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1.  Detection of CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBLs) by Testing with MicroScan Overnight and ESBL Confirmation Panels▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;48(1):120-123.
CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged as the most common type of ESBL globally, their incidence easily surpassing those of SHV and TEM ESBLs in most locales. This study compared the performance of two MicroScan dried panels with CLSI reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods on a collection of genetically characterized ESBL-producing isolates. These included 64 Enterobacteriaceae isolates that produced CTX-M8, -14, -15, or -16 according to PCR and sequencing of the bla gene, 17 isolates that produced a SHV or TEM ESBL, and 19 that produced both CTX-M and SHV ESBLs. Each isolate was tested by a frozen reference microdilution panel, the MicroScan ESβL plus confirmation panel, and a routine dried panel containing streamlined ESBL confirmation dilutions (MicroScan Neg MIC panel type 32) that included cefotaxime and ceftazidime tested alone or with a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml of clavulanate. Each isolate was also tested by the standard CLSI double-disk confirmation tests. The disk diffusion method detected all ESBL-producing isolates, the frozen reference panel detected 90% of isolates (10 out of 100 could not be analyzed because of off-scale MICs that exceeded the clavulanate combination concentrations in the panel), the ESβL plus panel detected 98% (1 missed and 1 off scale), and the streamlined ESBL panel detected 95% (5 off scale). Very high MICs for a few strains that produced SHV or both CTX-M and SHV ESBLs precluded noting the required three twofold-dilution differences with clavulanate needed to confirm an ESBL primarily in the reference panel and the Neg type 32 panel.
PMCID: PMC2812268  PMID: 19889896
2.  β-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa 
Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible β-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among isolates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion and agar dilution procedures. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases was evaluated by using the double-disk test, and the β-lactamases were characterized by spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays and an isoelectric focusing overlay technique which simultaneously determined isoelectric points and general substrate or inhibitor characteristics. DNA amplification and sequencing were performed to confirm the identities of these enzymes. The P. mirabilis and E. coli isolates were found to produce TEM-26-type, SHV-2, and SHV-5 extended-spectrum β-lactamases. An AmpC-related enzyme which had a pI of 8.0 and which conferred resistance to cefoxitin as well as the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was found in a strain of K. pneumoniae. This is the first study which has identified organisms producing different extended-spectrum β-lactamases from South Africa and the first report describing strains of P. mirabilis producing a TEM-26-type enzyme. The variety of extended-spectrum β-lactamases found among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from major medical centers in South Africa is troubling and adds to the growing list of countries where these enzymes pose a serious problem for antimicrobial therapy.
PMCID: PMC105602  PMID: 9624474
3.  Comparison of screening methods for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and their prevalence among blood isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in a Belgian teaching hospital. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(9):2191-2197.
Using a set of 33 well-defined extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, we compared three screening methods for ESBL detection: (i) a double-disk synergy test, (ii) a three-dimensional test (both the double-disk synergy test and the three-dimensional test were performed with ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and cefepime), and (iii) the Etest ESBL screen (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), based on the recognition of a reduction in the ceftazidime MIC in the presence of clavulanic acid. In the double-disk test, all four indicator antibiotics scored equally and 31 of the 33 reference strains were recognized. In the three-dimensional test, ceftriaxone was the only satisfactory indicator and 30 ESBL-positive strains were detected by this antibiotic. Both systems produced two false-positive results with cefepime. With the Etest ESBL screen, 15 of 16 TEM-related and 11 of 16 SHV-related ESBL-producing strains scored positive. In 10 cases the clavulanic acid on one end of the strip interfered with the MIC determination for ceftazidime, which was read on the opposite end. This MIC had to be determined with an extra ceftazidime-only strip. No false-positive results were noted. Eighty-six blood isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella species were screened for ESBL expression by the double-disk and three-dimensional tests, both with ceftriaxone. Six strains with suspicious antibiogram phenotypes also gave positive results by the double-disk test. One E. coli strain remained undetected by the three-dimensional test. Identification of the enzymes suspected of being ESBLs by isoelectric focusing (all strains) and DNA sequencing (1 strain) confirmed the screening test results except for one Klebsiella oxytoca strain, which proved to be a hyperproducer of its chromosomal enzyme and which also had a negative Etest score. The five true ESBL producers were all confirmed by the Etest ESBL screen. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved that the E. coli strains were unrelated, but that two of the three K. pneumoniae strains were closely related.
