The most common indications for emergency operative intervention in the treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis are peritonitis and failure of medical therapy. Primary resection and diversion (Hartmann's procedure) followed by delayed colostomy closure is the current standard of emergency surgical care. Guidelines for best operative strategy, however, remain controversial and continue to evolve based on recent comparative reviews of surgical outcomes. Primary resection and anastomosis with or without proximal diversion and laparoscopic lavage are alternatives to Hartmann's procedure that may provide an improved outcome in properly selected patients. Ongoing changes in the historical paradigm of the surgical approach to this disease mandate the need for large multicentered prospective randomized trials to determine the best surgical strategy under emergent conditions for the treatment of diverticulitis. The current literature is reviewed with suggestions for a management algorithm.
Diverticular peritonitis; diverticulitis; peritonitis; Hartmann's procedure; primary resection; anastomosis; laparoscopic lavage
Colonic diverticulosis can either be asymptomatic or present with complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A key presentation of complicated disease is abscess formation (Hinchey type II). The natural course of this is unclear and therefore treatments range from conservative approach with antibiotics and percutaneous guided drainage (PCD) to surgery. There is no clear consensus on the exact management strategy. A Medline based literature search specifically looking at studies dealing with Hinchey type II diverticulitis and its management was carried out. For comparison, five-year retrospective data of diverticular abscesses from our institution was collected and the outcome analysed. Various studies have looked into this aspect of the disease, elaborating on the significance of the size and location of the abscesses, the role of PCD, recurrence rates and the controversies regarding the need for elective surgery. Conservative treatment with antibiotics alone is effective in a majority of cases with a role for PCD in large safely accessible abscesses. Variable recurrence rates have been reported in literature and elective surgery should be planned for selected groups of patients.
Diverticulosis; Diverticular abscess; Hinchey classification; Percutaneous drainage; Recurrent diverticulitis
Solitary caecal diverticulum is an uncommon entity and therefore difficult to diagnose except at surgery. Caecal diverticulitis is an infrequent cause of acute abdomen and usually presents in a manner similar to acute appendicitis. It is extremely difficult to differentiate it preoperative from acute appendicitis and such distinction is usually made in the operating room. The optimal management of this clinical condition is still controversial, ranging from conservative treatment with antibiotics to aggressive surgical resections.
We report a case of a 61 year old Caucasian who presented with acute onset right iliac fossa pain indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. The true diagnosis of a perforated acute caecal diverticulitis with an abscess mass was only made at operation in the presence of a macroscopically normal appendix. We reviewed the literature to highlight the difficulty of a preoperative diagnosis and the need for a high index of suspicion especially in the older age group presenting in manner similar to acute appendicitis.
Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.
Diverticulitis; Right Colon; Diagnosis
Persisting abdominal complaints are common after an episode of diverticulitis treated conservatively. Furthermore, some patients develop frequent recurrences. These two groups of patients suffer greatly from their disease, as shown by impaired health related quality of life and increased costs due to multiple specialist consultations, pain medication and productivity losses.
Both conservative and operative management of patients with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or frequently recurring diverticulitis are applied. However, direct comparison by a randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which is superior in relieving symptoms, optimising health related quality of life, minimising costs and preventing diverticulitis recurrences against acceptable morbidity and mortality associated with surgery or the occurrence of a complicated recurrence after conservative management.
We, therefore, constructed a randomised clinical trial comparing these two treatment strategies.
The DIRECT trial is a multicenter randomised clinical trial. Patients (18-75 years) presenting themselves with persisting abdominal complaints after an episode of diverticulitis and/or three or more recurrences within 2 years will be included and randomised. Patients randomised for conservative treatment are treated according to the current daily practice (antibiotics, analgetics and/or expectant management). Patients randomised for elective resection will undergo an elective resection of the affected colon segment. Preferably, a laparoscopic approach is used.
