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1.  Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students 
Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institutet have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity.
A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group.
20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 – very good) they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16) by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03).
Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and interactivity.
PMCID: PMC2394519  PMID: 18430256
2.  Impact of training of teachers on their ability, skills, and confidence to teach HIV/AIDS in classroom: a qualitative assessment 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:990.
Considering the significant impact of school-based HIV/AIDS education, in 2007, a curriculum on HIV/AIDS was incorporated in the national curriculum for high school students of Bangladesh through the Government’s HIV-prevention program. Based on the curriculum, an intervention was designed to train teachers responsible for teaching HIV/AIDS in classes.
In-depth interviews were conducted with teachers to understand their ability, skills, and confidence in conducting HIV/AIDS classes. Focus-group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with students who participated in HIV/AIDS classes. HIV/AIDS classes were also observed in randomly-selected schools. Thematic assessment was made to analyze data.
The findings showed that the trained teachers were more comfortable in using interactive teaching methods and in explaining sensitive issues to their students in HIV/AIDS classes. They were also competent in using interactive teaching methods and could ensure the participation of students in HIV/AIDS classes.
The findings suggest that cascading training may be scaled up as it helped increase ability, skills, and confidence of teachers to successfully conduct HIV/AIDS classes.
PMCID: PMC4016607  PMID: 24144065
HIV/AIDS education; Teachers training; Qualitative method; Bangladesh
3.  Integrating the Teaching of Sickle Cell Anemia into the Curriculum of the Cincinnati Public School System 
In an effort to determine the impact of one aspect of the Cincinnati Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center's educational program, a study of the level of knowledge of sickle cell facts by elementary and secondary school students in the Cincinnati public school system was conducted. An underlying assumption of this study was that a specially adapted sickle cell teaching curriculum in conjunction with in-service training for science teachers by sickle cell education staff was effective and practical. The study provided support for this assumption and has important implications for educating the general public about sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. This study was undertaken during the 1975-1976 school year, and has subsequently led to the adoption of this sickle cell teaching curriculum by the Cincinnati Board of Education.
PMCID: PMC2552479  PMID: 7365810
The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Care & Support Training Programme provided by the Department of Education. The outcomes both before and after the interventions were measured by surveying the educators’ knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS, as well as their self-efficacy with respect to dealing with HIV/AIDS in the classroom setting. Both interventions resulted in significant changes in knowledge and attitudes as well as in the self-efficacy with respect to ability to teach about HIV/AIDS and to deal with classroom situations involving HIV and blood. The Care & Support Training Programme proved superior in enhancing basic knowledge about HIV, and the CD-ROM was superior in teaching about HIV transmission risks.
PMCID: PMC2939465  PMID: 20852677
Teacher; Educator Training; HIV/AIDS; CD-ROM; South Africa
5.  Transition from Longitudinal to Block Structure of Preclinical Courses: Outcomes and Experiences 
Croatian Medical Journal  2009;50(5):492-506.
To evaluate the transition from a longitudinal to block/modular structure of preclinical courses in a medical school adapting to the process of higher education harmonization in Europe.
Average grades and the exam pass rates were compared for 11 preclinical courses before and after the transition from the longitudinal (academic years 1999/2000 to 2001/2002) to block/modular curriculum (academic years 2002/2003 to 2004/2005) at Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia. Attitudes of teachers toward the 2 curriculum structures were assessed by a semantic differential scale, and the experiences during the transition were explored in focus groups of students and teachers.
With the introduction of the block/modular curriculum, average grades mostly increased, except in 3 major courses: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology. The proportion of students who passed the exams at first attempt decreased in most courses, but the proportion of students who successfully passed the exam by the end of the summer exam period increased. Teachers generally had more positive attitudes toward the longitudinal (median [C]±intequartile range [Q], 24 ± 16) than block/modular curriculum (C±Q, 38 ± 26) (P = 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The qualitative inquiry indicated that the dissatisfaction of students and teachers with the block/modular preclinical curriculum was caused by perceived hasty introduction of the reform under pressure and without much adaptation of the teaching program and materials, which reflected negatively on the learning processes and outcomes.
