The potential therapeutic action of shikonin in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated. As a RA animal model, DBA/1J mice were immunized two times with type II collagen. After the second collagen immunization, mice were orally administered shikonin (2 mg/kg) once a day for 35 days, and the incidence, clinical score, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and joint histopathology were evaluated. BMD in the proximal regions of the tibia largely increased in the shikonin treatment group compared with the control group. We also examined the effect of shikonin on inflammatory cytokines and cartilage protection. Shikonin treatment significantly reduced the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), markedly abrogating joint swelling and cartilage destruction. Shikonin also significantly inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and up-regulated tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in mice with CIA. In conclusion, shikonin exerted therapeutic effects through regulation of MMP/TIMP; these results suggest that shikonin is an outstanding candidate as a cartilage protective medicine for RA.
Shikonin; Bone mineral density; Bone mineral contents; MMP-1; TIMP-1
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis accompanied by destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) prevents experimental arthritis in animal models by downregulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory components of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the protective effect of VIP on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. We have studied the expression of different mediators implicated in bone homeostasis, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11 and IL-17. Circulating cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA and the local expression of mediators were determined by RT-PCR in mRNA extracts from joints. VIP treatment resulted in decreased levels of circulating IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα, and increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10. CIA-mice treated with VIP presented a decrease in mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-11 in the joints. The ratio of RANKL to OPG decreased drastically in the joint after VIP treatment, which correlated with an increase in levels of circulating OPG in CIA mice treated with VIP. In addition, VIP treatment decreased the expression of mRNA for RANK, iNOS and COX-2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved, we tested the activity of NFκB and AP-1, two transcriptional factors closely related to joint erosion, by EMSA in synovial cells from CIA mice. VIP treatment in vivo was able to affect the transcriptional activity of both factors. Our data indicate that VIP is a viable candidate for the development of treatments for RA.
To assess the efficacy of human placental extract (HPE) in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
We used (i) KRN C57BL/6 TCR transgenic x NOD mice (KBx/N) serum transfer arthritis and (ii) collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice to evaluate the effi cacy of HPE (1 ul or 100 ul, intra-peritoneal, three times per week) on RA. Incidence, severity of arthritis, and hind-paw thickness were quantifi ed. Joint destruction was analyzed using modifi ed mammographic imaging. Histopathological analysis for inflammation, cartilage, and osteoclasts was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin (H-E), safranin-O, and tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP). ELISAs were used for detection of various cytokines in serum and joint tissue.
There were no significant differences in incidence of arthritis, clinical scores of arthritis, and hind-paw thickness between HPE-treated and vehicle-treated groups for up to 2 weeks in the KBx/N serum transfer arthritis model. Histopathological analysis also showed no differences 2 weeks after treatment. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and RANKL in serum and joint tissues were similar in all groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in clinical, radiological, and histological parameters between HPE-treated and vehicle-treated group for 3 weeks in the CIA model.
Systemic treatment with HPE has no beneficial effects on arthritis in animal models of RA. Therefore, indiscreet use of HPE in RA should be forbidden.
Human placental extract (HPE); Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
The origin and role of IL-17, a T-cell derived cytokine, in cartilage and bone destruction during rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain to be clarified. In human ex vivo models, addition of IL-17 enhanced IL-6 production and collagen destruction, and inhibited collagen synthesis by RA synovium explants. On mouse cartilage, IL-17 enhanced cartilage proteoglycan loss and inhibited its synthesis. On human RA bone explants, IL-17 also increased bone resorption and decreased formation. Addition of IL-1 in these conditions increased the effect of IL-17. Blocking of bone-derived endogenous IL-17 with specific inhibitors resulted in a protective inhibition of bone destruction. Conversely, intra-articular administration of IL-17 into a normal mouse joint induced cartilage degradation. In conclusion, the contribution of IL-17 derived from synovium and bone marrow T cells to joint destruction suggests the control of IL-17 for the treatment of RA.
bone; cartilage; degradation; IL-17; rheumatoid arthritis
Objective: To investigate immunolocalisation of parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in two sequential models of experimental cartilage damage (inflammatory and degenerative) in order to elucidate differences in chondrocyte response to the disease.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum to the N-terminal domain of PTHrP was used to detect this protein in two different rabbit models sharing progressive cartilage damage: antigen induced arthritis (AIA) and osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to partial medial meniscectomy. Cartilage specimens from early (2 days in AIA; 8 weeks in experimental OA) and late (3 weeks in AIA; 52 weeks in OA) disease were compared.
