitis is small and similar with or without an operation. Accordingly, contemporary evaluations of the epidemiologic patterns of treatments for diverticulitis have failed to demonstrate that the substantial rise in elective surgery over the last few decades has been successful at preventing emergency surgery at a population level. Multiple professional societies are calling to “individualize” decisions for elective colectomy and there is an international focus on “appropriate” indications for surgery. The rethinking of elective colectomy should come from a patient-centered approach that considers the risks of recurrence, quality of life, patient wishes and experiences about surgical and medical treatment options as well as operative morbidity and risks.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i44.16609
PMCID: PMC4248204  PMID: 25469029
Diverticulitis; Colectomy; Colostomy; Indications; Elective; Appropriate; Quality of life; Laparoscopy
6.  New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis 
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common benign condition which carries significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden. This article describes the management of sigmoid diverticulitis with a focus on indications for surgical intervention. The mainstay of management of uncomplicated diverticulitis is broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. The old surgical dictum that two episodes of sigmoid diverticulitis warranted surgical intervention has been challenged by recently published data. Surgery for diverticulitis thus needs to be tailored to suit individual presentation; patients presenting with recurrent diverticulitis, severe symptoms or debilitating disease impacting patient’s quality of life mandate surgical intervention. Complicated diverticular disease typically prompts intervention to resect a diseased, strictured sigmoid colon, fistulizing disease, or a life-threatening colonic perforation. Laterally, minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the management of this disease and recent data suggests that localized colonic perforation may be managed by laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, without resection. This review focuses discussion on available evidence for contemporary surgical and nonoperative management of diverticulitis.
doi:10.2147/CEG.S15373
PMCID: PMC3190288  PMID: 22016581
sigmoid diverticulitis; colon; laparoscopic peritoneal lavage; surgical intervention
7.  Open versus laparoscopic left lateral hepatic sectionectomy within an enhanced recovery ERAS® programme (ORANGE II – Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:54.
Background
The use of lLaparoscopic liver resection in terms of time to functional recovery, length of hospital stay (LOS), long-term abdominal wall hernias, costs and quality of life (QOL) has never been studied in a randomised controlled trial. Therefore, this is the subject of the international multicentre randomised controlled ORANGE II trial.
Methods
Patients eligible for left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) of the liver will be recruited and randomised at the outpatient clinic. All randomised patients will undergo surgery in the setting of an ERAS programme. The experimental design produces two randomised arms (open and laparoscopic LLS) and a prospective registry. The prospective registry will be based on patients that cannot be randomised because of the explicit treatment preference of the patient or surgeon, or because of ineligibility (not meeting the in- and exclusion criteria) for randomisation in this trial. Therefore, all non-randomised patients undergoing LLS will be approached to participate in the prospective registry, thereby allowing acquisition of an uninterrupted prospective series of patients. The primary endpoint of the ORANGE II trial is time to functional recovery. Secondary endpoints are postoperative LOS, percentage readmission, (liver-specific) morbidity, QOL, body image and cosmetic result, hospital and societal costs over 1 year, and long-term incidence of incisional hernias. It will be assumed that in patients undergoing laparoscopic LLS, length of hospital stay can be reduced by two days. A sample size of 55 patients in each randomisation arm has been calculated to detect a 2-day reduction in LOS (90% power and α = 0.05 (two-tailed)).
The ORANGE II trial is a multicenter randomised controlled trial that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic surgery in patients undergoing LLS within an enhanced recovery ERAS programme.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00874224.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-54
PMCID: PMC3409025  PMID: 22559239
Laparoscopy; Open liver resection; Hepatectomy; ERAS; Left lateral sectionectomy; RCT
8.  Elective operation after acute complicated diverticulitis: Is it still mandatory? 
AIM: To investigate recurrence rates, patterns and complications after nonoperatively managed complicated diverticulitis (CD).
METHODS: A retrospective study of patients treated for CD was performed. CD was defined on computed tomography by the presence of a localized abscess, pelvic abscess or extraluminal air. For follow-up, patients were contacted by telephone. Numbers of elective surgeries, recurrences and abdominal pain were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 114 patients (median age 57 years (range 29-97)), were admitted for CD. Nine patients required surgical intervention for failure of conservative therapy (Hartmann’s procedure: n = 6; resection and colorectal anastomosis: n = 3). Of the 105 remaining patients, 24 (22.9%) underwent elective sigmoid resection. The 81 (71%) non-operated patients were all contacted after a median follow-up of 32 mo (4-63). Among them, six had developed a recurrent episode of diverticulitis at a median follow-up of 12 mo (6-36); however, no patient required hospitalization. Sixty-eight patients (84%) were asymptomatic and 13 (16%) had recurrent abdominal pain.