PMCID: PMC229938  PMID: 9276386
4.  Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Produced by Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in an Educational Hospital 
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze antibiotics, including those containing new cephalosporins, and they are found in a significant percentage of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. With the widespread use of antibiotics, difficulties with infection therapy caused by drug resistant organisms, especially those that have acquired resistance to beta-lactams, such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, have amplified the above-mentioned organisms.
This study was conducted to characterize ESBLs among E. coli and K. pneumonia isolates by molecular and phenotypic methods.
Materials and Methods:
Different strains of E. coli and K. pneumonia were collected from patients with urinary tract infections. The ESBL phenotype was determined by a double disk diffusion test (DDDT). In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis specific for β-lactamase genes of the TEM and SHV family was carried out. The PCR products were run on agarose and examined for DNA bands.
A total of 245 E. coli and 55 K. pneumonia strains were isolated from different samples. In total, 128 of the 300 isolates were confirmed as potential ESBLs producers as follows: 107 (43.67%) E. coli and 21 (38.18%) K. pneumonia. ESBLs genes were found in 24 isolates (18.75%): 21 E. coli and 3 K. pneumonia isolates. The TEM gene was present in 13 (12.14%) E. coli strains, but it was not detected in K. pneumonia. In addition, the SHV gene was present in 8 (7.47%) E. coli and 3 (14.28%) K. pneumonia isolates. Five (4.67%) of the E. coli isolates harbored both TEM and SHV genes. All isolates (100%) were susceptible to imipenem. The lowest rates of resistance to other antibiotics were observed for; piperacillin-tazobactam (6.25%), amikacin (12.5%) and gentamicin (14.84%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics were as follow: nitrofurantoin (16.4%), nalidixic acid (23.43), co-trimoxazole (25%), cefepime (32%), ciprofloxacin (55.46%), ampicillin (69.53%), ceftazidime (100%), and cefotaxime (100%).
The results of this study indicate the widespread prevalence of ESBLs and multiple antibiotic resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Therefore, beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors or carbapenems should be prescribed based on an antibacterial susceptibility test.
PMCID: PMC4295312  PMID: 25632322
Phenotypic; Molecular; extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumonia
5.  Relationship between adhesion to intestinal Caco-2 cells and multidrug resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(6):1499-1503.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen involved in outbreaks of nosocomial infections in intensive care units. Strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 15 to 30% of them are also resistant to the broad-spectrum cephalosporins by the production of R plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Because the gastrointestinal tracts of patients have been shown to be the reservoir for nosocomial strains of K. pneumoniae, we looked for a correlation between antibiotic resistance and adhesion of K. pneumoniae strains to intestinal cells. We investigated adhesion to the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line of 61 clinical K. pneumoniae strains isolated in hospitals in Clermont-Ferrand, France. None of the strains tested expressed the previously described adhesive factors CF29K and KPF-28. Adhesive properties were found for 42.6% of the strains tested (26 strains). Just 7.7% (2 strains) of the 26 strains producing only the chromosomally encoded SHV-1 beta-lactamase adhered to the Caco-2 cell line, whereas 68.5% (24 strains) of the 35 strains producing a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase were adherent. All the adherent strains, and even the two strains producing only the SHV-1 enzyme, harbored at least one self-transmissible R plasmid. At variance for CAZ-1/TEM-5 or CAZ-5/SHV-4 beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains, curing and mating experiments demonstrated that the self-transmissible R plasmids encoding the TEM-1, CTX-1/TEM-3, CAZ-2/TEM-8, CAZ-6/TEM-24, or CAZ-7/TEM-16 beta-lactamase were not involved in the adhesion of K. pneumoniae strains to intestinal epithelial cells. Nevertheless, there was an association of multiple antibiotic resistance, including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and adhesive properties in K. pneumoniae clinical isolates.
PMCID: PMC229774  PMID: 9163469
6.  Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced by Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from a Korean Nationwide Survey 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(7):2902-2906.
