Although endovascular transcatheter embolization of arteriovenous fistulas is minimally invasive, the torrential flow prevailing within a fistula implies the risk of migration of the deployed embolization devices into the downstream venous and pulmonary circulation. We present the endovascular treatment of a giant postnephrectomy arteriovenous fistula between the right renal pedicle and the residual renal vein in a 63-year-old man.
The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate that the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) can be safely positioned to embolize even relatively large arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Secondly, we illustrate that this occluder can even be introduced to the fistula via a transvenous catheter in cases where it is initially not possible to advance the deployment-catheter through a tortuous feeder artery. Migration of the vascular plug was ruled out at follow-up 4 months subsequently to the intervention.
Thus, the Amplatzer vascular plug and the arteriovenous through-and-through guide wire access with subsequent transvenous deployment should be considered in similar cases.
arteriovenous fistula; AV-fistula; nephrectomy; embolisation; endovascular treatment; arteriovenous access; through-and-through; transvenous access; Amplatzer vascular plug
Acute occlusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare phenomenon. Its possible complications include distal spasm followed by arterial thrombosis, ischemia of the distal limbs, distal embolization, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and the development of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Surgical correction is often complicated by cardiac decompensation, renal failure, fatal pulmonary embolism, and metabolic derangements related to toxins released from the revascularized limb. Unless contraindicated, immediate systemic heparinization must be undertaken when the diagnosis is first suspected.
We present a case of sudden occlusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by venous thrombosis involving both lower extremities. After undergoing surgical revascularization, the patient sustained massive fatal pulmonary emboli. Prophylactic interruption of the inferior vena cava may be indicated in patients who present with this complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Extrinsic oesophageal compression leading to dysphagia is a recognised but uncommon sole presentation of thoracic aortic aneurysms. This has been referred to as Dysphagia Aortica, and is a late presentation of large thoracic aneurysms, or a symptom of impending aorto-oesophageal fistula. We present the case of a 67 year old woman who presented repeatedly with dysphagia and weight loss over a 3 month period to specialists in three different disciplines. Eventually, a type II thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm causing extrinsic compression of the oesophagus was discovered. When dealing with patients who present with dysphagia, if no other cause is discovered, a thoracic aortic aneurysm should form part of the differential diagnosis, as this is potentially curable, and delays in diagnosis and treatment predispose to rupture and death.
Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into a retroaortic left renal vein is an uncommon occurrence. A 55-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain that had radiated to her back and legs for the preceding 10 days. A pulsatile abdominal mass, hematuria, renal insufficiency, and heart failure were present at the initial evaluation. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm that communicated with a retroaortic left renal vein. After urgent surgical repair, cardiac and renal function were dramatically improved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st reported case of a woman with such a fistula. We review treatments reported in the literature.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications; arteriovenous fistula/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; renal veins/abnormalities; rupture, spontaneous; tomography, X-ray computed
Even though the majority of abdominal aortic aneurysm s(AAAs) are asymptomatic, they can occasionally manifest as a result of adjacent structures involvement. Although the most frequent venous complication of AAA is rupture into the inferior vena cava (IVC), venous compression can infrequently occur. The authors report a particularly rare case of compression and thrombosis of the IVC by AAA. Patient was treated by preoperative placement of an IVC filter to impede pulmonary embolism and subsequently by open surgical repair. Besides discussing the circumstances associated with IVC compression by AAA, the authors also discuss the treatment strategy adopted and the possible alternatives.
Spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the inferior vena cava is rare and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The clinical presentation can be variable and thus the diagnosis can be difficult. It can present with symptoms and signs of an abdominal emergency, venous hypertension, or systemic hypoperfusion. The traditional method of repair has been open surgery which is associated with high rate of complications. We report a case of aortocaval fistula (ACF) presenting with acute renal failure and heart failure, which was treated successfully with a novel, endovascular approach.