CONCLUSION: Conservative policy is feasible and safe in 71% of cases, with a low medium-term recurrence risk.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i25.8166
PMCID: PMC4081688  PMID: 25009389
Diverticulosis; Diverticular abscess; Hinchey classification; Percutaneous drainage; Recurrent diverticulitis
9.  Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2011;12:186.
Background
Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomised study has published any results.
Methods
DILALA is a Scandinavian, randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann's Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients are included when surgery is required. A laparoscopy is performed and if Hinchey grade III is diagnosed the patient is included and randomised 1:1, to either LL or HP. Patients undergoing LL receive > 3L of saline intraperitoneally, placement of pelvic drain and continued antibiotics. Follow-up is scheduled 6-12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A QoL-form is filled out on discharge, 6- and 12 months. Inclusion is set to 80 patients (40+40).
Discussion
HP is associated with a high rate of complication. Not only does the primary operation entail complications, but also subsequent surgery is associated with a high morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer re-operations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs and increased quality of life.
Trial registration
British registry (ISRCTN) for clinical trials ISRCTN82208287http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN82208287
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-186
PMCID: PMC3173351  PMID: 21806795
10.  Position paper: management of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis 
Over the last three decades, emergency surgery for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis has evolved dramatically but remains controversial. Diverticulitis is categorized as uncomplicated (amenable to outpatient treatment) versus complicated (requiring hospitalization). Patients with complicated diverticulitis undergo computerized tomography (CT) scanning and the CT findings are used categorize the severity of disease. Treatment of stage I (phlegmon with or without small abscess) and stage II (phlegmon with large abscess) diverticulitis (which includes bowel rest, intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) of the larger abscesses) has not changed much over last two decades. On the other hand, treatment of stage III (purulent peritonitis) and stage IV (feculent peritonitis) diverticulitis has evolved dramatically and remains morbid. In the 1980s a two stage procedure (1st - segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy and 2nd - colostomy closure after three to six months) was standard of care for most general surgeons. However, it was recognized that half of these patients never had their colostomy reversed and that colostomy closure was a morbid procedure. As a result starting in the 1990s colorectal surgical specialists increasing performed a one stage primary resection anastomosis (PRA) and demonstrated similar outcomes to the two stage procedure. In the mid 2000s, the colorectal surgeons promoted this as standard of care. But unfortunately despite advances in perioperative care and their excellent surgical skills, PRA for stage III/IV diverticulitis continued to have a high mortality (10-15%). The survivors require prolonged hospital stays and often do not fully recover. Recent case series indicate that a substantial portion of the patients who previously were subjected to emergency sigmoid colectomy can be successfully treated with less invasive nonoperative management with salvage PCD and/or laparoscopic lavage and drainage. These patients experience a surprisingly lower mortality and more rapid recovery. They are also spared the need for a colostomy and do not appear to benefit from a delayed elective sigmoid colectomy. While we await the final results ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials testing these less invasive alternatives, we have proposed (based primarily on case series and our expert opinions) what we believe safe and rationale management strategy.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-8-55
PMCID: PMC3877957  PMID: 24369826
Complicated diverticulitis; Hartmann’s procedure; Primary resection anastomosis; Laparoscopic lavage and drainage; Percutaneous drainage
11.  Impact of early or delayed elective resection in complicated diverticulitis 
AIM: To investigate the outcomes of early and delayed elective resection after initial antibiotic treatment in patients with complicated diverticulitis.
METHODS: The study, a non-randomized comparison of the two approaches, included 421 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis (Hinchey classification I-II) at the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2004 and 2009. The operating procedure, duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay, outcome, complications and socioeconomic costs were analyzed, with comparison made between the early and delayed elective resection strategies.