To determine the prevalence and genotypes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, we performed antibiotic susceptibility testing, pI determination, induction testing, transconjugation, and DNA sequencing analysis. Among the 509 isolates collected from 13 university hospitals in Korea, 39.2% produced ESBLs. ESBL-producing isolates were detected in every region in Korea. A total of 44.6% of the isolates produced both TEM- and SHV-type ESBLs, and 52% of ESBL-producing isolates transferred resistance to ceftazidime by transconjugation. The ESBLs were TEM-19, TEM-20, TEM-52, SHV-2a, SHV-12, and one new variant identified for the first time in Korea, namely, TEM-116. TEM-1 and SHV-12 were by far the most common variants. TEM-1, TEM-116, and SHV-12 showed a high prevalence in K. pneumoniae. Two isolates (E. coli SH16 and K. pneumoniae SV3) produced CMY-1-like beta-lactamases, which play a decisive role in resistance to cefoxitin and cefotetan, as well as TEM-type enzymes (TEM-20 and TEM-52, respectively). Using MIC patterns and DNA sequencing analysis, we postulated a possible evolution scheme among TEM-type beta-lactamases in Korea: from TEM-1 to TEM-19, from TEM-19 to TEM-20, and from TEM-20 to TEM-52.
PMCID: PMC446292  PMID: 15243036
7.  Infections with Nontyphoidal Salmonella Species Producing TEM-63 or a Novel TEM Enzyme, TEM-131, in South Africa 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(11):4263-4270.
Salmonella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on their prevalence in Africa. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains have been noted in South Africa since 2001. A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected from 13 hospitals located in different cities in South Africa over a 5-month period from December 2002 to April 2003. All strains were screened for production of ESBLs by the double disk diffusion test and for AmpC production by assessing resistance to cefoxitin. blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY-2 were sought from all ESBL-positive and cefoxitin-resistant isolates. A total of 15.6% (25 of 160) isolates produced SHV or TEM ESBLs, and 1.9% (3 of 160) produced CMY-2. Nine S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, eight S. enterica serotype Isangi, and three S. enterica serotype Muenchen strains produced either TEM-63 or a derivative of TEM-63 designated TEM-131. Both TEM-63 and TEM-131 have an isoelectric point of 5.6, and their sequences have the following amino acid substitutions compared to the TEM-1 sequence: Leu21Phe, Glu104Lys, Arg164Ser, and Met182Thr. Additionally, TEM-131 has an Ala237Thr substitution. ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. have become a significant public health problem in South Africa with particular implications for the treatment of serious nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in children, for whom extended-spectrum cephalosporins were the preferred treatment.
PMCID: PMC525452  PMID: 15504851
8.  Effects of Inoculum and β-Lactamase Activity in AmpC- and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Tested by Using NCCLS ESBL Methodology 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(1):269-275.
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC cephalosporinases generally respond as predicted to NCCLS tests for ESBL production. However, inoculum size may affect MICs. The effect of inoculum level in clinical isolates expressing β-lactamases were studied at inocula within 0.5 log unit of the standard inoculum, using broth microdilution methodology with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefpodoxime, and aztreonam. Strains with TEM-1 or no β-lactamases gave consistent MIC results with inocula of 105 and 106 CFU/ml. When the bacteria were screened for ESBL production and the lower inoculum was used, several strains with ESBLs, including CTX-M-10, TEM-3, TEM-10, TEM-12, TEM-6, SHV-18, and K1, gave false-negative results for one or more antimicrobial agents (MICs below the NCCLS screening concentration for detecting suspected ESBLs). When the higher inoculum was used, MICs of at least one antimicrobial agent increased at least fourfold in strains producing TEM-3, TEM-10, TEM-28, TEM-43, SHV-5, SHV-18, and K1. All antimicrobial agents showed an inoculum effect with at least one ESBL producer. Confirmatory clavulanate effects were seen for both inocula for all ESBL-producing strains with all antimicrobial agents tested, except for the CTX-M-10-producing E. coli with ceftazidime and the SHV-18-producing K. pneumoniae with cefotaxime. In kinetic studies, cefpodoxime and cefepime were hydrolyzed by ESBLs in a manner similar to that of cefotaxime. When total β-lactamase activity and hydrolysis parameters were evaluated, however, no single factor was predictive of inoculum effects. These results indicate that the NCCLS screening and confirmation tests are generally predictive of ESBL production, but false-negative results can arise when a lower inoculum is used in testing.
