The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale.
The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders.
The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001).
As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies.
Mindfulness; Conscious presence; Soldiers; Trauma; Validation; Questionnaire
Recent findings have shown that mind-wandering – the occurrence of stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts – is associated with negative affect and lower psychological well-being. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is due to the occurrence of mind-wandering per se or to the fact that people who mind wander more tend to be generally less attentive to present-moment experience. In three studies, we first validate a French translation of a retrospective self-report questionnaire widely used to assess the general occurrence of mind-wandering in daily life – the Daydreaming Frequency Scale. Using this questionnaire, we then show that the relationship between mind-wandering frequency and psychological distress is fully accounted for by individual differences in dispositional mindful awareness and encoding style. These findings suggest that it may not be mind-wandering per se that is responsible for psychological distress, but rather the general tendency to be less aware and attentive to the present-moment. Thus, although mind-wandering and present-moment awareness are related constructs, they are not reducible to one another, and are distinguishable in terms of their relationship with psychological well-being.
mind-wandering; daydreaming; mindful awareness; encoding style; psychological distress; well-being
The present investigation examined the incremental predictive validity of mindfulness-based processes, indexed by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, in relation to posttraumatic stress symptom severity among individuals without any axis I psychopathology. Participants included 239 adults who endorsed exposure to traumatic life events. Results indicated that the Accepting without Judgment subscale was significantly incrementally associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; effects were above and beyond the variance accounted for by negative affectivity and number of trauma types experienced. The Acting with Awareness subscale was incrementally associated with only posttraumatic stress-relevant re-experiencing symptoms; and no other mindfulness factors were related to the dependent measures. Findings are discussed in relation to extant empirical and theoretical work relevant to mindfulness and posttraumatic stress.
mindfulness; acceptance; trauma; posttraumatic stress
The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.
A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.
Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361).
The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.
social phobia; public speaking; confirmatory factor analysis
The purpose of the present study was to conduct a test of acceptability of a new model for family-focused drug prevention programs for families of early adolescents. An existing evidence-based behavioral intervention, the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 (SFP), was adapted to include concepts and activities related to mindfulness and mindful parenting (an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent–child relationships). The foundation for this innovative intervention approach stems from research on the effects of mind-body treatments involving mindfulness meditation and the function of stress and coping in relation to parenting and parent well-being. One group of families participated in a seven-week pilot of this mindfulness-enhanced version of SFP. Results of a mixed-method implementation evaluation suggest that the new intervention activities were generally feasible to deliver, acceptable to participants, and perceived to yield positive benefits for family functioning and parent psychological well-being. The next phase of this research will involve curriculum refinement based upon results of this initial study, and a larger pilot efficacy trial will be conducted.
Mindfulness; Mindful parenting; Family; Adolescence; Preventive intervention
Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales.
The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations.
Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS’ score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = −0.72) and mindfulness (r = −0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped.
The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of psychological inflexibility among a sample of fibromyalgia patients. These results ensure the use of this scale in research as well as in clinical practice. Psychological inflexibility measures processes different from other related components such as acceptance and mindfulness.
Psychological inflexibility; Pain; Fibromyalgia; Acceptance; Mindfulness
The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness).
The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A) was studied in a sample of adolescents (n = 717; age range, 11–17 years) of the general population. The MAAS-A and other questionnaires measuring other constructs were administered in high schools across the Netherlands. A one-factor structure was demonstrated using principal component analysis and was further confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. The MAAS-A was shown to have high internal consistency. Expected negative correlations between mindfulness and self-reported stress and emotion regulation strategies such as rumination and catastrophizing were found. Further, mindfulness was positively correlated with happiness, healthy self-regulation, and with another recently developed measure of mindfulness in children and adolescents, the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure. Mindfulness as measured by the MAAS-A correlated positively with quality of life, but an expected positive relationship with acceptance was not found. Interestingly, adolescents without meditation experience scored higher on the MAAS-A than adolescents without this experience. Further, adolescents with chronic disorders scored lower on the MAAS-A than adolescents without these disorders. Overall, this study has shown evidence of the first valid and reliable Dutch measure of mindfulness for adolescents. The factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity as well as their relationship to quality of life are comparable to the original MAAS-A.
