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1.  Impact of Age and Gender on the Prevalence and Prognostic Importance of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107294.
Objective
To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).
Methods
Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5.
Results
The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05).
Conclusion
In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107294
PMCID: PMC4171109  PMID: 25244618
2.  Prevalence of metabolic syndrome components among the elderly using three different definitions: A cohort study in Finland 
Objective
Limited data are available on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in elderly people (aged 70 years and over) at population level in Northern Europe. A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its components in an aging population by using different definitions.
Design, setting, and subjects
A cross-sectional study of 539 inhabitants from Northern Finland (mean age 71.9 years) was conducted to investigate the prevalence of MetS, by using the definitions of MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP), the modified NCEP (NCEPm), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of MetS by the NCEP, NCEP modified, and IDF criteria.
Results
Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 24.7%, 35.2%, and 37.2% in men, by NCEP, modified NCEP, and IDF-definitions, respectively. In women the corresponding figures were 20.9%, 33.1%, and 47.8%. Hypertension was the most common component in both men (91.8%) and women (89.0%) by the IDF criteria. Glucose abnormalities were particularly prevalent in men (53.2% by NCEP and 78.4% by IDF criteria).
Conclusions
The most common component was hypertension in both genders. Lower waist-circumference cut-off points of the IDF criteria led to a higher prevalence of MetS particularly in women. Prevalence of MetS varied significantly when measured by different definitions. Nearly half of older women met the IDF definition of MetS, which was more than twofold when compared with NCEP. Clinical practitioners should be aware of the limitations when using set criteria of MetS, in contrast to identifying the individual cardiovascular risk factors and the accumulation of these.
doi:10.3109/02813432.2012.654192
PMCID: PMC3337527  PMID: 22324547
Elderly population; definitions; IDF; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
3.  Metabolic syndrome in Russian adults: associated factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:582.
Background
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of four major obesity-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality in the world, but its association with MetS remains unknown. Also little is known about factors associated with MetS and its components in Russia.
Methods
Data on 3555 adults aged 18-90 years were collected in a cross-sectional study in 2000. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Sex-specific associations between the IDF-defined MetS, its components, and life-style, socio-economic factors and laboratory indicators, were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression. Vital status of the study participants was identified by July 2009. Sex-specific associations between MetS and stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), CVD and all-cause death, were studied by Poisson regression adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and history of CVDs.
Results
After adjustment for all studied factors except BMI, age, serum GGT, C-reactive protein and AST-to-ALT ratio were associated with MetS in both genders. Additionally, MetS was associated with sedentary lifestyle in women and with smoking in men. In the same regression model drinking alcohol 2-4 times a month and consumption of five or more alcohol units at one occasion in men, and drinking alcohol 5 times or more a month in women were inversely associated with MetS. After a 9-year follow-up, MetS was associated with higher risk of death from stroke (RR = 3.76, 95% CI:1.35-10.46) and from either stroke or myocardial infarction (MI, RR = 2.87, 95% CI:1.32-6.23) in men. No associations between MetS and any of the studied causes of death were observed in women.
Conclusion
Factors associated with MetS in both genders were age, GGT, C-reactive protein, and AST-to-ALT ratio. Moderate frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in men and higher leisure time physical activity in women, were inversely associated with MetS.
Positive associations between MetS and mortality were only observed for deaths from stroke and either stroke or MI in men.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-582
PMCID: PMC2955695  PMID: 20920226
4.  Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients according to WHO, NCEP ATP III, IDF and Harmonized criteria 
Background
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) present in type 2 diabetic patients greatly increases the risk of strokes and cardiovascular diseases. Timely detection and mapping of MetS facilitates appropriate preventive and therapeutic approaches to minimize these risks. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS among Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients using WHO (1999), NCEP ATP III (2001), IDF (2005) and Harmonized (2009) definitions and identify the diagnostic concordance and disparity resulting from these four definitions.
Methods
Clinical and biochemical data were collected for 1061 type 2 diabetic patients at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. The data was analyzed in order to identify prevalence of MetS in these patients. Statistical analysis included usage of Student’s t- and Chi-square tests, kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
The total age adjusted prevalence rates of MetS were 80.3%, 73.9%, 69.9% and 66.8% according to Harmonized, NCEP ATP III, WHO and IDF definitions, respectively. Prevalence increased with the age and was higher in females (p <0.001) according to WHO, NCEP ATP III and Harmonized definitions. Patients of Dalit community had the highest prevalence (p<0.05) according to NCEP ATP III and Harmonized definitions while Mongoloid and Newar patients had the highest prevalence (p <0.05) according to WHO and IDF definitions, respectively. Prevalence was also highest among patient engaged in agriculture occupation. Central obesity and hypertension were respectively the most and the least prevalent components of MetS. The highest overall agreement was between Harmonized and NCEP ATP III definitions (κ =0.62, substantial) and the lowest between WHO & IDF definitions (κ=0.26, slight). The Harmonized definition had the highest sensitivity (99.9%) and negative predictive value (98.9%) while NCEP ATP III definition had the highest specificity (98.9%) and positive predictive values (99.9%) in identifying the cases of MetS.