The primary outcome is health related quality of life measured by the Gastro-intestinal Quality of Life Index, Short-Form 36, EQ-5D and a visual analogue scale for pain quantification. Secondary endpoints are morbidity, mortality and total costs. The total follow-up will be three years.
Considering the high incidence and the multicenter design of this study, it may be assumed that the number of patients needed for this study (n = 214), may be gathered within one and a half year.
Depending on the expertise and available equipment, we prefer to perform a laparoscopic resection on patients randomised for elective surgery. Should this be impossible, an open technique may be used as this also reflects the current situation.
(Trial register number: NTR1478)
Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) has been shown to have no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage in overall colorectal surgery. The role of MBP in elective surgery in combination with an inflammatory component such as diverticulitis is yet unclear. This study evaluates the effects of MBP on anastomotic leakage and other septic complications in 190 patients who underwent elective surgery for colonic diverticulitis.
A subgroup analysis was performed in a prior multicenter (13 hospitals) randomized trial comparing clinical outcome of MBP versus no MBP in elective colorectal surgery. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of anastomotic leakage in patients operated on for diverticulitis, and secondary endpoints were septic complications and mortality.
Out of a total of 1,354 patients, 190 underwent elective colorectal surgery (resection with primary anastomosis) for (recurrent or stenotic) diverticulitis. One hundred and three patients underwent MBP prior to surgery and 87 did not. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 7.8 % of patients treated with MBP and in 5.7 % of patients not treated with MBP (p = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups in septic complications and mortality.
Mechanical bowel preparation has no influence on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, or other septic complications, and may be safely omitted in case of elective colorectal surgery for diverticulitis.
Colonic diverticulitis; Mechanical bowel preparation; Anastomotic leak; Surgical site infection
Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy.
The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective treatment for patients with purulent peritonitis (LOLA-arm) and to determine the optimal resectional strategy in patients with a purulent or faecal peritonitis (DIVA-arm: perforated DIVerticulitis: sigmoidresection with or without Anastomosis).
In this multicentre randomised trial all patients with perforated diverticulitis are included. Upon laparoscopy, patients with purulent peritonitis are treated with laparoscopic lavage and drainage, Hartmann's procedure or sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis in a ratio of 2:1:1 (LOLA-arm). Patients with faecal peritonitis will be randomised 1:1 between Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis (DIVA-arm). The primary combined endpoint of the LOLA-arm is major morbidity and mortality. A sample size of 132:66:66 patients will be able to detect a difference in the primary endpoint from 25% in resectional groups compared to 10% in the laparoscopic lavage group (two sided alpha = 5%, power = 90%). Endpoint of the DIVA-arm is stoma free survival one year after initial surgery. In this arm 212 patients are needed to significantly demonstrate a difference of 30% (log rank test two sided alpha = 5% and power = 90%) in favour of the patients with resection with primary anastomosis. Secondary endpoints for both arms are the number of days alive and outside the hospital, health related quality of life, health care utilisation and associated costs.
The Ladies trial is a nationwide multicentre randomised trial on perforated diverticulitis that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic lavage and drainage for purulent generalised peritonitis and on the optimal resectional strategy for both purulent and faecal generalised peritonitis.
Nederlands Trial Register NTR2037
AIM: To compare the recurrence rate following initial antibiotic management to that following laparoscopic treatment for suspected uncomplicated cecal diverticulitis.
METHODS: We examined the records of 132 patients who were diagnosed with uncomplicated cecal diverticulitis and a first attack during an 8-year period. The diagnosis of uncomplicated diverticulitis was made based on imaging findings, such as inflamed diverticulum or a phlegmon with cecal wall thickening. Concurrent appendiceal dilatation from 8 to 12 mm was observed in 36 patients (27%). One hundred and two patients were treated initially with antibiotics only, whereas 30 underwent laparoscopic treatment, including partial cecectomy (n = 8) or appendectomy with diverticulectomy (n = 9) or appendectomy alone (n = 13). We compared clinical outcomes in both groups over a median follow-up period of 46 mo.
