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1.  Low Helicobacter pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin in gastric biopsy specimens from dyspeptic patients of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:164.
Clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a pump proton inhibitor are the most common drugs recommended as first-line triple therapy for H.pylori treatment, which results in eradication rates close to 80%, varying regionally, principally due to emergency cases and increases of clarithromycin resistant strains. Nucleotide substitutions at the H. pylori domain V of the 23S rRNA fraction are involved in the macrolide resistance and the A2142G and A2143G mutations are predominant in clinical isolates worldwide including in Brazil. As H. pylori culture is fastidious, we investigated the primary occurrence of H. pylori A2142G and A2143G rDNA 23S mutations using a molecular approach directly on gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients consecutively attended at Hospital das Clinicas of Marilia, São Paulo, Brazil.
Biopsy specimens obtained from 1137 dyspeptic patients, were subjected to histopathology and H. pylori diagnosis by histology and PCR. PCR/RFLP assay was used to detect A2142G and A2143G point mutations at domain V of the H. pylori 23S rDNA associated with clarithromycin resistance. Through the developed assay, a 768 bp PCR amplicon corresponding to1728 to 2495 bp of the 23S H. pylori rDNA is restricted with MboII for A2142G mutation detection and with BsaI for A2143G mutation detection. Occurrence of 23S rDNA A2142G results in two DNA fragments (418 and 350 bp) and of 23S rDNA A2143G results in three DNA fragments (108, 310 and 350pb), due to a conserved BsaI restriction site.
The PCR method used to diagnose H. pylori presented sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 77,6%, 79,3% and 78,6%, respectively, compared to histology, the gold standard method for H. pylori diagnosis used in our routine. Prevalence of H.pylori with clarithromycin resistant genotypes was 2,46%, with predominance of A2143G 23S rDNA point mutation.
The PCR/RFLP assay was a rapid and accurate H.pylori diagnostic and clarithromycin resistance determination method useful for routine practice. As prevalence of primary resistance of H.pylori to clarithromycin due to A2142G and A2143G mutations remains low in Marilia, the standard clarithromycin containing triple therapy is still valid.
PMCID: PMC4235177  PMID: 24305035
Helicobacter pylori; Clarithromycin resistance; Helicobacter pylori 23S rDNA; Gastric diseases; Nucleic acid based diagnostic
2.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Helicobacter pylori in a Large Multicenter Trial: the MACH 2 Study 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(11):2747-2752.
Culture and susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori strains was performed in a large multinational, multicenter randomized clinical trial. Culture was carried out on gastric biopsy samples obtained from 516 patients at entry and had a sensitivity of 99% when the [13C]urea breath test was used as a reference. Susceptibility testing was performed for clarithromycin and metronidazole on 485 strains by an agar dilution method and the epsilometer test (Etest) and for amoxicillin by an agar dilution method only. Resistance to clarithromycin (>1 μg/ml) was found in 3% of the H. pylori strains, with a perfect correlation between Etest and agar dilution methods. Resistance to metronidazole (>8 μl/ml) was found in 27% of the strains by agar dilution, but there were important discrepancies between it and the Etest method. No resistance to amoxicillin was found. The logarithms of the MICs of the three antibiotics against susceptible strains had a distribution close to normal. The impact of resistance was tested in the four arms of the trial. There were not enough clarithromycin-resistant strains to evaluate the impact of resistance on the cure rate of clarithromycin-based regimens. For metronidazole-resistant strains, the impact noted in the clarithromycin-metronidazole arm was partially overcome when omeprazole was added (76% eradication for resistant strains versus 95% for susceptible strains). Secondary resistance to clarithromycin occurred in strains from 12 of 105 patients (11.4%) after the failure of a clarithromycin-based regimen to effect eradication. The detection of point mutations in clarithromycin-resistant strains was performed by a combination of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations (A2142G and 2143G) were found in all strains tested except one. This study stresses the importance of performing susceptibility tests in clinical trials in order to explain the results of different treatments.
PMCID: PMC89554  PMID: 10543758
3.  Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori Strains in Japanese Children 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(2):649-653.
The resistance of Helicobacter pylori to the recently available antibiotic treatment regimens has been a growing problem. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin among 51 H. pylori isolates from Japanese children. In addition, the mutations of the corresponding gene were studied by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was detected in 29, 24, and 0% of strains, respectively. The eradication rates in clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains were 89 and 56%, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of strains with acquired resistance to clarithromycin (78%) was higher than that of strains with primary resistance (P < 0.01). Among the clarithromycin-resistant strains studied, 92% showed cross-resistance to azithromycin. No acquired resistance to amoxicillin was demonstrated. The A2144G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was detected in 11 of 12 (92%) clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, whereas the mutation was not detected in any of the 15 susceptible strains. The deletion of the rdxA gene was not demonstrated in any of the strains. The results indicate that a high prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant strains is associated with eradication failure. Testing of susceptibility to clarithromycin is recommended.