Conclusions
The prevalence of MetS among Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients was very high suggesting that these patients were at increased risk of strokes, cardiovascular diseases and premature death. The Harmonized definition was the most sensitive while NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions were the most specific in detecting the presence of MetS in Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients.
doi:10.1186/s40200-014-0104-3
PMCID: PMC4251856  PMID: 25469328
Prevalence; Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Nepal; Pokhara; Manipal Teaching Hospital
5.  JIS Definition Identified More Malaysian Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Compared to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF Criteria 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:760963.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a steering force for the cardiovascular diseases epidemic in Asia. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS in Malaysian adults using NCEP-ATP III, IDF, and JIS definitions, identify the demographic factors associated with MetS, and determine the level of agreement between these definitions. The analytic sample consisted of 8,836 adults aged ≥30 years recruited at baseline in 2007–2011 from the Cardiovascular Risk Prevention Study (CRisPS), an ongoing, prospective cohort study involving 18 urban and 22 rural communities in Malaysia. JIS definition gave the highest overall prevalence (43.4%) compared to NCEP-ATP III (26.5%) and IDF (37.4%), P < 0.001. Indians had significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence compared to other ethnic groups across all MetS definitions (30.1% by NCEP-ATP III, 50.8% by IDF, and 56.5% by JIS). The likelihood of having MetS amongst the rural and urban populations was similar across all definitions. A high level of agreement between the IDF and JIS was observed (Kappa index = 0.867), while there was a lower level of agreement between the IDF and NCEP-ATP III (Kappa index = 0.580). JIS definition identified more Malaysian adults with MetS and therefore should be recommended as the preferred diagnostic criterion.
doi:10.1155/2013/760963
PMCID: PMC3794630  PMID: 24175300
6.  Association of C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Adiponectin with the Metabolic Syndrome 
Mediators of Inflammation  2007;2007:93573.
This Finnish population-based study, mean age 46 years, evaluates the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and adiponectin with the NCEP and IDF definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adiponectin levels were higher, hs-CRP and IL-1Ra levels lower in subjects without MetS compared to subjects with MetS. If MetS was present according to both IDF and NCEP criteria, BMI, waist, triglycerides, hs-CRP, and IL-1Ra were significantly higher compared to subjects who had MetS according to either only IDF or only NCEP criteria. The hs-CRP, IL-1Ra, and adiponectin linearly correlated with the number of the components of MetS according to both definitions. Decreased levels of adiponectin and increased levels of hs-CRP and IL-1Ra are tightly associated with the components of MetS. Individuals who had MetS according to both criteria had the most adverse changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
doi:10.1155/2007/93573
PMCID: PMC2222666  PMID: 18288276
7.  The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors - a population-based study 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:484.
Background
Although National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), World Health Organization (WHO), and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been commonly used by studies, little is known about agreement among these five definitions. We examined the agreement among these five definitions and explored their relationship with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Taiwan population.
Methods
A total of 1305 subjects aged 40 years and over in Taiwan were analyzed. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of a high cardiovascular risk group for five definitions of MetS.
Results
The agreement among the NCEP, IDF, and AHA/NHLBI definitions was from substantial to very good, and agreement between the WHO and EGIR definitions was also substantial. All MetS definitions were significantly associated prevalence of microalbuminuria, elevated highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), and arterial stiffness only in women. In men, MetS by NCEP and AHA/NHLBI was associated with elevated level of hs-CRP and arterial stiffness. MetS by WHO and EGIR were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. And MetS by WHO was the only MetS definition that significantly associated with prevalence of arterial stiffness (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.19).