MAAS-A; Mindfulness; Internal consistency; Construct validity; Psychometric properties
We evaluated the efficacy of a mindful parenting program for changing parents’ mindfulness, child management practices, and relationships with their early adolescent youth and tested whether changes in parents’ mindfulness mediated changes in other domains. We conducted a pilot randomized trial with 65 families and tested an adapted version of the Strengthening Families Program: For Parent and Youth 10–14 that infused mindfulness principles and practices against the original program and a delayed intervention control group. Results of pre-post analyses of mother and youth-report data showed that the mindful parenting program generally demonstrated comparable effects to the original program on measures of child management practices and stronger effects on measures of mindful parenting and parent–youth relationship qualities. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that the mindful parenting program operated indirectly on the quality of parent–youth relationships through changes in mindful parenting. Overall, the findings suggest that infusing mindful parenting activities into existing empirically validated parenting programs can enhance their effects on family risk and protection during the transition to adolescence.
Mindfulness; Parenting; Intervention; Efficacy; Adolescence
There is increasing recognition of the links between mindfulness, decreased stress, and healthier psychological functioning. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in US samples and the mechanisms through which mindfulness decreases stress and increases well-being are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between mindfulness and psychological functioning in a general population sample in Sweden.
This cross-sectional study examined the association of mindfulness and five subscales of mindfulness with depression, anxiety, positive states of mind (PSOM), and perceived health.
In the spring of 2007, a random population-based sample of N = 1,000 individuals aged 18–60 years in Sweden was contacted by mail with a request to participate in the study.
Mindfulness and some of its subscales, in particular Acting with awareness and Non-reactivity to inner experiences, were strongly related to PSOM and perceived health, and inversely related to depression and anxiety. Tests of the moderating role of mindfulness showed that the associations of perceived stress with depression and perceived health were diminished for those with higher levels of mindfulness.
Mindfulness is strongly related to well-being and perceived health. Results suggest that dispositional mindfulness might buffer against the negative influence of perceived stress on psychological well-being. These findings give additional support for the use of mindfulness training as a way of improving psychological functioning among people experiencing stress.
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used in clinical populations to reduce psychological distress and improve functioning. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a questionnaire that measures five facets of mindfulness: observe, describe, actaware, nonjudge and nonreact. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the FFMQ in a clinical population of fibromyalgia patients. A total of 141 patients completed an online questionnaire on mindfulness (FFMQ) and theoretically related (e.g. acceptance, openness, alexithymia) and unrelated (physical health) constructs. Thirty-eight patients filled in the FFMQ twice. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the five-factor structure of the FFMQ. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were respectively assessed with Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was examined by correlating FFMQ facets with theoretically related and unrelated constructs. Incremental validity in predicting mental health and psychological symptoms was examined with regression analyses. CFA confirmed the correlated five-factor structure of the FFMQ. Internal consistency of the five facets was satisfactory and test–retest reliability was good to excellent. Construct validity was excellent, as shown by the moderate to large correlations with related constructs (except observe facet) and weak correlation with a theoretically unrelated construct. Two of the five facets (actaware and nonjudge) had incremental validity over the others in predicting mental health and psychological symptoms. After controlling for related constructs, the actaware facet remained a significant predictor. This study showed satisfactory psychometric properties of the Dutch FFMQ in fibromyalgia patients. The observe facet, however, should be used with caution given its deviant relationship with theoretically related constructs.
Fibromyalgia; Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; Mindfulness; Psychometric characteristics; Self-report assessment
Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions) may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression). Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.
