Retroaortic left renal vein is a malformation in which the left renal vein courses dorsal to the abdominal aorta. In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, an aorto-left renal vein fistula can form if the left renal vein is sandwiched between the aneurysm wall and lumbar vertebrae. The patient was an 84-year-old man with lower back pain. We performed a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), although renal dysfunction was noted. The CT showed a ruptured juxta-renal abdominal aortic with aorto-left renal vein fistula. This clinical condition can cause severe renal dysfunction, in spite of which an enhanced contrasted CT scan would be extremely informative preoperatively.
aorto-left renal vein fistula; abdominal aneurysm; retroaortic left renal vein
Acute occlusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare phenomenon. Its possible complications include distal spasm followed by arterial thrombosis, ischemia of the distal limbs, distal embolization, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and the development of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Surgical correction is often complicated by cardiac decompensation, renal failure, fatal pulmonary embolism, and metabolic derangements related to toxins released from the revascularized limb. Unless contraindicated, immediate systemic heparinization must be undertaken when the diagnosis is first suspected.
We present a case of sudden occlusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by venous thrombosis involving both lower extremities. After undergoing surgical revascularization, the patient sustained massive fatal pulmonary emboli. Prophylactic interruption of the inferior vena cava may be indicated in patients who present with this complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Although endovascular transcatheter embolization of arteriovenous fistulas is minimally invasive, the torrential flow prevailing within a fistula implies the risk of migration of the deployed embolization devices into the downstream venous and pulmonary circulation. We present the endovascular treatment of a giant postnephrectomy arteriovenous fistula between the right renal pedicle and the residual renal vein in a 63-year-old man.
The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate that the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) can be safely positioned to embolize even relatively large arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Secondly, we illustrate that this occluder can even be introduced to the fistula via a transvenous catheter in cases where it is initially not possible to advance the deployment-catheter through a tortuous feeder artery. Migration of the vascular plug was ruled out at follow-up 4 months subsequently to the intervention.
Thus, the Amplatzer vascular plug and the arteriovenous through-and-through guide wire access with subsequent transvenous deployment should be considered in similar cases.
arteriovenous fistula; AV-fistula; nephrectomy; embolisation; endovascular treatment; arteriovenous access; through-and-through; transvenous access; Amplatzer vascular plug
A case of asymptomatic right gastroepiploic artery and vein aneurysms with an arteriovenous (AV) fistula coexisting with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. A 68-year-old man was referred for treatment of AAA (6 cm in diameter) and he was incidentally diagnosed as having right gastroepiploic artery and venous aneurysms (3 cm and 8 cm in diameter, respectively) with an AV fistula. Resection of the aneurysms and closure of the fistula were successfully completed with AAA repair. He had a history of gastrectomy, and these gastroepiploic aneurysms with an AV fistula were considered a late complication due to mass ligation of vessels during gastrectomy.
gastroepiploic artery aneurysm; gastroepiploic venous aneurysm; arteriovenous fistula
The renal veins drain the kidney into the inferior vena cava and unite in a variable fashion to form the renal vein. The left renal vein is normally located in front of the aorta. However, the retro-aortic renal vein may course posterior to the aorta due to embryological developmental anomalies. During educational dissection, a rare variation of the left renal vein was found in a 66-year old male cadaver. The double retro-aortic renal veins coursed behind the aorta to drain into the inferior vena cava. The superior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the lower border of the L2 vertebra, and the inferior retro-aortic renal vein drained into the inferior vena cava at the upper border of the L4 vertebra. Such a variant is rare, and is a clinically important observation which should be noted by vascular surgeons, oncologists, and traumatologists.