Conclusions
The associations of these five definitions with cardiovascular risk factors were similar in women, and it was evident that the five definitions performed better in women than in men, with higher ORs observed in relation to arterial stiffness, elevated hs-CRP, and higher Framingham risk scores.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-484
PMCID: PMC2805641  PMID: 20028565
8.  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions in a Japanese-Brazilians community 
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of morbi-mortality, thus the characterization of the population magnitude of this syndrome is critical for allocating health care. However, prevalence estimates of MetS in the same population could differ depending on the definition used. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of the MetS using definitions proposed by: National Cholesterol Education Panel Revised (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2009 in a Japanese-Brazilians community (131 individuals, age 57 ± 16 years, 1st and 2nd generation). All individuals went through a clinical and laboratorial evaluation for assessment of weigh, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (n = 35) and 37.4% (n = 49) under the NCEP and IDF definitions, respectively. Despite higher blood pressure measurements, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.01), individuals identified with MetS did not show increased blood glucose levels. IDF definition classified 14 individuals (10.7%) with MetS that were not classified under the NCEP and 35 individuals were identified with MetS by both criteria. We observed, in this group, more severe lipid disorders, compared to individuals identified only under the IDF definition, and the BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.01; p = 0.006, respectively) were lower. In conclusion, the IDF revised criteria, probably because of the ethnic specific values of waist circumference, was able to identify a larger number of individuals with MetS. However, our data suggesting that additional studies are necessary to define best MetS diagnostic criteria in this population.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-4-38
PMCID: PMC3557188  PMID: 22901369
Metabolic syndrome; Japanese-Brazilians; IDF; NCEP; Waist circumference
9.  Impact of 4 different definitions used for the assessment of the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in primary healthcare:The German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS) 
Background
The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) places individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevalence rates of the population of the MetSyn are still scarce. Moreover, the impact of different definitions of the MetSyn on the prevalence is unclear. Aim here is to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn in primary health care and to investigate the impact of four different definitions of the MetSyn on the determined prevalence with regard to age, gender and socio-economic status.
Methods
The German-wide cross-sectional study was conducted during two weeks in October 2005 in 1.511 randomly selected general practices. Blood samples were analyzed, blood pressure and waist circumference assessed, data on lifestyle, medication, chronic disorders, and socio-demographic characteristics collected. MetSyn prevalence was estimated according to the definitions of NCEP ATP III (2001), AHA/NHLBI (2004, 2005), and IDF (2005). Descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios using the PROG GENMOD procedure, were calculated. Cohen's kappa was used as measure for interreliability between the different prevalence estimates.
Results
Data of 35,869 patients (age range: 18–99, women 61.1%) were included. The prevalence was lowest using the NCEP ATP III- (all: 19.8%, men 22.7%, women: 18.0%), highest according to the IDF-definition (32.7%, 40.3%, 28.0%). The increase in prevalence with recent definitions was more pronounced for men than for women, and was particularly high for men and women aged 60–79 years. The IDF-definition resulted in a higher prevalence especially in those with the highest educational status. Agreement (kappa) between the NCEP ATP III- and IDF-definition was 0.68 (men 0.61, women 0.74), between the updated the AHA/NHLBI- (2005) and IDF-definition 0.85 (men 0.79, women 0.89).
Conclusion
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is associated with age, gender, and educational status and increases considerably with each newly published definition. Our data highlight the need for a better evidence regarding thresholds of the components of the metabolic syndrome, especially with regard to the IDF-definition – according to which in some populations a majority of subjects are diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-6-22
PMCID: PMC2031874  PMID: 17822558
10.  Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:353.
Background
We aimed to explore the agreement among World Health Organization (WHO), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), American College of Endocrinology (ACE), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions of the metabolic syndrome.
Methods
1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD) 13 years) were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups.
Results
The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83). The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84). The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37). The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR) and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF). One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p < 0.05) and had higher Framingham risk scores (mean and SD, 2.99 ± 4.64% vs. 1.10 ± 1.87%, respectively, p < 0.05). The additional subjects identified by IDF definition, but not by WHO definition also had more insulin resistance and higher Framingham risk scores than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD, log HOMA-IR 0.18 ± 0.18 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, p < 0.05 and Framingham risk score 2.93 ± 4.54% vs. 1.10 ± 1.87%, p < 0.05). The IDF-identified additional subjects had similar Framingham risk scores as WHO-identified subjects (p > 0.05), but lower log HOMA-IR values (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF) identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased Framingham risk scores and are more useful than the definitions that require measurement of insulin levels (WHO and EGIR).
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-353
PMCID: PMC2249584  PMID: 18088443
11.  Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample 
Background
The rs9939609 T>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FTO gene has previously been found to be associated with obesity in European Caucasian samples. The objective of this study is to examine whether this association extends to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and applies in non-Caucasian samples.
Methods
The FTO rs9939609 SNP was genotyped in 2121 subjects from four different non-Caucasian geographical ancestries. Subjects were classified for the presence or absence of MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III definitions.
