Limited data are available on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in elderly people (aged 70 years and over) at population level in Northern Europe. A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its components in an aging population by using different definitions.
Design, setting, and subjects
A cross-sectional study of 539 inhabitants from Northern Finland (mean age 71.9 years) was conducted to investigate the prevalence of MetS, by using the definitions of MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP), the modified NCEP (NCEPm), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of MetS by the NCEP, NCEP modified, and IDF criteria.
Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 24.7%, 35.2%, and 37.2% in men, by NCEP, modified NCEP, and IDF-definitions, respectively. In women the corresponding figures were 20.9%, 33.1%, and 47.8%. Hypertension was the most common component in both men (91.8%) and women (89.0%) by the IDF criteria. Glucose abnormalities were particularly prevalent in men (53.2% by NCEP and 78.4% by IDF criteria).
The most common component was hypertension in both genders. Lower waist-circumference cut-off points of the IDF criteria led to a higher prevalence of MetS particularly in women. Prevalence of MetS varied significantly when measured by different definitions. Nearly half of older women met the IDF definition of MetS, which was more than twofold when compared with NCEP. Clinical practitioners should be aware of the limitations when using set criteria of MetS, in contrast to identifying the individual cardiovascular risk factors and the accumulation of these.
Elderly population; definitions; IDF; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
The rs9939609 T>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FTO gene has previously been found to be associated with obesity in European Caucasian samples. The objective of this study is to examine whether this association extends to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and applies in non-Caucasian samples.
The FTO rs9939609 SNP was genotyped in 2121 subjects from four different non-Caucasian geographical ancestries. Subjects were classified for the presence or absence of MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III definitions.
Carriers of ≥ 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to have IDF-defined MetS (35.8%) than non-carriers (31.2%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.50), with a similar trend for the NCEP ATP III-defined MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was particularly strong in men. The association was related to a higher proportion of rs9939609 A allele carriers meeting the waist circumference criterion; a higher proportion also met the HDL cholesterol criterion compared with wild-type homozygotes.
Thus, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for MetS in this multi-ethnic sample, confirming that the association extends to non-Caucasian population samples.
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of morbi-mortality, thus the characterization of the population magnitude of this syndrome is critical for allocating health care. However, prevalence estimates of MetS in the same population could differ depending on the definition used. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of the MetS using definitions proposed by: National Cholesterol Education Panel Revised (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2009 in a Japanese-Brazilians community (131 individuals, age 57 ± 16 years, 1st and 2nd generation). All individuals went through a clinical and laboratorial evaluation for assessment of weigh, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (n = 35) and 37.4% (n = 49) under the NCEP and IDF definitions, respectively. Despite higher blood pressure measurements, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.01), individuals identified with MetS did not show increased blood glucose levels. IDF definition classified 14 individuals (10.7%) with MetS that were not classified under the NCEP and 35 individuals were identified with MetS by both criteria. We observed, in this group, more severe lipid disorders, compared to individuals identified only under the IDF definition, and the BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.01; p = 0.006, respectively) were lower. In conclusion, the IDF revised criteria, probably because of the ethnic specific values of waist circumference, was able to identify a larger number of individuals with MetS. However, our data suggesting that additional studies are necessary to define best MetS diagnostic criteria in this population.
Metabolic syndrome; Japanese-Brazilians; IDF; NCEP; Waist circumference
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of four major obesity-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality in the world, but its association with MetS remains unknown. Also little is known about factors associated with MetS and its components in Russia.
Data on 3555 adults aged 18-90 years were collected in a cross-sectional study in 2000. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Sex-specific associations between the IDF-defined MetS, its components, and life-style, socio-economic factors and laboratory indicators, were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression. Vital status of the study participants was identified by July 2009. Sex-specific associations between MetS and stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), CVD and all-cause death, were studied by Poisson regression adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and history of CVDs.