Any significant alteration in the temporal structure of preclinical courses should be paralleled by a change in the content and teaching methodology, and carefully planned and executed in order to achieve better academic outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2765745  PMID: 19839073
6.  Implementing HIV/AIDS Education: Impact of Teachers' Training on HIV/AIDS Education in Bangladesh 
School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers’ training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers’ ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.
PMCID: PMC3702355  PMID: 23617201
Course curriculum; Health education; HIV and AIDS; Teachers training; Youth; Bangladesh
7.  Students teaching AIDS to students: addressing AIDS in the adolescent population. 
Public Health Reports  1989;104(1):75-79.
Adolescents are at high risk for developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) because of their sexual curiosity and exploration, drug experimentation, and lack of knowledge. At present, the only way to reduce this risk is through education. In an effort to increase AIDS education among adolescents, a program called Students Teaching AIDS to Students (STATS) is proposed. The goal of this project is to help train medical students to become AIDS educators in the schools, churches, and youth organizations of their local communities. The project involves preparation and distribution of a package of materials which can be used by medical students to initiate a STATS program. The package consists of a manual which explains the essentials of starting a youth health education project, suggests how to gain approval for the project within the community, and contains curriculums with basic AIDS information and exercises. The curriculum material is tailored for presentation to students over two school-class periods on separate days and contains age-appropriate information. Another component of the package is the slide show tailored to explain STATS to school boards, parent groups, and the leaders of other youth organizations. A video tape to help answer difficult questions put by students has been selected to be part of the curriculum for school grade levels 7 to 12. These materials are geared to facilitate the start of a successful AIDS education program for adolescents.
PMCID: PMC1580293  PMID: 2493665
8.  HIV prevention through extended education encompassing students, parents, and teachers in Japan 
We developed an extended HIV prevention program for students, parents, and school teachers, and then evaluated its effectiveness.
The participants were 490 students, aged 13–14 years, attending four public junior high schools in Saga Prefecture, Japan. They were divided into two groups: control and intervention. All the students received group education by health professionals. In the control group, students received only two group education sessions given by health professionals. In the intervention group, there were three intervention components: parent education, teacher education, and student individual counseling by health professionals. Before and 3 months after the intervention, participants underwent evaluation of their frequency of communication about AIDS with parents or teachers, their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes to sexual intercourse, self-esteem, and high-risk behavior.
A total of 135 students (80 boys and 55 girls) from the intervention group and 236 students (115 boys and 121 girls) from the control group participated in the evaluation 3 months after intervention. Adolescents in the intervention group showed more positive changes than those in the control group from baseline to follow-up. Intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of communication about AIDS with teachers (p = 0.027) and HIV/AIDS knowledge among females (p = 0.023), and intervention also had a significant impact on refusal of sexual activity by males (p = 0.045).
These findings suggest that effective prevention of HIV might be achieved by an expanded education program for students and teachers such as that described, and individual counseling that takes into consideration the sexual differences of Japanese adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3206978  PMID: 21431811
HIV prevention; Parent; Teacher; Adolescent; Japan
9.  Health Is Life in Balance: Students and Communities Explore Healthy Lifestyles in a Culturally Based Curriculum1 
Pimatisiwin  2011;8(3):151-168.
From exploring knowledge from wise members of the community to investigating the science of homeostasis, students learn healthy ways of living through a new hands-on curriculum, Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools: Health Is Life in Balance. The curriculum integrates science and Native American traditions to educate students about science, diabetes and its risk factors, and the importance of nutrition and physical activity in maintaining health and balance in life. Applying an inquiry-based approach to learning, the curriculum builds skills in observation, measurement, prediction, experimentation, and communication, and provides healthy lifestyle messages and innovative science activities for all students. The curriculum is now available to teachers and health educators at no cost through a federal grant.
Health Is life in Balance incorporates interdisciplinary standards as well as storytelling to help children understand important messages. Implementation evaluation of the curriculum indicated improved knowledge and attitudes about science and health, positive teacher and student comments, and culturally relevant content. The lessons highlighted in this article give a glimpse into this hands-on curriculum which integrates science and Native American traditions, looking to our past and listening to the wisdom of our Elders, to gain powerful information for healthy, holistic living. The circle of balance is a theme in many indigenous belief systems and is woven into the lessons, providing enduring understandings of health behaviours that can prevent type 2 diabetes in the context of Native American cultural themes.
