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1.  Daptomycin may attenuate experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by electrostatic complexation to tobramycin. 
The lipopeptidic antibiotic daptomycin is reported to reduce experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). In an attempt to explain these results, the in vivo and in vitro interactions between daptomycin and tobramycin were studied. Tobramycin alone and preincubated with negatively charged phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) was dialyzed against increasing concentrations of daptomycin in buffer at pH 5.4. A significant drop in the concentration of tobramycin was observed when daptomycin was added to the opposite half cells. Furthermore, daptomycin induced a concentration-dependent release of lipid-bound tobramycin. Gold labeling experiments showed that daptomycin could be incorporated into phospholipid layers. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daptomycin alone, with tobramycin alone, or with the combination over 2 to 10 days. Levels of daptomycin and tobramycin in serum were similar in all groups. The levels of tobramycin in the renal cortex increased significantly with time and, on day 10, reached values of 654 +/- 122 and 844 +/- 298 micrograms/g of tissue (mean +/- standard deviation; not significant) in animals treated with tobramycin and the combination of daptomycin-tobramycin, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the levels of tobramycin in the kidneys between animals treated with tobramycin or the daptomycin-tobramycin combination at any time. By contrast, daptomycin levels were significantly higher in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin-tobramycin in comparison with those in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin alone on days 6,8, and 10 (P < 0.01). For immunogold labeling studies, animals were killed 4 h after a single injection of daptomycin alone or daptomycin in combination with tobramycin. Daptomycin was found throughout the matrixes of the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone. In animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin, daptomycin was associated with intralysosomal myeloid bodies. Our results suggest that daptomycin might attenuate experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interacting with the aminoglycoside, perhaps electrostatically, and thereby protecting intracellular targets of toxicity.
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PMCID: PMC284536  PMID: 8031040
2.  Subcellular distribution of daptomycin given alone or with tobramycin in renal proximal tubular cells. 
Previous studies in experimental animals showed that daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, protects against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity (C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. N. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989; D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990). In order to better understand the mechanism involved in this protective effect, the subcellular distribution of daptomycin was investigated in the proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone or in combination with tobramycin. A first group of female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of daptomycin at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight and were killed at 10 min, 1 h, or 24 h after the injection. Other groups of rats were treated during 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), tobramycin at dosages of 20 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin at dosages of 10 mg/kg/12 h, or the combination tobramycin-daptomycin at the same dosages. At the time of sacrifice, the renal cortex of the right kidney of each animal was dissected, and small blocks of tissue were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin. The subcellular distribution of daptomycin and tobramycin was determined on ultrathin sections by immunogold labeling. Ten minutes after the injection of daptomycin alone, gold particles were seen over the brush border membrane and on the membranes of the endocytic vacuoles of proximal tubular cells. One hour after the injection, a similar distribution was seen and numerous gold particles were found over the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells. The results suggest that daptomycin might protect against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interfering with the interaction between the aminoglycoside and phospholipids inside the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells.
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PMCID: PMC284424  PMID: 8192441
3.  Influence of daptomycin on staphylococcal abscesses and experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The antibacterial efficacies of daptomycin and vancomycin were compared in male Fischer rats with subcutaneous abscesses caused by either methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The influence of daptomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity was also assessed. MSSA or MRSA abscesses were treated with subcutaneous daptomycin (10 mg/kg every 12 h), vancomycin (125 mg/kg every 12 h), or diluent (every 12 h) for 5 to 10 days. Rats in both antibiotic treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did controls at days 5 and 10 (P less than 0.0025). The daptomycin treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did the vancomycin treatment groups for MSSA at day 5 (P less than 0.0025) and day 10 (P less than 0.025) and for MRSA at day 10 (P less than 0.0025). Nephrotoxicity treatment groups included animals treated for 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days with subcutaneous diluent (every 12 h), daptomycin (20 mg/kg every 12 h), tobramycin (40 mg/kg every 12 h), and the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin. Compared with controls, animals treated with daptomycin alone exhibited no detectable nephrotoxicity. Rats given tobramycin alone developed functional and histopathologic abnormalities from days 7 through 17. Animals treated with daptomycin and tobramycin for 14 days had a lower mean concentration of creatinine in serum (P less than 0.005), higher mean creatinine clearance values (P less than 0.05), and less cortical tubular cell regeneration (P less than 0.05) than did rats treated with tobramycin alone. In rats with staphylococcal subcutaneous abscesses, daptomycin was superior to vancomycin in treating both MSSA and MRSA. Daptomycin alone caused no detectable renal injury, and in rats given daptomycin combined with tombramycin, there was less histologic and functional renal injury than in animals given tobramycin alone.