Renal veins; Variation; Retro-aortic
Arteriovenous fistulas are widely used for hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure. Due to the lack of suitable veins because of the arteriovenous fistulas previously opened in the upper extremity, alternative access routes are being tested. Few complications of long-term alternative arteriovenous fistulas have been reported in the literature. We report the results of surgical repairs of aneurysms that occurred on anterior tibial-saphenous arteriovenous fistulas (along the vein) in patients with end-stage renal disease after 5 years on hemodialysis.
vascular access; aneurysm; saphena magna; renal failure; long term
A 61 year old patient was found to have an aneurysm extending from the aortic root to the suprarenal region. He underwent first stage surgery with aortic root and arch replacement, prosthetic aortic valve replacement, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Four weeks later, he presented with breathlessness and signs of heart failure and pleural effusion. Computed tomography showed that the left atrium was compressed between the aortic aneurysm posteriorly and the left ventricle and sternum anteriorly. Obstruction of the superior vena cava, bronchus, oesophagus, and rarely right atrium by an aortic aneurysm has been described before but presentation with left atrial compression has not been reported.
thoracic aneurysm; heart failure; left atrial compression
Patient: Male, 76
Final Diagnosis: Aorto-enteric fistula
Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloody vomiting • shock
Clinical Procedure: CT abdomen with contrast
Specialty: Gastroenterology • vascular surgery
Primary Aorto-Enteric Fistula (PAEF) is a unique and rare life threatening communication between the Aorta and Gastrointestinal Tract with an unusually high mortality rate and delayed diagnosis. Aortic abdominal aneurysms are implicated in a vast majority of cases while cancer as an etiology of PAEF is extremely rare.
We present the first case report of a PAEF secondary to Large B-Cell Lymphoma, followed by a review of literature in regards to malignant aorto-enteric fistulae.
We conclude that physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for PAEF in any patient with unexplained anemia and history of aortic abdominal aneurysm complicated by cancer.
gastrointestinal hemmorage; aortoenteric fistula; lymphoma
Extrinsic oesophageal compression leading to dysphagia is a recognised but uncommon sole presentation of thoracic aortic aneurysms. This has been referred to as Dysphagia Aortica, and is a late presentation of large thoracic aneurysms, or a symptom of impending aorto-oesophageal fistula. We present the case of a 67 year old woman who presented repeatedly with dysphagia and weight loss over a 3 month period to specialists in three different disciplines. Eventually, a type II thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm causing extrinsic compression of the oesophagus was discovered. When dealing with patients who present with dysphagia, if no other cause is discovered, a thoracic aortic aneurysm should form part of the differential diagnosis, as this is potentially curable, and delays in diagnosis and treatment predispose to rupture and death.
Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into a retroaortic left renal vein is an uncommon occurrence. A 55-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain that had radiated to her back and legs for the preceding 10 days. A pulsatile abdominal mass, hematuria, renal insufficiency, and heart failure were present at the initial evaluation. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm that communicated with a retroaortic left renal vein. After urgent surgical repair, cardiac and renal function were dramatically improved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st reported case of a woman with such a fistula. We review treatments reported in the literature.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications; arteriovenous fistula/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; renal veins/abnormalities; rupture, spontaneous; tomography, X-ray computed
Even though the majority of abdominal aortic aneurysm s(AAAs) are asymptomatic, they can occasionally manifest as a result of adjacent structures involvement. Although the most frequent venous complication of AAA is rupture into the inferior vena cava (IVC), venous compression can infrequently occur. The authors report a particularly rare case of compression and thrombosis of the IVC by AAA. Patient was treated by preoperative placement of an IVC filter to impede pulmonary embolism and subsequently by open surgical repair. Besides discussing the circumstances associated with IVC compression by AAA, the authors also discuss the treatment strategy adopted and the possible alternatives.