Results: Cell and matrix PTHrP staining in early AIA and OA was similar to that in controls. Late AIA cartilage showed a significant decrease in PTHrP positive cells and in the cartilage matrix. In contrast, at late OA stages, distinct PTHrP positivity was detected in proliferating cell clones, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining around cartilage damaged areas.
Conclusion: PTHrP staining of hyaline articular cartilage shows a different pattern during progression of each type of arthritis: an overall decrease associated with the inflammatory disease, and an increase in the proliferating chondrocyte clones with degenerative arthritis.
This study examined the effects of calcium (Ca) gluconate on collagen-induced DBA mouse rheumatoid arthritis (CIA). A single daily dose of 200, 100 or 50 mg/kg Ca gluconate was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) were measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the Ca gluconate- administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in Ca gluconate-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dosedependent manner in the Ca gluconate group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF-α, involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, were suppressed by treatment with Ca gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca gluconate is a promising candidate anti-rheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.
Calcium gluconate; Rheumatoid arthritis; Anti-inflammation; Anti-oxidation; Immunomodulation
Cartilage and bone degradation, observed in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are caused by aberrant expression of proteinases, resulting in an imbalance of these degrading enzymes and their inhibitors. However, the role of the individual proteinases in the pathogenesis of degradation is not yet completely understood. Murine antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) is a well-established animal model of RA. We investigated the time profiles of expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), cathepsins, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) and cystatins in AIA. For primary screening, we revealed the expression profile with Affymetrix oligonucleotide chips. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed for the validation of array results, for tests of more RNA samples and for the completion of the time profile. For the analyses at the protein level, we used an MMP fluorescence activity assay and zymography. By a combination of oligonucleotide chips, real-time PCR and zymography, we showed differential expressions of several MMPs, cathepsins and proteinase inhibitors in the course of AIA. The strongest dysregulation was observed on days 1 and 3 in the acute phase. Proteoglycan loss analysed by safranin O staining was also strongest on days 1 and 3. Expression of most of the proteinases followed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. TIMP-3 showed an expression profile similar to that of anti-inflammatory interleukin-4. The present study indicates that MMPs and cathepsins are important in AIA and contribute to the degradation of cartilage and bone.
Affymetrix oligonucleotide chips; cathepsins; cytokines; matrix metalloproteinases; murine antigen-induced arthritis
OBJECTIVE—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in joint tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to define the steady state levels of seven different MMPs and two tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as well as the potential metalloproteinase activity in the synovial fluid (SF) to provide more insight into the role of MMPs in cartilage destruction in RA and OA.
METHODS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in SF aspirated from knee joints of 97 patients with RA and 103 patients with OA were measured by the corresponding one step sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Proteolytic activity of MMPs in these SFs was examined in an assay using [3H]carboxymethylated transferrin substrate in the presence of inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteinases after activation with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). Destruction of RA knee joints was radiographically evaluated.
RESULTS—Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 were significantly higher in RA SF than in OA SF. MMP-7 and MMP-13 were detectable in more than 45% of RA SFs and in less than 20% of OA SFs, respectively. Among the MMPs examined, MMP-3 levels were extremely high compared with those of other MMPs. Direct correlations were seen between the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and between those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in RA SF. Although the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 increased even in the early stage of RA, those of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were low in the early stage and increased with the progression of RA. Molar ratios of the total amounts of the MMPs to those of the TIMPs were 5.2-fold higher in patients with RA than in OA, which was significant. APMA-activated metalloproteinase activity in SF showed a similar result, and a direct correlation was seen between the molar ratios and the activity in RA SF.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results show that high levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 are present in RA SF and suggest that once these MMPs are fully activated, they have an imbalance against TIMPs, which may contribute to the cartilage destruction in RA.
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is induced after immunization with type II collagen (CII). CIA, like RA, is an autoimmune disease leading to destruction of cartilage and joints, and both the priming and inflammatory phases have been suggested to be dependent on proteases. In particular, the cysteine proteases have been proposed to be detrimental to the arthritic process and even immunomodulatory. A natural inhibitor of cysteine proteases is cystatin C.