After adjustment for all studied factors except BMI, age, serum GGT, C-reactive protein and AST-to-ALT ratio were associated with MetS in both genders. Additionally, MetS was associated with sedentary lifestyle in women and with smoking in men. In the same regression model drinking alcohol 2-4 times a month and consumption of five or more alcohol units at one occasion in men, and drinking alcohol 5 times or more a month in women were inversely associated with MetS. After a 9-year follow-up, MetS was associated with higher risk of death from stroke (RR = 3.76, 95% CI:1.35-10.46) and from either stroke or myocardial infarction (MI, RR = 2.87, 95% CI:1.32-6.23) in men. No associations between MetS and any of the studied causes of death were observed in women.
Factors associated with MetS in both genders were age, GGT, C-reactive protein, and AST-to-ALT ratio. Moderate frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in men and higher leisure time physical activity in women, were inversely associated with MetS.
Positive associations between MetS and mortality were only observed for deaths from stroke and either stroke or MI in men.
Although attention to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children has increased, there is still no universally accepted definition and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Our aim was to compare the current definitions of childhood MetS in a Chinese cohort and to examine the clustering pattern of MetS risk factors, particularly inclusion of leptin and adiponectin as additional components.
3373 schoolchildren aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and adipokines were measured. MetS was identified using both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definitions. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to establish grouping of metabolic characteristics.
For children ≥10 years, the prevalence of MetS was 14.3% in the obese group and 3.7% in the overweight group according to the new IDF definition, and 32.3% in the obese group and 8.4% in the overweight group according to the modified ATPIII definition. Frequency of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and central obesity according to the new IDF definition was 16.7%, 20.7%, 15.8%, 25.5% and 75.5% in obese boys and 14.7%, 24.0%, 12.0%, 11.0% and 89.0% in obese girls, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities in children under 10 years of age were also noted. Using factor analysis on eight conventional variables led to the extraction of 3 factors. Waist circumference (WC) provided a connection between two factors in boys and all three factors in girls, suggesting its central role in the clustering of metabolic risk factors. Addition of leptin and adiponectin also led to the extraction of 3 factors, with leptin providing a connection between two factors in girls. When using WC, mean arterial pressure, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR and leptin/adiponectin ratio as variables, a single-factor model was extracted. WC had the biggest factor loading, followed by leptin/adiponectin ratio.
MetS was highly prevalent amongst obese children and adolescents in this cohort, regardless of the definition used. Central obesity is the key player in the clustering of metabolic risk factors in children, supporting the new IDF definition. Moreover, our findings suggest that a common factor may underlie MetS. Leptin/adiponectin ratio as a possible component of MetS deserves further consideration.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.
Dyslipidemia; impaired glucose tolerance; Mediterranean diet; Mediterranean region; metabolic syndrome
Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults.
Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization.
Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men.
Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults.
This study compared the association between the 3 definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and shows the prevalence and characteristics of persons with MetS in continental vs. coastal regions and rural vs. urban residence in Croatia.
A prospective multicenter study was conducted on 3245 participants ≥40 years, who visited general practices from May to July 2008 for any reason. This was a cross-sectional study of the Cardiovascular Risk and Intervention Study in Croatia-family medicine project (ISRCTN31857696).
All analyzed MetS definitions showed an association with CVD, but the strongest was shown by NCEP ATP III; coronary disease OR 2.48 (95% CI 1.80–3.82), cerebrovascular disease OR 2.14 (1.19–3.86), and peripheral artery disease OR 1.55 (1.04–2.32), especially for age and male sex. According to the NCEP ATP III (IDF), the prevalence was 38.7% (45.9%) [15.9% (18.6%) in men, and 22.7% (27.3%) in women, and 28.4% (33.9%) in the continental region, 10.2% (10.9%) in the coastal region, 26.2% (31.5%) in urban areas, and 12.4% (14.4%) in rural areas. Older age, male sex, and residence in the continental area were positively associated with MetS diagnosis according to NCEP ATP III, and current smoking and Mediterranean diet adherence have protective effects.
The NCEP ATP III definition seems to provide the strongest association with CVD and should therefore be preferred for use in this population.
metabolic syndrome X; cardiovascular diseases; family practice
We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.
Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve.
The area under the curve (AUC) (95%CI) was 0.650 (0.631-0.670) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703) with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF). The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6%) and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0%) for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively.