RESULTS: The severity of the diverticulitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were comparable for the two groups. Patients who underwent delayed elective resection had a shorter hospital stay and operating time, and the rate of successfully completed laparoscopic resections was higher (80% vs 75%). Eight patients who were scheduled for delayed elective resection required urgent surgery because of complications of the diverticulitis, which resulted in a high rate of morbidity. Analysis of the socioeconomic effects showed that hospitalization costs were significantly higher for delayed elective resection compared with early elective resection (9296 € ± 694 € vs 8423 € ± 968 €; P = 0.001). Delayed elective resection showed a trend toward lower complications, and the operation appeared simpler to perform than early elective resection. Nevertheless, delayed elective resection carries a risk of complications occurring during the period of 6-8 wk that could necessitate an urgent resection with its consequent high morbidity, which counterbalanced many of the advantages.
CONCLUSION: Overall, early elective resection for complicated, non-perforated diverticulitis is shown to be a suitable alternative to delayed elective resection after 6-8 wk, with additional beneficial socioeconomic effects.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i48.5274
PMCID: PMC3247691  PMID: 22219596
Complicated diverticulitis; Resection of sigmoid; Delayed elective resection; Early elective resection; Socioeconomic effects
12.  Preventing recurrent acute diverticulitis with pharmacological therapies 
Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Past guidelines claimed that recurrent episodes (two or more) of diverticulitis need surgery, but revised guidelines recommend an individualized approach to patients after an attack of acute diverticulitis. For these reasons, conservative treatment has become the preferred choice after an episode of diverticulitis. Thus, significant efforts are now being focused to identify the correct therapeutic approach to prevent diverticulitis relapses. Nonabsorbable antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid and probiotics are currently being investigated in this way. The effectiveness and the future perspectives of these treatments are discussed herein.
doi:10.1177/2040622313498809
PMCID: PMC3807763  PMID: 24179670
5-aminosalicylic acid; acute diverticulitis; high-fiber diet; nonabsorbable antibiotics; probiotics; recurrence
13.  Diverticular Disease: Reconsidering Conventional Wisdom 
Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10–25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease.
doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.048
PMCID: PMC3785555  PMID: 23669306
14.  Diverticulitis in a Young Man with Hyper IgE Syndrome 
Southern medical journal  2010;103(12):1261-1263.
Autosomal dominant hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES, Job syndrome) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilia, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections, dermatitis, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. A 26-year-old male with known HIES presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Imaging showed sigmoid diverticulitis without abscess or perforation. Conservative management with antibiotics failed, and he developed a peridiverticular abscess, which was percutaneously drained with plans for elective resection. He returned four days later with progression of his diverticulitis, requiring partial colectomy with primary anastomosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of diverticulitis in HIES. Diverticulitis is rare in younger individuals, raising the possibility that the connective tissue abnormalities of HIES patients may predispose them to colonic diverticula. Although the majority of complications are sinopulmonary and skin infections, diverticulitis should be considered in the differential of intra-abdominal processes in HIES.
doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181fa5f0e
PMCID: PMC3059239  PMID: 21037522
Hyper IgE Syndrome; diverticulitis
15.  Colonic diverticular disease 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0405.
Introduction
Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) are rare before the age of 40 years, after which prevalence increases steadily and reaches over 25% by 60 years. However, only 10% to 25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of: treatments for uncomplicated diverticular disease; treatments to prevent complications; and treatments for acute diverticulitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodics, elective surgery, increasing fibre intake with bran or ispaghula husk, lactulose, medical treatment, mesalazine, methylcellulose, rifaximin, and surgery.
Key Points
Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) are rare before the age of 40 years, after which prevalence increases steadily and reaches over 25% by 60 years and older. However, only 10% to 25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses.Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and opiate analgesics have been associated with an increased risk of perforation of diverticula, while calcium antagonists may protect against these complications.
Dietary fibre supplementation using bran or ispaghula husk and laxatives such as methylcellulose and lactulose are widely used to treat uncomplicated diverticular disease, but we don't know whether they reduce symptoms or prevent complications. Antibiotics (rifaximin) plus dietary fibre supplementation may improve symptoms more than fibre alone, but increase the risk of adverse effects.We don't know whether mesalazine is also beneficial at improving symptoms in uncomplicated diverticular disease, or at reducing complications after acute diverticulitis, as no good-quality studies have been found.We don't know whether elective open or laparoscopic colonic resection, or antispasmodics improve symptoms in people with uncomplicated diverticular disease.
Acute diverticulosis is often treated with intravenous fluids, limiting oral intake, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. However, we don't know whether such medical treatment improves symptoms and cure rates in people with acute diverticulitis.
Surgery is usually performed for people with peritonitis caused by perforated acute diverticulitis, but we don't know whether it improves outcomes compared with no surgery, or if any one surgical technique is better at preventing complications.