The Children’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CNCEQ) is commonly used to measure four errors in young people’s thinking, but research has failed to support the factorial validity of the measure. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a refined and extended version of the CNCEQ. Revision of the CNCEQ involved the exclusion of items rated as contaminated, and the addition of items measuring cognitive errors closely associated with anxiety (‘threat conclusion’ and ‘underestimation of the ability to cope’). A secondary objective was to determine the relation between the negative cognitive errors and anxiety. Principal component analysis of data from 481 children and adolescents indicated five distinct negative cognitive error subscales labeled ‘underestimation of the ability to cope’, ‘personalizing without mind reading’, ‘selective abstraction’, ‘overgeneralizing’, and ‘mind reading’ which contained the new ‘threat conclusion’ items. Confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample of 295 children and adolescents yielded further support for the five-factor solution. All cognitive errors except ‘selective abstraction’ were correlated with anxiety. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the strongest predictors of anxiety were the two subscales containing new items, namely ‘underestimation of the ability to cope’ and ‘mind reading’. The results are discussed with respect to further development of the instrument so as to advance the assessment of distorted cognitive processing in young people with internalizing symptoms.
Cognitive processing; Negative cognitive errors; Anxiety; Children; Adolescents
Mindful-based interventions improve functioning and quality of life in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The aim of the study is to perform a psychometric analysis of the Spanish version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in a sample of patients diagnosed with FM.
The following measures were administered to 251 Spanish patients with FM: the Spanish version of MAAS, the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophising Scale, the Injustice Experience Questionnaire, the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Euroqol. Factorial structure was analysed using Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA). Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to examine internal consistency, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess the test-retest reliability of the measures. Pearson’s correlation tests were run to evaluate univariate relationships between scores on the MAAS and criterion variables.
The MAAS scores in our sample were low (M = 56.7; SD = 17.5). CFA confirmed a two-factor structure, with the following fit indices [sbX2 = 172.34 (p < 0.001), CFI = 0.95, GFI = 0.90, SRMR = 0.05, RMSEA = 0.06. MAAS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90) and adequate test-retest reliability at a 1–2 week interval (ICC = 0.90). It showed significant and expected correlations with the criterion measures with the exception of the Euroqol (Pearson = 0.15).
Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the MAAS in patients with FM are adequate. The dimensionality of the MAAS found in this sample and directions for future research are discussed.
Mindfulness; MAAS; Reliability; Validity; Fibromyalgia
Several mind body medicine interventions require an active participation of the practitioners. We intended to develop a questionnaire to operationalize and measure the “inner correspondence” of individuals practicing Yoga or Eurythmy Therapy. In an anonymous cross-sectional study we enrolled 501 individuals (61% yoga). Exploratory factor analysis (study 1) of the 12-item instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .84) pointed to a 3-factor solution, with one major scale and good internal consistency (alpha = .83) and two minor scales with weak internal consistency. To improve the quality of the main scale, we added 8 new items which were tested in a sample of 135 individuals (study 2: 71% Yoga). Factor analysis confirmed a 12-item single factor (alpha = .95), that is, Inner Correspondence/Peaceful Harmony with Practices (ICPH). The scale correlated strongly with mindfulness (FMI; r > .50), moderately with life and patient satisfaction (BMLSS; r between .32 and .43), and weakly negative with symptom score (VAS; r = −.23). In conclusion, the scale ICPH was confirmed as a relevant tool to measure the inner correspondence and feelings of peacefulness with practices. It can be used in clinical studies to assess the efficacy of mind-body practices involving physical movements.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.
novelty-seeking; self-directedness; self-transcendence; attention; temperament
Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A growing body of data suggests that experiential avoidance, or the tendency to escape or avoid unwanted psychological experiences, even when such efforts cause harm, may represent one such universal process. This article reviews theory and evidence that support mindfulness and psychological acceptance as a means to target experiential avoidance in suicidal clients and thereby reduce the risk of suicide. The article also provides two case examples of the application of mindfulness to suicidality and discusses how mindfulness may help clinicians in managing the stress associated with treating suicidal clients.
