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1.  Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR).
BACKGROUND
Clinical Need
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved.
Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1)
An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7)
Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter.
Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm.
Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter.
Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7)
Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1):
Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion
Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall.
Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history.
In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 65 years of age or older. (60) Naylor (60) reported that the rate of AAA repair in Ontario has increased from 38 per 100,000 population in 1981/1982 to 54 per 100,000 population in 1991/1992. For the period of 1989/90 to 1991/92, the rate of AAA repair in Ontarians age 45 years and over was 53 per 100,000. (60) In the United States, about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, and 50,000 to 60,000 surgical AAA repairs are performed. (2) Ruptured AAAs are responsible for about 15,000 deaths in the United States annually. One in 10 men older than 80 years has some aneurysmal change in his aorta. (2)
Symptoms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
AAAs usually do not produce symptoms. However, as they expand, they may become painful. Compression or erosion of adjacent tissue by aneurysms also may cause symptoms. The formation of mural thrombi, a type of blood clots, within the aneurysm may predispose people to peripheral embolization, where blood vessels become blocked. Occasionally, an aneurysm may leak into the vessel wall and the periadventitial area, causing pain and local tenderness. More often, acute rupture occurs without any prior warning, causing acute pain and hypotension. This complication is always life-threatening and requires an emergency operation.
Diagnosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
An AAA is usually detected on routine examination as a palpable, pulsatile, and non-tender mass. (1)
Abdominal radiography may show the calcified outline of the aneurysms; however, about 25% of aneurysms are not calcified and cannot be visualized by plain x-ray. (1) An abdominal ultrasound provides more accurate detection, can delineate the traverse and longitudinal dimensions of the aneurysm, and is useful for serial documentation of aneurysm size. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance have also been used for follow-up of aortic aneurysms. These technologies, particularly contrast-enhanced computer tomography, provide higher resolution than ultrasound.
Abdominal aortography remains the gold standard to evaluate patients with aneurysms for surgery. This technique helps document the extent of the aneurysms, especially their upper and lower limits. It also helps show the extent of associated athereosclerotic vascular disease. However, the procedure carries a small risk of complications, such as bleeding, allergic reactions, and atheroembolism. (1)
Prognosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
The risk of rupture of an untreated AAA is a continuous function of aneurysm size as represented by the maximal diameter of the AAA. The annual rupture rate is near zero for aneurysms less than 4 cm in diameter. The risk is about 1% per year for aneurysms 4 to 4.9 cm, 11% per year for aneurysms 5 to 5.9 cm, and 25% per year or more for aneurysms greater than 6 cm. (7)
The 1-year mortality rate of patients with AAAs who do not undergo surgical treatment is about 25% if the aneurysms are 4 to 6 cm in diameter. This increases to 50% for aneurysms exceeding 6 cm. Other major causes of mortality for people with AAAs include coronary heart disease and stroke.
Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Treatment of an aneurysm is indicated under any one of the following conditions:
The AAA is greater than 6 cm in diameter.
The patient is symptomatic.
The AAA is rapidly expanding irrespective of the absolute diameter.
Open surgical repair of AAA is still the gold standard. It is a major operation involving the excision of dilated area and placement of a sutured woven graft. The surgery may be performed under emergent situation following the rupture of an AAA, or it may be performed electively.
Elective OSR is generally considered appropriate for healthy patients with aneurysms 5 to 6 cm in diameter. (7) Coronary artery disease is the major underlying illness contributing to morbidity and mortality in OSR. Other medical comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure, chronic lung disease, and liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension, may double or triple the usual risk of OSR.
Serial noninvasive follow-up of small aneurysms (less than 5 cm) is an alternative to immediate surgery.
Endovascular repair of AAA is the third treatment option and is the topic of this review.
PMCID: PMC3387737  PMID: 23074438
2.  Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Executive Summary
Objective
To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA).
Clinical Need
Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition.
The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases.
The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia.
The Technology
Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a stent graft, a procedure called endovascular stent-graft (ESG) placement, is a new alternative to the traditional surgical approach. It is less invasive, and initial results from several studies suggest that it may reduce mortality and morbidity associated with the repair of descending TAAs.
The goal in endovascular repair is to exclude the aneurysm from the systemic circulation and prevent it from rupturing, which is life-threatening. The endovascular placement of a stent graft eliminates the systemic pressure acting on the weakened wall of the aneurysm that may lead to the rupture. However, ESG placement has some specific complications, including endovascular leak (endoleak), graft migration, stent fracture, and mechanical damage to the access artery and aortic wall.
The Talent stent graft (manufactured by Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) is licensed in Canada for the treatment of patients with TAA (Class 4; licence 36552). The design of this device has evolved since its clinical introduction. The current version has a more flexible delivery catheter than did the original system. The prosthesis is composed of nitinol stents between thin layers of polyester graft material. Each stent is secured with oversewn sutures to prevent migration.
Review Strategy
Objectives
To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of TAAs with a conventional surgical approach
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of descending TAAs
Measures of Effectiveness
Primary Outcome
Mortality rates (30-day and longer term)
Secondary Outcomes
Technical success rate of introducing a stent graft and exclusion of the aneurysm sac from systemic circulation
Rate of reintervention (through surgical or endovascular approach)
Measures of Safety
Complications were categorized into 2 classes:
Those specific to the ESG procedure, including rates of aneurysm rupture, endoleak, graft migration, stent fracture, and kinking; and
Those due to the intervention, either surgical or endovascular. These include paraplegia, stroke, cardiovascular events, respiratory failure, real insufficiency, and intestinal ischemia.