PMCID: PMC172640  PMID: 2552905
4.  Effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity in rats. 
Daptomycin is a new biosynthetic antibiotic which belongs to a new class of drugs known as lipopeptides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 4 and 10 days with either saline (NaCl, 0.9%) or tobramycin at doses of 4 and 40 mg/kg per day (given every 12 h [q12h] intraperitoneally). Each treatment was combined with saline, daptomycin at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously), and ancomycin at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously). Daptomycin and vancomycin had no effect on the intracortical accumulation of tobramycin. Daptomycin did not accumulate in renal tissue even after 10 days of treatment. Tobramycin given at a dose of 40 mg/kg per day during 10 days induced a significant inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity in the renal cortex (P less than 0.01) and increased cellular regeneration (P less than 0.01), as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA of the renal cortex. These changes were minimal when daptomycin was combined with tobramycin. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were also less severe in the presence of daptomycin. The intracortical accumulation of vancomycin was not modified by tobramycin. The sphingomyelinase activity was significantly more inhibited (P less than 0.01) when vancomycin was associated with tobramycin (4 and 40 mg/kg) without affecting the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were not affected by vancomuycin, but the cellular vacuolizations which were also observed in vancomycin-treated animals were still present in the proximal tubular cells of animals that were treated with the combination vancomycin-tobramycin. This study strongly suggests that daptomycin protects animals from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity but that vancomycin may enhance the effect of tobramycin. We conclude that daptomycin is safe and protects kidney cells from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
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PMCID: PMC171535  PMID: 2158272
5.  Addition of Gentamicin or Rifampin Does Not Enhance the Effectiveness of Daptomycin in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4172-4177.
This study evaluated the activity of daptomycin combined with either gentamicin or rifampin against three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates in vitro and one isolate in vivo against a representative strain (MRSA-572). Time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin was bactericidal against these strains at concentrations over the MIC. Daptomycin at sub-MIC concentrations plus gentamicin at 1× and 2× the MIC yielded synergy, while the addition of rifampin at 2 to 4 μg/ml resulted in indifference (two strains) or antagonism (one strain). The in vivo activity of daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight once a day) was evaluated ± gentamicin (1 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.] every 8 h [q8h]) or rifampin (300 mg i.v. q8h) in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis by simulating human pharmacokinetics. Daptomycin plus gentamicin (median, 0 [interquartile range, 0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) was as effective as daptomycin alone (0 [0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (P = 0.83), and both were more effective than daptomycin plus rifampin (3 [2 to 3.5] log10 CFU/g vegetation; P < 0.05) for the strain studied. In addition, daptomycin sterilized a ratio of vegetations that was similar to that of daptomycin plus gentamicin (10/15 [67%] versus 9/15 [60%]; P = 0.7), and both regimens did so more than daptomycin plus rifampin (3/15 [20%]; P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). No statistical difference was noted between daptomycin plus gentamicin and daptomycin alone for MRSA treatment. In the combination arm, all isolates from vegetations remained susceptible to daptomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Sixty-one percent of the isolates (8/13) acquired resistance to rifampin during monotherapy. In the daptomycin arm, resistance was detected in only one case, in which the daptomycin MIC rose to 2 μg/ml among the recovered bacteria. In conclusion, the addition of gentamicin or rifampin does not enhance the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00051-09
PMCID: PMC2764216  PMID: 19620326
6.  Efficacy of Daptomycin-Cloxacillin Combination in Experimental Foreign-Body Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Despite the use of daptomycin alone at high doses (greater than 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) against difficult-to-treat infections, clinical failures and resistance appeared. Recently, the combination daptomycin-cloxacillin showed enhanced efficacy in clearing bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of daptomycin at usual and high doses (equivalent to 6 and 10 mg/kg/day in humans, respectively) in combination with cloxacillin in a rat tissue cage infection model by MRSA and to compare its efficacy to that of daptomycin-rifampin. We used MRSA strain ATCC BAA-39. In the log- and stationary-phase kill curves, daptomycin-cloxacillin improved the bactericidal activity of daptomycin, especially in log phase. For in vivo studies, therapy was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days with daptomycin at 100 mg/kg/day and 45/mg/kg/day (daptomycin 100 and daptomycin 45), daptomycin 100-cloxacillin at 200 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin 45-cloxacillin, and daptomycin 100-rifampin at 25 mg/kg/12 h. Daptomycin-rifampin was the best therapy (P < 0.05). Daptomycin 45 was the least effective treatment and did not protect against the emergence of resistant strains. There were no differences between the two dosages of daptomycin plus cloxacillin in any situation, and both protected against resistance. The overall effect of the addition of cloxacillin to daptomycin was a significantly greater cure rate (against adhered bacteria) than that for daptomycin alone. In conclusion, daptomycin-cloxacillin enhanced modestly the in vivo efficacy of daptomycin alone against foreign-body infection by MRSA and was less effective than daptomycin plus rifampin. The benefits of adding cloxacillin to daptomycin should be especially evaluated against infections by rifampin-resistant MRSA and for protection against the emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00127-12
PMCID: PMC3393403  PMID: 22585211
7.  Attenuation of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by fleroxacin. 
The effect of fleroxacin on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated with female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were injected during 4 or 10 days with saline (NaCl; 0.9%), gentamicin alone at doses of 10 and 40 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (subcutaneously), fleroxacin alone at a dose of 25 mg/kg/12 h (intraperitoneally), or the combination gentamicin-fleroxacin in the same regimen. Gentamicin induced a dose- and time-dependent renal toxicity as evaluated by gentamicin cortical levels, sphingomyelinase activity in the renal cortex, histopathologic and morphometric analysis, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, and cellular regeneration ([3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of cortical cells). The extent of these changes was significantly reduced when gentamicin was given in combination with fleroxacin. Although the mechanisms by which fleroxacin reduces the nephrotoxic potential of gentamicin are unknown, we propose that the fleroxacin-gentamicin combination enhances exocytosis activity in proximal tubular cells, as suggested by the higher excretion of urinary enzymes and lower cortical levels of gentamicin observed in animals treated with the combination fleroxacin-gentamicin compared with those treated with gentamicin alone. The protective effect of fleroxacin on gentamicin nephrotoxicity should be investigated further.