suicide; acceptance; mindfulness; case study; treatment
OBJECTIVE: To replicate, in a Francophone community, our prior work determining the reliability and validity of the full Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and a two-item version (WAST-Short). DESIGN: Questionnaires completed by abused and nonabused women. SETTING: Two women's shelters in Francophone communities in Ontario and Quebec and participants' homes or workplaces. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 25 abused women currently residing in two women's shelters and a convenience sample of 21 women who reported they were not abused. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's responses to French versions of the WAST, the Abuse Risk Inventory (ARI), and comfort in answering the questions were compared. Also, the reliability and validity of French versions of WAST and WAST-Short were assessed. RESULTS: Abused (n = 23) and not abused (n = 21) women were demographically similar. A strong single-factor structure that accounted for 81% of total variance in the French WAST items was identified. The French WAST was found to be highly reliable with a coefficient alpha of .95 and demonstrated construct and discriminant validity. The WAST-Short correctly classified all the nonabused women and 78.7% of the abused women. The abused women reported feeling less comfortable responding to the WAST questions than the nonabused women. CONCLUSION: The French version of the WAST demonstrated good reliability and validity and discriminated between known samples of abused and nonabused women. Even though the French WAST-Short did not perform as well as the English version, results of this study support further evaluation of the WAST for screening women in Francophone or bilingual family practice settings.
Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments.
Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI) and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9%) of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80.
There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.
This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep.
166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan, or GYROKINESIS®.
At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress and sleep quality.
Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tired Mood, Negative Arousal, Relaxed Mood, and Perceived Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep.
Movement based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in mood and perceived stress that explain, in part, improved sleep quality.
mindfulness; mood; Pilates; sleep; stress; Taiji quan; GYROKINESIS®
Some cancer patients use therapeutic massage to reduce symptoms, improve coping, and enhance quality of life. Although a meta-analysis concludes that massage can confer short-term benefits in terms of psychological wellbeing and reduction of some symptoms, additional validated randomized controlled studies are necessary to determine specific indications for various types of therapeutic massage. In addition, mechanistic studies need to be conducted to discriminate the relative contributions of the therapist and of the reciprocal relationship between body and mind in the subject. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to capture dynamic in vivo responses to biomechanical signals induced by massage of myofascial tissue. The relationship of myofascial communication systems (called “meridians”) to activity in the subcortical central nervous system can be evaluated. Understanding this relationship has important implications for symptom control in cancer patients, because it opens up new research avenues that link self-reported pain with the subjective quality of suffering. The reciprocal body–mind relationship is an important target for manipulation therapies that can reduce suffering.
Massage; cancer; clinical trials; mechanistic studies; functional magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; meridians; brain
Coping strategies are among the psychosocial factors hypothesized to contribute to the development of chronic musculoskeletal disability. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) was developed to assess eight behavioral coping strategies targeted in multidisciplinary pain treatment (Guarding, Resting, Asking for Assistance, Task Persistence, Relaxation, Exercise/Stretch, Coping Self-Statements and Seeking Social Support). The present study had two objectives. First, it aimed at measuring the internal consistency and the construct validity of the French version of the CPCI. Second, it aimed to verify if, as suggested by the CPCI authors, the scales of this instrument can be grouped according to the following coping families: Illness-focused coping and Wellness-focused coping.
The CPCI was translated into French with the forward and backward translation procedure. To evaluate internal consistency, Cronbach's alphas were computed. Construct validity of the inventory was estimated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in two samples: a group of 439 Quebecois workers on sick leave in the sub-acute stage of low back pain (less than 84 days after the work accident) and a group of 388 French chronic pain patients seen in a pain clinic. A CFA was also performed to evaluate if the CPCI scales were grouped into two coping families (i.e. Wellness-focused and Illness-focused coping).