Cystatin C-deficient, sufficient and heterozygous mice were tested for onset, incidence and severity of CIA. The effect of cystatin C-deficiency was further dissected by testing the inflammatory effector phase of CIA; that is, collagen antibody-induced arthritis model and priming phase, that is, T cell response both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, in order to determine the importance of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), these cell populations were separated and in vitro T cell responses determined in a mixed co-culture system. Finally, flow cytometry was used in order to further characterize cell populations in cystatin C-deficient mice.
Here, we show that mice lacking cystatin C, develop arthritis at a higher incidence and an earlier onset than wild-type controls. Interestingly, when the inflammatory phase of CIA was examined independently from immune priming then cystatin C-deficiency did not enhance the arthritis profile. However, in line with the enhanced CIA, there was an increased T cell and B cell response as delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and anti-CII antibody titers were elevated in the cystatin C-deficient mice after immunization. In addition, the ex vivo naïve APCs from cystatin C-deficient mice had a greater capacity to stimulate T cells. Interestingly, dendritic cells had a more activated phenotype in naïve cystatin C-deficient mice.
The lack of cystatin C enhances CIA and primarily affects in vivo priming of the immune system. Although the mechanism of this is still unknown, we show evidence for a more activated APC compartment, which would elevate the autoimmune response towards CII, thus resulting in an enhanced development of chronic arthritis.
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is over-expressed in inflammatory cells and was defined as a target to combat inflammation. Synthetic agonists to this receptor, such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA, exert an anti-inflammatory effect in experimental animal models of adjuvant and collagen induced arthritis.
In this study we present a novel A3AR agonist, CF502, with high affinity and selectivity at the human A3AR. CF502 induced a dose dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) via de-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Furthermore, CF502 markedly suppressed the clinical and pathological manifestations of Adjuvant Induced Arthritis (AIA) in a rat experimental model when given orally at a low dose (100 μg/kg). As is typical of other G-protein coupled receptors, the A3AR expression level was down-regulated shortly after treatment with agonist CF502 in paw and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from treated AIA animals. Subsequently, a decrease in the expression levels of Protein Kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), IκB kinase (IKK), (I kappa B) IκB, NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) took place. In addition, the expression levels of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β), β-catenin, and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), known to control the level and activity of NF-κB, were down-regulated upon treatment with CF502.
Taken together, CF502 inhibits FLS growth and the inflammatory manifestations of arthritis, supporting the development of A3AR agonists for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
A3 adenosine receptor; CF502; rheumatoid arthritis; PKB/Akt; NF-κB; TNF-α
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease that results in joint destruction and subsequent loss of function. To better understand its pathogenesis and to facilitate the search for novel RA therapeutics, we profiled the rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) to discover and characterize blood biomarkers for RA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified using a Ficoll gradient at various time points after type II collagen immunization for RNA preparation. Total RNA was processed for a microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. Statistical comparison analyses identified differentially expressed genes that distinguished CIA from control rats. Clustering analyses indicated that gene expression patterns correlated with laboratory indices of disease progression. A set of 28 probe sets showed significant differences in expression between blood from arthritic rats and that from controls at the earliest time after induction, and the difference persisted for the entire time course. Gene Ontology comparison of the present study with previous published murine microarray studies showed conserved Biological Processes during disease induction between the local joint and PBMC responses. Genes known to be involved in autoimmune response and arthritis, such as those encoding Galectin-3, Versican, and Socs3, were identified and validated by quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR analysis using independent blood samples. Finally, immunoblot analysis confirmed that Galectin-3 was secreted over time in plasma as well as in supernatant of cultured tissue synoviocytes of the arthritic rats, which is consistent with disease progression. Our data indicate that gene expression in PBMCs from the CIA model can be utilized to identify candidate blood biomarkers for RA.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disorder, whose progression leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Chemokines and their receptors are potential therapeutic targets in RA. Among these, it has been suggested that CXC chemokine 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXC ligand 12 (CXCL12) are involved in RA pathogenesis. Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) is currently being evaluated for the treatment of RA; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effectiveness remain unclear.
Aim: To understand the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLI, we used the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat as RA model and analyzed the gene expression profile in synovial membrane in the hindpaw joints of control, CIA and CIA + LLLI. Expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 genes were also studied.