PMCID: PMC153406  PMID: 11825987
4.  Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran 
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM) were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin.
H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this study, we had one multidrug resistance (MDR) isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.
PMCID: PMC3908526  PMID: 24523796
Amoxicillin; clarithromycin; Helicobacter pylori; metronidazole
5.  Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates 
BMC Gastroenterology  2003;3:20.
In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of primary resistance of Brazilian H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone. In addition, the vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes of strains isolated from Brazilian patients were determined and associated with clinical data in an effort to correlate these four virulence markers and antibiotic resistance.
H. pylori was cultured in 155 H. pylori-positive patients and MICs for metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were determined by the agar dilution method. Genomic DNA was extracted, and allelic variants of vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE were identified by the polymerase chain reaction.
There was a strong association between the vacA s1/cagA -positive genotype and peptic ulcer disease (OR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.6–11.3, p = 0.0006). Additionally, infection by more virulent strains may protect against GERD, since logistic regression showed a negative association between the more virulent strain, vacA s1/cagA-positive genotype and GERD (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.8, p = 0.03). Resistance to metronidazole was detected in 75 patients (55%), to amoxicillin in 54 individuals (38%), to clarithromycin in 23 patients (16%), to tetracycline in 13 patients (9%), and to furazolidone in 19 individuals (13%). No significant correlation between pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility was detected when MIC values for each antibiotic were compared with different vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes.
The analysis of virulence genes revealed a specific association between H. pylori strains and clinical outcome, furthermore, no significant association was detected among pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC194586  PMID: 12911839
6.  Primary clarithromycin resistance to Helicobacter pylori: Is this the main reason for triple therapy failure? 
Conventional triple therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication have recently shown a disappointing reduction in effectiveness in many countries. The main reason for failure was found to be bacterial resistance to one of the most commonly used antibiotics, clarithromycin. An additional problem for conventional triple therapy is the high rate of resistance to metronidazole found in Europe, America and Asia. In Italy, in the last 15 years a 2-fold increase in resistance has occurred. A recent study of the whole of Italy included about 20 patients from each region at the first endoscopic diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The most surprising result was the patchy distribution of resistance, which was almost absent in two regions (one northern and one southern), although the highest prevalence was found in some regions of the South. In the paediatric population we found a 25% prevalence of resistance in a sample of H. pylori positive children observed between 2002 and 2007, mirroring data obtained in southern European countries. Clarithromycin resistance assessment is currently based on phenotypic detection performed after culture the agar dilution method or E-test, and genotypic methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a recent comparative study we found a 71.2% agreement between the two methods. Culture-free techniques are highly accurate in finding even minimal traces of genotypically resistant strains. Moreover, PCR-based tools are accurate in detecting a heteroresistant status, defined as the co-existence of some strains that are susceptible and some resistant to the same antibiotic in an individual patient. Three point mutations, namely A2143G, A2142G and A2142C, are responsible for 90% of cases of primary clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori strains isolated in Western countries, although we previously demonstrated that the presence of the A2143G mutation, but not A2142G or A2142C, significantly lowered the H. pylori eradication rate. Treatment failure has considerable cost/benefit implications because of “waste” of National Health System and patient resources, in terms of drugs, further diagnostic tests and medical examination expenses. Therefore, in future it would be very useful to be able to test for clarithromycin resistance before starting conventional triple therapy. Hopefully, fast, effective non-invasive tests may soon be devised to determine this condition.
PMCID: PMC3740258  PMID: 23946886
Helicobacter pylori; Clarithromycin; Genotypic resistance; Phenotypic resistance; Therapy failure cost; Resistance epidemiology
7.  Influence of a 23S ribosomal RNA mutation in Helicobacter pylori strains on the in vitro synergistic effect of clarithromycin and amoxicillin 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:603.
Clarithromycin (CLR) is the most commonly recommended antibiotic in Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens, but the prevalence of CLR-resistant H. pylori is increasing. CLR resistance is associated with mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. However, H. pylori eradication can still be achieved with triple therapy, and an additive effect may occur with multiple antibiotics.