PMCID: PMC3263817  PMID: 22279450
diabetes education; American Indian/Alaska Natives; inquiry science; K–12 curriculum; culturally relevant curriculum; healthy lifestyles; community health
10.  A comparative study of the effectiveness of nonattendance and workshop education of primary school teachers on their knowledge, attitude and function towards ADHD students in Isfahan in 2010* 
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood behavioral disorder causing hyperactivity, attention deficit and education decline among students. The teachers may not have enough knowledge about this disorder and are in a real need in this field. Teachers’ education is one of the ways to get knowledge about this disorder. Nowadays, finding a way like a short term nonattendance education method is highly in demand. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare effectiveness of nonattendance and workshop education of primary school teachers on their knowledge, attitude, and function towards ADHD students.
Sixty seven primary school teachers from the First Districts of Education Department of Isfahan were randomly selected and put into two groups of workshop education (33 participants) and nonattendance education (34 participants). At first, both groups filled demographic date questionnaires and then, were given a pretest. Post tests were given after a two day education in workshop group and after ten days in nonattendance group who had studied the related booklet. Finally, the mean post test scores of knowledge, attitude and knowledge of function were compared between the two groups using ANCOVA analysis.
After intervention, the mean scores of knowledge between the two groups was not significantly different whereas the mean scores of attitude and the mean scores of knowledge of function showed a significant difference between the two groups.
Nonattendance education was as effective as workshop education in promotion of teachers’ knowledge, but workshop education was more effective in attitude change and promotion of teachers’ knowledge of function about dealing with ADHD students.
PMCID: PMC3430045  PMID: 22973389
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Teacher Education; Primary School Teachers; Knowledge; Attitude; Knowledge of Function
11.  Attitudes of medical students and family practice residents toward geriatric patients. 
The federal government, as well as teaching institutions, are concerned about the current negative attitudes of doctors, medical students, and paramedical personnel toward the elderly. Increased life expectancy at birth and lowered birth rates are changing the demographics of America. As the number of elderly citizens increases, greater demands are being placed on medical educators to train physicians who can meet the "geriatric imperative." The Institute of Medicine has recommended that comprehensive humanistic medical education in geriatrics be integrated throughout the curricula of medical schools. Research is needed to see if change can be implemented in physician training to improve attitudes toward the elderly. Previous attempts to improve medical students' attitudes toward the elderly have met with mixed success. Control groups have seldom been used. It is important to determine whether the effects of medical education extends beyond the immediate boundaries of a training curriculum. This article reports the results of a study on negative attitudes toward the elderly among residents, medical students, and physician's assistant students in the family medicine department at the King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles, California.
PMCID: PMC2571719  PMID: 8426387
12.  Venereal disease education and a selected group of American college students. 
Education is considered to be an important factor in the control and possible eradication of venereal diseases. A study was undertaken to discover what effect education had had on a selected group of university students so as to determine suitable avenues for future educational programmes. Many of the schools attended by the students had issued information on venereal diseases; most students considered that this information was useful. The study did not generally show a significant relationship between previous health education, current attitude and behaviour, and the contraction of venereal disease. However, the data did appear to reveal a correlation between the lack of education at junior high school and the acquisition of venereal disease. The university student health service, together with books and pamphlets made available outside the school of classroom, were regarded as being important in venereal disease education. These findings can help those planning venereal disease education for young adults.
PMCID: PMC1045345  PMID: 576588
13.  Medical Students as Medical Educators: Opportunities for Skill Development in the Absence of Formal Training Programs 
All physicians, at some point in their career, are responsible for the education of their peers and junior colleagues. Although medical students are expected to develop clinical and research skills in preparation for residency, it is becoming clear that a student should also be expected to develop abilities as a teacher. A handful of institutions have student-as-teacher programs to train medical students in education, but most students graduate from medical school without formal training in this area. When such a program does not exist, medical students can gain experience in education through participation in peer teaching, course design, educational committees, and medical education scholarship. In doing so, they attain important skills in the development, implementation, and evaluation of educational programs. These skills will serve them in their capacity as medical educators as they advance in their careers and gain increasing teaching responsibility as residents, fellows, and attending physicians.