We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglycerides, and a low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. MetS is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. In order to diagnose MetS, definitions such as National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance and American College of Endocrinology are widely used. However, using different criteria may lead to confusion regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with MetS in the primary care setting. Our objected was to review 3 aspects concerning MetS using the Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives study of 123892 healthy Koreans (1994-2001) that had a maximum follow-up of 12 years. The 3 aspects were reviewed by determination of the association of MetS with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Based on our findings, each metabolic factor associated with MetS was not weighted equally. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher in individuals with higher glucose compared with the HR in individuals with higher body mass index. Individuals with pre-MetS (having 1 or 2 metabolic factors) had 1.5-2.3 fold higher risk of developing ASCVD and IHD in both genders. In the presence of MetS, both singly and in combination, precede the development of ASCVD and IHD and individuals with pre-MetS must not be ignored as there is no apparent threshold in defining MetS. Furthermore, MetS may complement the Framingham Risk Score and can be used as the first line approach to treat the ASCVD or IHD.
Metabolic cardiovascular syndrome; Atherosclerosis; Ischemic heart disease
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clump of risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause and age are thought to predispose women to the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal women in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.
Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian women were randomly selected for the study. They were evaluated for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Harmonization (H_MS) criteria.
Out of the total subjects, 143 (57.2%) were premenopausal and 107 (42.8%) menopausal. The study population was between the ages of 20–78 years. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS were 14.4%, 25.6%, 29.2% and 30.4% according to the WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and H_MS criteria, respectively. The prevalence was found to increase with age, irrespective of criterion used. Generally, MetS was significantly higher among postmenopausal women (p < 0.05 by all criteria) compared to their premenopausal cohort, but with marked inter-criteria variations. Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the two groups of women.
Central obesity, higher blood pressure and raised fasting blood glucose were the predominant components that contributed to the syndrome in Ghanaian women.
The higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is an indication that they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore women in that group should be monitored for the two conditions and also be advised to adopt healthy lifestyles to minimize the incidence of these conditions.
MetS; Postmenopausal; Adiposity; Premenopausal; Obesity; Cardiovascular disease
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III define metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) differently, with unclear implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
We examined 22,719 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. We classified participants as: no MetSyn, MetSyn by ATP-III and IDF criteria, MetSyn by ATP-only, or MetSyn by IDF-only. To assess current CVD, we determined the odds of self-reported CVD by MetSyn category using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. To estimate future coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we calculated Framingham risk scores (FRS).
Overall, 10,785 individuals (47%) had MetSyn. Of these, 79% had MetSyn by both definitions, 6% by ATP-only, and 14% by IDF-only. Compared to those without MetSyn, ATP-only individuals had the highest odds of current CVD and of having a FRS >20%. Also compared to those without MetSyn, IDF-only individuals had 43% higher odds of current CVD and two-fold increased odds of having a FRS >20%.
Consistent with previous reports, ATP-III MetSyn criteria identified individuals with increased odds of CVD and elevated future CHD risk. However, the IDF definition identified a clinically important number of additional individuals at excess CVD risk.
This Finnish population-based study, mean age 46 years, evaluates the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and
adiponectin with the NCEP and IDF definitions of metabolic
syndrome (MetS). Adiponectin levels were higher, hs-CRP and IL-1Ra
levels lower in subjects without MetS compared to subjects with
MetS. If MetS was present according to both IDF and NCEP criteria,
BMI, waist, triglycerides, hs-CRP, and IL-1Ra were significantly
higher compared to subjects who had MetS according to either only
IDF or only NCEP criteria. The hs-CRP, IL-1Ra, and adiponectin linearly
correlated with the number of the components of MetS according to
both definitions. Decreased levels of adiponectin and increased
levels of hs-CRP and IL-1Ra are tightly associated with the
components of MetS. Individuals who had MetS according to both
criteria had the most adverse changes in cardiovascular risk
Although the association of weight gain and developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in the Western and Asian populations, data on the gender-stratified effects of weight change (including weight loss) on incident MetS and its components in the Middle East Caucasians is still scarce.