Inclusion Criteria
Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of ESG treatment with surgical approaches
Studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of the ESG procedure for the treatment of descending TAAs
Exclusion Criteria
Studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESG placement for other conditions such as aortic dissection, aortic ulcer, and traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta
Studies investigating the aneurysms of the ascending and the arch of the aorta
Studies using custom-made grafts
Literature Search
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for health technology assessments. It also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Cochrane CENTRAL from January 1, 2000 to July 11, 2005 for studies on ESG procedures. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
One health technology assessment from the United Kingdom was identified. This systematic review included all pathologies of the thoracic aorta; therefore, it did not match the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 435 citations; of these, 9 studies met inclusion criteria.
Summary of Findings
Mortality
The results of a comparative study found that in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between ESG placement and surgery patients (2 [4.8%] for ESG vs. 6 [11.3%] for surgery).
Pooled data from case series with a mean follow-up ranging from 12 to 38 months showed a 30-day mortality and late mortality rate of 3.9% and 5.5%, respectively. These rates are lower than are those reported in the literature for surgical repair of TAA.
Case series showed that the most common cause of early death in patients undergoing endovascular repair is aortic rupture, and the most common causes of late death are cardiac events and aortoesophageal or aortobronchial fistula.
Technical Success Rate
Technical success rates reported by case series are 55% to 100% (100% and 94.4% in 2 studies with all elective cases, 89% in a study with 5% emergent cases, and 55% in a study with 42% emergent cases).
Surgical Reintervention
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients in the ESG group and 14 (26.5%) patients in the surgery group required surgical reintervention. In the ESG group, the reasons for surgical intervention were postoperative bleeding at the access site, paraplegia, and type 1 endoleak. In the surgical group, the reasons for surgery were duodenal perforation, persistent thoracic duct leakage, false aneurysm, and 11 cases of postoperative bleeding.
Pooled data from case series show that 9 (2.6%) patients required surgical intervention. The reasons for surgical intervention were endoleak (3 cases), aneurysm enlargement and suspected infection (1 case), aortic dissection (1 case), pseudoaneurysm of common femoral artery (1 case), evacuation of hematoma (1 case), graft migration (1 case), and injury to the access site (1 case).
Endovascular Revision
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Pooled data from case series show that 19 (5.3%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Graft Migration
Two case series reported graft migration. In one study, 3 proximal and 4 component migrations were noted at 2-year follow-up (total of 5%). Another study reported 1 (3.7%) case of graft migration. Overall, the incidence of graft migration was 2.6%.
Aortic Rupture
In the comparative study, aortic rupture due to bare stent occurred in 1 case (2%). The pooled incidence of aortic rupture or dissection reported by case series was 1.4%.
Postprocedural Complications
In the comparative study, there were no statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery groups in postprocedural complications, except for pneumonia. The rate of pneumonia was 9% for those who received an ESG and 28% for those who had surgery (P = .02). There were no cases of paraplegia in either group. The rate of other complications for ESG and surgery including stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and intestinal ischemia were all 5.1% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery. The rate for mild renal failure was 16% in the ESG group and 30% in the surgery group. The rate for severe renal failure was 11% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery.
Pooled data from case series show the following postprocedural complication rates in the ESG placement group: paraplegia (2.2%), stroke (3.9%), cardiac (2.9%), respiratory (8.7%), renal failure (2.8%), and intestinal ischemia (1%).
Time-Related Outcomes
The results of the comparative study show statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery group for mean operative time (ESG, 2.7 hours; surgery, 5 hours), mean duration of intensive care unit stay (ESG, 11 days; surgery, 14 days), and mean length of hospital stay (ESG, 10 days; surgery, 30 days).
The mean duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay derived from case series is 1.6 and 7.8 days, respectively.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
In Ontario, the annual treatment figures for fiscal year 2004 include 17 cases of descending TAA repair procedures (source: Provincial Health Planning Database). Fourteen of these have been identified as “not ruptured” with a mean hospital length of stay of 9.23 days, and 3 cases have been identified as “ruptured,” with a mean hospital length of stay of 28 days. However, because one Canadian Classification of Health Interventions code was used for both procedures, it is not possible to determine how many were repaired with an EVAR procedure or with an open surgical procedure.
Hospitalization Costs
The current fiscal year forecast of in-hospital direct treatment costs for all in-province procedures of repair of descending TAAs is about $560,000 (Cdn). The forecast in-hospital total cost per year for in-province procedures is about $720,000 (Cdn). These costs include the device cost when the procedure is EVAR (source: Ontario Case Costing Initiative).
Professional (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) Costs
Professional costs per treated patient were calculated and include 2 preoperative thoracic surgery or EVAR consultations.
The professional costs of an EVAR include the fees paid to the surgeons, anesthetist, and surgical assistant (source: fee service codes). The procedure was calculated to take about 150 minutes.
The professional costs of an open surgical repair include the fees of the surgeon, anesthetist, and surgical assistant. Open surgical repair was estimated to take about 300 minutes.
Services provided by professionals in intensive care units were also taken into consideration, as were the costs of 2 postoperative consultations that the patients receive on average once they are discharged from the hospital. Therefore, total Ontario Health Insurance Plan costs per treated patient treated with EVAR are on average $2,956 (ruptured or not ruptured), as opposed to $5,824 for open surgical repair and $6,157 for open surgical repair when the aneurysm is ruptured.
Conclusions
Endovascular stent graft placement is a less invasive procedure for repair of TAA than is open surgical repair.