Twenty-six CLR-resistant strains were examined. The MIC of clarithromycin was determined by agar-dilution-testing on Columbia agar, as described elsewhere. The conserved region of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene between nucleotide positions 1445 and 2846 [GenBank: U27270] was amplified. RFLP and sequence analysis were performed with the 1402-bp PCR product. Synergy between clarithromycin and amoxicillin was assessed using the agar dilution checkerboard technique. To confirm the correlation between mutation and synergistic effect with subinhibitory concentrations of AMX, site-directed mutagenesis was performed in four CLR-susceptible H. pylori isolates.
Twenty-six clarithromycin-resistant strains were examined. The conserved region of the H. pylori 23S rRNA gene was amplified, and the purified PCR product was checked for mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing. A synergistic effect was found in only three of the 12 H. pylori strains (25%) with the A2142G mutation and five of the 10 H. pylori strains (50%) with the A2143G mutation (fractional inhibitory concentration: FIC < 0.5, minimal inhibitory concentration: MIC<2 mg/L) was found. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed in four CLR-susceptible H. pylori isolates.
Three of these isolates harboring a mutation in position A2143G grew under selection with CLR (MIC >16 mg/L), and all three strains showed the synergistic effect (FIC<0.5). In contrast, three of the same four strains transformed with DNA fragments with a mutation in position A2142G were resistant to CLR (MIC>16 mg/L) and showed no synergism with amoxicillin (FIC>2).
Here we demonstrate that in 100% of the in vitro transformed strains, a mutation at position A2143G leads to a synergistic effect between clarithromycin and amoxicillin, whereas a mutation at position at A2142G had no discernible effect.
PMCID: PMC3522010  PMID: 23110798
Helicobacter pylori; Synergistic effect; 23S rRNA
8.  Functional and Molecular Surveillance of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance in Kuala Lumpur 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e101481.
Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent for diseases ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease to gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. Emergence of resistance to antibiotics possesses a challenge to the effort to eradicate H. pylori using conventional antibiotic-based therapies. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of these strains have yet to be identified and are important for understanding the evolutional pattern and selective pressure imposed by the environment.
Methods and Findings
H. pylori was isolated from 102 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal diseases, who underwent endoscopy at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). The isolates were tested for their susceptibility on eleven antibiotics using Etest. Based on susceptibility test, 32.3% of the isolates were found to have primary metronidazole resistance; followed by clarithromycin (6.8%) and fluoroquinolones (6.8%). To further investigate the resistant strains, mutational patterns of gene rdxA, frxA, gyrA, gyrB, and 23S rRNA were studied. Consistent with the previous reports, metronidazole resistance was prevalent in the local population. However, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone and multi-drug resistance were shown to be emerging. Molecular patterns correlated well with phenotypic data. Interestingly, multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains were found to be associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) than their single-drug resistant (SDR) counterparts. Most importantly, clarithromycin-resistant strains were suggested to have a higher incidence for developing multi-drug resistance.
Data from this study highlighted the urgency to monitor closely the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the Malaysian population; especially that of clarithromycin and multi-drug resistance. Further study is needed to understand the molecular association between clarithromycin resistance and multi-drug resistance in H. pylori. The report serves a reminder that a strict antibiotic usage policy is needed in Malaysia and other developing countries (especially those where H. pylori prevalence remained high).
PMCID: PMC4086822  PMID: 25003707
9.  High Prevalence of Clarithromycin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains and Risk Factors Associated with Resistance in Madrid, Spain ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(10):3703-3707.
Clarithromycin is one of the antibiotics used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections, and clarithromycin resistance is the most important factor when it comes to predicting eradication failure. The present study analyzed H. pylori isolates for the presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations and determined the risk factors associated with resistance among H. pylori isolates collected in Madrid, Spain, in 2008. We studied 118 H. pylori strains isolated from the same number of patients. A total of 76.3% of the patients were born in Spain, 52.7% were children, 20.3% had previously been treated, and 66.1% were female. Clarithromycin resistance was determined by Etest. H. pylori strains were considered resistant if the MIC was ≥1 mg/liter. DNA extraction was carried out by use of the NucliSens easyMAG platform with NucliSens magnetic extraction reagents (bioMérieux). The DNA sequences of the 23S rRNA genes of clarithromycin-resistant and -sensitive strains were determined to identify specific point mutations. The vacA genotype and cagA status were determined by PCR. We found that 42 (35.6%) strains were resistant to clarithromycin by Etest. Etest results were confirmed by detection of the presence of point mutations in 34 (88.1%) of these strains. Eight H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin by Etest but did not have a point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Mutation at A2143G was found in 85.3% of the strains, mutation at A2142G in 8.8%, and mutation at T2182C in 5.9%. Dual mutations were found in 8.8% of the strains. H. pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains were strongly associated with pediatric patients, with patients born in Spain, and with patients who had previously been treated (P ≤ 0.02). In addition, H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin more frequently presented the vacA s2/m2 genotype and were more likely to be cagA negative than susceptible strains (39.1% and 11.2%, respectively; P value < 0.001). We concluded that, in the present study, H. pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains are more frequently found in children, in patients mostly born in Spain, and in individuals who were previously treated for H. pylori infection and that these individuals are more likely colonized with a less virulent H. pylori strain.