Results
Carriers of ≥ 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to have IDF-defined MetS (35.8%) than non-carriers (31.2%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.50), with a similar trend for the NCEP ATP III-defined MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was particularly strong in men. The association was related to a higher proportion of rs9939609 A allele carriers meeting the waist circumference criterion; a higher proportion also met the HDL cholesterol criterion compared with wild-type homozygotes.
Conclusion
Thus, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for MetS in this multi-ethnic sample, confirming that the association extends to non-Caucasian population samples.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-5
PMCID: PMC2275229  PMID: 18339204
12.  Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences 
Background
There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU), which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA). We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus.
Methods
Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males) first year college students (average age 19.8 years), attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests.
Results
Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3%) and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%). On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9.3% respectively.
Conclusions
HBCUs offer a unique opportunity to monitor and address the risk factors of MetS in a predominantly young AA population. There is a higher prevalence of MetS in this study population than any other reports on college students.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-2
PMCID: PMC3556146  PMID: 23311455
College students; Lipids; Pre-diabetes; Metabolic syndrome; Young African American adults
13.  Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on the Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51421.
Objectives
To analyze the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on prognosis of ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial stenosis in Chinese patients.
Methods
A prospective cohort of 701 patients with ischemic stroke, caused by intracranial stenosis, were followed at 3-month intervals for 1 year to monitor development of recurrent stroke or death. Imaging was performed using magnetic resonance angiography. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Results
MetS was identified in 26.0% of the cohort of stroke patients. Patients with MetS were more likely to be female, nonsmokers, and more likely to have a prior history of diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose and a family history of stroke than patients without MetS. During 1-year follow-up, patients with MetS had a non-significantly higher rate of stroke recurrence (7.1%) than patients without MetS (3.9%; P = 0.07). There was no difference in mortality (3.3% versus 3.5%, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (adjusting for gender, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and LDL-C) identified an association between that 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of MetS (hazard ratio 2.30; 95% CI: 1.01–5.22) and large waist circumference (hazard ratio: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.05–5.42). However, multivariable analysis adjusting for the individual components of MetS found no significant associations between MetS and stroke recurrence. There were no associations between these parameters and mortality.
Conclusions
Chinese patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who have MetS, are at higher risk of recurrent stroke than those without MetS. However, MetS was not predictive of stroke recurrence beyond its individual components and one-year mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051421
PMCID: PMC3519650  PMID: 23251528
14.  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Northwest Russia: the Arkhangelsk study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:23.
Background
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors associated with morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality. Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality rates in the world. However, the prevalence of MetS in Russia remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of MetS and its components in an urban Russian setting.
Methods
Altogether, 3705 Russian adults aged 18-90 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Arkhangelsk (Northwest Russia). All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Blood samples were taken and analyzed in TromsØ, Norway. Three separate modified definitions of MetS were used, namely, the National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). To ensure comparability of the findings, the prevalence data were standardized using world and European standard populations and Russian population.
Results
The age-standardized (Segi's world standard population) prevalence rates of the MetS among women were 19.8% (95% CI: 18.1-21.5), 20.6% (95% CI: 18.9-22.3) and 23.1% (95% CI: 21.3-24.9) by the NCEP, AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria, respectively. The corresponding rates for men were 11.5% (95% CI: 10.1-12.9), 13.7% (95% CI: 12.2-15.2) and 11.0% (95% CI: 9.7-12.4). Among subjects with MetS, central obesity was more common among women, while elevated triglycerides and blood glucose were more common among men. Almost perfect agreement was found between the NCEP and AHA/NHLBI criteria (κ = 0.94). There was less agreement between the used definitions of MetS in men than in women.
Conclusions
While the prevalence of MetS among Russian women is comparable to the data for Europe and the U.S., the prevalence among Russian men is considerably lower than among their European and North-American counterparts. Our results suggest that MetS is unlikely to be a major contributor to the high cardiovascular mortality among Russian men. Further studies of MetS determinants and associated cardiovascular risk are needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to the exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality in Russia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-23
PMCID: PMC2832773  PMID: 20085638
15.  Immediate Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Suicide Following a Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(12):e1000197.
Katja Fall and Fang Fang and colleagues find that men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are at increased risk of cardiovascular events and suicide.