RESULTS: All patients were successfully treated with initial therapy. Of the 102 patients who initially received only antibiotic treatment, 6 (6%) had a recurrence (3 in the cecum and 3 in the ascending colon or transverse colon) during the follow-up period. Five of these patients were managed with repeated antibiotic treatment and 1 underwent ileocolic resection for perforation. Of the 30 patients treated by the laparoscopic approach, 2 (7%) had a recurrence (ascending colon) which was treated with antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: Initial antibiotic management for suspected uncomplicated cecal diverticulitis showed comparable efficacy to laparoscopic treatment in the prevention of recurrence.
Antibiotics; Cecal diverticulitis; Laparoscopy; Radiological imaging
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common disease which carries both a significant morbidity and a societal economic burden. This review article analyzes the current data regarding management of sigmoid diverticulitis in its variable clinical presentations. Wide-spectrum antibiotics are the standard of care for uncomplicated diverticulitis. Recently published data indicate that sigmoid diverticulitis does not mandate surgical management after the second episode of uncomplicated disease as previously recommended. Rather, a more individualized approach, taking into account frequency, severity of the attacks and their impact on quality of life, should guide the indication for surgery. On the other hand, complicated diverticular disease still requires surgical treatment in patients with acceptable comorbidity risk and remains a life-threatening condition in the case of free peritoneal perforation. Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly accepted as the surgical approach of choice for most presentations of the disease and has also been proposed in the treatment of generalized peritonitis. There is not sufficient evidence supporting any changes in the approach to management in younger patients. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that surgery should be indicated after one attack of uncomplicated disease in immunocompromised individuals. Uncommon clinical presentations of sigmoid diverticulitis and their possible association with inflammatory bowel disease are also discussed.
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Diverticulitis management; Diverticulitis surgery; Acute diverticulitis; Complicated diverticulitis; Perforated diverticulitis; Laparoscopic colectomy
The goals of this study were to identify whether conservative treatment with antibiotics in right colonic diverticulitis (RCD) patients, our empirical method used until now, is adequate and to determine how the natural history of RCD is affected by conservative treatment.
This study was designed as a case-control study. Group I was comprised of 12 patients who were managed conservatively, and clinical data were retrospectively collected. In group II, a total of 49 patients, diagnosed by using diagnostic criteria for RCD and managed conservatively, were prospectively included.
The period of fasting was 2.7 days, and the hospital stay was 4.6 days in all patients. The intravenous and the oral antibiotic periods were 3.8 days and 9.8 days, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment results between the two groups except the duration of fasting and the hospitalization, and there were no complications under conservative treatment. Eight patients (13.1%) had recurrent diverticulitis during the follow-up period. The recurrence risk showed no significant difference between the groups. The RCD-free period after management was 60.1 months, and patients with recurrent RCD were treated by conservative treatment or laparoscopic surgery.
Conservative treatment with antibiotics is the optimal treatment of choice for RCD and shows no increase in complications.
Diverticulitis; Colon, Ascending; Medical management
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of nonoperative treatment for right-sided colonic diverticulitis.
One hundred fifty-eight patients with right-sided colonic diverticulitis were evaluated. Clinical history, physical and radiologic findings, and treatments were reviewed retrospectively. Also, additional episodes and treatment modalities were checked.
Our patients were classified according to treatment modality; 135 patients (85.4%) underwent conservative treatment, including antibiotics and bowel rest, and 23 patients (14.6%) underwent surgery. The mean follow-up length was 37.3 months, and 17 patients (17.5%) underwent recurrent right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Based on treatment modality, including surgery and antibiotics, no significant differences in the clinical features and the recurrence rates were noted between the two groups.
Conservative management with bowel rest and antibiotics could be considered as a safe and effective option for treating right-sided colonic diverticulitis. This treatment option for right-sided colonic diverticulitis, even if the disease is complicated, may be the treatment of choice.
Diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Drug therapy
The success of medical management for diverticular disease depends on the patient's presentation and degree of response to treatment. The patient's presentation can be grouped into categories using classification systems such as the modified Hinchey system. Clinical presentation and diagnostic studies help to group patients. Mild disease can often be managed with oral antibiotics as an outpatient; more severe disease requires hospitalization, bowel rest, and intravenous antibiotics. Interventions such as percutaneous drainage of associated abscesses may allow successful medical management. Probiotics and antiinflammatories may have a supportive role. Indications for elective resections are discussed.
Diverticular disease; medical management; antibiotics; percutaneous drainage
AIM: To investigate the outcomes of early and delayed elective resection after initial antibiotic treatment in patients with complicated diverticulitis.
METHODS: The study, a non-randomized comparison of the two approaches, included 421 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis (Hinchey classification I-II) at the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2004 and 2009. The operating procedure, duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay, outcome, complications and socioeconomic costs were analyzed, with comparison made between the early and delayed elective resection strategies.
RESULTS: The severity of the diverticulitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists score were comparable for the two groups. Patients who underwent delayed elective resection had a shorter hospital stay and operating time, and the rate of successfully completed laparoscopic resections was higher (80% vs 75%). Eight patients who were scheduled for delayed elective resection required urgent surgery because of complications of the diverticulitis, which resulted in a high rate of morbidity. Analysis of the socioeconomic effects showed that hospitalization costs were significantly higher for delayed elective resection compared with early elective resection (9296 € ± 694 € vs 8423 € ± 968 €; P = 0.001). Delayed elective resection showed a trend toward lower complications, and the operation appeared simpler to perform than early elective resection. Nevertheless, delayed elective resection carries a risk of complications occurring during the period of 6-8 wk that could necessitate an urgent resection with its consequent high morbidity, which counterbalanced many of the advantages.
CONCLUSION: Overall, early elective resection for complicated, non-perforated diverticulitis is shown to be a suitable alternative to delayed elective resection after 6-8 wk, with additional beneficial socioeconomic effects.
Complicated diverticulitis; Resection of sigmoid; Delayed elective resection; Early elective resection; Socioeconomic effects
Diverticulum of the cecum is a rare, benign, generally asymptomatic lesion that manifests itself only following inflammatory or hemorrhagic complications. Most patients with inflammation of a solitary diverticulum of the cecum present with abdominal pain that is indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. The optimal management of this condition is still controversial, ranging from conservative antibiotic treatment to aggressive resection. We describe four cases that presented with symptoms suggestive of appendicitis, but were found at operation to have an inflamed solitary diverticulum.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis and to assess its postoperative advantages.
From 1999 to 2001, 5 patients were selectively operated on with a laparoscopic-assisted procedure for uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis. In the preceding period (September 1997 through December 1998), 4 patients underwent open procedures for the same pathology. The surgical indication with the same criteria was restrictive: at least 2 acute episodes had occurred that were treated with hospital admission and that were separated by an adequate period (2 months) of medical therapy.
No conversions of laparoscopy to an open procedure were necessary. Age, sex, weight, morbidity, and mortality were similar between the 2 groups. Operative time was 180 minutes for laparoscopy and 120 minutes for laparotomy. Postoperative resumption of peristalsis was 24 hours versus 4 days, resumption of alimentation was on the second postoperative day versus the fifth postoperative day, and hospital stay was 7 days versus 12 days for laparoscopy and laparotomy, respectively.
This study shows the feasibility and the advantages of elective laparoscopic-assisted colonic re-section for uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis. The advantages of the laparoscopic approach are the lower need for analgesics and the more precocious ambulation, canalization, resumption of alimentation, and the shorter hospital stay.
Left colectomy; Laparoscopic approach; Laparotomic approach; Uncomplicated diverticular disease
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is a safe, feasible, and effective management strategy.
Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in patients with diverticulitis. Patients offered laparoscopic surgery presented with acute complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey type I, II, III), chronically recurrent diverticulitis, bleeding, or sigmoid stenosis caused by chronic diverticulitis.
All patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy within a 12-year period were prospectively entered into a database registry. One-stage laparoscopic resection and primary anastomosis constituted the planned procedure. A 4-trocar approach with suprapubic minilaparotomy was performed. Main data recorded were age, sex, postoperative pain, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, and early and late complications.
During the study period, 260 sigmoid colectomies were performed for diverticulitis. The cohort included 104 male and 156 female patients; M to F ratio was 4:6. Postoperative pain was controlled by NSAIDs or weak opioid analgesia. Fifteen patients (5.7%) required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were directly related to the inflammatory process, abscess, and peritonitis. Mean operative time was 130±54. Average postoperative hospital stay was 10±3 days. A longer hospital stay was recorded for Hinchey type IIb patients. Complications were recorded in 30 patients (11.5%). The most common complications that required reoperation were hemorrhage in 2 patients (0.76) and anastomotic leak in 5 patients (only 3 of them required reoperation). The mortality among them was 2 patients (0.76%).
Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is safe, feasible, and effective. Therefore, laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis at our institution.
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Laparoscopic surgery; Hinchey classification; Colectomy
Glucagon given intravenously to 20 patients with acute diverticulitis was followed by symptomatic relief within an average of 12 hours and obviated the need for therapy with analgesics or other antispasmodics. In a similar group of patients receiving conventional treatment symptoms persisted for an average of 96 hours. The administration of glucagon had no apparent effect on abdominal symptoms which mimicked those of diverticulitis but were caused by other conditions. There was no clinically apparent difference in effectiveness between continuous infusion and intermittent injection of glucagon.
We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with episodic right lower quadrant abdominal pain. With the diagnosis of either acute appendicitis or tubo-ovarian abscess, she was treated with antibiotics, which successfully relieved the pain and the inflammatory findings. She repeated the clinical condition a few times and antibiotics worked each time. In a year, her subjective symptoms became milder, however, a giant pelvic cyst appeared. She had an exploratory laparotomy to confirm this diagnosis. Histopathological studies revealed herniated appendiceal mucosa through the muscular layer associated with chronic inflammation and marked fibrosis. Gynecological disorders such as endometriosis or lutein cyst rupture was denied. These findings represent appendiceal diverticulitis. We discuss the clinical features of the disease and its relation with the pelvic pseudocyst.
Appendiceal diverticulitis; Perforation; Pelvic pseudocyst
Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomised study has published any results.
DILALA is a Scandinavian, randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann's Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients are included when surgery is required. A laparoscopy is performed and if Hinchey grade III is diagnosed the patient is included and randomised 1:1, to either LL or HP. Patients undergoing LL receive > 3L of saline intraperitoneally, placement of pelvic drain and continued antibiotics. Follow-up is scheduled 6-12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A QoL-form is filled out on discharge, 6- and 12 months. Inclusion is set to 80 patients (40+40).
HP is associated with a high rate of complication. Not only does the primary operation entail complications, but also subsequent surgery is associated with a high morbidity. Thus the combined risk of treatment for the patient is high. The aim of the DILALA trial is to evaluate if laparoscopic lavage is a safe, minimally invasive method for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey grade III, resulting in fewer re-operations, decreased morbidity, mortality, costs and increased quality of life.
British registry (ISRCTN) for clinical trials ISRCTN82208287http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN82208287
AIM: To identify patients with persistent acute diverticulitis who might benefit from an early colonoscopy during their first hospitalization.
METHODS: All patients hospitalized between July 2000 and December 2006 for acute diverticulitis who underwent colonoscopy were included in the study. Patients were followed during hospitalization and after discharge. Patients were considered to have a persistent course of acute diverticulitis if symptoms continued after 1 wk of conventional treatment with IV antibiotics, or if symptoms recurred within 2 mo after discharge. Patients were considered to benefit from an early colonoscopy if the colonoscopy was therapeutic or if it changed a patient's outcome.