PMCID: PMC2953083  PMID: 20668128
10.  Primary antibiotic resistance and associated mechanisms in Helicobacter pylori isolates from Senegalese patients 
Antibiotic combination therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication must be adapted to local resistance patterns, but the epidemiology of H. pylori resistance to antibiotics is poorly documented in Africa. The aim was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates, as well as the associated molecular mechanisms, of strains isolated in Dakar, Senegal.
One hundred and eight H. pylori strains were isolated between 2007 and 2009 from 108 patients presenting with upper abdominal pain to the Gastroenterology Department of Le Dantec Hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin and tetracyclin using the E-test method. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains and in gyrA and gyrB of levofloxacin-resistant strains were investigated.
Isolates were characterized by no resistance to amoxicillin (0%), tetracycline (0%), and very low rate of resistance to clarithromycin (1%), but a high rate of resistance to metronidazole (85%). The clarithromycin-resistant strain displayed the A2143G mutation. A worrying rate of levofloxacin resistance was detected (15%). N87I and D91N were the most common mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of gyrA.
The first-line empirical regimen for H. pylori eradication in Senegal should include clarithromycin. Increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance detected should discourage the use of levofloxacin-containing regimens without prior antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
PMCID: PMC3552979  PMID: 23298145
Helicobacter pylori; Levofloxacin; Clarithromycin; Antibiotic resistance; Senegal
11.  Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Strains and its Effect on H. pylori Eradication Rates in a Single Center in Korea 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2013;33(6):415-419.
Clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin have been commonly used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We compared the change in antibiotic resistance of H. pylori strains during two separate periods and investigated the effect of antibiotic resistance on H. pylori eradication.
H. pylori strains were isolated from 71 patients between 2009 and 2010 and from 94 patients between 2011 and 2012. The distribution of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5 antibiotics was assessed using the agar dilution method, and H. pylori eradication based on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was investigated retrospectively.
Antibiotic resistance rate against clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and levofloxacin for the 2009-2010 isolates were 7.0% (5/71), 2.8% (2/71), 0% (0/71), 45.1% (32/71), and 26.8% (19/71), respectively, and for the 2011-2012 isolates were 16.0% (15/94), 2.1% (2/94), 0% (0/94), 56.3% (53/94), and 22.3% (21/94), respectively. Multi-drug resistance for 2 or more antibiotics increased slightly from 16.9% (12/71) in the 2009-2010 isolates to 23.4% (22/94) in the 2011-2012 isolates. In follow-up testing of 66 patients, first-line treatment successfully eradicated H. pylori in 50 patients (75.8%) and failed in 4 of 7 patients (57.1%) in a clarithromycin-resistant and amoxicillin-susceptible group.
We observed an increase in resistance to clarithromycin and an overall increase in multi-drug resistance during the 2 study periods. The effectiveness of the eradication regimen was low with combinations of clarithromycin and amoxicillin, particularly in the clarithromycin-resistant group. Thus, eradication of H. pylori depends upon periodic monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC3819440  PMID: 24205490
Helicobacter pylori; Antibiotic resistance; Eradication
12.  Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic minority patients in Guangxi: Resistance rates, mechanisms, and genotype 
AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to clarithromycin among ethnic minority patients in Guangxi, explore the underlying mechanisms, and analyze factors influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates.
METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated, cultured and subjected to drug sensitivity testing. The 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates was amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing to detect point mutations. REP-PCR was used for genotyping of H. pylori isolates, and NTsys_2 software was used for clustering analysis based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Factors potentially influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates were analyzed.
RESULTS: The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 31.3%. A2143G and A2144G mutations were detected in the 23S rRNA gene of all clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates. At a genetic distance of 78%, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates could be divided into six groups. Significant clustering was noted among H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer or gastritis.
CONCLUSION: The rate of clarithromycin resistance is relatively high in ethnic minority patients in Guangxi. Main mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance are A2143G and A2144G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates can be divided into six groups based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Several factors such as disease type may influence the genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates.