PMCID: PMC3275154  PMID: 21401970
16.  Colonic diverticular disease 
Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:0405.
Introduction
Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) affect over 5% of adults aged 40 years and older, but only 10-25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of: treatments for uncomplicated diverticular disease; treatments to prevent complications; and treatments for acute diverticulitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 13 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodics, bran, elective surgery, increasing fibre intake, ispaghula husk, lactulose, medical treatment, mesalazine, methylcellulose, rifaximin, surgery.
Key Points
Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) affect over 5% of adults aged 40 years and older, but only 10-25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses.Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and opiate analgesics have been associated with an increased risk of perforation of diverticula, while calcium antagonists may protect against these complications.
Dietary fibre supplementation, and laxatives such as methylcellulose and lactulose are widely used to treat uncomplicated diverticular disease, but we don't know whether they reduce symptoms or prevent complications. Antibiotics (rifaximin) plus dietary fibre supplementation may improve symptoms more than fibre alone, but increase the risk of adverse effects.We don't know whether mesalazine is also beneficial at improving symptoms in uncomplicated diverticular disease, or at reducing complications after acute diverticulitis, as no good-quality studies have been found.We don't know whether elective open or laparoscopic colonic resection improve symptoms in people with uncomplicated diverticular disease.
Acute diverticulosis is often treated with intravenous fluids, limiting oral intake, and broad spectrum antibiotic use. However, we don't know whether such medical treatment improves symptoms and cure rates in people with acute diverticulitis.
Surgery is usually performed for people with peritonitis caused by perforated acute diverticulitis, but we don't know whether it improves outcomes compared with no surgery, or if any one surgical technique is better at preventing complications.
PMCID: PMC2943810  PMID: 19454119
17.  Subclinical peritonitis due to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis 14 years after heart-lung transplantation 
Acute complicated diverticulitis, particularly with colon perforation, is a rare but serious condition in transplant recipients with high morbidity and mortality. Neither acute diverticulitis nor colon perforation has been reported in young heart-lung grafted patients. A case of subclinical peritonitis due to perforated acute sigmoid diverticulitis 14 years after heart-lung transplantation is reported. A 26-year-old woman, who received heart-lung transplantation 14 years ago, presented with vague abdominal pain. Physical examination was normal. Blood tests revealed leukocytosis. Abdominal X-ray showed air-fluid levels while CT demonstrated peritonitis due to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Sigmoidectomy and end-colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure) were performed. Histopathology confirmed perforated acute sigmoid diverticulitis. The patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day after an uneventful postoperative course. This is the first report of acute diverticulitis resulting in colon perforation in a young heart-lung transplanted patient. Clinical presentation, even in peritonitis, may be atypical due to the masking effects of immunosuppression. A high index of suspicion, urgent aggressive diagnostic investigation of even vague abdominal symptoms, adjustment of immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and immediate surgical treatment are critical. Moreover, strategies to reduce the risk of this complication should be implemented. Pretransplantation colon screening, prophylactic pretransplantation sigmoid resection in patients with diverticulosis, and elective surgical intervention in patients with nonoperatively treated acute diverticulitis after transplantation deserve consideration and further studies.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3583
PMCID: PMC2716625  PMID: 18567091
Heart-lung transplantation; Acute diverticulitis; Colon perforation; Subclinical peritonitis
18.  Minimally invasive surgical procedures for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation 
Introduction
In up to 30% of patients undergoing lumbar disc surgery for herniated or protruded discs outcomes are judged unfavourable. Over the last decades this problem has stimulated the development of a number of minimally-invasive operative procedures. The aim is to relieve pressure from compromised nerve roots by mechanically removing, dissolving or evaporating disc material while leaving bony structures and surrounding tissues as intact as possible. In Germany, there is hardly any utilisation data for these new procedures – data files from the statutory health insurances demonstrate that about 5% of all lumbar disc surgeries are performed using minimally-invasive techniques. Their real proportion is thought to be much higher because many procedures are offered by private hospitals and surgeries and are paid by private health insurers or patients themselves. So far no comprehensive assessment comparing efficacy, safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery to standard procedures (microdiscectomy, open discectomy) which could serve as a basis for coverage decisions, has been published in Germany.