There is no high-quality evidence with long-term follow-up data to support the use of EVAR as the first choice of treatment for patients with TAA that are suitable candidates for surgical intervention.
However, short- and medium-term outcomes of ESG placement reported by several studies are satisfactory and comparable to surgical intervention; therefore, for patients at high risk of surgery, it is a practical option to consider. Short- and medium-term results show that the benefit of ESG placement over the surgical approach is a lower 30-day mortality and paraplegia rate; and shorter operative time, ICU stay, and hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC3382300  PMID: 23074469
3.  Secondary aortoduodenal fistula following endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Streptococcus anginosus infection: A case report and literature review☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Aortoenteric fistula is a rare but very serious complication of both surgical and endovascular abdominal aortic reconstruction. Since the advent of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), 20 cases of aortoduodenal fistula associated with aortic stent grafts have been reported.1 However, only a handful has been reported following inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. It most commonly presents with bleeding, usually from the upper gastro-intestinal tract. With recent advances in the screening, diagnosis and management of abdominal aortic aneurysms either surgically or through an endovascular approach, the diagnosis of an aortoduodenal fistula in patients with gastro-intestinal bleeding must be suspected and excluded.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe a case of secondary aortoduodenal fistula that occurred two and a half years following endovascular stent graft repair of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. We also outline the emergency correction plan and the attempts at repair.
DISCUSSION
This case defies the general concept that patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively immune to rupture. Although the presence of a peri-aneurysm thick inflammatory membrane decreases the possibility of rupture, these patients are more susceptible to other related complications such as aorto-enteric and aorto-caval fistulas.2 This case also demonstrates the peculiar presence of Streptococcus anginosus as the pathological organism leading to graft infection and subsequent fistula, as opposed to enterococci which are often found in endograft infection.
CONCLUSION
Aorto-enteric fistulas are associated with a grave prognosis. Early diagnosis is crucial and extra vigilance should be taken in cases of inflammatory AAA.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.10.016
PMCID: PMC4189064  PMID: 25201477
4.  Aorta–Left Renal Vein Fistula in a Woman 
Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into a retroaortic left renal vein is an uncommon occurrence. A 55-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain that had radiated to her back and legs for the preceding 10 days. A pulsatile abdominal mass, hematuria, renal insufficiency, and heart failure were present at the initial evaluation. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm that communicated with a retroaortic left renal vein. After urgent surgical repair, cardiac and renal function were dramatically improved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st reported case of a woman with such a fistula. We review treatments reported in the literature.
PMCID: PMC548250  PMID: 15745300
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications; arteriovenous fistula/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; renal veins/abnormalities; rupture, spontaneous; tomography, X-ray computed
5.  Aorto-Left Renal Vein Fistula Caused by a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2013;6(4):738-740.
Retroaortic left renal vein is a malformation in which the left renal vein courses dorsal to the abdominal aorta. In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, an aorto-left renal vein fistula can form if the left renal vein is sandwiched between the aneurysm wall and lumbar vertebrae. The patient was an 84-year-old man with lower back pain. We performed a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), although renal dysfunction was noted. The CT showed a ruptured juxta-renal abdominal aortic with aorto-left renal vein fistula. This clinical condition can cause severe renal dysfunction, in spite of which an enhanced contrasted CT scan would be extremely informative preoperatively.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.13-00054
PMCID: PMC3866365  PMID: 24386025
aorto-left renal vein fistula; abdominal aneurysm; retroaortic left renal vein
6.  Aortocaval Fistula: A Rare Cause of Venous Hypertension and Acute Renal Failure 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:487079.
Spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the inferior vena cava is rare and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The clinical presentation can be variable and thus the diagnosis can be difficult. It can present with symptoms and signs of an abdominal emergency, venous hypertension, or systemic hypoperfusion. The traditional method of repair has been open surgery which is associated with high rate of complications. We report a case of aortocaval fistula (ACF) presenting with acute renal failure and heart failure, which was treated successfully with a novel, endovascular approach.
doi:10.1155/2012/487079
PMCID: PMC3546445  PMID: 23346449
7.  Dural arteriovenous fistula discovered in patient presenting with recent head trauma 
Patient
Male, 32
Final Diagnosis: Dural arterio-venous fistula
Symptoms: Eye redness • post-trauma headache • tinnitus
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Fistula embolization
Specialty: Neurology
Objective:
Mistake in diagnosis
Background:
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. The pathogenesis of DAVF still remains unclear. Sinus thrombosis, head trauma, chronic central nervous system, hypercoagulable state, surgery, and hormonal influence are the pre-disposing factors that initiate this disease. The symptoms experienced by the patient will depend on the location of the fistula.
Case Report:
Thirty-two year old Hispanic male who presented one day after a rear ended motor vehicle collision (MVC) with a severe throbbing headache in the left parietal region, left eye redness but no retro-orbital pain and tinnitus in the left ear. He was initially misdiagnosed to have a carotid-cavernous fistula but upon cerebral angiogram was actually diagnosed with a dural arterio-venous fistula in the posterior fossa venous system followed by successful embolization of the fistula.
Conclusions:
A cerebral angiography is the gold standard for detection and characterization of a DAVF and will distinguish it from a CCF. Endovascular surgery involves a catheter-based technique for embolization of the lumen of arteries feeding the DAVF, or directly into the vein draining the DAVF. It is very important to recognize the typical findings of patients presenting with a DAVF then quickly proceeding with a cerebral angiogram to determine the exact location of the fistula and the appropriate treatment plan. By diagnosing and treating a DAVF as early as possible, the associated fatal complications can be averted.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.889610
PMCID: PMC3816749  PMID: 24194975
dural arteriovenous fistula; cerebral angiography; endovascular embolization; trauma
8.  A false aneurysm with an aorto-superior vena cava fistula after replacement of the ascending aorta: report of a case 
Surgery Today  2013;44(12):2385-2387.