PMCID: PMC4000514  PMID: 24782630
Helicobacter pylori; Antibiotic resistance; Mechanism; Clarithromycin; Genotype
13.  Clarithromycin-Based Standard Triple Therapy Can Still Be Effective for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Some Parts of the Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(9):1240-1246.
We evaluated the antibiotic resistance rates and eradication rates of clarithromycin based triple therapy from 2005 to 2010 retrospectively. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Korean patients. Two hundred and twelve strains of H. pylori were isolated from 204 patients. H. pylori ATCC 43504 was used as the standard strain. The eradication rates of H. pylori from 2005 to 2010 were 89.3%, 82.6%, 86.3%, 87.7%, 81.8%, and 84.2%, respectively. Total eradication rate was 84.9%. DNA sequences of the 23S RNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant strains were determined. The resistance rates of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin were 9.0%, 8.5%, 36.3%, 0%, 14.2%, 14.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. The multidrug resistance rate of H. pylori was 16.5%. Sequence analysis of clarithromycin-resistant strains showed an A2144G mutation in 8 of 14 strains (57.1%), a T2183C mutation in 5 of 14 strains (35.7%), and double mutations of both A2144G and T2183C in 1 of 14 strains (7.1%). In the present study, triple therapy may still be an effective eradication therapy for H. pylori infections in Korea. The A2144G and T2183C mutations are mainly present in clarithromycin-resistant isolates.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4168177  PMID: 25246742
Helicobacter pylori; Clarithromycin Resistance; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
14.  Site-Specific Mutations in the 23S rRNA Gene of Helicobacter pylori Confer Two Types of Resistance to Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Antibiotics 
Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is mainly due to A-to-G mutations within the peptidyltransferase region of the 23S rRNA. In the present study, cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics (MLS phenotypes) has been investigated for several clinical isolates of H. pylori. Two major types of MLS resistance were identified and correlated with specific point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. The A2142G mutation was linked with high-level cross-resistance to all MLS antibiotics (type I), and the A2143G mutation gave rise to an intermediate level of resistance to clarithromycin and clindamycin but no resistance to streptogramin B (type II). In addition, streptogramin A and streptogramin B were demonstrated to have a synergistic effect on both MLS-sensitive and MLS-resistant H. pylori strains. To further understand the mechanism of MLS resistance in H. pylori, we performed in vitro site-directed mutagenesis (substitution of G, C, or T for A at either position 2142 or 2143 of the 23S rRNA gene). The site-directed point mutations were introduced into a clarithromycin-susceptible strain, H. pylori UA802, by natural transformation followed by characterization of their effects on MLS resistance in an isogenic background. Strains with A-to-G and A-to-C mutations at the same position within the 23S rRNA gene had similar levels of clarithromycin resistance, and this level of resistance was higher than that for strains with the A-to-T mutation. Mutations at position 2142 conferred a higher level of clarithromycin resistance than mutations at position 2143. All mutations at position 2142 conferred cross-resistance to all MLS antibiotics, which corresponds to the type I MLS phenotype, whereas mutations at position 2143 were associated with a type II MLS phenotype with no resistance to streptogramin B. To explain that A-to-G transitions were predominantly observed in clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates, we propose a possible mechanism by which A-to-G mutations are preferentially produced in H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC105715  PMID: 9687389
15.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Shiraz, Southern Iran 
AIM: To improve our understanding of Iranian regional variation in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibiotic resistance rates to find the best antibiotic therapy for eradication of H. pylori infections.
METHODS: A total of 266 patients undergoing endoscopy in Shiraz, Southern Iran, were included in this study. H. pylori strains were isolated from antral biopsies by culture and confirmed by the rapid urease-test and gram staining. Antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori isolates was determined by E-test.
RESULTS: A total of 121 H. pylori strains were isolated, 50 from male and 71 from female patients. Data showed that 44% (n = 53), 20% (n = 24), 5% (n = 6), and 3% (n = 4) of all strains were resistant to the antibiotics metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. When the antibiotics were considered together we found 11 sensitivity patterns for the strains. Resistance to metronidazole was significantly higher in female than in male patients (P < 0.05). In about 71% of the metronidazole-resistant isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeded 256 μg/mL.
CONCLUSION: We found a moderate rate of primary resistance to metronidazole. However, a high MIC (> 256 mg/L) which was found in 71% of the isolates is considerable. In the case of amoxicillin, an increased resistance rate of 20% is worrying. Resistance to clarithromycin and tetracycline is also emerging among the H. pylori strains in our region.