PMCID: PMC321709  PMID: 14715764
9.  Occurrence and detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae at a veterans medical center: seek and you may find. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(10):2593-2597.
A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. Of 84 DD-positive isolates, 83 (9.2%) produced ESBLs based on isoelectric focusing. SHV-derived ESBLs and several TEM-derived ESBLs were present in nine species, including the first isolate of Citrobacter koserii and Morganella morganii known to harbor an SHV-derived ESBL. Results of testing 58 nonrepeat isolates for ESBL production by several recommended methods were as follows (percent detected in parentheses): DD method with aztreonam (95), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (88), or cefpodoxime (90); broth microdilution method with ceftazidime (86) or cefotaxime (91) alone or in combination with clavulanate; and the standard disk diffusion method with new breakpoints and standard concentrations of aztreonam (78), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (83), or cefpodoxime (98) or a novel concentration (5 microg) of ceftazidime (88). In three instances during an extended part of the study, an ESBL-producing isolate and a non-ESBL-producing isolate of the same species were recovered from a single blood culture bottle. These data indicate that ESBLs occur in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and at a relatively high incidence at our institution and that the standard disk diffusion method with cefpodoxime and the DD method with several beta-lactams are practical and cost-effective methods for detecting ESBL-producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae.
PMCID: PMC230016  PMID: 9316913
10.  Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae in Italy: Implications for Resistance to β-Lactams and Other Antimicrobial Drugs 
An Italian nationwide survey was carried out to assess the prevalences and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Over a 6-month period, 8,015 isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients and screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams. On the basis of a synergistic effect between clavulanate and selected β-lactams (ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cefepime, and ceftriaxone), 509 isolates were found to be ESBL positive (6.3%). Colony blot hybridization with blaTEM and blaSHV DNA probes allowed one to distinguish four different genotypes: TEM-positive, SHV-positive, TEM- and SHV-positive, and non-TEM, non-SHV ESBL types. MICs for each isolate (E-test) were obtained for widely used β-lactams, combinations of β-lactams with β-lactamase inhibitors, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Among ESBL-positive strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli accounted for 73.6% of isolates. Overall, TEM-type ESBLs were more prevalent than SHV-type enzymes (234 versus 173), whereas the prevalence of strains producing both TEM- and SHV-type ESBLs was similar to that of isolates producing non-TEM, non-SHV enzymes (55 and 38, respectively). In vitro, all but one of the ESBL-producing isolates remained susceptible to imipenem. Susceptibility to other drugs varied: piperacillin-tazobactam, 91%; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 85%; cefoxitin, 78%; amikacin, 76%; ampicillin-sulbactam, 61%; ciprofloxacin, 58%; and gentamicin, 56%. Associated resistance to aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin was observed most frequently among TEM-positive strains. Since therapeutic options for multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae are limited, combinations of β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors appear to represent an important alternative for treating infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
PMCID: PMC126983  PMID: 11751134
11.  Evaluation of the NCCLS Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Confirmation Methods for Escherichia coli with Isolates Collected during Project ICARE 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(7):3142-3146.