PMCID: PMC163893  PMID: 9174177
8.  Nephrotoxicity of Cephalosporin-Gentamicin Combinations in Rats 
To study the possibility that cephalosporins augment the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin, groups of rats were given four hourly subcutaneous doses of: gentamicin (5 mg/kg), gentamicin plus cephalothin (100 mg/kg), gentamicin plus cefazolin (20 mg/kg), gentamicin plus cefazolin (50 mg/kg), gentamicin plus cephaloridine (50 mg/kg), or saline diluent for 15 days. Periodic measurements were made of urine volume, urine osmolality, urine protein excretion and lysosomal enzymuria, as well as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and drug concentrations in renal cortex and medulla. Tissue was examined by light and electron microscopy. Enzymuria and proteinuria increased early in the course of all treatment groups, whereas urine osmolality declined. No distinct patterns of these variables were discernable among the groups. Gentamicin alone, gentamicin plus cephalothin, and gentamicin plus cefazolin (20 mg/kg) caused the same significant fall in glomerular filtrate rate from control values by day 15 (P < 0.05). Gentamicin plus cefazolin (50 mg/kg) and gentamicin plus cephaloridine failed to cause a decline in glomerular filtration rate compared with controls (P > 0.05). Gentamicin concentrations in renal cortex were 5 to 10 times higher than those in medulla in all groups. Cephaloridine and cefazolin (50 mg/kg) also displayed a gradient pattern in renal cortex, whereas cephalothin and cefazolin (20 mg/kg) did not. Cytosegrosomes with myeloid figures were characteristic ultra-structural changes seen in all groups; however, they tended to be smaller with less numerous myeloid bodies in the groups receiving gentamicin plus cephalothin, cefazolin (50 mg/kg), or cephaloridine. Cephalosporins did not augment gentamicin toxicity. High doses of cefazolin and cephaloridine protected kidneys from gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The protection may involve intracellular drug interaction within the renal cortex.
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PMCID: PMC429629  PMID: 949179
9.  Influence of hydrocortisone succinate on intrarenal accumulation of gentamicin in endotoxemic rats. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1987;31(11):1816-1821.
Gentamicin is a commonly used antibiotic in the treatment of gram-negative infections including septicemia and pyelonephritis. Bacterial endotoxin is liberated during antibiotic therapy and may lead to endotoxemic shock. Steroids such as hydrocortisone are generally recommended in the treatment of endotoxemic shock. There are very limited data on the influence of endotoxin or corticosteroids on the pharmacology of antibiotics, especially aminoglycosides, which are nephrotoxic. We studied the influence of both Escherichia coli endotoxin and hydrocortisone succinate on the renal uptake of gentamicin in rats. Animals were injected intravenously with endotoxin (0.25 mg/kg) and/or hydrocortisone (25 mg/kg) plus gentamicin (10 mg/kg). Gentamicin levels in the serum and renal parenchyma as well as renal function and histology were evaluated. Both endotoxin and hydrocortisone given alone increased the concentration of gentamicin in the renal cortex (P less than 0.05). Normal values in serum were observed in all groups at most time intervals. When administered together, endotoxin and hydrocortisone did not potentiate each other. The combination of endotoxin and hydrocortisone gave significantly higher levels of gentamicin than endotoxin or hydrocortisone alone when endotoxin was injected 3 h before hydrocortisone (P less than 0.05). Blood pressure and cardiac frequency were normal when gentamicin was given. Endotoxin alone slightly decreased the glomerular filtration rate, and hydrocortisone alone slightly modified renal plasma flow. The combination of both drugs did not significantly affect renal function. No histological lesion was noted on light microscopy in animals receiving endotoxin. Competitive or synergistic activity of endotoxin, gentamicin, and hydrocortisone at the cellular level, especially on membranes or lysosomes, might explain in part our observation on the renal uptake of gentamicin. By increasing the total amount of drug within the kidney, endotoxin and hydrocortisone might increase the risk of nephrotoxicity associated with aminoglycosides.
PMCID: PMC175045  PMID: 3435128
10.  Comparison of daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant enterococci. 
Infections with enterococci that are resistant to multiple antibiotics are an emerging clinical problem. We evaluated the antibiotic treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by two strains with different mechanisms of penicillin resistance. Enterococcus faecalis HH-22 is resistant to aminoglycosides and penicillin on the basis of plasmid-mediated modifying enzymes; Enterococcus raffinosus SF-195 is susceptible to aminoglycosides but is resistant to penicillin on the basis of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins. Animals infected with strain HH-22 received 5 days of treatment with the following: no treatment; daptomycin (20 mg/kg of body weight twice daily [b.i.d.], intramuscularly [i.m.]), vancomycin (20 mg/kg b.i.d., intravenously), or ampicillin (100 mg/kg three times daily, i.m.) plus gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. i.m.). Although vancomycin was superior to ampicillin-gentamicin (P less than 0.01), daptomycin was significantly better than all other treatment regimens (P less than 0.01) in reducing intravegetation enterococcal densities, although no vegetations were rendered culture negative by this agent. Animals infected with strain SF-195 received 5 days of no therapy, ampicillin, ampicillin-gentamicin, vancomycin, or daptomycin (all at the dosage regimens described above). Daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin each lowered intravegetation enterococcal densities significantly better than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.01); moreover, these three treatment regimens rendered significantly more vegetations culture negative than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.05). Serum daptomycin levels remained above the MICs and MBCs for both enterococcal strains throughout the 12-h dosing interval used in the study. Daptomycin and vancomycin were both active in vivo in these models of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant strains, irrespective of the mechanism of resistance. This activity correlated with the unique cell wall sites of action of these agents (binding to lipoteichoic acid and pentapeptide precursor, respectively) compared with the sites of action of beta-lactams (penicillin-binding proteins). Beta-Lactamase production by strain HH-22 precluded in vivo efficacy with ampicillin-gentamicin combinations. In contrast, this combination was active in vivo against strain SF-195, which exhibited intermediate-level penicillin resistance (MIC, 32 micrograms/ml), likely reflecting the ability of high-dose ampicillin to achieve enough binding to low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins to cause augmented aminoglycoside uptake.