Objective
Against this background the aim of the following assessment is:
Based on published scientific literature assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery compared to standard procedures. To identify and critically appraise studies comparing costs and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures to that of standard procedures. If necessary identify research and evaluation needs and point out regulative needs within the German health care system. The assessment focusses on procedures that are used in elective lumbar disc surgery as alternative treatment options to microdiscectomy or open discectomy. Chemonucleolysis, percutaneous manual discectomy, automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, laserdiscectomy and endoscopic procedures accessing the disc by a posterolateral or posterior approach are included.
Methods
In order to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures as well as their economic implications systematic reviews of the literature are performed. A comprehensive search strategy is composed to search 23 electronic databases, among them MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Methodological quality of systematic reviews, HTA reports and primary research is assessed using checklists of the German Scientific Working Group for Health Technology Assessment. Quality and transparency of cost analyses are documented using the quality and transparency catalogues of the working group. Study results are summarised in a qualitative manner. Due to the limited number and the low methodological quality of the studies it is not possible to conduct metaanalyses. In addition to the results of controlled trials results of recent case series are introduced and discussed.
Results
The evidence-base to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery procedures is rather limited:
Percutaneous manual discectomy: Six case series (four after 1998)Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy: Two RCT (one discontinued), twelve case series (one after 1998)Chemonucleolysis: Five RCT, five non-randomised controlled trials, eleven case seriesPercutaneous laserdiscectomy: One non-randomised controlled trial, 13 case series (eight after 1998)Endoscopic procedures: Three RCT, 21 case series (17 after 1998)
There are two economic analyses each retrieved for chemonucleolysis and automated percutaneous discectomy as well as one cost-minimisation analysis comparing costs of an endoscopic procedure to costs for open discectomy.
Among all minimally-invasive procedures chemonucleolysis is the only of which efficacy may be judged on the basis of results from high quality randomised controlled trials (RCT). Study results suggest that the procedure maybe (cost)effectively used as an intermediate therapeutical option between conservative and operative management of small lumbar disc herniations or protrusions causing sciatica. Two RCT comparing transforaminal endoscopic procedures with microdiscectomy in patients with sciatica and small non-sequestered disc herniations show comparable short and medium term overall success rates. Concerning speed of recovery and return to work a trend towards more favourable results for the endoscopic procedures is noted. It is doubtful though, whether these results from the eleven and five years old studies are still valid for the more advanced procedures used today. The only RCT comparing the results of automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy to those of microdiscectomy showed clearly superior results of microdiscectomy. Furthermore, success rates of automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy reported in the RCT (29%) differ extremely from success rates reported in case series (between 56% and 92%).
The literature search retrieves no controlled trials to assess efficacy and/or effectiveness of laser-discectomy, percutaneous manual discectomy or endoscopic procedures using a posterior approach in comparison to the standard procedures. Results from recent case series permit no assessment of efficacy, especially not in comparison to standard procedures. Due to highly selected patients, modi-fications of operative procedures, highly specialised surgical units and poorly standardised outcome assessment results of case series are highly variable, their generalisability is low.
The results of the five economical analyses are, due to conceptual and methodological problems, of no value for decision-making in the context of the German health care system.
Discussion
Aside from low methodological study quality three conceptual problems complicate the interpretation of results.
Continuous further development of technologies leads to a diversity of procedures in use which prohibits generalisation of study results. However, diversity is noted not only for minimally-invasive procedures but also for the standard techniques against which the new developments are to be compared. The second problem refers to the heterogeneity of study populations. For most studies one common inclusion criterion was "persisting sciatica after a course of conservative treatment of variable duration". Differences among study populations are noted concerning results of imaging studies. Even within every group of minimally-invasive procedure, studies define their own in- and exclusion criteria which differ concerning degree of dislocation and sequestration of disc material. There is the non-standardised assessment of outcomes which are performed postoperatively after variable periods of time. Most studies report results in a dichotomous way as success or failure while the classification of a result is performed using a variety of different assessment instruments or procedures. Very often the global subjective judgement of results by patients or surgeons is reported. There are no scientific discussions whether these judgements are generalisable or comparable, especially among studies that are conducted under differing socio-cultural conditions. Taking into account the weak evidence-base for efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures it is not surprising that so far there are no dependable economic analyses.
Conclusions
Conclusions that can be drawn from the results of the present assessment refer in detail to the specified minimally-invasive procedures of lumbar disc surgery but they may also be considered exemplary for other fields where optimisation of results is attempted by technological development and widening of indications (e.g. total hip replacement).