The renal veins drain the kidney into the inferior vena cava and unite in a variable fashion to form the renal vein. The left renal vein is normally located in front of the aorta. However, the retro-aortic renal vein may course posterior to the aorta due to embryological developmental anomalies. During educational dissection, a rare variation of the left renal vein was found in a 66-year old male cadaver. The double retro-aortic renal veins coursed behind the aorta to drain into the inferior vena cava. The superior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the lower border of the L2 vertebra, and the inferior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the upper border of the L4 vertebra. Such a variant is rare, and is a clinically important observation which should be noted by vascular surgeons, oncologists, and traumatologists.
Renal veins; Variation; Retro-aortic
Arteriovenous fistulas are widely used for hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure. Due to the lack of suitable veins because of the arteriovenous fistulas previously opened in the upper extremity, alternative access routes are being tested. Few complications of long-term alternative arteriovenous fistulas have been reported in the literature. We report the results of surgical repairs of aneurysms that occurred on anterior tibial-saphenous arteriovenous fistulas (along the vein) in patients with end-stage renal disease after 5 years on hemodialysis.
vascular access; aneurysm; saphena magna; renal failure; long term
Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare emergency that presents a real challenge for cardiothoracic surgeons. There have been few reports of survivors. We present the case of a 70-year-old man with aortoesophageal fistula, mediastinal abscess, and severe septicemia consequent to esophageal erosion and rupture of a chronic degenerative descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent successful surgical treatment by aorto–aortic bypass and bipolar esophageal exclusion in conjunction with a cervical esophagostomy and a feeding gastrostomy. The pleural cavity was copiously irrigated and drained. Three months later, a retrosternal gastric bypass operation was performed successfully. The patient's 6-month follow-up examination revealed no problems.
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/complications/mortality/surgery; empyema; esophageal fistula/diagnosis/etiology/therapy; esophagostomy; mediastinitis; tomography, X-ray computed; vascular fistula/etiology/surgery
Spontaneous fistulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an unusual and infrequently encountered complication in clinical practice. In the majority of cases, it is a diagnosis made on the operating table, during surgical repair of AAA. We report a patient with an aortocaval fistula diagnosed preoperatively on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Preoperative diagnosis of this rare complication is important as it allows appropriate anaesthetic and surgical planning thereby reducing morbidity and mortality.
Historically, open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, endovascular exclusion alone can restrict blood flow to visceral arteries. We report a case of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that was repaired using a hybrid approach: surgery followed by an endovascular procedure. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for endovascular exclusion of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that included the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac artery. Aorto–mesenteric and aorto–celiac artery bypass grafting was performed to create a landing zone for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, which was completed successfully 6 weeks after the bypass procedure.
For thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms that extend beyond the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac or renal arteries, a hybrid approach, consisting of limited surgical treatment followed by endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, may yield optimal results in selected patients with serious preoperative comorbidities.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; aortic aneurysm, thoracic; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; stents
A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.
Ascending lumbar vein; communicating vein; renal artery; renal vein; varicosity
A previously undescribed complication of a saphenous vein aortocoronary bypass graft, namely formation of a fistula between a vein graft aneurysm and the right atrium is reported. A patient presented with a continuous murmur and a combination of signs suggesting superior vena cava obstruction. This pathology was shown by both echocardiography and angiography. Surgical treatment was attempted.
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
Aortopulmonary fistula is an uncommon but often fatal condition resulting as a late complication of an aortic aneurysm. The most common cause is erosion of a false aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta into the pulmonary artery, resulting in the development of a left-to-right shunt and leading to acute pulmonary edema and right heart failure. We report an our experience with aortopulmonary fistula as a rare complication associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and high output heart failure.