A 58-year-old female presenting with congestive heart failure due to a fistula between an aortic false aneurysm and the superior vena cava (SVC) is described. She had a history of Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) and she had undergone aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting 6 years before. The false aneurysm had occurred 1 year after the surgery, and she had been conservatively managed. The operation revealed that the cause of the false aneurysm was the detachment of the two proximal saphenous vein anastomoses to the ascending aortic graft. After the surgery, the patient made an uneventful recovery. A false aneurysm of the ascending aorta is one of the most serious complications after replacement of the ascending aorta for patients with TA (Miyata et al. in J Vasc Surg 27:438–445, 1998). We herein present the exceptional case of a fistula between an aortic false aneurysm and the SVC that occurred after ascending aorta graft replacement.
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0723-1
PMCID: PMC4231212  PMID: 24197671
Aortic operation; CHD; Valve; CABG; Venous grafts
9.  Endovascular GDC Treatment of an Idiopathic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula Caused by Aneurysmal Rupture of the Intra-Cavernous Carotid Artery 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2006;12(Suppl 1):174-177.
Summary
Aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery may cause idiopathic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), and the treatment choice for occluding shunting fistula in this type of CCF is an endovascular approach using detachable balloons. However, little has been reported on treating such lesions with the intra-aneurysmal embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). To our knowledge, ours is the first reported case of successful treatment by selective intra-fistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs. A 74-year-old woman exhibited proptosis and chemosis of her left eye over a period of one month. Symptoms of double vision in conversion and pulsatile murmur in her left eye were also noted. Angiography revealed an intra-cavernous aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) with a shunting fistula, which drained into the dilated cavernous sinus, superior orbital vein (SOV), superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, and pterygoid plexus. We thought the fistula would occlude by intra-aneurysmal embolization, but we had no confidence of tight packing of the aneurysm since the aneurismal neck was relatively wide. So, we embolized the venous side of the shunting fistula and then the dome of the aneurysm with GDCs. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms and signs were ameliorated, and complete occlusion of the CCF was observed on long-term follow-up. We suggest selective intrafistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs as an alternative method of treatment of idiopathic CCF originating from aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery.
PMCID: PMC3387948  PMID: 20569626
idiopathic CCF; aneurysm; GDC
10.  Simultaneous endovascular repair of an iatrogenic carotid-jugular fistula and a large iliocaval fistula presenting with multiorgan failure: a case report 
Introduction
Iliocaval fistulas can complicate an iliac artery aneurysm. The clinical presentation is classically a triad of hypotension, a pulsatile mass and heart failure. In this instance, following presentation with multiorgan failure, management included the immediate use of an endovascular stent graft on discovery of the fistula.
Case presentation
A 62-year-old Caucasian man presented to our tertiary hospital for management of iatrogenic trauma due to the insertion of a central venous line into his right common carotid artery, causing transient ischemic attack. Our patient presented to a peripheral hospital with fever, nausea, vomiting, acute renal failure, acute hepatic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. A provisional diagnosis of sepsis of unknown origin was made. There was a 6.5 cm×6.5 cm right iliac artery aneurysm present on a non-contrast computed tomography scan. An unexpected intra-operative diagnosis of an iliocaval fistula was made following the successful angiographic removal of the central line to his right common carotid artery. Closure of the iliocaval fistula and repair of the iliac aneurysm using a three-piece endovascular aortic stent graft was then undertaken as part of the same procedure. This was an unexpected presentation of an iliocaval fistula.
Conclusion
Our case demonstrates that endovascular repair of a large iliac artery aneurysm associated with a caval fistula is safe and effective and can be performed at the time of the diagnostic angiography. The presentation of an iliocaval fistula in this case was unusual which made the diagnosis difficult and unexpected at the time of surgery. The benefit of immediate repair, despite hemodynamic instability during anesthesia, is clear. Our patient had two coronary angiograms through his right femoral artery decades ago. Unusual iatrogenic causes of iliocaval fistulas secondary to previous coronary angiograms with wire and/or catheter manipulation should be considered in patients such as ours.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-33
PMCID: PMC3277481  PMID: 22273992
11.  Extra-hepatic portal vein aneurysm: A case report, overview of the literature and suggested management algorithm 
INTRODUCTION
Portal venous aneurysms are a rare finding. The reported incidence is on the rise with increasing use of modern imaging techniques in clinical practice. However, there is still much to be elicited regarding their aetiology, natural history, and management.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
An 80-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and nausea. Investigations showed a hypoechoic area in the region of the head of pancreas on ultrasound, which was found to be a portal venous aneurysm on CT. In view of her multiple comorbidities, a conservative approach was taken.
DISCUSSION
Portal venous aneurysms represent approximately 3% of all venous aneurysms with a reported prevalence of 0.43%. They may be congenital, due to failure of complete regression of the right vitelline vein, or acquired secondary to portal hypertension. The primary presentation of portal vein aneurysm is abdominal pain, followed by incidental detection on imaging, with a minority of patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. Complications of PVA include thrombosis, biliary tract obstruction, inferior vena cava obstruction, and duodenal compression. On the whole PVAs are stable and have a low risk of complications with 88% of patients showing no progression of aneurysm size or complications on subsequent follow up scans.