To determine whether confirmatory tests for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Escherichia coli are necessary, we selected 131 E. coli isolates that met the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) screening criteria for potential ESBL production from the Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology) strain collection. For all 131 isolates, the broth microdilution (BMD) MIC of at least one extended-spectrum cephalosporin was ≥2 μg/ml. For 21 of 131 (16%) isolates, the ESBL confirmatory test was positive; i.e., the BMD MICs of ceftazidime or cefotaxime decreased by ≥3 doubling dilutions in the presence of clavulanic acid (CA) or the disk diffusion zone diameters increased by ≥5 mm around ceftazidime or cefotaxime disks in the presence of CA. All 21 isolates were shown by PCR to contain at least one of the genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaOXA, and in isoelectric focusing (IEF) tests, all isolates demonstrated at least one β-lactamase band consistent with a TEM, SHV, or OXA enzyme. Of the 21 isolates, 3 showed a CA effect for cefotaxime by BMD but not by disk diffusion testing. A total of 59 (45%) of the 131 isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibility to cefpodoxime alone (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml), and none had a positive ESBL confirmatory test result. These were classified as false positives according to ESBL screen test results. For the remaining 51 (39%) isolates, the cefpodoxime MICs ranged from 16 to >128 μg/ml and the MICs for the other extended-spectrum cephalosporins were highly variable. All 51 isolates gave negative ESBL confirmatory test results. Most showed IEF profiles consistent with production of both a TEM and an AmpC β-lactamase, and representative isolates of several phenotypic groups showed changes in porin profiles; these 51 isolates were considered true negatives. In all, only 16% of 131 E. coli isolates identified as potential ESBL producers by the current NCCLS screening criteria were confirmed as ESBL producers. Thus, changing the interpretation of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam results from the susceptible to the resistant category without confirming the presence of an ESBL phenotype would lead to a large percentage of false resistance results and is not recommended. However, by increasing the cefpodoxime MIC screening breakpoint to ≥8 μg/ml, 45% of the false-positive results could be eliminated. NCCLS has incorporated this change in the cefpodoxime screening breakpoint in its recent documents.
PMCID: PMC165309  PMID: 12843054
12.  Development of "oligotyping" for characterization and molecular epidemiology of TEM beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2210-2216.
Based on the DNA sequences of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-2, which encode parental penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, respectively, and blaTEM-3, blaTEM-4, blaTEM-5, blaTEM-6, and blaTEM-7, which encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, we designed heptadecanucleotides to discriminate point mutations in five loci. Determination of the hybridization profiles by colony hybridization with this selection of probes, termed "oligotyping," allowed characterization of the TEM variants present in 265 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae that exhibit synergism between a penicillinase inhibitor and broad-spectrum cephaslosporins. Among the 222 strains harboring TEM enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae (48%) and Escherichia coli (21%) were predominant, and TEM-3 was the most common enzyme (60%). Penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2 were detected alone (15 and 1%, respectively), combined (1%), or associated with another TEM beta-lactamase (17 and 6%, respectively). Fourteen variants, including seven new enzymes, were detected. One, TEM-13, was a new penicillinase with the same isoelectric point and substrate range as TEM-2 but differed by a single amino acid substitution, whereas the others, TEM-14 to TEM-19, were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases that consisted of novel combinations of known amino acid substitutions. Different TEM variants were found to coexist within the same cells. A patient could harbor two or three different strains that encoded the same enzyme or two indistinguishable isolates that produced distinct TEM beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC172024  PMID: 2073111
13.  Effects of Phenotype and Genotype on Methods for Detection of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Norway▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;45(1):199-205.
Consecutive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 87) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 25) with reduced susceptibilities to oxyimino-cephalosporins (MICs > 1 mg/liter) from 18 Norwegian laboratories during March through October 2003 were examined for blaTEM/SHV/CTX-M extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, oxyimino-cephalosporin MIC profiles, ESBL phenotypes (determined by the ESBL Etest and the combined disk and double-disk synergy [DDS] methods), and susceptibility to non-β-lactam antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant CTX-M-15-like (n = 23) and CTX-M-9-like (n = 15) ESBLs dominated among the 50 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates. SHV-5-like (n = 9) and SHV-2-like (n = 4) ESBLs were the most prevalent in 19 ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Discrepant ESBL phenotype test results were observed for one major (CTX-M-9) and several minor (TEM-128 and SHV-2/-28) ESBL groups and in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing isolates. Negative or borderline ESBL results were observed when low-MIC oxyimino-cephalosporin substrates were used to detect clavulanic acid (CLA) synergy. CLA synergy was detected by the ESBL Etest and the DDS method but not by the combined disk method in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing strains. The DDS method revealed unexplained CLA synergy in combination with aztreonam and cefpirome in three E. coli strains. The relatively high proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli organisms with a low ceftazidime MIC in Norway emphasizes that cefpodoxime alone or both cefotaxime and ceftazidime should be used as substrates for ESBL detection.
PMCID: PMC1828980  PMID: 17079502
14.  Comparative activities of clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam against clinically important beta-lactamases. 
Clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam are inhibitors of a variety of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases. However, inhibition data for these three inhibitors with a wide range of different plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases have not yet been compared under the same experimental conditions. A number of groups have inferred that clavulanic acid inhibits extended-spectrum TEM and SHV beta-lactamases, but inhibition data have rarely been published. In this study, the 50% inhibitory concentrations of these three beta-lactamase inhibitors for 35 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases have been determined. Of these 35 beta-lactamases, 20 were extended-spectrum TEM- or SHV-derived beta-lactamases. The other 15 enzymes were conventional-spectrum beta-lactamases such as TEM-1 and SHV-1. Clavulanic acid was a more potent inhibitor than sulbactam for 32 of the 35 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases tested. In particular, clavulanic acid was 60 and 580 times more potent than sulbactam against TEM-1 and SHV-1, respectively, currently the two most clinically prevalent gram-negative plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases. Statistical analysis of the data of the 50% inhibitory concentrations showed that clavulanic acid was 20 times more active overall than sulbactam against the conventional-spectrum enzymes. In addition, clavulanic acid was 14 times more potent than sulbactam at inhibiting the extended-spectrum enzymes. Tazobactam also showed significantly greater activity than sulbactam against the two groups of beta-lactamases. There were no significant differences between the overall activities of tazobactam and clavulanic acid against the extended-spectrum TEM and SHV enzymes and conventional-spectrum enzymes, although differences in their inhibition profiles were observed.
PMCID: PMC284540  PMID: 8031044
15.  Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases among Enterobacter Isolates Obtained in Tel Aviv, Israel 
The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype is frequent among Enterobacter isolates at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. We examined the clonal relatedness and characterized the ESBLs of a collection of these strains. Clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and transconjugation experiments were performed. ESBL gene families were screened by colony hybridization and PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaIBC, blaPER, blaOXA, blaVEB, and blaSFO; and the PCR products were sequenced. The 17 Enterobacter isolates studied comprised 15 distinct genotypes. All isolates showed at least one IEF band (range, one to five bands) whose appearance was suppressed by addition of clavulanate; pIs ranged from 5.4 to ≥8.2. Colony hybridization identified at least one family of beta-lactamase genes in 11 isolates: 10 harbored blaTEM and 9 harbored blaSHV. PCR screening and sequence analysis of the PCR products for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M identified TEM-1 in 11 isolates, SHV-12 in 7 isolates, SHV-1 in 1 isolate, a CTX-M-2-like gene in 2 isolates, and CTX-M-26 in 1 isolate. In transconjugation experiments with four isolates harboring blaTEM-1 and blaSHV-12, both genes were simultaneously transferred to the recipient strain Escherichia coli HB101. Plasmid mapping, PCR, and Southern analysis with TEM- and SHV-specific probes demonstrated that a single transferred plasmid carried both the TEM-1 and the SHV-12 genes. The widespread presence of ESBLs among Enterobacter isolates in Tel Aviv is likely due not to clonal spread but, rather, to plasmid-mediated transfer, at times simultaneously, of genes encoding several types of enzymes. The dominant ESBL identified was SHV-12.
PMCID: PMC549242  PMID: 15728917
16.  Evaluation and Updating of the Osiris Expert System for Identification of Escherichia coli β-Lactam Resistance Phenotypes 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(4):1846-1850.
Osiris is a video zone size reader for disk diffusion tests that includes a built-in extended expert system (EES). We evaluated the efficacy of the Osiris EES for the identification of β-lactam susceptibility phenotypes of Escherichia coli isolates. Fifteen β-lactam agents and three β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested by the disk diffusion method against 50 E. coli strains with well-characterized resistance mechanisms. The strains were screened for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by the double-disk synergy test using a disk of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with disks of the extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. Overall, the EES accurately identified the phenotype for 78% of the strains, indicated an inexact phenotype for 17% of the strains, and could not find a matching phenotype for the remaining 5% of the strains. The percentage of correct identification for each resistance mechanism was 100% for inhibitor-resistant TEM and for TEM plus cephalosporinase, 88.9% for TEM and for ESBL, 70.8% for cephalosporinase overproduction, and 25% for oxacillinase. The main cause of discrepancy was the misidentification of oxacillinase as inhibitor-resistant TEM. The conventional double-disk synergy test failed to detect ESBL production in two strains (one producing VEB-1 and one producing CTX-M-14), but synergy between cefepime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was visible after the distance between the disks was reduced to 20 mm. After the interpretative guidelines of the EES were updated according to our results, the percentage of correct phenotype identification increased from 78 to 96%.