PMCID: PMC3178849  PMID: 21966037
Undergraduate medical education; graduate medical education; internship and residency; medical students; skill development; learning; teaching; student teaching; educational models; professional competence; clinical competence; peer group
14.  Evaluation of a novel nutrition education intervention for medical students from across England 
BMJ Open  2012;2(1):e000417.
Problems such as hospital malnutrition (∼40% prevalence in the UK) may be managed better by improving the nutrition education of ‘tomorrow's doctors’. The Need for Nutrition Education Programme aimed to measure the effectiveness and acceptability of an educational intervention on nutrition for medical students in the clinical phase of their training.
An educational needs analysis was followed by a consultative process to gain consensus on a suitable educational intervention. This was followed by two identical 2-day educational interventions with before and after analyses of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP). The 2-day training incorporated six key learning outcomes.
Two constituent colleges of Cambridge University used to deliver the above educational interventions.
An intervention group of 100 clinical medical students from 15 medical schools across England were recruited to attend one of two identical intensive weekend workshops.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
The primary outcome measure consisted of change in KAP scores following intervention using a clinical nutrition questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included change in KAP scores 3 months after the intervention as well as a student-led semiqualitative evaluation of the educational intervention.
Statistically significant changes in KAP scores were seen immediately after the intervention, and this was sustained for 3 months. Mean differences and 95% CIs after intervention were Knowledge 0.86 (0.43 to 1.28); Attitude 1.68 (1.47 to 1.89); Practice 1.76 (1.11 to 2.40); KAP 4.28 (3.49 to 5.06). Ninety-seven per cent of the participants rated the overall intervention and its delivery as ‘very good to excellent’, reporting that they would recommend this educational intervention to colleagues.
Need for Nutrition Education Programme has highlighted the need for curricular innovation in the area of clinical health nutrition in medical schools. This project also demonstrates the effectiveness and acceptability of such a curriculum intervention for ‘tomorrow's doctors’. Doctors, dietitians and nutritionists worked well in an effective interdisciplinary partnership when teaching medical students, providing a good model for further work in a healthcare setting.
Article summary
Article focus
Hospital malnutrition has been a challenge for decades in the UK due to its cost and impact on patient care.
The focus was to examine whether a novel 2-day course could make a significant improvement in the understanding of clinical nutrition, among senior medical students.
Key messages
This study summarised the need for improved training in clinical nutrition among medical students in England, a need noted in other countries too.
Statistically significant changes in KAP scores were seen immediately after the intervention among the 98 students, and this was sustained for 3 months.
Ninety-seven per cent of the participants rated the overall intervention and its delivery as ‘very good to excellent’, reporting that they would recommend this educational intervention to colleagues.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The learning outcomes seemed appropriate and the teaching intervention appeared effective.
A multidisciplinary teaching team helped emphasise the roles of various team members, in dealing with nutrition-related problems in a healthcare setting.
Comparing change to a parallel student control group would have been preferable to monitoring within-group change.
PMCID: PMC3277906  PMID: 22327628
15.  Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post‐apartheid South Africa, 2003–2006 
Journal of Medical Ethics  2007;33(11):673-677.
The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country.
PMCID: PMC2598089  PMID: 17971474
16.  Preparing faculty to teach in a problem-based learning curriculum: the Sherbrooke experience. 
Over the last 6 years Sherbrooke Medical School has undertaken a major reform of its undergraduate curriculum. A new student-centred, community-oriented curriculum was implemented in September 1987. Problem-based learning (PBL) is now the main educational method. To adequately prepare teachers for the curriculum a series of faculty development programs in pedagogy were offered: first, a 2-day introductory workshop to initiate teachers into educational principles and their application in the new program; second, a 1-year basic training program in medical pedagogy; third, a 1-day workshop on PBL; and fourth, a comprehensive 3-day training program in PBL tutoring. Over 60% of all full-time teachers attended the introductory program and 80% the tutor training program. The 1-year basic training program was completed by 33% of the faculty members. The implementation of these programs, coupled with a high participation rate, resulted in a more student-centred educational philosophy and a greater interest in medical education. This had a significant impact when the new curriculum was instituted. Lessons learned from the experience are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1452841  PMID: 1998902
17.  A Novel Nutrition Medicine Education Model: the Boston University Experience123 
Advances in Nutrition  2013;4(1):1-7.