Compared to standard technologies (open discectomy, microdiscectomy) and with the exception of chemonucleolysis, the developmental status of all other minimally-invasive procedures assessed must be termed experimental. To date there is no dependable evidence-base to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. To create such a dependable evidence-base further research in two directions is needed: a) The studies need to include adequate patient populations, use realistic controls (e.g. standard operative procedures or continued conservative care) and use standardised measurements of meaningful outcomes after adequate periods of time. b) Studies that are able to report effectiveness of the procedures under everyday practice conditions and furthermore have the potential to detect rare adverse effects are needed. In Sweden this type of data is yielded by national quality registries. On the one hand their data are used for quality improvement measures and on the other hand they allow comprehensive scientific evaluations. Since the year of 2000 a continuous rise in utilisation of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery is observed among statutory health insurers. Examples from other areas of innovative surgical technologies (e.g. robot assisted total hip replacement) indicate that the rise will probably continue - especially because there are no legal barriers to hinder introduction of innovative treatments into routine hospital care. Upon request by payers or providers the "Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss" may assess a treatments benefit, its necessity and cost-effectiveness as a prerequisite for coverage by the statutory health insurance. In the case of minimally-invasive disc surgery it would be advisable to examine the legal framework for covering procedures only if they are provided under evaluation conditions. While in Germany coverage under evaluation conditions is established practice in ambulatory health care only (“Modellvorhaben") examples from other European countries (Great Britain, Switzerland) demonstrate that it is also feasible for hospital based interventions. In order to assure patient protection and at the same time not hinder the further development of new and promising technologies provision under evaluation conditions could also be realised in the private health care market - although in this sector coverage is not by law linked to benefit, necessity and cost-effectiveness of an intervention.
PMCID: PMC3011322  PMID: 21289928
19.  Colonic diverticulitis with comorbid diseases may require elective colectomy 
AIM: To investigate the comorbid disease could be the predictors for the elective colectomy in colonic diverticulitis.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 246 patients with colonic diverticulitis admitted between 2000 and 2008 was conducted, and 19 patients received emergent operation were identified and analyzed. Data were collected with regard to age, sex, albumin level on admission, left or right inflammation site, the history of recurrent diverticulitis, preoperative comorbidity, smoking habits, medication, treatment policy, morbidity, and mortality. Preoperative comorbid diseases included cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer disease, gouty arthritis, and uremia. Medications in use included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin), and corticosteroids. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the relevant risk factors correlating to colectomy.
RESULTS: The mean age of the 246 patients was 69.5 years (range, 24-94 years). Most diverticulitis could be managed with conservative treatment (n = 227, 92.3%), and urgent colectomy was performed in 19 patients (7.7%). There were three deaths in the surgical group and four deaths in the nonsurgical group. The overall mortality rate in the study was 1.7% among patients with conservative treatment and 15.7% among patients undergoing urgent colectomy. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that comorbidities were risk factors for urgent colectomy for diverticulitis.
CONCLUSION: To avoid high mortality and morbidity related to urgent colectomy, we suggest that patients with colonic diverticulitis and comorbid diseases may require elective colectomy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i39.6613
PMCID: PMC3801376  PMID: 24151389
Colonic diverticulitis; Colectomy; Comorbid disease
20.  Safety of Nonoperative Management After Acute Diverticulitis 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(5):216-221.
Purpose
The role of surgery in the management of diverticular disease after an episode of acute diverticulitis (AD) managed in a conservative form is evolving. Age, number of episodes of AD, type of episode, and symptoms after the episodes are factors related to the need for elective surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of conservative management and the risk factors for emergency surgery after a first episode of AD managed without surgery.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 405 patients diagnosed as having had a first episode of AD. Sixty-nine patients underwent emergency surgery on the first admission, and 69 patients had an elective operation in the follow-up (group A). The remaining 267 patients were managed initially without surgery (group B). Thirteen of these 267 patients needed a further urgent surgical procedure. Factors involved in the decision of elective surgery and the probability of emergency surgery after the first episode of AD managed without surgery were evaluated in relation to demographic factors, risk factors, presence of recurrences, and type of the first episode.