PMCID: PMC2997992  PMID: 21128326
Gastric disorders; Helicobacter pylori; Iran; Sensitivity; Treatment
16.  Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy 
Background and Aim
Helicobacter pylori eradication clearly decreases peptic ulcer recurrence rates. H. pylori eradication is achieved in 70–90% of cases, but treatment failures due to poor patient compliance and resistant organisms do occur. Lactobacillus gasseri can suppress both clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains of H. pylori in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with L. gasseri- containing yogurt on H. pylori eradication. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial in patients with H. pylori infection.
A total of 229 patients were randomized into either a 1-week triple therapy of rabeprazole (10 mg bid), amoxicillin (750 mg bid), and clarithromycin (200 mg bid) or triple therapy plus L. gasseri-containing yogurt. In the yogurt-plus-triple therapy groups, yogurt containing L. gasseri OLL2716 (112 g) was given twice daily for 4 weeks (3 weeks pretreatment and also 1 week during eradication therapy). Clarithromycin resistance was determined by the detection of a mutation in 23S rRNA using nested polymerase chain reaction and the direct sequencing of DNA from pretreatment feces. H. pylori eradication was diagnosed based on the urea breath test and a stool antigen test after 8 weeks of eradication.
The status of H. pylori susceptibility to clarithromycin was successively determined in 188 out of 229 samples. The rate of infection with clarithromycin-resistant strains of H. pylori was 27.1%. Overall eradication (intention to treat/per protocol) was 69.3/74.5% for the triple-only group, and 82.6/85.6% for the yogurt-plus-triple group (P = 0.018/P = 0.041). Eradication of primary clarithromycin-resistant strains tended to be higher for yogurt-plus-triple therapy than triple-only therapy (38.5 vs 28.0%, respectively, P = 0.458).
This study confirmed that the major cause of treatment failure is resistance to clarithromycin. A 4-week treatment with L. gasseri-containing yogurt improves the efficacy of triple therapy in patients with H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC3504346  PMID: 22098133
clarithromycin-resistant strain; Helicobacter pylori; Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy; Lactobacillus gasseri; probiotics
17.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Mutations Involved in Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Patients in the Western Central Region of Colombia ▿  
Resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (amoxicilline) was found in 82, 3.8, and 1.9% of 106 Helicobacter pylori isolates, respectively. No tetracycline-resistant isolates were found. In all of the clarithromycin-resistant isolates, only one point mutation was present, either A2143G or A2142G. Our results indicate that metronidazole should not be included in the empirical treatment of H. pylori infection in this region.
PMCID: PMC2737890  PMID: 19546360
18.  Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Antimicrobial Profiles of Helicobacter pylori Strains in Cuba 
The study evaluated the antibiotic resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori strains against metronidazole and clarithromycin in a hospital in Havana, Cuba. Eighty-five percent, 22.5%, and 10% of 40 H. pylori strains investigated were resistant to metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin respectively but all were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. RdxA truncation was found only in metronidazole-resistant strains. In such strains, reported are eight and two novel mutations in the rdxA and frxA genes respectively. Two-point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes of clarithromycin-resistant strains were detected. A high prevalence of metronidazole resistance was found in Cuban H. pylori strains. Mutations in the rdxA gene may contribute more significantly than frxA gene to the high level of resistance to metronidazole. This study supports the need to continue monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility in H. pylori in Cuba to guide the treatment of such infection.
PMCID: PMC2980873  PMID: 20411674
Antibiotic resistance; Gene mutations; Helicobacter pylori; Cuba
19.  Distribution of Antibiotic MICs for Helicobacter pylori Strains over a 16-Year Period in Patients from Seoul, South Korea 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(12):4843-4847.
Recently, the development of antibiotic resistance emerged as a significant clinical problem in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the MICs of antibiotics for 135 H. pylori isolates from adults in Seoul, South Korea, over the past 16 years. The MICs of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin increased from 1987 to 2003. Rates of primary resistance to clarithromycin increased from 2.8% in 1994 to 13.8% in 2003. The A2144G mutation was frequently observed in the 23S rRNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant isolates. The increase in resistance to clarithromycin seems to result in a decrease in eradication efficacy for H. pylori. These results suggest that the MICs of several antibiotics for H. pylori have increased over the past 16 years in Seoul.
PMCID: PMC529181  PMID: 15561865
20.  Detection of Clarithromycin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori in Stool Samples 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(8):3636-3640.