A total of 1431 men and 2036 women aged ≥ 20 years with BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 were followed over 3 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of MetS and its components (the Adult Treatment Panel III definition) associated with gender-stratified quintiles of percent weight change. Subjects with MetS at baseline were excluded for analyzing the RR of MetS.
There was 20.4% (95% CI, 19.6–21.2) age-adjusted incident MetS (18.4% male vs. 23.1% women). In men, mild weight gain (WG) predicted high waist circumference (WC) and high triglyceride; moderate WG predicted MetS (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.3), high WC and high blood pressure (BP); large WG predicted MetS (RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8–5.7) and its components, except for high fasting plasma glucose. In women, mild WG predicted MetS (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.3), high WC and high BP; moderate WG predicted Mets (RR 4.6, 95% CI 2.7–8.0), high WC and high triglyceride; large WG predicted MetS (RR 6.6, 95% CI 3.8–11.3) and its components except for low HDL-cholesterol. Mild weight loss had protective effect on high WC in both genders and MetS in men (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.26–0.97, P = 0.04).
Weight change showed different effects on MetS in men and women. In women, mild WG predicted MetS; however, mild weight loss was protective against MetS in men and high WC in both genders.
The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4 ± 0.4 years). Data was obtained for children's anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (P < 0.001) and CRP (P < 0.007), compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for diabetes, stroke, myocardial infarction, and increased mortality, and has been associated with cognition in some populations. We hypothesized that MetS would be associated with lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in a multi-ethnic population, and that MetS is a better predictor of cognition than its individual components or diabetes.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 3,150 stroke-free participants. MetS was defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Linear regression and polytomous logistic regression estimated the association between MMSE score and MetS, its individual components, diabetes, and inflammatory biomarkers.
MetS was inversely associated with MMSE score (unadjusted β = −0.67; 95% CI −0.92, −0.41). Adjusting for potential confounders, MetS was associated with lower MMSE score (adjusted β = −0.24; 95% CI −0.47, −0.01), but its individual components and diabetes were not. Those with MetS were more likely to have an MMSE score of <18 than a score of ≥24 (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.26, 3.01). There was an interaction between MetS and race-ethnicity, such that MetS was associated with lower MMSE score among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics but not non-Hispanic blacks.
MetS was associated with lower cognition in a multi-ethnic population. Further studies of the effect of MetS on cognition are warranted, and should account for demographic differences.
Cognitive performance; Cognitive impairment; Vascular dementia; Vascular cognitive impairment; Cerebrovascular disorders; Metabolic syndrome
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors associated with morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality. Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality rates in the world. However, the prevalence of MetS in Russia remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of MetS and its components in an urban Russian setting.
Altogether, 3705 Russian adults aged 18-90 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Arkhangelsk (Northwest Russia). All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Blood samples were taken and analyzed in TromsØ, Norway. Three separate modified definitions of MetS were used, namely, the National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). To ensure comparability of the findings, the prevalence data were standardized using world and European standard populations and Russian population.
The age-standardized (Segi's world standard population) prevalence rates of the MetS among women were 19.8% (95% CI: 18.1-21.5), 20.6% (95% CI: 18.9-22.3) and 23.1% (95% CI: 21.3-24.9) by the NCEP, AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria, respectively. The corresponding rates for men were 11.5% (95% CI: 10.1-12.9), 13.7% (95% CI: 12.2-15.2) and 11.0% (95% CI: 9.7-12.4). Among subjects with MetS, central obesity was more common among women, while elevated triglycerides and blood glucose were more common among men. Almost perfect agreement was found between the NCEP and AHA/NHLBI criteria (κ = 0.94). There was less agreement between the used definitions of MetS in men than in women.
While the prevalence of MetS among Russian women is comparable to the data for Europe and the U.S., the prevalence among Russian men is considerably lower than among their European and North-American counterparts. Our results suggest that MetS is unlikely to be a major contributor to the high cardiovascular mortality among Russian men. Further studies of MetS determinants and associated cardiovascular risk are needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to the exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality in Russia.
The Family Blood Pressure Program is an ongoing, NHLBI-sponsored, multi-center program to study the genetic determinants of high blood pressure. The goal of this particular study was to study patterns of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in four ethnic groups: African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and Asians.