Fistula; Aortic aneurysm; Heart failure
Aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery may cause idiopathic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), and the treatment choice for occluding shunting fistula in this type of CCF is an endovascular approach using detachable balloons. However, little has been reported on treating such lesions with the intra-aneurysmal embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). To our knowledge, ours is the first reported case of successful treatment by selective intra-fistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs. A 74-year-old woman exhibited proptosis and chemosis of her left eye over a period of one month. Symptoms of double vision in conversion and pulsatile murmur in her left eye were also noted. Angiography revealed an intra-cavernous aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) with a shunting fistula, which drained into the dilated cavernous sinus, superior orbital vein (SOV), superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, and pterygoid plexus. We thought the fistula would occlude by intra-aneurysmal embolization, but we had no confidence of tight packing of the aneurysm since the aneurismal neck was relatively wide. So, we embolized the venous side of the shunting fistula and then the dome of the aneurysm with GDCs. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms and signs were ameliorated, and complete occlusion of the CCF was observed on long-term follow-up. We suggest selective intrafistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs as an alternative method of treatment of idiopathic CCF originating from aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery.
idiopathic CCF; aneurysm; GDC
Between 1960 and 1979 528 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms presented to the university department of surgery. Of these, 222 (42%) were elective cases, 72 acute (14%), 174 had ruptured (33%), and four had had a spontaneous aortoduodenal fistula (1%). In all these patients resections were undertaken, but in another 56 patients (11%) the aneurysm was not resected. A review of these cases showed that 91% had symptoms at their first presentation; abdominal pain and backache being most common. The diagnosis could be established in 91% by the presence of pulsatile abdominal mass on clinical examination. The operative mortality for elective resection was 8%, for acute 19%, for ruptured cases 42%, and for spontaneous aortoduodenal fistula 50%. After successful resection the overall five-year survival was 65% by the life table method, and there was no significant difference between elective, acute, and ruptured cases. This five-year survival after resection compares favourably with the expected 76% survival of a similar normal population, and was considerably better than that for conservatively treated patients. As most cases have symptoms, and diagnosis may be established easily by routine physical examination in 91%, the prognosis for this condition could be considerably improved by increased awareness of its existence and early referral for treatment as an elective surgical procedure.
Eight months after successful repair of a ruptured infrarenal aneurysm, a 50-year-old hypertensive male patient was found to have a 2nd aneurysm restricted to the juxtarenal segment of the aorta, and not in continuity with the infrarenal lesion. While there have been reports both of true aneurysms arising independently in the abdominal (infrarenal) and thoracic (suprarenal) aortic segments, and of false aneurysms arising secondary to abdominal aortic repair (at the suture line or as dilatations of residual aneurysmal tissue), we believe our case unusual in that the new aneurysm was a discrete and “true” thoracoabdominal dilatation arising just above the renal arteries and terminating just below the superior mesenteric artery. This strictly juxtarenal dilatation conforms better to a descriptive pattern for atherosclerotic occlusive disease than it does to the standard scheme for classifying thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:113-6)
Aorta, abdominal; aorta, thoracic; aortic aneurysm; aortic rupture/aorta, abdominal; arteriosclerosis; nomenclature, diagnostic
A 61 year old patient was found to have an aneurysm extending from the aortic root to the suprarenal region. He underwent first stage surgery with aortic root and arch replacement, prosthetic aortic valve replacement, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Four weeks later, he presented with breathlessness and signs of heart failure and pleural effusion. Computed tomography showed that the left atrium was compressed between the aortic aneurysm posteriorly and the left ventricle and sternum anteriorly. Obstruction of the superior vena cava, bronchus, oesophagus, and rarely right atrium by an aortic aneurysm has been described before but presentation with left atrial compression has not been reported.
thoracic aneurysm; heart failure; left atrial compression
The Leicester experience of treatment of aortic aneurysms indicates that workload is increasing. Despite an increase in elective repairs, the number of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is also increasing. The mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains static despite advances in critical care medicine. Multi-organ failure is the commonest cause of death following ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and activation of inflammatory pathways are important precursors. Organ failure, reperfusion injury and inflammatory pathway activation can be studied at a cellular and biochemical level in animal models of aortic cross-clamping. The nitric oxide response is an important component of the inflammatory response and augmentation of the NO response may protect against renal injury caused by aortic cross-clamping during aortic aneurysm repair.