Background
Stressful life events have been shown to be associated with altered risk of various health consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the emotional stress evoked by a prostate cancer diagnosis increases the immediate risks of cardiovascular events and suicide.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a prospective cohort study by following all men in Sweden who were 30 y or older (n = 4,305,358) for a diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 168,584) and their subsequent occurrence of cardiovascular events and suicide between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 2004. We used Poisson regression models to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cardiovascular events and suicide among men who had prostate cancer diagnosed within 1 y to men without any cancer diagnosis. The risks of cardiovascular events and suicide were elevated during the first year after prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly during the first week. Before 1987, the RR of fatal cardiovascular events was 11.2 (95% CI 10.4–12.1) during the first week and 1.9 (95% CI 1.9–2.0) during the first year after diagnosis. From 1987, the RR for cardiovascular events, nonfatal and fatal combined, was 2.8 (95% CI 2.5–3.2) during the first week and 1.3 (95% CI 1.3–1.3) during the first year after diagnosis. While the RR of cardiovascular events declined, the RR of suicide was stable over the entire study period: 8.4 (95% CI 1.9–22.7) during the first week and 2.6 (95% CI 2.1–3.0) during the first year after diagnosis. Men 54 y or younger at cancer diagnosis demonstrated the highest RRs of both cardiovascular events and suicide. A limitation of the present study is the lack of tumor stage data, which precluded possibilities of investigating the potential impact of the disease severity on the relationship between a recent diagnosis of prostate cancer and the risks of cardiovascular events and suicide. In addition, we cannot exclude residual confounding as a possible explanation.
Conclusions
Men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are at increased risks for cardiovascular events and suicide. Future studies with detailed disease characteristic data are warranted.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Prostate cancer—a type of tumor that develops in a walnut-sized structure in the male reproductive system—is the commonest cancer (excluding skin cancer) among men in developed countries. In the USA and the UK, for example, one in six men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Most prostate cancers develop in elderly men and, because these tumors usually grow relatively slowly, many men die with prostate cancer rather than as a result of it. Nevertheless, some prostate cancers are fast-growing and aggressive and prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men. The symptoms of prostate cancer include problems urinating and excessive urination during the night. Nowadays, however, most prostate cancers are detected before they produce any symptoms by measuring the amount of a protein called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood.
Why Was This Study Done?
Widespread PSA screening was introduced 20 years ago in the hope that early detection of prostate cancer would save lives. But, although many more prostate cancers are detected nowadays, the number of prostate cancer deaths has not changed significantly. Experts are divided, therefore, about whether the potential benefits of PSA screening outweigh its risks. Treatments for prostate cancer (for example, surgical removal of the prostate) may be more effective if they are started early but they can cause impotence and urinary incontinence, so should men be treated whose cancer might otherwise never affect their health? In addition, receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer is stressful and there is growing evidence that stressful life events can increase an individual's risk of becoming ill or dying from a heart attack, stroke, or other “cardiovascular” events and of becoming mentally ill. In this study, therefore, the researchers investigate whether men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Sweden have increased risks of cardiovascular events and suicide during the first week and first year after their diagnosis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified nearly 170, 000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1961 and 2004 among Swedish men aged 30 years or older by searching the Swedish Cancer Register. They obtained information on subsequent fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and suicides from the Causes of Death Register and the Inpatient Register (in Sweden, everyone has a unique national registration number that facilitates searches of different health-related Registers). Before 1987, men with prostate cancer were about 11 times as likely to have a fatal cardiovascular event during the first week after their diagnosis as men without prostate cancer; during the first year after their diagnosis, men with prostate cancer were nearly twice as likely to have a cardiovascular event as men without prostate cancer (a relative risk of 1.9). From 1987, the relative risk of combined fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer was 2.8 during the first week and 1.3 during the first year after diagnosis. The relative risk of suicide associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer was 8.4 during the first week and 2.6 during the first year after diagnosis throughout the study period. Finally, men younger than 54 years at diagnosis had higher relative risks of both cardiovascular events and suicide.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer have an increased risk of cardiovascular events and suicide. Because there is no information on tumor size or aggressiveness in the Cancer Register, the researchers could not look at the relationship between disease severity and the likelihood of a cardiovascular event or suicide. Furthermore, because of the study design, men who received a diagnosis of prostate cancer may have had additional characteristics in common that contributed to their increased risk of cardiovascular events and suicide. Nevertheless, these findings strongly suggest that the stress of the diagnosis itself rather than any subsequent treatment has deleterious effects on the health of men receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Thus, strategies should be developed to reduce the risks of cardiovascular events and suicide—increased clinical and psychological monitoring—after a diagnosis of prostate cancer, particularly among young men, and this new information should be considered in the ongoing debate about the risks and benefits of PSA screening.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000197.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information on all aspects of prostate cancer, (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on prostate cancer, including Prostate Cancer Screening, A Decision Guide (some information in multiple languages)
The UK National Health Service Choices Web site provides detailed information on prostate cancer
The UK-based Samaritans charity provides confidential nonjudgmental emotional support, 24 hours a day, for people who are experiencing feelings of distress or despair, including those which could lead to suicide
Outside the UK, Befrienders provides information on help lines for those experiencing distress
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000197
PMCID: PMC2784954  PMID: 20016838
16.  The potential impact of family history of metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: In a highly endogamous population 
Aim:
This study aims to determine the potential impact of positive family history of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among two generations, on developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and the potential relation of consanguineous marriage among patients with MetS to the risk of developing T2DM among a sample of Qataris.