CONCLUSION
We recommend that portal venous aneurysms be assessed using colour Doppler ultrasonography in the first instance with CT scans reserved for indeterminate cases or symptomatic patients. Due to the slow progression of such aneurysms, surgery is recommended only for symptomatic patients or those with complications secondary to portal venous aneurysms.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.07.009
PMCID: PMC3437391  PMID: 22922358
PVA, portal vein aneurysm; PV, portal vein; SV, splenic vein; SMV, superior mesenteric vein; Portal vein aneurysm; Venous aneurysm; Splenic vein aneurysm; Superior mesenteric vein aneurysm
12.  Primary aorto-enteric fistula – a unique complication of poorly differentiated large B-cell lymphoma 
Patient: Male, 76
Final Diagnosis: Aorto-enteric fistula
Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloody vomiting • shock
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: CT abdomen with contrast
Specialty: Gastroenterology • vascular surgery
Objective:
Rare disease
Background:
Primary Aorto-Enteric Fistula (PAEF) is a unique and rare life threatening communication between the Aorta and Gastrointestinal Tract with an unusually high mortality rate and delayed diagnosis. Aortic abdominal aneurysms are implicated in a vast majority of cases while cancer as an etiology of PAEF is extremely rare.
Case Report:
We present the first case report of a PAEF secondary to Large B-Cell Lymphoma, followed by a review of literature in regards to malignant aorto-enteric fistulae.
Conclusions:
We conclude that physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for PAEF in any patient with unexplained anemia and history of aortic abdominal aneurysm complicated by cancer.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.889277
PMCID: PMC3700467  PMID: 23826466
gastrointestinal hemmorage; aortoenteric fistula; lymphoma
13.  Iliofemoral-popliteal deep vein thrombosis at 35th week of pregnancy: treated with cesarean section and vena cava blockage plus thrombectomy 
Pregnancy, due to its adaptive physiological changes, is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis. Incidence of thromboembolic complications during pregnancy ranges from 0.76 to 1.72 per 1000 births. We present in this case report a pregnant woman with iliofemoral-popliteal deep vein thrombosis diagnosed at the 35th week of her pregnancy, who was treated with vena cava blockage and thrombectomy followed by cesarean section. Unfortunately, a rethrombosis developed in the patient after three days. We determined that the a-v fistula was blocked and not working. We found additionally that the deep vein thrombosis was closing the iliac vein completely on the left side and the blockage descending down through the inferior vena cava inlet with MRI. The patient underwent insertion of a retrievable vena cava filter, two stent implantation to the venous narrowings and surgical iliofemoral venous thrombectomy with concomitant re-creation of a temporary femoral arterio-venous fistula. Anticoagulation therapy with enoxaparine was started after the operation. The patient was discharged with warfarin under control of the INR value, and also with additional compression therapy (compression stockings) from the clinic. Without jeopardizing the mother and the baby, planning a combined surgical procedure, with a multidisciplinary approach is the best way to eliminate the risks of serious complications such as pulmonary embolism and mortality.
doi:10.5152/jtgga.2012.16
PMCID: PMC3939137  PMID: 24592024
Deep vein thrombosis; pregnancy; complications; thrombectomy; inferior vena cava
14.  Aortocaval fistulas and the use of transvenous balloon tamponade. 
Six cases of acute aortocaval fistula are reported, which illustrate the difficulties of diagnosis and management in a rare life-threatening condition. Five cases arose from spontaneous rupture of aortic aneurysms and one from trauma. In four cases the diagnosis was made before surgery. Useful diagnostic features included inappropriate jugular venous distension in five patients, lower abdominal and trunk cyanosis in three patients and a palpable thrill in three patients. Preoperative diagnosis permitted attempts to control venous haemorrhage in three cases, one by balloons through the aortic sac and two by transvenous positioning of balloon catheters in the vena cava before aortic opening. The use of transvenous balloon catheters was found to be helpful in reducing haemorrhage. Four patients left hospital alive. Preoperative recognition of the signs of an acute aortocaval rupture and preliminary balloon tamponade appear to be valuable in the management of acute aortocaval fistulas.
Images
PMCID: PMC2499192  PMID: 2221772
15.  Current characteristics of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults: A decade of global experience 
World Journal of Cardiology  2011;3(8):267-277.
AIM: To describe the characteristics of coronary artery fistulas (CAFs) in adults, including donor vessels and whether termination was cameral or vascular.
METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for articles between 2000 and 2010 to describe the current characteristics of congenital CAFs in adults. A group of 304 adults was collected. Clinical data, presentations, diagnostic modalities, angiographic fistula findings and treatment strategies were gathered and analyzed. With regard to CAF origin, the subjects were tabulated into unilateral, bilateral or multilateral fistulas and compared. The group was stratified into two major subsets according to the mode of termination; coronary-cameral fistulas (CCFs) and coronary-vascular fistulas (CVFs). A comparison was made between the two subsets. Fistula-related major complications [aneurysm formation, infective endocarditis (IE), myocardial infarction (MI), rupture, pericardial effusion (PE) and tamponade] were described. Coronary artery-ventricular multiple micro-fistulas and acquired CAFs were excluded as well as anomalous origin of the coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery (PA).