PMCID: PMC192201  PMID: 1329632
11.  Calcium is a competitive inhibitor of gentamicin-renal membrane binding interactions and dietary calcium supplementation protects against gentamicin nephrotoxicity. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;73(1):134-147.
The divalent cations, Ca++ and Mg++, are known to competitively inhibit a large number of aminoglycoside-membrane interactions, so that Ca++ prevents both the neurotoxic and ototoxic effects of these antibiotics acutely in vitro. Since gentamicin-induced plasma and subcellular membrane damage appear to be critical pathogenetic events in gentamicin nephrotoxicity, Ca++ may play a similar protective role in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. To test this possibility in vivo, rats (group 2) were given a 4% calcium (in the form of CaCO3) supplemented diet to increase delivery of Ca++ to the kidney and administered single daily subcutaneous injections of gentamicin, 100 mg/kg, for 10 d. Compared with a simultaneously studied group (group 1) of rats receiving identical gentamicin dosages and normal diets, Ca++ supplementation ameliorated gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. After 10 doses of gentamicin, blood-urea nitrogen values in group 1 averaged 213 +/- 15 (SE) and 25 +/- 3 (P less than 0.001) in group 2. The progressive decline in renal excretory function, as measured by BUN, in group 1 animals was accompanied by simultaneous declines in renal cortical mitochondrial function and elevations in renal cortex and mitochondrial Ca++ content, quantitative indices of the degree of renal tubular cell injury. Oral Ca++ loading markedly attenuated these gentamicin-induced derangements. After eight and 10 doses of gentamicin, mitochondria isolated from the renal cortex of group 2 rats had significantly higher rates of respiration supported by pyruvate-malate, succinate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenyldiamine-ascorbate, higher rates of dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration and greater acceptor control ratios than those measured in mitochondria isolated from the renal cortex of group 1 animals. Similarly, after 8 and 10 doses, renal cortex and renal cortical mitochondrial Ca++ content of group 2 was significantly lower than values observed in group 1. Thus, dietary calcium supplementation significantly protected against gentamicin-induced renal tubular cell injury and, consequently, gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. The mechanism for this protective effect of Ca++ may relate to the manner in which this polycationic antibiotic interacts with anionic sites, primarily the acidic phospholipids of renal membranes. In this regard, Ca++ was found to be a competitive inhibitor both of 125I-gentamicin binding to renal brush border membranes, the initial site of interaction between gentamicin and renal proximal tubule cells, with a composite inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 mM and of 125I-gentamicin binding to phosphatidic acid, an important membrane acidic phosph
PMCID: PMC424983  PMID: 6690474
12.  Daptomycin (LY146032) treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. 
This study compared daptomycin (LY146032) with penicillin G procaine and vancomycin without and with gentamicin for treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. The strain of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis used in this study was killed by daptomycin in vitro in broth but not in serum. In rabbits treated for 3 days, daptomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts of vegetations compared with no therapy but was significantly less effective than penicillin G procaine or vancomycin. Daptomycin-gentamicin significantly reduced bacterial counts of vegetations compared with daptomycin alone but was significantly less effective than vancomycin plus gentamicin. The efficacy of daptomycin-gentamicin did not differ significantly from that of penicillin G procaine-gentamicin. The lack of enterococcal killing by daptomycin alone in serum and in experimental endocarditis is probably related to the high protein binding of the agent.
PMCID: PMC172299  PMID: 2843085
13.  Gentamicin Improves the Activities of Daptomycin and Vancomycin against Enterococcus faecalis In Vitro and in an Experimental Foreign-Body Infection Model▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4821-4827.