Design:
A cross-sectional study.
Setting:
Primary healthcare (PHC) centers.
Materials and Methods:
The survey and measurement were conducted from April 2011 to December 2012 among Qatari nationals above 20 years of age. Of the 2,182 subjects, who were approached to participate in the study, 1,552 (71%) gave their consent. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) as well as International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Results:
Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.2% according to ATP III and 36.9% according to IDF (P < 0.0001). The mean age of MetS patients with T2DM was significantly higher than those without T2DM (Mean 48 ± 9.9 vs. 42.5 ± 9.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of females was higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (61% vs. 51%; P = 0.053). In addition, there were significant differences between MetS patients with and without DM in terms of co-morbidities of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and high cholesterol. The proportion of MetS patients with positive family history for MetS was significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (46.7% vs. 33.8%; P = 0.009). The proportion of positive family history of MetS among fathers (35% vs. 21.9%; P = 0.005), mothers (30.5% vs. 18.8%; P = 0.008), maternal aunt (18.3% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.055), and maternal grand father (19.5% vs. 10%; P = 0.010) were significantly higher in MetS patients with T2DM as compared to the counterpart. The proportion of consanguineous marriages was almost two times higher among MetS patients with T2DM as compared to those without T2DM (80.9% vs. 41.9%; P < 0.001). The proportion of MetS patients with T2DM was lower than MetS patients without DM below 45 years, but after 45 years, the proportion of MetS patients with T2DM remained higher than their counterparts.
Conclusion:
Family history of MetS among parents, maternal aunt, maternal grandfather, and consanguineous marriages among patients of MetS are significantly associated with the development of T2DM in Qatar. These results support the necessity of earlier screening for T2DM among MetS patients with positive family history of MetS.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.129112
PMCID: PMC3987271  PMID: 24741517
Consanguinity; correlates; diabetes mellitus; genetics; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
17.  Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or “Syndrome X” which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.94248
PMCID: PMC3354945  PMID: 22701831
Androgen deprivation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; testosterone; testosterone replacement therapy
18.  Metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients at University of Gondar Hospital, North West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study 
Background
Data is sparse concerning the magnitude of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in developing countries like Ethiopia whose major health problem had long been under-nutrition and infectious diseases rather than non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including hypertension, obesity and MetS. However, it is obvious that the NCDs are recently taking over and becoming the major health care concerns in the developing countries. This pattern could be partly explained by the nation’s sustained economical growth in the last few decades in addition to the increasing globalization related adoption of western lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors among hypertensive patients in North West Ethiopia.
Method
A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 hypertensive individuals who get follow-up care at University of Gondar Hospital after diagnosed as hypertensive. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of NCD was used. Fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using standardized laboratory procedures.
Result
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 40.7% and 39.3% according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively. Low HDL-c was found to be the most frequently encountered (81.3%) component of MetS other than the hypertension. Being female was significantly associated with MetS (AOR = 4.34; 95% CI: 2.09, 8.99) using IDF and (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI: 1.66, 6.58) using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Abnormal BMI which included both high and low BMI was found to have significant association with MetS (AOR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.73, 5.58) using IDF and (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.22) as diagnosed using the NCEP-ATP III criteria.
Conclusion
We recommend a comprehensive medical care approach to hypertensive patients to adequately assess and address the additional components of MetS which are known to potentiate the risks of cardiovascular diseases among hypertensive patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-177
PMCID: PMC4273452  PMID: 25481843
Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk; Dyslipidemia; Insulin resistance
19.  Association between the -455T>C promoter polymorphism of the APOC3 gene and the metabolic syndrome in a multi-ethnic sample 
BMC Medical Genetics  2007;8:80.
Background
Common polymorphisms in the promoter of the APOC3 gene have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia and may impact on phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The rs7566605 marker, located near the INSIG2 gene, has been found to be associated with obesity, making it also a potential genetic determinant for MetS. The objective of this study is to examine the APOC3 -455T>C and the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphisms as potential genetic determinants for MetS in a multi-ethnic sample.
Methods
Subjects were genotyped for both the APOC3 -455T>C and INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphisms, and classified for the presence or absence of MetS (NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions). The total study population included 2675 subjects (≥18 years of age) from six different geographical ancestries.