A 26 year old man who presented with the first signs of right heart failure was found to have a large congenital aneurysm of the aortic sinus of Valsalva and of the left coronary sinus. These were combined with left heart anomalies in the form of a bicuspid aortic valve, a rare variant of a persistent left superior vena cava with blood flow from the left atrium through the brachiocephalic vein into the superior vena cava and a kink in the aortic arch. An aortic coarctation had been corrected with a patch 12 years earlier. Although the aneurysm was not perforated and there were no clinical signs of infarction, the aneurysm was resected prophylactically and the left coronary artery was reinserted through a bypass with a Gore-Tex conduit. The case is noteworthy because this diagnosis is very rare and its early treatment may prevent several complications. The clinical features, treatment, and outcome are discussed.
left sinus of Valsalva; aneurysm
Spontaneous fistulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an unusual and infrequently encountered complication in clinical practice. In the majority of cases, it is a diagnosis made on the operating table, during surgical repair of AAA. We report a patient with an aortocaval fistula diagnosed preoperatively on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Preoperative diagnosis of this rare complication is important as it allows appropriate anaesthetic and surgical planning thereby reducing morbidity and mortality.
This study aimed to compare the results of one-and two-stage basilic vein transposition (BVT) in haemodialysis patients.
This was a non-randomised, retrospective study between January 2007 and January 2012 on 96 patients who were diagnosed with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) (54 males, 42 females; mean age 43.6 ± 14 years) and underwent one- or two-stage BVT in our clinic. All patients who were not eligible for a native radio-cephalic or brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistula (AVF) were scheduled for one- or two-stage BVT after arterial (brachial, radial and ulnar) and venous (basilic and cephalic) Doppler ultrasonography.
Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: group 1, basilic vein diameter > 3 mm and patients who underwent one-stage BVT; and group 2, basilic vein diameter < 3 mm and patients who underwent two-stage BVT. In group 1, the basilic vein with a single incision was anastomosed to the brachial artery, followed by superficialisation. In group 2, the basilic vein was anastomosed to the brachial artery and they underwent the superficialisation procedure one month postoperatively. Fistula maturation and postoperative complications were assessed.
The mean diameter of the basilic vein was statistically significantly higher in group 1 (3.46 ± 0.2 mm) than in group 2 (2.79 ± 0.1 mm) (p < 0.05). In terms of postoperative complications, thrombosis, haemorrhage and haematoma were significantly higher in group 1 (34, 36 and 17%, respectively) than in group 2 (23, 14 and 6%, respectively) (p < 0.05). The rate of fistula maturation was significantly lower in group 1 (66%), compared to group 2 (77%) (p < 0.05). Time to fistula maturation was significantly shorter in group 1 (mean 41 ± 14 days), compared to group 2 (mean 64 ± 28 days) (p < 0.05).
Two-stage BVT was superior to one-stage BVT due to its lower rate of postoperative complications and higher fistula maturation, despite its disadvantage of late fistula use. Although the diameter of the basilic vein was larger in patients who underwent one-stage BVT, we observed that one-stage BVT was disadvantageous in terms of postoperative complications and fistula maturation.
renal dialysis; arterio-venous fistula; basilic vein transposition; complication
Historically, open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, endovascular exclusion alone can restrict blood flow to visceral arteries. We report a case of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that was repaired using a hybrid approach: surgery followed by an endovascular procedure. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for endovascular exclusion of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that included the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac artery. Aorto–mesenteric and aorto–celiac artery bypass grafting was performed to create a landing zone for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, which was completed successfully 6 weeks after the bypass procedure.
For thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms that extend beyond the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac or renal arteries, a hybrid approach, consisting of limited surgical treatment followed by endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, may yield optimal results in selected patients with serious preoperative comorbidities.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; aortic aneurysm, thoracic; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; stents
A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.
Ascending lumbar vein; communicating vein; renal artery; renal vein; varicosity
Spinal “stroke” is an uncommon cause of paraplegia. Spinal cord infarction from unruptured aortic aneurysm is rare. When encountered it poses diagnostic challenge to the clinician due to its rarity, which may lead to incorrect or delayed diagnosis. We report a case of 62-year-old man presenting to casualty as caudaequina syndrome due to spinal cord infarction secondary to emboli from an infra renal abdominal aortic aneurysm. To the authors knowledge this is first case of its kind and has not been reported in literature. Patient had improvement in proximal motor function following repair of the aneurysm, although he remained doubly incontinent in six months follow up.