For enterococcal implant-associated infections, the optimal treatment regimen has not been defined. We investigated the activity of daptomycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin (and their combinations) against Enterococcus faecalis in vitro and in a foreign-body infection model. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by time-kill and growth-related heat production studies (microcalorimetry) as well as with a guinea pig model using subcutaneously implanted cages. Infection was established by percutaneous injection of E. faecalis in the cage. Antibiotic treatment for 4 days was started 3 h after infection. Cages were removed 5 days after end of treatment to determine the cure rate. The MIC, the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) in the logarithmic phase, and the MBC in the stationary phase were 1.25, 5, and >20 μg/ml for daptomycin, 1, >64, and >64 μg/ml for vancomycin, and 16, 32, and 4 μg/ml for gentamicin, respectively. In vitro, gentamicin at subinhibitory concentrations improved the activity against E. faecalis when combined with daptomycin or vancomycin in the logarithmic and stationary phases. In the animal model, daptomycin cured 25%, vancomycin 17%, and gentamicin 50% of infected cages. In combination with gentamicin, the cure rate for daptomycin increased to 55% and that of vancomycin increased to 33%. In conclusion, daptomycin was more active than vancomycin against adherent E. faecalis, and its activity was further improved by the addition of gentamicin. Despite a short duration of infection (3 h), the cure rates did not exceed 55%, highlighting the difficulty of eradicating E. faecalis from implants already in the early stage of implant-associated infection.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00141-11
PMCID: PMC3186955  PMID: 21807979
14.  Addition of Ceftaroline to Daptomycin after Emergence of Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus during Therapy Improves Antibacterial Activity 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5296-5302.
Antistaphylococcal beta-lactams enhance daptomycin activity and have been used successfully in combination for refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Ceftaroline possesses MRSA activity, but it is unknown if it improves the daptomycin potency comparably to other beta-lactams. We report a complex patient case of endocarditis who was treated with daptomycin in combination with ceftaroline, which resulted in clearance of a daptomycin-nonsusceptible strain. An in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of renal failure was used to simulate the development of daptomycin resistance and evaluate the microbiologic effects of daptomycin plus ceftaroline treatment. Combination therapy with daptomycin and ceftaroline restored daptomycin sensitivity in vivo and resulted in clearance of persistent blood cultures. Daptomycin susceptibility in vitro was increased in the presence of either ceftaroline or oxacillin. Daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight every 48 h was bactericidal in the model but resulted in regrowth and daptomycin resistance (MIC, 2 to 4 μg/ml) with continued monotherapy. The addition of ceftaroline at 200 mg every 12 h after the emergence of daptomycin resistance enhanced bacterial killing. Importantly, daptomycin plus ceftaroline as the initial combination therapy produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity and prevented daptomycin resistance. Both in vivo- and in vitro-derived daptomycin resistance resulted in bacteria with more fluid cell membranes. After ceftaroline was added in the model, fluidity was restored to the level of the initial in vivo isolate. Daptomycin-resistant isolates required high daptomycin exposures (at least 10 mg/kg) to optimize cell membrane damage with daptomycin alone. Ceftaroline combined with daptomycin was effective in eliminating daptomycin-resistant MRSA, and these results further justify the potential use of daptomycin plus beta-lactam therapy for these refractory infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00797-12
PMCID: PMC3457349  PMID: 22869564
15.  Efficacy of Daptomycin in Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is becoming increasingly prevalent as both a nosocomial and a community-acquired pathogen. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic now in phase III clinical trials, is rapidly bactericidal in vitro against a range of gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, we compared the efficacy of daptomycin with that of vancomycin, each with or without rifampin, in a model of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to MRSA. The infecting strain (MRSA strain 32) was susceptible to daptomycin (MIC = 1 μg/ml), vancomycin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml), and rifampin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml). Daptomycin was administered at 25 or 40 mg/kg q24h (q24h) by subcutaneous injection in an attempt to simulate human doses of 4 and 6 mg/kg q24h, respectively. Vancomycin was given at 150 mg/kg q24h by continuous intravenous infusion. Rifampin was given at 25 mg/kg by intramuscular injection q24h. Treatment was started 6 h postinoculation and continued for 4.5 days. Outcome was assessed by counting the residual viable bacteria in vegetations. The mean peak daptomycin levels in serum at 2 h after subcutaneous administration of 25 and 40 mg/kg were 64 and 91 μg/ml, respectively. Daptomycin was undetectable in serum at 24 h. The total exposure was comparable to that achieved clinically in humans receiving the drug. Bacterial counts (mean log10 number of CFU per gram ± the standard deviation) in untreated controls reached 10.6 ± 0.8. In treated rats, bacterial counts were as follows: vancomycin, 7.1 ± 2.5; daptomycin at 25 mg/kg, 5.5 ± 1.7; daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.2 ± 1.5. The difference between daptomycin at 40 mg/kg and vancomycin at 150 mg/kg was statistically significant (P = 0.004). In the study of combination therapy, vegetation bacterial counts were as follows: daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.6 ± 1.6; rifampin, 3.6 ± 1.3; vancomycin plus rifampin, 3.3 ± 1.1; daptomycin plus rifampin, 2.9 ± 0.8. The difference between daptomycin and daptomycin plus rifampin was statistically significant (P = 0.006). These results support the continued evaluation of daptomycin for serious MRSA infections, including infective endocarditis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.5.1714-1718.2003
PMCID: PMC153308  PMID: 12709345
16.  Activities of Daptomycin and Vancomycin Alone and in Combination with Rifampin and Gentamicin against Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis ▿  