Materials and Methods: Total RNA was isolated from the synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joints or CIA joints treated with LLLI (830 nm Ga-Al-As diode), and gene expression profiles were analyzed by DNA microarray (41,000 rat genes). The mRNA levels were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical examination to examine CXCR4 protein expression was also carried out.
Results: DNA microarray analysis showed that CXCR4 gene expression was increased in CIA tissue and LLLI treatment significantly decreased CIA-induced CXCR4 mRNA levels. In contrast, CXCL12 did not show any significant changes. The microarray data of CXCR4 mRNA levels were further validated using RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Increased CXCR4 mRNA levels by CIA and its reduction following LLLI was successfully confirmed. CXCR4 production was increased in CIA joints and its production was decreased by LLLI.
Conclusion: Decreased CXCR4 expression may be one of the mechanisms in LLLI-mediated reduction of RA inflammation.
Rheumatoid arthritis; rat joint; CXCR4; low-level laser irradiation
A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is invasion of the synovial pannus into cartilage and this step requires degradation of the collagen matrix. The aim of this study was to explore the role of one of the collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), in synovial pannus invasiveness.
Expression and localization of MT1-MMP in human RA pannus were investigated by Western blot analysis of primary synovial cells and immunohistochemistry of RA joints specimens. The functional role of MT1-MMP was analyzed by 3D collagen invasion assays and a cartilage invasion assay in the presence or absence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2, or GM6001. The effect of adenoviral expression of a dominant negative MT1-MMP construct lacking a catalytic domain was also examined.
MT1-MMP was highly expressed at the pannus-cartilage junction of RA joints. Freshly isolated rheumatoid synovial tissues and isolated RA synovial fibroblasts invaded into a 3D collagen matrix in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. Invasion was blocked by TIMP-2 and GM6001, but not by TIMP-1. It was also inhibited by the over-expression of a dominant negative MT1-MMP which inhibits collagenolytic activity and proMMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP on the cell surface. Synovial fibroblasts also invaded into cartilage in an MT1-MMP-dependent manner. This process was further enhanced by removing aggrecan from the cartilage matrix.
MT1-MMP is an essential collagen-degrading proteinase during pannus invasion in human RA. Specific inhibition of MT1-MMP-dependent invasion may form a novel therapeutic strategy for RA.
MT1-MMP; synovial pannus; rheumatoid arthritis
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a chronic debilitating polyarthralgia/polyarthritis, for which current treatments are often inadequate. To assess whether new drugs being developed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) might find utility in the treatment of alphaviral arthritides, we sought to determine whether the inflammatory gene expression signature of CHIKV arthritis shows any similarities with RA or collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA.
Using a recently developed animal model of CHIKV arthritis in adult wild-type mice, we generated a consensus CHIKV arthritis gene expression signature, which was used to interrogate publicly available microarray studies of RA and CIA. Pathway analyses were then performed using the overlapping gene signatures.
Gene set enrichment analysis showed that there was a highly significant overlap in the differentially expressed genes in the CHIKV arthritis model and in RA. This concordance also increased with the severity of RA, as measured by the inflammation score. A highly significant overlap was also seen between CHIKV arthritis and CIA. Pathway analysis revealed that the overlap between these arthritides was spread over a range of different inflammatory processes. Involvement of T cells and interferon-γ (IFNγ) in CHIKV arthritis was confirmed in studies of MHCII-deficient mice and IFNγ-deficient mice, respectively.
These results suggest that RA, a chronic autoimmune arthritis, and CHIKV disease, usually a self-limiting viral arthropathy, share multiple inflammatory processes. New drugs and biologic therapies being developed for RA may thus find application in the treatment of alphaviral arthritides.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic poly-arthritis, synovial hyperplasia, erosive synovitis, progressive cartilage and bone destruction accompanied by a loss of body cell mass. This loss of cell mass, known as rheumatoid cachexia, predominates in the skeletal muscle and can in part be explained by a decreased physical activity. The murine collagen induced arthritis (CIA) model has been proven to be a useful model in RA research since it shares many immunological and pathological features with human RA. The present study explored the interactions between arthritis development, locomotion and muscle mass in the CIA model.