RESULTS: A total of 304 adult subjects (47% male) with congenital CAFs were included. The mean age was 51.4 years (range, 18-86 years), with 20% older than 65 years of age. Dyspnea (31%), chest pain (23%) and angina pectoris (21%) were the prevalent clinical presentations. Continuous cardiac murmur was heard in 82% of the subjects. Of the applied diagnostic modalities, chest X-ray showed an abnormal shadow in 4% of the subjects. The cornerstone in establishing the diagnosis was echocardiography (68%), and conventional contrast coronary angiography (97%). However, multi-slice detector computed tomography was performed in 16%. The unilateral fistula originated from the left in 69% and from the right coronary artery in 31% of the subjects. Most patients (80%) had unilateral fistulas, 18% presented with bilateral fistulas and 2% with multilateral fistulas. Termination into the PA was reported in unilateral (44%), bilateral (73%) and multilateral (75%) fistulas. Fistulas with multiple origins (bilateral and multilateral) terminated more frequently into the PA (29%) than into other sites (10.6%) (P = 0.000). Aneurysmal formation was found in 14% of all subjects. Spontaneous rupture, PE and tamponade were reported in 2% of all subjects. In CCFs, the mean age was 46.2 years whereas in CVFs mean age was 55.6 years (P = 0.003). IE (4%) was exclusively associated with CCFs, while MI (2%) was only found in subjects with CVFs. Surgical ligation was frequently chosen for unilateral (57%), bilateral (51%) and multilateral fistulas (66%), but percutaneous therapeutic embolization (PTE) was increasingly reported (23%, 17% and 17%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Congenital CAFs are currently detected in elderly patients. Bilateral fistulas are more frequently reported and PTE is more frequently applied as a therapeutic strategy in adults.
doi:10.4330/wjc.v3.i8.267
PMCID: PMC3163242  PMID: 21876777
Coronary artery fistulas; Congenital heart defect; Coronary angiography; Multi-detector computed tomography angiography
16.  Surgical correction of ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva using on-pump beating-heart technique 
Background
Rupture of aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva results in abrupt onset of congestive heart failure. On-pump beating-heart surgery may reduce cardiac impairment by maintaining coronary blood flow and avoiding cardioplegia. Herein, we report the operative correction of thirty-one patients of ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva, using the on-pump beating-heart technique.
Methods
Thirty-one patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva underwent operative corrections using the on-pump beating-heart technique. In patients with fistula diameter less than 1 cm and no aortic regurgitation, the aorta was unclamped throughout cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) while receiving antegrade heart perfusion. In remainder of patients, retrograde perfusion was used.
Results
After intracardiac manipulation was complete and the nasopharyngeal temperature was raised to 36-37°C, the patients were smoothly weaned off CPB. There were no early or late postoperative deaths. All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I at follow-up (range, 0.5-1 year). Mild-to-moderate aortic valve regurgitation was observed in one patient. No recurrence of the left-to-right shunt from ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva was observed.
Conclusions
Beating heart on pump allows adequate examination of the aortic lesion under near-physiologic conditions, allows decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injury and potentially decreases the risk of serious or fatal rhythm disturbances. On-pump beating-heart technique for repair of ruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva is feasible and promising. Antegrade heart perfusion is suitable for patients with a fistula diameter <1 cm and no aortic regurgitation, and retrograde perfusion is suitable for the others.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-5-37
PMCID: PMC2877041  PMID: 20470371
17.  Native Arterio-Venous Fistula Is the Vascular Access of Choice for Hemodialysis in End Stage Renal Disease 
Objectives
The aim of the study was: Is primary Arterio-venous fistula the vascular access of choice for adequate dialysis and better patient outcome in end stage renal disease.
Materials and Methods
The present study was done in the department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery at Sher-i-Kashmir institute of medical sciences, Soura, Srinagar Kashmir. Native Arterio-Venous (AV) fistulas were made in the patients with end stage renal disease for performing hemodialysis. They were followed for patency and adequacy of blood flow during hemodialysis. All the patients were operated under local anesthesia.
Results
The results showed that 77% of the AV fistulas based on radial artery with side-to-side anastomosis and 80% of those with end-to-side anastomosis were functionally patent after one year. After two years, the patency rate in side-to-side and end-to-side anastomosis was 50% and 55%, respectively. In addition, the patency rate was 90% in brachial artery based AV fistula with end-to-side anastomosis, whether done primarily or secondarily, at the end of one year. However, a rapid decline was observed in the patency rate during the third year in both radial artery based and brachial artery based AV fistulas.
Conclusions
We concluded that Arterialised arm superficial veins after primary AV fistula was the optimal and rational vascular access for hemodialysis providing adequate blood flow during this process. Besides, failure of primary AV fistula should be replaced by secondary AV fistula preferably based on brachial artery.
PMCID: PMC3987435  PMID: 24757624
Hemodialysis; Chronic Kidney Disease; Arteriovenous Fistula
18.  Fanconi anaemia with bilateral diffuse pulmonary arterio venous fistulae: a case report 
BMC Blood Disorders  2012;12:1.
Background
We report a patient with cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia with associated diffuse bilateral pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae. This is only the second reported case of diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae with Fanconi anaemia.