Spontaneous aortocaval fistula is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe two cases of spontaneous aortocaval fistula. The first patient is a woman who was admitted with abdominal pain and pulsatile abdominal mass. Another patient was a man admitted with progressive abdominal pain and hypotension. Computed tomography (CT) scan in both patients showed an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and simultaneous contrast enhancement in the inferior vena cava. Both patients underwent an urgent laparotomy in which the diagnosis of an aortocaval fistula was confirmed. We review the literature on spontaneous aortocaval fistula as a consequenceof complicated aortic aneurysms.
Spontaneous; Aortocaval fistula; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Iran
A previously undescribed complication of a saphenous vein aortocoronary bypass graft, namely formation of a fistula between a vein graft aneurysm and the right atrium is reported. A patient presented with a continuous murmur and a combination of signs suggesting superior vena cava obstruction. This pathology was shown by both echocardiography and angiography. Surgical treatment was attempted.
Spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the inferior vena cava is rare and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The clinical presentation can be variable and thus the diagnosis can be difficult. It can present with symptoms and signs of an abdominal emergency, venous hypertension, or systemic hypoperfusion. The traditional method of repair has been open surgery which is associated with high rate of complications. We report a case of aortocaval fistula (ACF) presenting with acute renal failure and heart failure, which was treated successfully with a novel, endovascular approach.
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
Aortopulmonary fistula is an uncommon but often fatal condition resulting as a late complication of an aortic aneurysm. The most common cause is erosion of a false aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta into the pulmonary artery, resulting in the development of a left-to-right shunt and leading to acute pulmonary edema and right heart failure. We report an our experience with aortopulmonary fistula as a rare complication associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and high output heart failure.
Fistula; Aortic aneurysm; Heart failure
Aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery may cause idiopathic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), and the treatment choice for occluding shunting fistula in this type of CCF is an endovascular approach using detachable balloons. However, little has been reported on treating such lesions with the intra-aneurysmal embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). To our knowledge, ours is the first reported case of successful treatment by selective intra-fistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs. A 74-year-old woman exhibited proptosis and chemosis of her left eye over a period of one month. Symptoms of double vision in conversion and pulsatile murmur in her left eye were also noted. Angiography revealed an intra-cavernous aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) with a shunting fistula, which drained into the dilated cavernous sinus, superior orbital vein (SOV), superior petrosal sinus, inferior petrosal sinus, and pterygoid plexus. We thought the fistula would occlude by intra-aneurysmal embolization, but we had no confidence of tight packing of the aneurysm since the aneurismal neck was relatively wide. So, we embolized the venous side of the shunting fistula and then the dome of the aneurysm with GDCs. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms and signs were ameliorated, and complete occlusion of the CCF was observed on long-term follow-up. We suggest selective intrafistula and intra-aneurysmal embolization with GDCs as an alternative method of treatment of idiopathic CCF originating from aneurysmal rupture of the intra-cavernous carotid artery.
idiopathic CCF; aneurysm; GDC
Aorto–left ventricular tunnel, characterized by extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and left ventricle, is a very rare congenital condition. Although some affected infants remain asymptomatic until adulthood, most present with symptoms of heart failure during their first year of life. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had coexisting abnormalities: an aorto–left ventricular tunnel originating from the left coronary sinus, and an ascending aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent on-pump surgical correction and was in New York Heart Association functional class I status a year later. We also review the nature of this rare condition.
Aorta/abnormalities; aortic aneurysm/surgery; child; heart defects, congenital/diagnosis/pathology/surgery; heart ventricles/abnormalities; treatment outcome; ventricular function, left
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.