Most deaths in the United States are preventable and related to nutrition. Although physicians are expected to counsel their patients about nutrition-related health conditions, a recent survey reported minimal improvements in nutrition medicine education in US medical schools in the past decade. Starting in 2006, we have developed an educational plan using a novel student-centered model of nutrition medicine education at Boston University School of Medicine that focuses on medical student–mentored extracurricular activities to develop, evaluate, and sustain nutrition medicine education. The medical school uses a team-based approach focusing on case-based learning in the classroom, practice-based learning in the clinical setting, extracurricular activities, and a virtual curriculum to improve medical students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice skills across their 4-y period of training. We have been using objectives from the NIH National Academy Awards guide and tools from the Association of American Medical Colleges to detect new areas of nutrition medicine taught at the medical school. Although we were only able to identify 20.5 h of teaching in the preclerkship years, we observed that most preclerkship nutrition medicine objectives were covered during the course of the 4-y teaching period, and extracurricular activities provided new opportunities for student leadership and partnership with other health professionals. These observations are very encouraging as new assessment tools are being developed. Future plans include further evaluation and dissemination of lessons learned using this model to improve public health wellness with support from academia, government, industry, and foundations.
PMCID: PMC3648731  PMID: 23319117
18.  Current approaches to prevention of HIV infections. 
Public Health Reports  1991;106(2):111-115.
The HIV education and prevention strategy of the Centers for Disease Control has three principal components: (a) public information and education, (b) education for school-aged populations, and (c) risk reduction education and individual counseling and testing services for people at increased risk of HIV infection. The most visible components of the public information and education programs are the National Public Information Campaign ("America Responds to AIDS"), the National AIDS Hotline system, and the National AIDS Information Clearinghouse. Components of the youth education program consist of funding for national health and education organizations, funding for State and local education departments, training, surveillance of education efforts, and evaluation. Counseling and testing has entailed performance of approximately 2,500,000 HIV antibody tests with pre- and post-test counseling, notification and counseling of sexual and needle-sharing partners of those infected with HIV, and targeted risk reduction education through community-based organizations. Over time, these activities will continue to evolve and become more effective.
PMCID: PMC1580218  PMID: 1850530
19.  The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia 
Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme’s effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme ‘The World Starts With Me’. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme’s effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.
PMCID: PMC3120974  PMID: 21765883
Intervention mapping; Systematic adaptation; Fidelity; Logic model; Indonesia
20.  The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia 
Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme’s effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme ‘The World Starts With Me’. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme’s effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.
PMCID: PMC3120974  PMID: 21765883
Intervention mapping; Systematic adaptation; Fidelity; Logic model; Indonesia
21.  Worldwide Predoctoral Dental Implant Curriculum Survey 
Predoctoral dental implant education is included in dental school teaching curricula in most of the developed and some developing countries; however, it was not introduced into undergraduate curriculum of some countries and Iranian dental schools.
Our purpose was to investigate the status of the predoctoral dental implant education of dental schools in the world.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred-thirty five dental schools were randomly selected representing 62 countries divided into two regions. The first region included North America and Europe, and the second region comprised of Asia, South America and Africa. A questionnaire including onset year, lecture hours, lectures available on the internet, required textbooks, department jurisdictions, the year of dental school the course was offered, clinical and laboratory courses, implant systems used surgically and in restorative phase, and type of restorations treated by predoctoral students was mailed electronically to the predoctoral implant dentistry directors.
Ninety-two (68%) schools responded; of which 79 (86%) incorporated implant dentistry in their predoctoral teaching curricula, 39 (49%) offered surgical and prosthodontics courses in which students mainly observe. Of these 39 dental schools, 28 (71%) and 11 (29%) dental schools are from the first and second region, respectively.
A large percentage of responding schools included implant education in the predoctoral dental curriculum. Onset year of course, topics included in lecture series, lecture hours, faculty to student ratio and practical course vary among schools. Fifty percent of responding dental schools including Iranian dental schools do not have curriculum guidelines for predoctoral implant dentistry.