Case Presentation
A 16 year old Sri Lankan boy, with a cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia was admitted to University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka for further assessment and treatment. Both central and peripheral cyanosis plus clubbing were noted on examination. The peripheral saturation was persistently low on room air and did not improve with supplementary Oxygen. Contrast echocardiography failed to demonstrate an intra cardiac shunt but showed early crossover of contrast, suggesting the possibility of pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram was inconclusive. Subsequent right heart catheterisation revealed bilateral diffuse arterio-venous fistulae not amenable for device closure or surgical intervention.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the second reported patient with diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae associated with Fanconi anaemia. We report this case to create awareness among clinicians regarding this elusive association. We recommend screening patients with Fanconi anaemia using contrast echocardiography at the time of assessment with transthoracic echocardiogram. Though universal screening may be impossible given the cost constraints, such screening should at least be performed in patients with clinical evidence of desaturation or when a therapeutic option such as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered. Treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae would improve patient outcome as desaturation by shunting worsens the anaemic symptoms by reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
doi:10.1186/1471-2326-12-1
PMCID: PMC3315419  PMID: 22423664
Fanconi anaemia; Associations; Pulmonary arterio venous fistulae; Transthoracic echocardiogram; Contrast echocardiography; Right heart catheterisation
19.  Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into sigmoid colon: A case report 
Primary aorto-colic fistula is rarely reported in the literature. Although infrequently encountered, it is an important complication since it is usually fatal unless detected. Primary aorto-colic fistula is a spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the lumen of the adjacent colon loop. Here we report a case of primary aorto-colic fistula in a 54-year old male. The fistulated sigmoid colon was repaired by end-to-end anastomosis. Despite inotropic support, the patient died of sepsis and multiorgan failure on the first postoperative day.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i46.7549
PMCID: PMC4087607  PMID: 17167850
Aortocolic fistula; Abdominal aort aneurysm; Rupture; Lower gastrointestinal bleeding; Aneurysm
20.  Comparison of one- and two-stage basilic vein transposition for arterio-venous fistula formation in haemodialysis patients: preliminary results 
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa  2013;24(9):364-368.
Summary
Objective
This study aimed to compare the results of one-and two-stage basilic vein transposition (BVT) in haemodialysis patients.
Methods
This was a non-randomised, retrospective study between January 2007 and January 2012 on 96 patients who were diagnosed with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) (54 males, 42 females; mean age 43.6 ± 14 years) and underwent one- or two-stage BVT in our clinic. All patients who were not eligible for a native radio-cephalic or brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistula (AVF) were scheduled for one- or two-stage BVT after arterial (brachial, radial and ulnar) and venous (basilic and cephalic) Doppler ultrasonography.
Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: group 1, basilic vein diameter > 3 mm and patients who underwent one-stage BVT; and group 2, basilic vein diameter < 3 mm and patients who underwent two-stage BVT. In group 1, the basilic vein with a single incision was anastomosed to the brachial artery, followed by superficialisation. In group 2, the basilic vein was anastomosed to the brachial artery and they underwent the superficialisation procedure one month postoperatively. Fistula maturation and postoperative complications were assessed.
Results
The mean diameter of the basilic vein was statistically significantly higher in group 1 (3.46 ± 0.2 mm) than in group 2 (2.79 ± 0.1 mm) (p < 0.05). In terms of postoperative complications, thrombosis, haemorrhage and haematoma were significantly higher in group 1 (34, 36 and 17%, respectively) than in group 2 (23, 14 and 6%, respectively) (p < 0.05). The rate of fistula maturation was significantly lower in group 1 (66%), compared to group 2 (77%) (p < 0.05). Time to fistula maturation was significantly shorter in group 1 (mean 41 ± 14 days), compared to group 2 (mean 64 ± 28 days) (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Two-stage BVT was superior to one-stage BVT due to its lower rate of postoperative complications and higher fistula maturation, despite its disadvantage of late fistula use. Although the diameter of the basilic vein was larger in patients who underwent one-stage BVT, we observed that one-stage BVT was disadvantageous in terms of postoperative complications and fistula maturation.
doi:10.5830/CVJA-2013-077
PMCID: PMC3896105  PMID: 24337214
renal dialysis; arterio-venous fistula; basilic vein transposition; complication
21.  Systemic venous anomalies in the Middle East 
Introduction: Systemic venous anomalies are quite rare and can be associated with congenital heart disease requiring surgery.
Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients (pts) undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects were retrospectively analyzed for presence of systemic venous anomalies: (a) Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC)(b) Inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption(c) Retro-aortic innominate vein
Results: From 9/2010 to 5/2012 155 pts, median age 7 months, mean age 1.3 years (3 days–50 years), median weight 4 kg, mean weight 7.2 kg (0.6–110 kg) underwent congenital heart surgery. Twenty-nine systemic venous anomalies were identified in 28/155 patients (=18.1%). PLSVC was present in 21 pts (=13.5%), median age 4 months, mean age 2.7 years (3 days–22 years), median weight 6 kg, mean weight 10.1 kg (2.4–43.0 kg). IVC interruption was identified in 5 pts (=3.2%), median age 2 months, mean age 5.4 years (30 days–26 years), median weight 3.7 kg, median weight 17 kg (2.3–68.0 kg). Retro-aortic innominate vein was diagnosed in 3 pts (=1.9%), median age 5 years, mean age 3.7 years (10 months–5 years), median weight 12 kg, mean weight 10.1 kg (4.5–14 kg). Complete pre-operative diagnosis was obtained in 14/28 (=50%) pts with echocardiography and in other 8/28 (=28.6%) only after computed tomography (CT) scan, for a total of 22/28 (=78.6%) correct pre-operative diagnosis. In 6/28 (=21.4%) patients the diagnosis was intra-operative. Total incidence of systemic venous anomalies was 18.1% (vs. 4% in the literature, P = 0.0009), with presence of PLSVC = 13.5% (vs. 0.3–4.0%, respectively P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0012), IVC interruption = 3.2% (vs. 0.1–1.3%, N.S.), and retro-aortic innominate vein = 1.9% (vs. 0.2–1%, N.S.).