The recognition of the role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases has led to the widespread use of antibiotics in the eradication of this pathogen. The most advocated therapy, triple therapy, often includes clarithromycin. It is well known that clarithromycin resistance is one of the major causes of eradication failure. The development of a rapid noninvasive technique that could easily be performed on fecal samples and that could also provide information about the antibiotic resistance of this microorganism is therefore advisable. Previous findings have demonstrated that clarithromycin resistance is due to a single point mutation in the 23S rRNA. All the mutations described have been associated with specific restriction sites, namely BsaI (A2143G), MboII (A2142C/G), and HhaI (T2717C). On this basis we have developed a new method, a seminested PCR, allowing screening for clarithromycin resistance of H. pylori directly on stool samples. This method furnished a 783-bp fragment of the 23S rRNA, which was subsequently digested by MboII, BsaI, and HhaI, in order to identify single point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance. Of a total of 283 stool samples examined, 125 were H. pylori positive and two of them were shown to contain clarithromycin-resistant strains due to the presence of a mutation at position 2717, whereas no PCR products contained mutations at position 2142 or 2143. In order to evaluate the reliability of the new system, we compared the results of restriction analysis of the PCR products with the MICs shown by the H. pylori isolates by culturing gastric biopsies from the same patients.
PMCID: PMC179782  PMID: 12904368
21.  Characterization of clarithromycin resistance in Malaysian isolates of Helicobacter pylori 
AIM: To characterize the types of mutations present in the 23S rRNA genes of Malaysian isolates of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H pylori).
METHODS: Clarithromycin susceptibility of H pylori isolates was determined by E test. Analyses for point mutations in the domain V of 23S rRNA genes in clarithromycin-resistant and -sensitive strains were performed by sequence analysis of amplified polymerase chain reaction products. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed using BsaI and MboII enzymes to detect restriction sites that correspond to the mutations in the clarithromycin-resistant strains.
RESULTS: Of 187 isolates from 120 patients, four were resistant to clarithromycin, while 183 were sensitive. The MIC of the resistant strains ranged from 1.5 to 24 μg/mL. Two isolates had an A2142G mutation and another two had A2143G mutations. A T2182C mutation was detected in two out of four clarithromycin-resistant isolates and in 13 of 14 clarithromycin-sensitive isolates. Restriction enzyme analyses with BsaI and MboII were able to detect the mutations.
CONCLUSION: Clarithromycin resistance is an uncommon occurrence among Malaysian isolates of H pylori strains and the mutations A2142G and A2143G detected were associated with low-level resistance.
PMCID: PMC2705740  PMID: 19575497
Clarithromycin resistance; Helicobacter pylori; 23S rRNA mutation; Restriction fragment length polymorphism
22.  Drug utilization of clarithromycin for gastrointestinal disease treatment 
AIM: To evaluate the patterns of use of clarithromycin for gastrointestinal disease treatment and promote its rational use.
METHODS: Using a structured pro forma, we conducted a two-month survey of the electronic prescriptions containing immediate-release (IR) or sustained-release (SR) product of clarithromycin for outpatients with gastrointestinal diseases in a 2200-bed general hospital. Suitability of the prescription was audited retrospectively.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four prescriptions of SR product and 110 prescriptions of IR product were prescribed for gastrointestinal disease treatment. Among prescriptions for anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) therapy, triple therapy take the dominant position (91.8%), followed by quadruple therapy (4.3%) and dual therapy (3.9%). Amoxicillin was the most frequently co-prescribed antibiotic. Furazolidone and levofloxacin are used more widely than metronidazole or tinidazole. Clarithromycin SR was administered at inappropriate time points in all prescriptions. Fifty percent of all prescriptions of clarithromycin SR, and 6.4% of prescriptions of clarithromycin IR, were prescribed at inappropriate dosing intervals. Surprisingly, disconcordance between diagnoses and indications was observed in all prescriptions of clarithromycin SR which has not been approved for treating H pylori infection although off-label use for this purpose was reported in literature. On the contrary, only one prescription (0.9%) of clarithromycin IR was prescribed for unapproved indication (i.e. gastro-oesophageal reflux disease). 1.4% of prescriptions for chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer treatment were irrational in that clarithromycin was not co-prescribed with gastric acid inhibitors. Clinical significant CYP3A based drug interactions with clarithromycin were identified.
CONCLUSION: There is a great scope to improve the quality of clarithromycin prescribing in patients with gastrointestinal disease, especially with regard to administration schedule, concordance between indications and diagnoses and management of drug interactions.