PMCID: PMC3184726  PMID: 21998802
Dentistry; Education; Dental Implants; Interdisciplinary Studies; Curriculum
22.  Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:24.
A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS.
Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning.
Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language.
A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
PMCID: PMC2845182  PMID: 20236526
23.  Editorial: The necessity of adult learning methods in programs of intensive study 
This article presents the educational methodologies that prove effective in adult educational programmes of intensive study. The many facets of a quality educational programme are discussed and I will focus on four topics that any adult educational programme must have: an adult learner, an instructor of adults, a curriculum, and a response to outside forces.
These topics become increasingly critical when one examines the components of technical education and, especially, an intensive training programme in laboratory automation systems. The adult will be discussed as a learner and the associated myths and principles. Next, I will focus on the instructor and his/her necessary personal and professional qualities, including essential skills and psychological elements required. Aspects of curriculum will then be studied. The conventional and the innovative approaches to curriculum design, development, and delivery differ markedly. Development and delivery are so closely linked to the curriculum that both will be discussed under the one title of ‘curriculum’. The final discussion will focus on the outside forces that directly and indirectly affect adult education; since these are many, they are limited to a few salient ones.
PMCID: PMC2547922  PMID: 18924896
24.  THE VAXED PROJECT: An Assessment of Immunization Education in Canadian Health Professional Programs 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:86.
Knowledge & attitudes of healthcare providers (HCP) have significant impact on frequency with which vaccines are offered & accepted but many HCP are ill equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits & risks. We performed an assessment of the educational needs of trainees regarding immunization and used the information thus ascertained to develop multi-faceted, evaluable, educational tools which can be integrated into formal education curricula.
(i) A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian nursing, medical & pharmacy schools to assess immunization-related curriculum content (ii) A 77-item web-based, validated questionnaire was emailed to final-year students in medicine, nursing, & pharmacy at two universities in Nova Scotia, Canada to assess knowledge, attitudes, & behaviors reflecting current immunization curriculum.
The curriculum review yielded responses from 18%, 48%, & 56% of medical, nursing, & pharmacy schools, respectively. Time spent on immunization content varied substantially between & within disciplines from <1 to >50 hrs. Most schools reported some content regarding vaccine preventable diseases, immunization practice & clinical skills but there was considerable variability and fewer schools had learning objectives or formal evaluation in these areas. 74% of respondents didn't feel comfortable discussing vaccine side effects with parents/patients & only 21% felt they received adequate teaching regarding immunization during training.
Important gaps were identified in the knowledge of graduating nursing, medical, & pharmacy trainees regarding vaccine indications/contraindications, adverse events & safety. The national curriculum review revealed wide variability in immunization curriculum content & evaluation. There is clearly a need for educators to assess current curricula and adapt existing educational resources such as the Immunization Competencies for Health Professionals in Canada.
PMCID: PMC3002370  PMID: 21110845
25.  Changes in postgraduate medical education and training in clinical radiology 
Postgraduate medical education and training in many specialties, including Clinical Radiology, is undergoing major changes. In part this is to ensure that shorter training periods maximise the learning opportunities but it is also to bring medical education in line with broader educational theory. Learning outcomes need to be defined so that there is no doubt what knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours are expected of those in training. Curricula should be developed into competency or outcome based models and should state the aims, objectives, content, outcomes and processes of a training programme. They should include a description of the methods of learning, teaching, feedback and supervision. Assessment systems must be matched to the curriculum and must be fair, reliable and valid. Workplace based assessments including the use of multisource feedback need to be developed and validated for use during radiology training. These should be used in a formative and developmental way, although the overall results from a series of such assessments can be used in a more summative way to determine progress to the next phase of training. Formal standard setting processes need to be established for ‘high stakes’ summative assessments such as examinations. In addition the unique skills required of a radiologist in terms of image interpretation, pattern recognition, deduction and diagnosis need to be evaluated in robust, reliable and valid ways. Through a combination of these methods we can be assured that decisions about trainees’ progression through training is fair and standardised and that we are protecting patients by establishing national standards for training, curricula and assessment methods.
PMCID: PMC3097704  PMID: 21614310
Postgraduate; radiology; training; education

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