Conclusions: Our study showed an incidence of systemic venous anomalies in Middle Eastern pts with congenital heart defects higher than previously reported. In 78.6% of pts the diagnosis was correctly made before surgery (echocardiography or CT scan), with 21.4% of complete diagnosis made at surgery. A careful pre-operative screening should be performed in all pts with congenital heart defects from this region to better identify all systemic venous anomalies for a more accurate surgical planning.
doi:10.3389/fped.2013.00001
PMCID: PMC3860890  PMID: 24400249
anomalous systemic venous connections; cardiopulmonary bypass; congenital heart defects; geographical distribution; interuption of inferior vena cava; isomerism; persistent left superior vena cava; retro-aortic innominate vein
22.  In situ aortic thrombosis secondary to intra-abdominal abscess 
Summary
Background:
Abdominal aortic mural thrombus is uncommon in the absence of aneurysm or atherosclerosis.
Case Report:
We report the case of a 46-year-old man who presented to our institution with perforated appendicitis for which he initially declined surgery. Four days after admission he ultimately consented to appendectomy and abdominal washout. Follow-up imaging to evaluate for intra-abdominal abscess revealed mural thrombus of the infra-renal abdominal aorta extending into the left iliac artery. This thrombus was not present on the admission CT scan. The patient had no clinical signs of limb ischemia. Conservative treatment with therapeutic anticoagulation resulted in resolution of the thrombus.
Conclusions:
While portal, mesenteric, and major retroperitoneal venous thrombosis are well associated with major intra-abdominal infection and inflammatory bowel disease, aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation in the absence of associated aneurysm, atherosclerosis or embolic source is exceedingly rare. We are unaware of other reports of in-situ aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation secondary to perforated appendicitis.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.883244
PMCID: PMC3616123  PMID: 23569514
aorta; thrombosis; abdominal abscess
23.  Surgical treatment of primary aortojejunal fistula☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Primary aortoenteric fistula is a rare clinical situation with a high mortality rate. One should suspect that condition when an abdominal aortic aneurysm is known to be present. We describe the case of a 60 year old man who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding as the first and sole manifestation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, due to the rupture of the aneurysm in the jejunum.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The patient was admitted with hematemesis and melena. He reported no abdominal pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy disclosed no bleeding or lesions of the stomach and duodenum. Bleeding stopped the following day, only to recur 4 days later. The patient was then subjected to abdominal CT scan, which revealed the presence of a subrenal aortic aneurysm, with fistulization to the small intestine. At laparotomy the aortic aneurysm was adherent to the first centimeters of jejunum. The diseased aorta was excised and replaced with a Dacron Y graft in situ.
DISCUSSION
Primary aortojejunal fistulas are only rarely encountered. They usually are the result of a nonspecific aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. They usually manifest with premonitory bleeding, followed by catastrophic hemorrhage few days later. Even with surgery the mortality rate is high.
CONCLUSION
Diagnosis of primary aortoenteric fistula requires a high index of suspicion in cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when endoscopy is negative and there is no knowledge of the existence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. CT scan and prompt surgery are crucial to the survival of these patients.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.024
PMCID: PMC3731696  PMID: 23557938
Aortojejunal fistula; Primary; Abdominal aneurysm; Left thoracotomy; Abdominal aneurysm repair
24.  External aortic wrap for repair of type 1 endoleak☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Type 1 endoleak is a rare complication after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a reported frequency up to 2.88%. It is a major risk factor for aneurysmal enlargement and rupture.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of a 68 year old gentleman who was found to have a proximal type 1 endoleak with loss of graft wall apposition on routine surveillance imaging post-EVAR. An initial attempt at endovascular repair was unsuccessful. Given the patient's multiple medical co-morbidities, which precluded the possibility of conventional graft explantation and open repair, we performed a novel surgical technique which did not require aortic cross-clamping. A double-layered Dacron wrap was secured around the infra-renal aorta with Prolene sutures, effectively hoisting the posterior bulge to allow wall to graft apposition and excluding the endoleak. Post-operative CT angiogram showed resolution of the endoleak and a stable sac size.
DISCUSSION
Several anatomical factors need to be considered when this technique is proposed including aortic neck angulation, position of lumbar arteries and peri-aortic venous anatomy. While an external wrap technique has been investigated sporadically for vascular aneurysms, to our knowledge there is only one similar case in the literature.
CONCLUSION
Provided certain anatomical features are present, an external aortic wrap is a useful and successful option to manage type 1 endoleak in high-risk patients who are unsuitable for aortic clamping.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.08.008
PMCID: PMC4189073  PMID: 25217878
Endoleak; EVAR; AAA; Dacron graft
25.  Thoracic aortic aneurysm presenting with dysphagia: a fatal delay in diagnosis 
Extrinsic oesophageal compression leading to dysphagia is a recognised but uncommon sole presentation of thoracic aortic aneurysms. This has been referred to as Dysphagia Aortica, and is a late presentation of large thoracic aneurysms, or a symptom of impending aorto-oesophageal fistula. We present the case of a 67 year old woman who presented repeatedly with dysphagia and weight loss over a 3 month period to specialists in three different disciplines. Eventually, a type II thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm causing extrinsic compression of the oesophagus was discovered. When dealing with patients who present with dysphagia, if no other cause is discovered, a thoracic aortic aneurysm should form part of the differential diagnosis, as this is potentially curable, and delays in diagnosis and treatment predispose to rupture and death.
PMCID: PMC3011308  PMID: 21289919

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