CIA was induced in male DBA/1 mice. Locomotion was registered at different time points by a camera and evaluated by a computerized tracing system. Arthritis severity was detected by the traditionally used semi-quantitative clinical scores. The muscle mass of the hind-legs was detected at the end of the study by weighing. A methotrexate (MTX) intervention group was included to study the applicability of the locomotion and muscle mass for testing effectiveness of interventions in more detail.
There is a strong correlation between clinical arthritis and locomotion. The correlations between muscle mass and locomotion or clinical arthritis were less pronounced. MTX intervention resulted in an improvement of disease severity accompanied by an increase in locomotion and muscle mass.
The present data demonstrate that registration of locomotion followed by a computerized evaluation of the movements is a simple non invasive quantitative method to define disease severity and evaluate effectiveness of therapeutic agents in the CIA model.
This comparison employs mathematical disease progression models to identify a rat model of arthritis with the least inter-animal variability and features lending to better study designs.
Arthritis was induced with either collagen (CIA) or mycobacterium (AIA) in either Lewis or Dark Agouti (DA) rats. Disease progression was monitored by paw edema and body weight. Models with production, loss, and feedback components were constructed and population analysis using NONMEM software was employed to identify inter-animal variability in the various disease progression parameters.
Onset time was the only parameter different within all four groups (DA–AIA 11.5 days, DA–CIA 16.5 days, Lewis–AIA 11.9 days, Lewis–CIA 13.9 days). The loss-of-edema rate constant was 20% slower in DA (0.362 h−1) than Lewis (0.466 h−1) rats. Most models exhibited peak paw edema 20 days post-induction. Edema in CIA returned to 150% of the initial value after the disease peaked. DA rats displayed more severe overall responses.
No statistical differences between groups were observed for inter-animal variation in disease onset, progression and severity parameters. Onset time varies and should be noted in the design of future studies. DA rats may offer a more dynamic range of edema response than Lewis rats.
arthritis; disease; model; progression; rat
The object of this study is to observe the effects of platycodin D, a saponin purified from Platycodi Radix, on mice collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). A daily dose of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg platycodin D was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) was measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit, and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the platycodin D-administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in platycodin D-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the platycodin D group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF-α, involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, was suppressed by treatment with platycodin D. Taken together, these results suggest that platycodin D is a promising new effective antirheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.
Evidence suggests that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may enhance or reduce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was performed to directly explore the effects of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) on amyloid plaque formation, microglial activation, and microvascular pathology in the cortex and hippocampus of the double transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model for AD. Wild-type or APP/PS1 mice that received type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at 2 months of age revealed characteristics of RA, such as joint swelling, synovitis, and cartilage and bone degradation 4 months later. Joint pathology was accompanied by sustained induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma over 4 weeks after administration of CII in CFA.
CIA reduced levels of soluble and insoluble amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, which correlated with increased blood brain barrier disruption, Iba-1-positive microglia, and CD45-positive microglia/macrophages. In contrast, CIA reduced vessel density and length with features of microvascular pathology, including vascular segments, thinner vessels, and atrophic string vessels.
The present findings suggest that RA may exert beneficial effects against Aβ burden and harmful effects on microvascular pathology in AD.
Objective: To investigate the mode of action of methotrexate (MTX) in different types of models for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS).
Methods: Models for RA and MS were selected known to have different pathogenesis—that is, fibroblast induced arthritis in SCID mice, collagen induced arthritis (CIA), anticollagen II antibody induced arthritis (CAIA), and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in (Balb/cxB10.Q)F1 and B10.Q mice, and Pristane induced arthritis in DA rats (PIA). The MTX treatment was started 1 day after the onset of disease and continued for 14 days to compare effects on the different models.
Results: All models known to be critically dependent on T cell activation (CIA, PIA, and EAE) were effectively down regulated by titrated doses of MTX. In contrast, no effects were seen on fibroblast induced arthritis or CAIA. No effects were seen on the levels of anticollagen II antibodies in the CIA experiment.