Results
Patients, mean age was 62.7 years, 71 were aged less than 51, and 151 were males. The mean follow-up for patients with nonoperative management was 91.2 months. An elective operation was performed in 69 patients. Compared to patients in group B, those in group A more frequently had a first episode of complicated acute diverticulitis (CAD) (37.1% vs. 16.4%; P = 0.000) and were more likely to be smokers (46.3% vs. 19.3%; P = 0.000) and to suffer more than one episode of AD (42% vs. 26.9%; P = 0.027). Nonoperative management was chosen for 267 patients, but 13 patients needed an emergency operation later. In the multivariate analysis, we found a significant relation between the presence of CAD in the first episode and the need for emergency surgery. There were no differences in surgical mortality between the patients in the two groups, but patients treated with elective surgery had a higher rate of stoma than patients treated non-operatively (7.2% vs. 1.4%; P = 0.028); this difference was not observed in the subgroup of patients with CAD (15.3% vs. 6.8%; P = 0.458).
Conclusion
After an episode of AD, nonoperative management is safe because fewer than 5% of patients will need an emergent procedure in a subsequent attack of AD. A first episode of CAD is the only risk factor for emergency surgery in patients managed conservatively.
doi:10.3393/ac.2014.30.5.216
PMCID: PMC4213937  PMID: 25360428
Complicated acute diverticulitis; Acute diverticulitis surgery; Colonic diverticulitis
21.  Current indications and role of surgery in the management of sigmoid diverticulitis 
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common disease which carries both a significant morbidity and a societal economic burden. This review article analyzes the current data regarding management of sigmoid diverticulitis in its variable clinical presentations. Wide-spectrum antibiotics are the standard of care for uncomplicated diverticulitis. Recently published data indicate that sigmoid diverticulitis does not mandate surgical management after the second episode of uncomplicated disease as previously recommended. Rather, a more individualized approach, taking into account frequency, severity of the attacks and their impact on quality of life, should guide the indication for surgery. On the other hand, complicated diverticular disease still requires surgical treatment in patients with acceptable comorbidity risk and remains a life-threatening condition in the case of free peritoneal perforation. Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly accepted as the surgical approach of choice for most presentations of the disease and has also been proposed in the treatment of generalized peritonitis. There is not sufficient evidence supporting any changes in the approach to management in younger patients. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that surgery should be indicated after one attack of uncomplicated disease in immunocompromised individuals. Uncommon clinical presentations of sigmoid diverticulitis and their possible association with inflammatory bowel disease are also discussed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i7.804
PMCID: PMC2825327  PMID: 20143459
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Diverticulitis management; Diverticulitis surgery; Acute diverticulitis; Complicated diverticulitis; Perforated diverticulitis; Laparoscopic colectomy
22.  The transvaginal hybrid NOTES versus conventionally assisted laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease (TRANSVERSAL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15(1):454.
Background
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is the consequence of further development of minimally invasive surgery to reduce abdominal incisions and surgical trauma. The potential benefits are expected to be less postoperative pain, faster convalescence, and reduced risk for incisional hernias and wound infections compared to conventional methods. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of transvaginal NOTES, and transvaginal access is currently the most frequent clinically applied route for NOTES procedures. However, despite increasing clinical application, no firm clinical evidence is available for objective assessment of the potential benefits and risks of transvaginal NOTES compared to the current surgical standard.
Methods
The TRANSVERSAL trial is designed as a randomized controlled trial to compare transvaginal hybrid NOTES and laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid resection. Female patients referred to elective sigmoid resection due to complicated or reoccurring diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon are considered eligible. The primary endpoint will be pain intensity during mobilization 24 hours postoperatively as measured by the blinded patient and blinded assessor on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes include daily pain intensity and analgesic use, patient mobility, intraoperative complications, morbidity, length of stay, quality of life, and sexual function. Follow-up visits are scheduled 3, 12, and 36 months after surgery. A total sample size of 58 patients was determined for the analysis of the primary endpoint. The confirmatory analysis will be performed based on the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle.
Discussion
The TRANSVERSAL trial is the first study to compare transvaginal hybrid NOTES and conventionally assisted laparoscopic surgery for colonic resection in a randomized controlled setting. The results of the TRANSVERSAL trial will allow objective assessment of the potential benefits and risks of NOTES compared to the current surgical standard for sigmoid resection.