The findings of clinical and in vitro research support the theory that infective endocarditis (IE)-causing bacteria form biofilms and that biofilms negatively affect treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the biofilm formation of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients with IE and to evaluate the in vitro activities of daptomycin and vancomycin alone and in combination with rifampin (rifampicin) or gentamicin while monitoring the isolates for the development of resistance. A high-inoculum, stationary-phase infection model of IE was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics in humans of daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight/day, vancomycin at 1.25 g every 12 h (q12h) alone and in combination with rifampin at 300 mg every 8 h, and gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h. Two randomly selected clinical MRSA isolates were obtained from patients with IE; both MRSA isolates quantitatively produced biofilms. The time to bactericidal activity in the presence of daptomycin was isolate dependent but was achieved by 24 h for both MRSA isolates. Vancomycin did not achieve bactericidal activity throughout the experiment. At 24, 48, and 72 h, daptomycin-containing regimens had significantly more activity (greater declines in the mean number of CFU/g) than any of the vancomycin-containing regimens (P = 0.03). Rifampin and gentamicin antagonized or delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin (against MRSA B346846 for rifampin and against both isolates for gentamicin) in the first 24 h. Increases in the daptomycin and vancomycin MICs were not observed. We conclude that in an IE model of biofilm-forming MRSA, daptomycin monotherapy has better in vitro activity than daptomycin in combination with rifampin or gentamicin or any vancomycin-containing regimen studied within the first 24 h. Further investigations are needed to understand the initial delay in bactericidal activity observed when gentamicin or rifampin is combined with daptomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00134-09
PMCID: PMC2737833  PMID: 19564363
17.  Evaluation of Daptomycin Pharmacodynamics and Resistance at Various Dosage Regimens against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Reduced Susceptibilities to Daptomycin in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations▿  
The need to investigate novel dosing regimens and combinations is essential in combating poor treatment outcomes for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. We evaluated the impact of simulated standard- and high-dose daptomycin in combination with gentamicin or rifampin against daptomycin-susceptible and nonsusceptible matched strains of S. aureus. These strains were collected from the daptomycin bacteremia and endocarditis clinical trial and consisted of three susceptible strains (MIC, 0.25 mg/liter) and four nonsusceptible isolates (MICs, 2 to 4 mg/liter). Daptomycin regimens of 6 and 10 mg/kg of body weight daily alone and in combination with gentamicin at 5 mg/kg daily or rifampin at 300 mg every 8 h were evaluated using an in vitro model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Rapid bactericidal activity, identified by time to 99.9% kill, was displayed in all regimens with the daptomycin-susceptible strains. Concentration-dependent activity was noted by more-rapid killing with the 10-mg/kg/day dose. The addition of gentamicin improved activity in the majority of susceptible isolates. Daptomycin 6-mg/kg/day monotherapy displayed bactericidal activity for only one of the nonsusceptible isolates and for only two isolates with increased doses of 10 mg/kg/day. Combination regimens demonstrated improvement with some but not all nonsusceptible isolates. Three isolates developed a reduction in daptomycin susceptibility with 6-mg/kg/day monotherapy, but this was suppressed with both combination therapy and high-dose daptomycin. These results suggest that high-dose daptomycin therapy and combination therapy may be reasonable treatment options for susceptible isolates; however, more investigations are needed to confirm the variability of these regimens with nonsusceptible isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00102-08
PMCID: PMC2533470  PMID: 18591272
18.  Serum Bactericidal Activities of High-Dose Daptomycin with and without Coadministration of Gentamicin against Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3529-3534.
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal titers (SBTs) of daptomycin alone and in combination with gentamicin against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci to determine if there might be any benefit to the addition of the aminoglycoside. A multiple-dose, randomized crossover study was performed in 11 healthy volunteers to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of 6 mg/kg of body weight daptomycin once daily with or without 1 mg/kg gentamicin every 8 h. SBTs were determined against clinical isolates of nosocomial (MRSA 494) and community-acquired (CA-MRSA 44) methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (VSEF 49452), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF 80), and quality control strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Enhancement of bactericidal activity was evaluated by calculating and comparing the areas under the bactericidal curve (AUBC) for each dosing regimen against each isolate. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h and clearance for daptomycin alone were 645 ± 91 μg · h/ml and 9.47 ± 1.4 mg/h/kg, respectively, compared with 642 ± 69 μg · h/ml and 9.45 ± 1.0 mg/h/kg for daptomycin plus gentamicin. Daptomycin alone displayed sustained bactericidal activity against five of the six isolates over the entire 24-h dosing interval; bactericidal activity was maintained for 8 h against VREF 80. Mean AUBCs for daptomycin alone ranged from 935 to 1,263 and 36 to 238 against staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates, respectively, compared with 902 to 972 and 34 to 213 against staphylococci and enterococci when coadministered with gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that the addition of gentamicin does not alter the pharmacokinetic profile or enhance the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against staphylococcal or enterococcal isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00290-06
PMCID: PMC1635189  PMID: 17065618
19.  Treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Enterococcus faecalis with high-level resistance to gentamicin. 
Several antimicrobial regimens were evaluated in the treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis due to a beta-lactamase-producing, highly gentamicin-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecalis. Ampicillin alone cleared bacteremia in the majority of rats and reduced titers of bacteria within vegetations (6.84 versus 8.80 log10 CFU/g in controls) but did not sterilize valves. Ampicillin-sulbactam combinations, vancomycin, daptomycin, and imipenem each reduced residual bacterial titers within vegetations to 4.01 log10 CFU/g or less; in 26 to 43% of animals receiving 5 days of therapy, titers of bacteria were reduced to undetectable levels. In a separate experiment, rats received ampicillin-sulbactam, daptomycin, or vancomycin for 10 days and were then observed for 10 days after termination of therapy for evidence of relapse. In surviving rats, valves remained sterile in four of five rats treated with ampicillin-sulbactam, in five of seven treated with daptomycin, but in only one of eight receiving vancomycin.