RESULTS: Three hundred and six patients were hospitalized between July 2000 and December 2006 with the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. Two hundred and twenty four of these were included in the study group. Twenty three patients (10.3%) fulfilled the criteria for a persistent course of acute diverticulitis. Of them, four patients (17.4%) clearly benefited from an early colonoscopy; these patients’ clinical course is described. None of the patients with a regular non-persistent course demonstrated any benefit from colonoscopy.
CONCLUSION: Early colonoscopy detected other significant pathology, which accounted for the clinical presentation in 17% of patients with persistent acute diverticulitis. Therefore, we believe an early colonoscopy should be considered in all patients with a persistent clinical course.
Persistent acute diverticulitis; Early colonoscopy; Clinical course
Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively rare, and a delayed recrudescent case of colocutaneous fistula is very uncommon. We herein report a rare case of a Japanese 56-year-old male with delayed recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula due to diverticulitis. A colocutaneous fistula was formed after a drainage operation against a perforation of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. After 5 years from treatment, he was admitted to our hospital because of lower abdominal pain. We diagnosed the recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula by abdominal computed tomography and gastrografin enema, and managed the patient with total parenteral nutrition and antibiotics. As the fistula formation did not improve, a low anterior resection with fistulectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged. It has been reported that, in fistulas of the skin caused by diverticular disease, complete closure of the fistula by conservative therapy may not be possible. This case also implies the possibility of a recurrence of the fistula even if the conservative treatment was effective. In cases of colocutaneous fistulas due to diverticulitis, radical surgery is considered necessary because of possibility of recurrence of the fistula.
Colocutaneous fistula; Diverticular disease; Diverticulitis
Autosomal dominant hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES, Job syndrome) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilia, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections, dermatitis, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. A 26-year-old male with known HIES presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Imaging showed sigmoid diverticulitis without abscess or perforation. Conservative management with antibiotics failed, and he developed a peridiverticular abscess, which was percutaneously drained with plans for elective resection. He returned four days later with progression of his diverticulitis, requiring partial colectomy with primary anastomosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of diverticulitis in HIES. Diverticulitis is rare in younger individuals, raising the possibility that the connective tissue abnormalities of HIES patients may predispose them to colonic diverticula. Although the majority of complications are sinopulmonary and skin infections, diverticulitis should be considered in the differential of intra-abdominal processes in HIES.
Hyper IgE Syndrome; diverticulitis
The timing and appropriateness of surgical treatment of sigmoid diverticular disease remain a topic of controversy. We have reviewed the current literature on this topic, focusing on issues related to the indications and types of surgery. Current evidence would suggest that elective surgery for diverticulitis can be avoided in patients with uncomplicated disease, regardless of the number of recurrent episodes. Furthermore, the need for elective surgey should not be influenced by the age of the patient. Operation should be undertaken in patients with severe attacks, as determined by their clinical and radiological evaluation.
Sigmoid diverticulitis; Surgical management; Diagnosis; Elective surgery
A 29-year-old Indian female patient presented clinically as a case of acute appendicitis. Peroperative finding showed inflamed diverticula of an appendix without perforation. Macroscopically, the rest of the appendix appeared normal. Histopathological examination confirmed appendicular diverticulitis in a noninflamed appendix. The vermiform appendix can rarely be a site of development of diverticula which may be inflamed or noninflamed, with or without appendicitis. Appendicular diverticulosis can present either with chronic abdominal pain or with acute abdominal pain as acute appendicitis. Thay may be completely asymptomatic. It can be associated with various complications resulting increased morbidities and mortalities.
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis. Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology. Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is emergency surgical management.
Jejunal diverticulum; Diverticulitis; Surgery; Tomography