The French version of the CPCI had adequate internal consistency in both samples. The CFA confirmed the eight-scale structure of the CPCI. A series of second-order CFA confirmed the composition of the Illness-focused family of coping (Guarding, Resting and Asking for Assistance). However, the composition of the Wellness-focused family of coping (Relaxation, Exercise/Stretch, Coping Self-Statements and Seeking Social Support) was different than the one proposed by the authors of the CPCI. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Illness and Wellness coping families.
The present study indicates that the internal consistency and construct validity of the French version of the CPCI were adequate, but the grouping and labeling of the CPCI families of coping are debatable and deserve further analysis in the context of musculoskeletal and pain rehabilitation.
The objective of this study was to validate the Impact of a Child with Congenital Anomalies on Parents (ICCAP) questionnaire. ICCAP was newly designed to assess the impact of giving birth to a child with severe anatomical congenital anomalies (CA) on parental quality of life as a result of early stress.
At 6 weeks and 6 months after birth, mothers and fathers of 100 children with severe CA were asked to complete the ICCAP questionnaire and the SF36. The ICCAP questionnaire measures six domains: contact with caregivers, social network, partner relationship, state of mind, child acceptance, and fears and anxiety. Reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest) and validity were tested and the ICCAP was compared to the SF-36.
Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 6 six a priori constructed subscales covering different psychological and social domains of parental quality of life as a result of early stress. Reliability estimates (congeneric approach) ranged from .49 to .92. Positive correlations with SF-36 scales ranging from .34 to .77 confirmed congruent validity. Correlations between ICCAP subscales and children's biographic characteristics, primary CA, and medical care as well as parental biographic and demographic variables ranged from -.23 to .58 and thus indicated known-group validity of the instrument. Over time both mothers and fathers showed changes on subscales (Cohen's d varied from .07 to .49), while the test-retest reliability estimates varied from .42 to .91.
The ICCAP is a reliable and valid instrument for clinical practice. It enables early signaling of parental quality of life as a result of early stress, and thus early intervention.
To briefly review the effects of mindfulness on the mind, the brain, the body, and behavior.
Selective review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases (2003–2008) using the terms “mindfulness”, “meditation”, “mental health”, “physical health”, “quality of life”, and “stress reduction.” A total of 52 exemplars of empirical and theoretical work were selected for review.
Both basic and clinical research indicate that cultivating a more mindful way of being is associated with less emotional distress, more positive states of mind, and better quality of life. In addition, mindfulness practice can influence the brain, the autonomic nervous system, stress hormones, the immune system, and health behaviors, including eating, sleeping and substance use, in salutary ways.
The application of cutting-edge technology toward understanding mindfulness – an “inner technology” – is elucidating new ways in which attention, awareness, acceptance, and compassion may promote optimal health – in mind, body, relationships, and spirit.
mindfulness; meditation; mental health; physical health; quality of life; stress reduction
Although mindfulness has been linked with salutary clinical outcomes, less is known about its relation to cognitive mechanisms implicated in the onset and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Because trait mindfulness is associated with attentional control and emotion regulation, we hypothesized that trait mindfulness would be inversely associated with attentional bias towards visual alcohol cues. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of alcohol-dependent adults residing in a treatment facility, who completed questionnaires on trait mindfulness, craving, and stress, as well as a spatial cueing task designed to assess alcohol attentional bias. Recovering alcohol-dependent individuals high in trait mindfulness exhibited less alcohol attentional bias (AB), stress, and craving, and greater alcohol-related self-efficacy, than their counterparts low in trait mindfulness. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that trait mindfulness was more predictive of alcohol AB than stress, craving, alcohol-related self-efficacy, time in treatment, or pre-treatment level of alcohol consumption. Identification of malleable traits that can offset automatic cognitive mechanisms implicated in addiction may prove to be crucial to treatment development efforts.
mindfulness; attentional bias; craving; stress; alcohol dependence