Conclusion: The data show that MTX has strong ameliorative effect on both classical models of RA, like CIA and PIA, but also on a model for MS, EAE. It also suggests that MTX operates only in diseases which are preceded by, and dependent on, T cell activation. A comparison of CAIA and CIA suggested that MTX operates independently of arthritogenic antibodies. These results demonstrate that different animal models reflect the complexity of the corresponding human diseases and suggest that several models should be used for effective screening of new therapeutic agents.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the role that murine models of arthritis are playing in the understanding of human rheumatoid arthritis and how leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is emerging as an important target in this field. Both the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and the K/BxN serum transfer arthritis model have contributed to outline the potential mechanisms involved in inflammatory arthritis. Indeed, the CIA model has contributed to the development of effective anti-TNF and anti-IL-1β based treatments for RA that are currently in the clinic. Many recent studies in mouse models have suggested a critical role for LTB4 and its receptors in the development of inflammatory arthritis. Inhibitors of LTB4 biosynthesis as well as LTB4 receptors are protective in mouse models of RA and mice deficient in the LTB4 biosynthetic enzymes or LTB4 receptors are resistant to disease development suggesting several promising targets for RA in this pathway.
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Leukotriene B4 receptors; arthritis mouse models; FLAP
Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) has previously shown powerful anti-inflammatory properties in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, where a single dose of BiP has proved to be both a long-term prophylactic and therapeutic. In both CIA and human in vitro studies, BiP induced regulatory T cells. The present investigation looked at the anti-inflammatory effect of BiP on inflamed human synovial tissue transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID), a chimaeric in vivo model previously used to test the efficacy of biologic therapies.
Rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane (RASM) was engrafted into SCID mice. Following successful engraftment, mice were intravenously injected with BiP or human serum albumin in the presence or absence of anti-IL-10 mAb. Twelve days later the grafts were removed for analysis and human cytokines in the sera were quantified by ELISA. The extent of residual inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the synovial explants was determined by weight of the explants.
The RASM transplants from mice treated with BiP showed visual reduction in cellular infiltrate and downregulation of all quantifiable features of inflammation as assessed by the Koizumi or Rooney histological criteria. Also downregulated were HLA-DR, CD86, IL-6 and TNFα expression as assessed by immunohistology. ELISA detected significantly less human IL-6 circulating in the BiP-treated mouse serum. After removal of transplanted tissue 12 days post administration of BiP, the RASM explants from the BiP-treated SCID mice weighed significantly less, indicating a suppression of tissue inflammation. Mice given concomitant neutralising anti-IL-10 antibody and BiP showed no such suppression.
BiP has anti-inflammatory properties partially dependent on the downregulation of HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules and the predominant production of IL-10.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder leading to bone and cartilage destruction. A substantial body of evidence suggests that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to the pathogenesis of RA, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inhibitors of the synthesis of PGE2 and other prostanoids, continue to be used in the treatment of this disease. To begin to understand the mechanism by which prostaglandins modulate the pathophysiology of this disease, we examined mice lacking each of the four known PGE2 (EP) receptors after generation of collagen antibody–induced arthritis, an animal model of RA. Homozygous deletion of the EP1, EP2, or EP3 receptors did not affect the development of arthritis, whereas EP4 receptor–deficient mice showed decreased incidence and severity of disease. These animals also showed reduced inflammation as assessed by circulating IL-6 and serum amyloid A levels. Joint histopathology of EP4–/– animals revealed reduced bone destruction, proteoglycan loss, and type II collagen breakdown in cartilage compared with EP4+/+ mice. Furthermore, liver and macrophages isolated from EP4–/– animals produced significantly less IL-1β and IL-6 than control samples. Thus, PGE2 contributes to disease progression at least in part by binding to the EP4 receptor. Antagonists of this receptor might therefore provide novel agents for the treatment of RA.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory synovitis that leads to the destruction of bone and cartilage. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand membrane-bound receptor for high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) associated with development of RA by inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. We developed a bone-targeting therapeutic agent by tagging acidic oligopeptide to a nonmembrane-bound form of RAGE (endogenous secretory RAGE [esRAGE]) functioning as a decoy receptor. We assessed its tissue distribution and therapeutic effectiveness in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Acidic oligopeptide–tagged esRAGE (D6-esRAGE) was localized to mineralized region in bone, resulting in the prolonged retention of more than 1 wk. Weekly administration of D6-esRAGE with a dose of 1 mg/kg to RA model mice significantly ameliorated inflammatory arthritis, synovial hyperplasia, cartilage destruction and bone destruction, while untagged esRAGE showed little effectiveness. Moreover, D6-esRAGE reduced plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6, while esRAGE reduced the levels of IL-1 and IL-6 to a lesser extent, suggesting that production of IL-1 and IL-6 reduced along the blockade of HMGB1 receptor downstream signals by D6-esRAGE could be attributed to remission of CIA. These findings indicate that D6-esRAGE enhances drug delivery to bone, leading to rescue of clinical and pathological lesions in murine CIA.
Rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) feature bone loss and systemic increases in TNFα, IL-1β, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Anti-IL-1 or anti-TNFα therapies consistently reduce inflammation in these models, but systemic bone loss often persists. RANKL inhibition consistently prevents bone loss in both models without reducing joint inflammation. Effects of these therapies on systemic markers of bone turnover and inflammation have not been directly compared.
Lewis rats with established AIA or CIA were treated for 10 days (from day 4 post onset) with either PBS (Veh), TNFα inhibitor (pegsunercept), IL-1 inhibitor (anakinra), or RANKL inhibitor (osteoprotegerin (OPG)-Fc). Local inflammation was evaluated by monitoring hind paw swelling. Bone mineral density (BMD) of paws and lumbar vertebrae was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Markers and mediators of bone resorption (RANKL, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5B)) and inflammation (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), acute-phase protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGP), multiple cytokines) were measured in serum (day 14 post onset).
Arthritis progression significantly increased paw swelling and ankle and vertebral BMD loss. Anti-TNFα reduced paw swelling in both models, and reduced ankle BMD loss in AIA rats. Anti-IL-1 decreased paw swelling in CIA rats, and reduced ankle BMD loss in both models. Anti-TNFα and anti-IL-1 failed to prevent vertebral BMD loss in either model. OPG-Fc reduced BMD loss in ankles and vertebrae in both models, but had no effect on paw swelling. Serum RANKL was elevated in AIA-Veh and CIA-Veh rats. While antiTNFα and anti-IL-1 partially normalized serum RANKL without any changes in serum TRACP 5B, OPG-Fc treatment reduced serum TRACP 5B by over 90% in both CIA and AIA rats. CIA-Veh and AIA-Veh rats had increased serum α1AGP, IL-1β, IL-8 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and AIA-Veh rats also had significantly greater serum PGE2, TNFα and IL-17. Anti-TNFα reduced systemic α1AGP, CCL2 and PGE2 in AIA rats, while anti-IL-1 decreased systemic α1AGP, IL-8 and PGE2. In contrast, RANKL inhibition by OPG-Fc did not lessen systemic cytokine levels in either model.
Anti-TNFα or anti-IL-1 therapy inhibited parameters of local and systemic inflammation, and partially reduced local but not systemic bone loss in AIA and CIA rats. RANKL inhibition prevented local and systemic bone loss without significantly inhibiting local or systemic inflammatory parameters.
Recent studies revealed that co-morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but little is known about factors involved in these manifestations. This study aimed at characterizing the impact of arthritis on oxidative stress status and tissue fibrosis in the heart of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA).
AIA was induced with complete Freund's adjuvant in female Lewis rats. Animals were treated by oral administration of vehicle or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days, beginning 1 day after arthritis induction. Isolated adult cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 μM 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of 10 μM ramipril.
Compared to controls, AIA rats showed significant 55 and 30% increase of 4-HNE/protein adducts in serum and left ventricular (LV) tissues, respectively. Cardiac mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (mNADP-ICDH) activity decreased by 25% in AIA rats without any changes in its protein and mRNA expression. The loss of mNADP-ICDH activity was correlated with enhanced accumulation of HNE/mNADP-ICDH adducts as well as with decrease of glutathione and NADPH. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression and tissue fibrosis were induced in LV tissues from AIA rats. In isolated cardiomyocytes, HNE significantly decreased mNADP-ICDH activity and enhanced type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor expression. The oral administration of ramipril significantly reduced HNE and AT1R levels and restored mNADP-ICDH activity and redox status in LV tissues of AIA rats. The protective effects of this drug were also evident from the decrease in arthritis scoring and inflammatory markers.
Collectively, our findings disclosed that AIA induced oxidative stress and fibrosis in the heart. The fact that ramipril attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress and tissue fibrosis may provide a novel strategy to prevent heart diseases in RA.