Results
For the overall study population, the prevalence of MetS was 22.6% (NCEP ATP III definition). Carriers of ≥1 copy of APOC3 -455C were more likely to have MetS (NCEP ATP III definition) than noncarriers (carrier odds ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.14, adjusting for age and study group). The basis of the association was related not only to a higher proportion of -455C carriers meeting the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria, but also the blood pressure criteria compared with wild-type homozygotes. Plasma apo C-III concentrations were not associated with APOC3 -455T>C genotype. The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was not associated with MetS or measures of obesity.
Conclusion
Meta-analysis of the sample of multiple geographic ancestries indicated that the functional -455T>C promoter polymorphism in APOC3 was associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of MetS, whereas the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was not associated with MetS.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-80
PMCID: PMC2241585  PMID: 18096054
20.  Variations in Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease and Future Risk by Metabolic Syndrome Classification in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study 
American heart journal  2010;159(3):385-391.
Background
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III define metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) differently, with unclear implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
Methods
We examined 22,719 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. We classified participants as: no MetSyn, MetSyn by ATP-III and IDF criteria, MetSyn by ATP-only, or MetSyn by IDF-only. To assess current CVD, we determined the odds of self-reported CVD by MetSyn category using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. To estimate future coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we calculated Framingham risk scores (FRS).
Results
Overall, 10,785 individuals (47%) had MetSyn. Of these, 79% had MetSyn by both definitions, 6% by ATP-only, and 14% by IDF-only. Compared to those without MetSyn, ATP-only individuals had the highest odds of current CVD and of having a FRS >20%. Also compared to those without MetSyn, IDF-only individuals had 43% higher odds of current CVD and two-fold increased odds of having a FRS >20%.
Conclusions
Consistent with previous reports, ATP-III MetSyn criteria identified individuals with increased odds of CVD and elevated future CHD risk. However, the IDF definition identified a clinically important number of additional individuals at excess CVD risk.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2009.12.022
PMCID: PMC2841510  PMID: 20211299
21.  Diversity of metabolic syndrome criteria in association with cardiovascular diseases – a family medicine-based investigation 
Background
This study compared the association between the 3 definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and shows the prevalence and characteristics of persons with MetS in continental vs. coastal regions and rural vs. urban residence in Croatia.
Material/Methods
A prospective multicenter study was conducted on 3245 participants ≥40 years, who visited general practices from May to July 2008 for any reason. This was a cross-sectional study of the Cardiovascular Risk and Intervention Study in Croatia-family medicine project (ISRCTN31857696).
Results
All analyzed MetS definitions showed an association with CVD, but the strongest was shown by NCEP ATP III; coronary disease OR 2.48 (95% CI 1.80–3.82), cerebrovascular disease OR 2.14 (1.19–3.86), and peripheral artery disease OR 1.55 (1.04–2.32), especially for age and male sex. According to the NCEP ATP III (IDF), the prevalence was 38.7% (45.9%) [15.9% (18.6%) in men, and 22.7% (27.3%) in women, and 28.4% (33.9%) in the continental region, 10.2% (10.9%) in the coastal region, 26.2% (31.5%) in urban areas, and 12.4% (14.4%) in rural areas. Older age, male sex, and residence in the continental area were positively associated with MetS diagnosis according to NCEP ATP III, and current smoking and Mediterranean diet adherence have protective effects.
Conclusions
The NCEP ATP III definition seems to provide the strongest association with CVD and should therefore be preferred for use in this population.
doi:10.12659/MSM.889343
PMCID: PMC3713877  PMID: 23852333
metabolic syndrome X; cardiovascular diseases; family practice
22.  Metabolic syndrome vs. its components for prediction of cardiovascular mortality: A cohort study in Chinese elderly adults 
Objective
The predictive value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) for mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Chinese population is unclear. The aim of this present study was to compare MetS with its individual components as predictors of mortality in Chinese elderly adults.
Methods
A cohort of 1,535 subjects (994 men and 541 women) aged 50 years or older was selected from employees of a machinery factory in 1994 and followed until 2009. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) predicted by MetS according to the harmonized definition and by its individual components.
Results
The baseline prevalence of MetS was 28.0% in men and 48.4% in women. During a median follow-up of 15 years, 414 deaths occurred, of these, 153 participants died from CVD. Adjusted for age and gender, the HRs of mortality from all-cause and CVD in participants with MetS were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–1.80) and 1.96 (95%CI: 1.42–2.72), respectively, compared with those without MetS. Non-significant higher risk of CVD mortality was seen in those with one or two individual components (HR = 1.22, 95%CI: 0.59–2.50; HR = 1.82, 95%CI: 0.91–3.64, respectively), while a substantially higher risk of CVD mortality only appeared in those with 3, 4, or 5 components (HR = 2.81–3.72), compared with those with no components. On evaluating the MetS components individually, we found that, independent of MetS, only hypertension and impaired glucose predicted higher mortality.