Trial registration
The trial protocol was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00005995) on March 27, 2014.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-454) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-454
PMCID: PMC4246541  PMID: 25414061
Diverticular disease; Laparoscopy; Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery; NOTES; Randomized controlled trial; Sigmoid resection; Study protocol; Transvaginal
23.  Comparative Study of the Clinical Features and Treatment for Right and Left Colonic Diverticulitis 
Purpose
Colonic diverticulitis is an uncommon disease in Korea, but the incidence of the disease is increasing. The right colon is the more preferred site for diverticulitis in Korea, but the incidence of left diverticulitis is increasing. Therefore, comparing the clinical features and treatments for right diverticulitis with those for left diverticulitis may help us to treat the disease more properly.
Methods
This study was performed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records of 96 patients with colonic diverticulitis, in whom either conservative or operative treatments were performed.
Results
Eighty-six patients had right diverticulitis (RD), and 10 patients had left diverticulitis (LD). The mean age of the patients was older for LD. Sixteen patients (18.6%) with RD had complications, and 7 patients (8.1%) underwent operations. On the other hand, 4 patients (40%) with LD had complications, and 3 patients (30%) underwent operations. The rates of complications and operations among old-aged patients were higher. The operations for 7 patients with RD who underwent surgery were 6 ileocecectomies and 1 diverticulectomy. On the other hand, the operations for the 3 patients with LD who underwent surgery were 2 resections and anastomoses and 1 diverticulectomy. The reasons for the operations were abscess formation, recurrence, perforation, and development of generalized peritonitis without response to conservative treatment.
Conclusion
The incidence of LD is lower than that of RD in Korea, but the rate of complications and operations seems higher in LD. Therefore, patients who complain of left lower abdominal pain need to be thoroughly examined for LD.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2010.26.6.407
PMCID: PMC3017976  PMID: 21221241
Colon; Diverticulitis
24.  Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy for Diverticulitis: a Prospective Study 
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is a safe, feasible, and effective management strategy.
Background:
Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in patients with diverticulitis. Patients offered laparoscopic surgery presented with acute complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey type I, II, III), chronically recurrent diverticulitis, bleeding, or sigmoid stenosis caused by chronic diverticulitis.
Method:
All patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy within a 12-year period were prospectively entered into a database registry. One-stage laparoscopic resection and primary anastomosis constituted the planned procedure. A 4-trocar approach with suprapubic minilaparotomy was performed. Main data recorded were age, sex, postoperative pain, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, and early and late complications.
Results:
During the study period, 260 sigmoid colectomies were performed for diverticulitis. The cohort included 104 male and 156 female patients; M to F ratio was 4:6. Postoperative pain was controlled by NSAIDs or weak opioid analgesia. Fifteen patients (5.7%) required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were directly related to the inflammatory process, abscess, and peritonitis. Mean operative time was 130±54. Average postoperative hospital stay was 10±3 days. A longer hospital stay was recorded for Hinchey type IIb patients. Complications were recorded in 30 patients (11.5%). The most common complications that required reoperation were hemorrhage in 2 patients (0.76) and anastomotic leak in 5 patients (only 3 of them required reoperation). The mortality among them was 2 patients (0.76%).
Conclusions:
Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is safe, feasible, and effective. Therefore, laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis at our institution.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12924466008088
PMCID: PMC3083034  PMID: 21605507
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Laparoscopic surgery; Hinchey classification; Colectomy
25.  The influence of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis 
Techniques in Coloproctology  2012;16(4):309-314.
Background
Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) has been shown to have no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage in overall colorectal surgery. The role of MBP in elective surgery in combination with an inflammatory component such as diverticulitis is yet unclear. This study evaluates the effects of MBP on anastomotic leakage and other septic complications in 190 patients who underwent elective surgery for colonic diverticulitis.
Methods
A subgroup analysis was performed in a prior multicenter (13 hospitals) randomized trial comparing clinical outcome of MBP versus no MBP in elective colorectal surgery. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of anastomotic leakage in patients operated on for diverticulitis, and secondary endpoints were septic complications and mortality.
Results
Out of a total of 1,354 patients, 190 underwent elective colorectal surgery (resection with primary anastomosis) for (recurrent or stenotic) diverticulitis. One hundred and three patients underwent MBP prior to surgery and 87 did not. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 7.8 % of patients treated with MBP and in 5.7 % of patients not treated with MBP (p = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups in septic complications and mortality.
Conclusion
Mechanical bowel preparation has no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, or other septic complications, and may be safely omitted in case of elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis.
doi:10.1007/s10151-012-0852-3
PMCID: PMC3398249  PMID: 22706733
Colonic diverticulitis; Mechanical bowel preparation; Anastomotic leak; Surgical site infection

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