A major part of participants in three networks GENOA, HyperGEN and SAPPHIRe were recruited mainly through hypertensive probands. MetS was defined as a categorical trait following the National Cholesterol Education Program definition (c-MetS). MetS was also characterized quantitatively through multivariate factor analyses (FA) of 10 risk variables (q-MetS). Logistic regression and frequency tables were used for studying associations among traits.
Using the NCEP definition, the Hispanic sample, which by design was enriched for type 2 diabetes (T2D), had a very high prevalence of MetS (73%). In contrast, its prevalence in Chinese was the lowest (17%). In African Americans and Hispanics, c-MetS was more prevalent in women than in men. Association of c-MetS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was prominent in the Hispanics and African Americans, less pronounced in the Whites and Japanese, (although still significant), and weakest in the Chinese sample.
Using FA without rotation, we found that the main factor loaded obesity (OBS) and blood pressure (BP) in African Americans; OBS and insulin (INS) in Hispanics, in Japanese, and in Whites; and OBS alone in Chinese. In Hispanics, Whites, and Japanese, BP loaded as a separate factor. Lipids in combination with INS also loaded in a separate factor. Using FA with Varimax rotation, 4 independent factors were identified: "Obesity-INS," "Blood pressure," "Lipids-INS," and "Central obesity." They explained about 60% of the variance present in the original risk variables.
MetS ethnic differences were identified. Ascertaining for hypertension or T2D increased the MetS prevalence in networks compared with the one in the US general population. Obesity was the most prominent risk factor contributing to both c-MetS and q-MetS. INS contributed in two important factors (obesity and lipids). The information imbedded into c-MetS trait /q-MetS factors scores can contribute in future research of the MetS, especially its utilization in the genetic analysis.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or “Syndrome X” which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.
Androgen deprivation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; testosterone; testosterone replacement therapy
Aim. At present, little data exist about incidence and the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objectives of present study were to assess the incidence and risk factors of MetS in people with T2DM. Methods. During the mean (SD) follow-up period of 11.7 (4.8) years, 3,047 patients with T2DM and free of MetS at baseline have been examined to determine incidence and predictors of progression to MetS. A modified the National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III definition with body mass index (BMI) instead of waist circumference was used for the MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 63.2% (95% CI: 62.3, 64.1). The incidence of MetS was 28.5 (95% CI: 26.8, 30.2) (25.9 men and 30.9 women) per 1,000 patient-years based on 35,677 patient-years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher BMI and education, lower HbA1c and treatment with oral agent or insulin were associated with MetS. Conclusion. These are the first estimate of incidence and risk factors of MetS in patients with T2DM in Iran. These findings showed that the natural course of MetS is dynamic. The clinical management of patients with T2DM will contribute significantly to MetS prevention.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a steering force for the cardiovascular diseases epidemic in Asia. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS in Malaysian adults using NCEP-ATP III, IDF, and JIS definitions, identify the demographic factors associated with MetS, and determine the level of agreement between these definitions. The analytic sample consisted of 8,836 adults aged ≥30 years recruited at baseline in 2007–2011 from the Cardiovascular Risk Prevention Study (CRisPS), an ongoing, prospective cohort study involving 18 urban and 22 rural communities in Malaysia. JIS definition gave the highest overall prevalence (43.4%) compared to NCEP-ATP III (26.5%) and IDF (37.4%), P < 0.001. Indians had significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence compared to other ethnic groups across all MetS definitions (30.1% by NCEP-ATP III, 50.8% by IDF, and 56.5% by JIS). The likelihood of having MetS amongst the rural and urban populations was similar across all definitions. A high level of agreement between the IDF and JIS was observed (Kappa index = 0.867), while there was a lower level of agreement between the IDF and NCEP-ATP III (Kappa index = 0.580). JIS definition identified more Malaysian adults with MetS and therefore should be recommended as the preferred diagnostic criterion.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years.
Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5) and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8). Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII). Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex.
IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p < 0.0001) and progression of TPA (p = 0.02) were higher in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. In stepwise multivariable models, MetS was associated with TPA (β = 0.372 mm2, p = 0.009) and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p < 0.0001) in men, and with IMT (β = 0.045 mm, p = 0.001) in women after 13 years of follow-up, but not with progression of IMT or TPA. In analyses stratified by age, MetS predicted progression of IMT (β = 0.043 mm, p = 0.046) and TPA (β = 1.02 mm2, p = 0.002) in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.
Metabolic syndrome; Carotid artery; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Plaque; Progression; Risk factor; Prospective; Population study
Factor analyses suggest that the structure underlying Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is similar in adolescents and adults. However, adolescence is a period of intense physiological change, so stability of the underlying metabolic structure and clinical categorization based on metabolic risk is uncertain.
Methods and Results
We analyzed data from 1098 participants in the PSD Study, a school-based study begun in 2001-2002, who were followed for 3 years. We performed factor analyses of 8 metabolic risks at baseline and follow-up to assess stability of factor patterns and clinical categorization of MetS. MetS was defined using the current AHA/NHLBI definition for adults (AHA), a modified AHA definition used in prior pediatric MetS studies (pedsAHA) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidelines. We found that factor structures were essentially identical at both time points. However, clinical categorization was not stable. About half of adolescents with baseline MetS lost the diagnosis at follow-up regardless of the definitions used: pedsAHA=56% (95% CI: 42%, 69%), AHA=49% (95% CI: 32%, 66% ), IDF=53% (95% CI: 38%, 68%). In addition to loss of the diagnosis, new cases were identified. Cumulative incidence rates were: pedsAHA=3.8% (95% CI: 2.8%, 5.2%); AHA=4.4% (95% CI: 3.3%, 5.9%); IDF=5.2% (95% CI: 4.0%, 6.8%)].
During adolescence, metabolic risk factor clustering is consistent. However, there is marked instability in the categorical diagnosis of MetS. This instability, which includes both gain and loss of the diagnosis, suggests that the syndrome has reduced clinical utility in adolescence and that MetS-specific pharmacotherapy for youth may be premature.
syndrome X; obesity; insulin resistance; adolescence
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a cluster of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus risk factors. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the factors underlying the clustering of MetS components in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Factor analysis was performed on 2978 (1652 non-diabetic and 1326 diabetic) participants. Entering waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), we performed exploratory factor analysis in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals separately. The analysis was repeated after replacing triglycerides and HDL-C with triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (triglycerides/HDL-C). MetS was defined by either adult treatment panel III (ATPIII), international diabetes federation (IDF) criteria, or by the modified form of IDF using waist circumference cut-off points for Iranian population.
The selection of triglycerides and HDL-C as two distinct variables led to identifying two factors explaining 61.3% and 55.4% of the total variance in non-diabetic and diabetic participants, respectively. In both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, waist circumference, HOMA-IR and SBP loaded on factor 1. Factor 2 was mainly determined by triglycerides and HDL-C. Factor 1 and 2 were directly and inversely associated with MetS, respectively. When triglycerides and HDL-C were replaced by triglycerides/HDL-C, one factor was extracted, which explained 47.6% and 38.8% of the total variance in non-diabetic and diabetic participants, respectively.
This study confirms that in both diabetic and non-diabetic participants the concept of a single underlying factor representing MetS is plausible.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN) and healthy subjects.
OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III), 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG) into TG ≥ 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22)] or <150 mg/dl [MetS-TG (n = 11)], and into those with or without hypertension [MetS+HTN (n = 24), MetS-HTN (n = 9), respectively]. TG concentrations were measured before and at 4, 6 and 8 h after OFTT and the postprandial response was quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) for TG.
The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD) in mg/dl/h; 2534 ± 1016 vs. 1620 ± 494 and 1019 ± 280, respectively, p ≤ 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022), 6 (p < 0.001) and 8 hours (p < 0.001). The TG were increased significantly in MetS-TG compared to healthy subjects at 4 (p = 0.011), 6 (p = 0.001) and 8 hours (p = 0.015). In linear regression analysis only fasting TG levels were a significant predictor of the AUC (Coefficient B = 8.462, p < 0.001).
Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.