Conclusions
The number of positive MetS components seems no more informative than classifying (dichotomous) MetS for CVD risks assessment in this Chinese cohort.
doi:10.3724/SP.J.1263.2012.01172
PMCID: PMC3418900  PMID: 22916057
Cardiovascular disease; Metabolic syndrome; Cohort study; Chinese adults
23.  Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and the Incident Heart Failure in the Elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study 
Circulation. Heart failure  2008;1(4):242-248.
Background
Inflammation markers and MetS are associated with risk of CHF. We evaluated whether combining inflammation markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) provided additive information for incident congestive heart failure (CHF), and if incorporating inflammation markers to the MetS definition added prognostic information.
Methods and Results
We studied 4017 men and women ≥ 65 years old, without baseline CHF or diabetes, participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an observational study with 12.2 years follow-up and 966 cases of incident CHF. Baseline “C-reactive protein (CRP)-MetS” or “interleukin-6 (IL-6)-MetS” were defined as presence of 3 out of 6 components, with elevated CRP (≥3 mg/L) or IL-6 (≥2.21 pg/mL) as a 6th component added to ATPIII criteria. Cox models adjusted for CHF risk factors and incident coronary disease, were used to calculate HRs for CHF. MetS and elevated inflammation markers were independently associated with CHF risk (HRs, 95 % CI: 1.32, 1.16–1.51 for MetS; 1.53, 1.34–1.75 for CRP; 1.37, 1.19–1.55 for IL-6). There was a 20% relative excess risk attributed to the combination of MetS and CRP (95% CI −44% to 88%). CRP-MetS and IL-6-MetS definitions reclassified 18% and 13%, respectively of participants as MetS. Both CRP-MetS and IL-6-MetS increased risk of CHF by 60% compared to those without MetS.
Conclusion
MetS and inflammation markers provided additive information on CHF risk in this elderly cohort. Inflammation-incorporated MetS definitions identified more participants with the same risk level as ATPIII MetS. Considering inflammation markers and MetS together may be useful in clinical and research settings.
doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.785485
PMCID: PMC2762642  PMID: 19808298
heart failure; metabolism; inflammation
24.  The metabolic syndrome and progression of carotid atherosclerosis over 13 years. The Tromsø study 
Background
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years.
Methods
Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5) and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8). Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII). Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex.
Results
IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p < 0.0001) and progression of TPA (p = 0.02) were higher in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. In stepwise multivariable models, MetS was associated with TPA (β = 0.372 mm2, p = 0.009) and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p < 0.0001) in men, and with IMT (β = 0.045 mm, p = 0.001) in women after 13 years of follow-up, but not with progression of IMT or TPA. In analyses stratified by age, MetS predicted progression of IMT (β = 0.043 mm, p = 0.046) and TPA (β = 1.02 mm2, p = 0.002) in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
Conclusions
Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-77
PMCID: PMC3539868  PMID: 22738646
Metabolic syndrome; Carotid artery; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Plaque; Progression; Risk factor; Prospective; Population study
25.  The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence 
Background
Although a previous meta-analysis reported no association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer risk, a number of studies suggest that MetS may be associated with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancer. However, these results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association.
Methods
We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to January 2013 using the keywords “metabolic syndrome” and “prostate cancer”. We assessed relative risks (RRs) of the prostate cancer, several parameters of prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression associated with MetS using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Results
The literature search produced 547 hits from which 19 papers were extracted for the meta-analysis. In cancer-free population with and without MetS, the combined adjusted RR (95% CI) of prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality in longitudinal cohort studies is 0.96 (0.85 ~ 1.09) and 1.12 (1.02 ~ 1.23) respectively. In the prostate cancer patients with and without MetS, the combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of high grade Gleason prostate cancer is 1.44 (1.20 ~ 1.72), the OR of advanced prostate cancer is 1.37 (1.12 ~ 1.68) and the OR of biochemical recurrence is 2.06 (1.43 ~ 2.96).
Conclusions
The overall analyses revealed no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk, although men with MetS appear more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer and more advanced disease, were at greater risk of progression after radical prostatectomy and were more likely to suffer prostate cancer-specific death. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders and larger, prospective, multicenter investigations are required.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-32-9
PMCID: PMC3598969  PMID: 23406686
Gleason score; Recurrence; Clinical stage; Aggressiveness

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