PMCID: PMC2760198  PMID: 18932287
Clarithromycin; Drug utilization; Prescriptions; Helicobacter pylori; Gastrointestinal diseases; Drug administration schedule; drug interactions; Polypharmacy
23.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Lower Silesia, Poland 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2013;10(3):505-509.
In recent years the failure of standard therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections has been observed, which results primarily from the increasing resistance of H. pylori strains to antibiotics. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori strains isolated from adult symptomatic patients with primary infection in the Lower Silesia Region in Poland.
Material and methods
One hundred and seventy-eight adults aged 19–89 years with dyspeptic symptoms suggesting gastroduodenal pathology were enrolled in the study. The study was performed in the years 2008–2011. Fifty H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsy samples of examined patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 6 drugs (amoxicillin (AM), clarithromycin (CH), metronidazole (MZ), tetracycline (TC), levofloxacin (LEV), and rifabutin (RB)) was tested by the gradient-diffusion method (E-test method).
The incidence of H. pylori infection among examined patients was 35%. From 50 isolated H. pylori strains, 24% showed resistance to CH, 42% to MZ and 8% to LEV alone. Multidrug resistance was detected in 26% of strains, whereas 20% of isolates were resistant to MZ and CH. Examined strains were fully susceptible to AM, TC and RB.
Resistance to clarithromycin strains isolated from adults of the Lower Silesia Region in Poland is high and is almost always associated with resistance to metronidazole (CH + MZ). It is necessary to continuously monitor H. pylori resistance to drugs used in therapy, especially to clarithromycin. Verification of the existing recommendations of eradication therapy is also needed.
PMCID: PMC4107243  PMID: 25097581
Helicobacter pylori; resistance; symptomatic patients
24.  Prospective multicentre study on antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains obtained from children living in Europe 
Gut  2006;55(12):1711-1716.
To prospectively assess the antibacterial resistance rate in Helicobacter pylori strains obtained from symptomatic children in Europe.
During a 4‐year period, 17 paediatric centres from 14 European countries reported prospectively on patients infected with H pylori, for whom antibiotic susceptibility was tested.
A total of 1233 patients were reported from Northern (3%), Western (70%), Eastern (9%) and Southern Europe (18%); 41% originated from outside Europe as indicated by mother's birth‐country; 13% were <6 years of age, 43% 6–11 years of age and 44% >11 years of age. Testing was carried out before the first treatment (group A, n = 1037), and after treatment failure (group B, n = 196). Overall resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 24% (mean, A: 20%, B: 42%). The primary clarithromycin resistance rate was higher in boys (odds ratio (OR) 1.58; 1.12 to 2.24, p = 0.01), in children <6 years compared with >12 years (OR 1.82, 1.10 to 3.03, p = 0.020) and in patients living in Southern Europe compared with those living in Northern Europe (OR 2.25; 1.52 to 3.30, p<0.001). Overall resistance rate to metronidazole was 25% (A: 23%, B: 35%) and higher in children born outside Europe (A: adjusted. OR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.61 to 3.66, p<0.001). Resistance to both antibiotics occurred in 6.9% (A: 5.3%, B: 15.3%). Resistance to amoxicillin was exceptional (0.6%). Children with peptic ulcer disease (80/1180, 6.8%) were older than patients without ulcer (p = 0.001).
The primary resistance rate of H pylori strains obtained from unselected children in Europe is high. The use of antibiotics for other indications seems to be the major risk factor for development of primary resistance.
PMCID: PMC1856474  PMID: 16603633
25.  Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current status and future concepts 
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma. Although alternative therapies, including phytomedicines and probiotics, have been used to improve eradication, current treatment still relies on a combination of antimicrobial agents, such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin, and antisecretory agents, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A standard triple therapy consisting of a PPI and two antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin/metronidazole) is widely used as the first-line regimen for treatment of infection, but the increased resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole has significantly reduced the eradication rate using this therapy and bismuth-containing therapy or 10-d sequential therapy has therefore been proposed to replace standard triple therapy. Alternatively, levofloxacin-based triple therapy can be used as rescue therapy for H. pylori infection after failure of first-line therapy. The increase in resistance to antibiotics, including levofloxacin, may limit the applicability of such regimens. However, since resistance of H. pylori to amoxicillin is generally low, an optimized high dose dual therapy consisting of a PPI and amoxicillin can be an effective first-line or rescue therapy. In addition, the concomitant use of alternative medicine has the potential to provide additive or synergistic effects against H. pylori infection, though its efficacy needs to be verified in clinical studies.
PMCID: PMC4017043  PMID: 24833858
Helicobacter pylori; Antimicrobial agents; Proton pump inhibitor; Campylobacter pyloridis

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