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are predisposed to cardiovascular events and often experience continual expansion of their aneurysm. Cardiovascular events and expansion rates are positively correlated with aneurysm size. AAA is usually associated with intraluminal thrombus, which has previously been implicated in AAA pathogenesis.
The aims of this study were to prospectively assess the association of infra-renal abdominal aortic thrombus volume with cardiovascular events and AAA growth.
98 patients with AAAs underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA). The volume of infra-renal aorta thrombus was measured by a previously validated technique. Patients were followed prospectively for a median of 3 (inter-quartile range 2.0–3.6) years and cardiovascular events (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, amputation and cardiovascular death) recorded. 39 of the original patients underwent repeat CTA a median of 1.5 (inter-quartile range, 1.1–3.3) years after entry to the study. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-proportional analysis were used to examine the association of aortic thrombus with cardiovascular events and average weighted AAA growth.
A total of 28 cardiovascular event occurred during follow-up. The incidence of cardiovascular events was 23.4 and 49.2% for patients with small (
In this small cohort infra-renal aortic thrombus volume was associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and AAA progression. These results need to be confirmed and mechanisms underlying the associations clarified in large further studies.
Six cases of acute aortocaval fistula are reported, which illustrate the difficulties of diagnosis and management in a rare life-threatening condition. Five cases arose from spontaneous rupture of aortic aneurysms and one from trauma. In four cases the diagnosis was made before surgery. Useful diagnostic features included inappropriate jugular venous distension in five patients, lower abdominal and trunk cyanosis in three patients and a palpable thrill in three patients. Preoperative diagnosis permitted attempts to control venous haemorrhage in three cases, one by balloons through the aortic sac and two by transvenous positioning of balloon catheters in the vena cava before aortic opening. The use of transvenous balloon catheters was found to be helpful in reducing haemorrhage. Four patients left hospital alive. Preoperative recognition of the signs of an acute aortocaval rupture and preliminary balloon tamponade appear to be valuable in the management of acute aortocaval fistulas.
Hemodialysis used as renal replacement therapy requires a well-functioning vascular access. Arterio-venous fistula (AVF) created on the forearm is the best vascular access, but it also reveals numerous complications such as: lack of fistula maturation and hemodynamically significant stenoses. Many risk factors of fistula dysfunction are still not identified.
Radial artery and cephalic vein diameter and patency were ultrasonographically examined before forearm AVF creation. Intima-media complex width, blood flow and peak systolic velocity in distal part of radial artery were measured. Presence of thrombosis and post-inflammatory changes in cephalic vein were also checked. Forearm AVF was created in 66 patients. Fistula US examination was performed 3 and 12 months after operation with measurement of vessel diameter and blood flow. Fistula patency was observed in 24 months after creation. Comparison of pre- and postoperative US examinations between groups with well functioning and thrombosed fistulas was performed.
Primary patency of forearm AVF after 12 and 24 months was 65.2% and 53.0%, respectively. Patients with well functioning forearm AVF have significantly bigger cephalic vein diameter and peak systolic velocity in radial artery. We did not observe significant influence of radial artery intima-media complex width and radial artery diameter on AVF function. In postoperative examination, fistula diameter and flow significantly influenced the risk of AVF thrombosis.
US examination of radial artery and cephalic vein performed before forearm AVF creation enables identification of patients with greater risk of fistula dysfunction. Cephalic vein diameter and peak systolic velocity are prognostic factors of fistula function. Control postoperative US examination of forearm fistula enables detection of AVF at risk of thrombosis.
ultrasonographic examination; risk factor; arterio-venous fistula
We report a case of a sixty year old man with a mycotic infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a left psoas abscess. After treatment with parenteral antibiotics he underwent early aortic reconstruction with an in-situ prosthetic graft wrapped in an omental pedicle. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms can be treated in this way despite the potential for graft infection from persisting retroperitoneal sepsis.
Aneurysm; Omentum; Psoas abscess
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