PMCID: PMC176055  PMID: 2506803
20.  Early In Vitro and In Vivo Development of High-Level Daptomycin Resistance Is Common in Mitis Group Streptococci after Exposure to Daptomycin 
The development of high-level daptomycin resistance (HLDR; MIC of ≥256 mg/liter) after exposure to daptomycin has recently been reported in viridans group streptococcus (VGS) isolates. Our study objectives were as follows: to know whether in vitro development of HLDR after exposure to daptomycin was common among clinical isolates of VGS and Streptococcus bovis; to determine whether HLDR also developed during the administration of daptomycin to treat experimental endocarditis caused by the daptomycin-susceptible, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis strain S. mitis 351; and to establish whether combination with gentamicin prevented the development of HLDR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed with 114 VGS strains (mitis group, 92; anginosus group, 10; mutans group, 8; and salivarius group, 4) and 54 Streptococcus bovis strains isolated from 168 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. HLDR was only observed after 24 h of exposure to daptomycin in 27% of the mitis group, including 27% of S. mitis isolates, 47% of S. oralis isolates, and 13% of S. sanguis isolates. In our experimental model, HLDR was detected in 7/11 (63%) and 8/12 (67%) isolates recovered from vegetations after 48 h of daptomycin administered at 6 mg/kg of body weight/24 h and 10 mg/kg/24 h, respectively. In vitro, time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin plus gentamicin was bactericidal against S. mitis 351 at tested concentrations of 0.5 and 1 times the MIC and prevented the development of HLDR. In vivo, the addition of gentamicin at 1 mg/kg/8 h to both daptomycin arms prevented HLDR in 21 out of 23 (91%) rabbits. Daptomycin plus gentamicin was at least as effective as vancomycin plus gentamicin. In conclusion, HLDR develops rapidly and frequently in vitro and in vivo among mitis group streptococci. Combining daptomycin with gentamicin enhanced its activity and prevented the development of HLDR in most cases.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01921-12
PMCID: PMC3632914  PMID: 23478959
21.  Prevention of Brain Injury by the Nonbacteriolytic Antibiotic Daptomycin in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis▿  
Bacteriolytic antibiotics cause the release of bacterial components that augment the host inflammatory response, which in turn contributes to the pathophysiology of brain injury in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, antibiotic therapy with nonbacteriolytic daptomycin was compared with that of bacteriolytic ceftriaxone in experimental pneumococcal meningitis, and the treatments were evaluated for their effects on inflammation and brain injury. Eleven-day-old rats were injected intracisternally with 1.3 × 104 ± 0.5 × 104 CFU of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 and randomized to therapy with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously [s.c.]; n = 55) or daptomycin (50 mg/kg s.c.; n = 56) starting at 18 h after infection. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed for bacterial counts, matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels at different time intervals after infection. Cortical brain damage was evaluated at 40 h after infection. Daptomycin cleared the bacteria more efficiently from the CSF than ceftriaxone within 2 h after the initiation of therapy (log10 3.6 ± 1.0 and log10 6.3 ± 1.4 CFU/ml, respectively; P < 0.02); reduced the inflammatory host reaction, as assessed by the matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentration in CSF 40 h after infection (P < 0.005); and prevented the development of cortical injury (cortical injury present in 0/30 and 7/28 animals, respectively; P < 0.004). Compared to ceftriaxone, daptomycin cleared the bacteria from the CSF more rapidly and caused less CSF inflammation. This combined effect provides an explanation for the observation that daptomycin prevented the development of cortical brain injury in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Further research is needed to investigate whether nonbacteriolytic antibiotic therapy with daptomycin represents an advantageous alternative over current bacteriolytic antibiotic therapies for the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01014-06
PMCID: PMC1891377  PMID: 17371820
22.  Gentamicin inactivation by piperacillin or carbenicillin in patients with end-stage renal disease. 
Possible antibiotic inactivation was studied in 12 subjects with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis. The study was a randomized three-way crossover. Subjects received (i) gentamicin as a single intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg, (ii) 4 g of piperacillin intravenously every 12 h for four doses or 2 g of carbenicillin intravenously every 8 h for six doses, and (iii) gentamicin as described in (i) plus piperacillin or carbenicillin as described in (ii). Subjects were studied on their off-dialysis days, and each treatment phase was separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Gentamicin was inactivated to a greater extent by carbenicillin than by piperacillin (P less than 0.05). In the six subjects in the carbenicillin group, the terminal elimination-phase half-life (t 1/2 beta) of gentamicin was 61.6 h when gentamicin was administered alone, and it was 19.4 h when gentamicin was administered with carbenicillin. In six subjects in the piperacillin group, the mean t 1/2 beta of gentamicin when gentamicin was given alone was 53.9 h, and it was 37.7 h when gentamicin was given with piperacillin. The inactivation rate constant (ki) of gentamicin was 0.0251/h for the carbenicillin group and 0.0064/h for the piperacillin group, demonstrating that carbenicillin inactivated gentamicin for time faster than did piperacillin. No inactivation of either beta-lactam could be measured. Control samples verified that no in vitro inactivation occurred.
PMCID: PMC181871  PMID: 6462107
23.  Daptomycin compared with teicoplanin and vancomycin for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2081-2085.