PMCID: PMC1081361  PMID: 15815007
17.  Variety of β-Lactamases Produced by Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated in the Northeastern United States 
This study analyzed the enzymatic basis and molecular epidemiology of amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolated by the microbiology laboratory of a United States tertiary care hospital. From October 1998 to December 1999, all E. coli isolates were screened for ampicillin-sulbactam resistance. Of 283 isolates that tested resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, 69 unique patient isolates were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate by disk diffusion testing (zone diameter ≤ 13 mm). These amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant E. coli isolates underwent agar dilution testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR analysis, and isoelectric focusing. The mean age of study patients was 52 years; 78% were female. Among the isolates, 12 were nosocomial (rate of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance = 4.7%) and 57 were community acquired (rate of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance = 2.8%). No predominant strain was identified. By agar dilution testing, 67 isolates were nonsusceptible (39 resistant and 28 intermediate) to amoxicillin-clavulanate and 37 were piperacillin-tazobactam resistant but only 8 were ceftazidime resistant (ceftazidime MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml). Two isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid by agar dilution, although they were resistant by disk diffusion testing. The distribution of β-lactamases was as follows: the TEM type alone was found in 52 isolates, the AmpC type was found in 4 isolates (2 identified as containing CMY-2), the TEM type and CMY-2 were found in 2 isolates, and the OXA type was found in 1 isolate. Also, there was one isolate with the TEM type and the SHV type and one with the TEM type and a second, unidentified enzyme. Among the isolates with TEM-type enzymes, two extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates were identified but two isolates with inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) enzymes (one with TEM-34 [IRT-6] and the other with a novel enzyme [tentatively assigned the designation TEM-122]) were more interesting.
PMCID: PMC400555  PMID: 15105100
18.  Evolution of TEM-Type Enzymes: Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Two New Complex Mutant TEM Enzymes, TEM-151 and TEM-152, from a Single Patient▿ †  
Two clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, CF1179 and CF1295, were isolated from a patient hospitalized in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France. They were resistant to penicillin-clavulanate combinations and to ceftazidime. The double-disk synergy test was positive only for isolate CF1179. Molecular comparison of the isolates showed that they were clonally related. E. coli recombinant strains exhibiting the resistance phenotype of the clinical strains were obtained by cloning. The clones corresponding to strains CF1179 and CF1295 produced TEM-type beta-lactamases with pI values of 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed two novel blaTEM genes encoding closely related complex mutant TEM enzymes, designated TEM-151 (pI 5.3) and TEM-152 (pI 5.7). These two genes also harbored a new promoter region which presented a 9-bp deletion. The two novel β-lactamases differed from the parental enzyme, TEM-1, by the substitution Arg164His, previously observed in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), and by the substitutions Met69Val and Asn276Asp, previously observed in the inhibitor-resistant penicillinase TEM-36/IRT-7. They differed by two amino acid substitutions: TEM-152 harbored a Glu240Lys ESBL-type substitution and TEM-151 had an Ala284Gly substitution. Functional analysis of TEM-151 and TEM-152 showed that both enzymes had hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime (kcat, 5 and 16 s−1, respectively). TEM-152 was more resistant than TEM-151 to the inhibitor clavulanic acid (50% inhibitory concentrations, 1 versus 0.17 μM). These results confirm the evolution of TEM-type enzymes toward complex enzymes harboring the two kinds of substitutions which confer an extended spectrum of action against beta-lactam antibiotics and resistance to inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC1855492  PMID: 17220412
19.  Detection of new SHV-12, SHV-5 and SHV-2a variants of extended spectrum Beta-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Egypt 
Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreaks possessing extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL) mediated resistance to third-generation cephalosporins have increased significantly in hospital and community settings worldwide. The study objective was to characterize prevalent genetic determinants of TEM, SHV and CTX-M types ESBL activity in K. pneumoniae isolates from Egypt.