The efficacies of daptomycin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were compared in the therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Rabbits infected with either of two methicillin-susceptible strains (SA-12871 or its moderately teicoplanin-resistant derivative SA-12873) or a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain (MRSA-494) were treated with daptomycin, 8 mg/kg of body weight, every 8 h; teicoplanin, 12.5 mg/kg (low-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-LD], excluding MRSA-494) or 40 mg/kg (high-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-HD]) every 12 h; or vancomycin, 17.5 mg/kg every 6 h, for 4 days. Compared with no treatment daptomycin, teicoplamin-HD, and vancomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts of all test strains in vegetations and renal and splenic tissues (P less than 0.001). Teicoplanin-LD was equally effective against SA-12871 but failed against SA-12873, with three of six animals still being bacteremic at the end of therapy. For SA-12871, daptomycin was as effective as teicoplanin-HD and was superior to teicoplanin-LD and vancomycin (P = 0.02) in lowering vegetation bacterial counts. There were no differences between daptomycin, teicoplanin-HD, or vancomycin in the reduction of bacterial counts in tissues for any of the test strains. In rabbits infected with SA-12871, vegetations from 33% of teicoplanin-LD-treated, 6% of teicoplanin-HD-treated, and 13% of daptomycin-treated animals yielded organisms for which there were up to eightfold increases in the MICs. Resistance may have contributed to early death in one daptomycin-treated animal. No increases in the MICs for the test strain were detected in animals infected with SA-12873 or MRSA-494. We conclude that in this model and against these strains of S. aureus, daptomycin and teicoplanin-HD are as efficacious as vancomycin, but diminished susceptibility to both can develop during therapy.
PMCID: PMC172003  PMID: 1963526
24.  Efficacy of Daptomycin in Implant-Associated Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Importance of Combination with Rifampin▿  
Limited treatment options are available for implant-associated infections caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We compared the activity of daptomycin (alone and with rifampin [rifampicin]) with the activities of other antimicrobial regimens against MRSA ATCC 43300 in the guinea pig foreign-body infection model. The daptomycin MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration in logarithmic phase and stationary growth phase of MRSA were 0.625, 0.625, and 20 μg/ml, respectively. In time-kill studies, daptomycin showed rapid and concentration-dependent killing of MRSA in stationary growth phase. At concentrations above 20 μg/ml, daptomycin reduced the counts by >3 log10 CFU/ml in 2 to 4 h. In sterile cage fluid, daptomycin peak concentrations of 23.1, 46.3, and 53.7 μg/ml were reached 4 to 6 h after the administration of single intraperitoneal doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. In treatment studies, daptomycin alone reduced the planktonic MRSA counts by 0.3 log10 CFU/ml, whereas in combination with rifampin, a reduction in the counts of >6 log10 CFU/ml was observed. Vancomycin and daptomycin (at both doses) were unable to cure any cage-associated infection when they were given as monotherapy, whereas rifampin alone cured the infections in 33% of the cages. In combination with rifampin, daptomycin showed cure rates of 25% (at 20 mg/kg) and 67% (at 30 mg/kg), vancomycin showed a cure rate of 8%, linezolid showed a cure rate of 0%, and levofloxacin showed a cure rate of 58%. In addition, daptomycin at a high dose (30 mg/kg) completely prevented the emergence of rifampin resistance in planktonic and adherent MRSA cells. Daptomycin at a high dose, corresponding to 6 mg/kg in humans, in combination with rifampin showed the highest activity against planktonic and adherent MRSA. Daptomycin plus rifampin is a promising treatment option for implant-associated MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00047-09
PMCID: PMC2704655  PMID: 19364845
25.  Effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide inhibition on structural and functional renal disturbances induced by gentamicin 
Animal models of gentamicin nephrotoxicity present acute tubular necrosis associated with inflammation, which can contribute to intensify the renal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule involved in inflammation. We evaluated the effect of DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of endogenous H2S formation, on the renal damage induced by gentamicin. Male Wistar rats (N = 8) were injected with 40 mg/kg gentamicin (im) twice a day for 9 days, some of them also received PAG (N = 8, 10 mg·kg−1·day−1, ip). Control rats (N = 6) were treated with saline or PAG only (N = 4). Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected one day after the end of these treatments, blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed for quantification of H2S formation and histological and immunohistochemical studies. Gentamicin-treated rats presented higher sodium and potassium fractional excretion, increased plasma creatinine [4.06 (3.00; 5.87) mg%] and urea levels, a greater number of macrophages/monocytes, and a higher score for tubular interstitial lesions [3.50 (3.00; 4.00)] in the renal cortex. These changes were associated with increased H2S formation in the kidneys from gentamicin-treated rats (230.60 ± 38.62 µg·mg protein−1·h−1) compared to control (21.12 ± 1.63) and PAG (11.44 ± 3.08). Treatment with PAG reduced this increase (171.60 ± 18.34), the disturbances in plasma creatinine levels [2.20 (1.92; 4.60) mg%], macrophage infiltration, and score for tubular interstitial lesions [2.00 (2.00; 3.00)]. However, PAG did not interfere with the increase in fractional sodium excretion provoked by gentamicin. The protective effect of PAG on gentamicin nephrotoxicity was related, at least in part, to decreased H2S formation.
doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500016
PMCID: PMC3854203  PMID: 22331137
Inflammation; Gentamicin nephrotoxicity; DL-propargylglycine; Hydrogen sulfide; Acute tubular necrosis

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