Sixty five ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from nosocomial and community-acquired infections from 10 Egyptian University hospitals (2000–2003), were confirmed with double disc-synergy method and E-test. blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-m genes were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted for genotyping.
All isolates displayed ceftazidime and cefotaxime resistance. blaTEM and blaSHV genes were detected in 98% of the isolates’ genomes, while 11% carried blaCTX-m. DNA sequencing revealed plasmid-borne SHV-12,-5,-2a (17%), CTX-m-15 (11%), and TEM-1 (10%) prevalence. Among SHV-12 (n=8), one isolate displayed 100% blaSHV-12 amino acid identity, while others had various point mutations: T17G (Leu to Arg, position 6 of the enzyme: n=2); A8T and A10G (Tyr and Ile to Phe and Val, positions 3 and 4, respectively: n=4), and; A703G (Lys to Glu 235: n=1). SHV-5 and SHV-2a variants were identified in three isolates: T17G (n=1); A703G and G705A (Ser and Lys to Gly and Glu: n=1); multiple mutations at A8T, A10G, T17G, A703G and G705A (n=1). Remarkably, 57% of community-acquired isolates carried CTX-m-15. PFGE demonstrated four distinct genetic clusters, grouping strains of different genetic backgrounds.
This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of SHV-12, SHV-5 and SHV-2a variants in Egypt, indicating the spread of class A ESBL in K. pneumoniae through different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3723734  PMID: 23866018
20.  Dissemination of SHV-12 and Characterization of New AmpC-Type Beta-Lactamase Genes among Clinical Isolates of Enterobacter Species in Korea 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(6):2477-2482.
To determine the prevalence and genotype of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and new chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases among clinical isolates of Enterobacter species, we performed antibiotic susceptibility testing, pI determination, induction tests, transconjugation, enterobacterial repetitive consensus (ERIC) PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Among the 51 clinical isolates collected from a university hospital in Korea, 6 isolates have been shown to produce SHV-12 and inducible AmpC beta-lactamases. These also included three isolates producing TEM-1b and one strain carrying TEM-1b and CMY-type beta-lactamases with a pI of 8.0. The results from ERIC PCR revealed that six isolates were genetically unrelated, suggesting that dissemination of SHV-12 was responsible for the spread of resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in Korea. Six genes of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that are responsible for the resistance to cephamycins (cefoxitin and cefotetan), amoxicillin, cephalothin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were cloned and characterized. A 1,165-bp DNA fragment containing the ampC genes was sequenced and found to have an open reading frame coding for a 381-amino-acid beta-lactamase. The nucleotide sequence of four ampC genes (blaEcloK992004.1, blaEcloK995120.1, blaEcloK99230, and blaEareK9911729) shared considerable homology with that of AmpC-type class C beta-lactamase genes of gram-negative bacteria, especially that of the chromosomal ampC gene (blaEcloMHN1) of Enterobacter cloacae MHN1 (99.9, 99.7, 99.6, and 99.6% identity, respectively). The sequences of two ampC genes (blaEcloK9973 and blaEcloK9914325) showed close similarity to the chromosomal ampC gene (blaEcloQ908R) of E. cloacae Q908R (99.7% identity). The results from phylogenetic analysis suggested that six ampC genes could originate from blaEcloMHN1 or blaEcloQ908R.
PMCID: PMC156513  PMID: 12791868
21.  Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(3):691-696.
Plasmids encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases of the TEM, SHV, and AmpC families were introduced into common Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae hosts to create a homogeneous panel for evaluating the abilities of five test systems to detect resistance to eight beta-lactam antibiotics. Although MICs, as determined by agar dilution or E test strips, were increased and disk diffusion zone diameters were diminished, breakpoints for resistance were often not reached, and neither approach was sensitive in detecting resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactams. The MicroScan 18-h microdilution or Vitek rapid automated procedures were similarly insensitive. Ceftazidime was the best single test antibiotic for detecting extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production. beta-Lactamases TEM-7 and TEM-12 were particularly difficult to detect. Because of such difficulties, the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases is likely to be greater than is currently appreciated.
PMCID: PMC263108  PMID: 8195380
22.  Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from Italy by the BD Phoenix Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Detection Method 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(4):1463-1468.
Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is an important mechanism of β-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Identification of ESBLs based on phenotypic tests is the strategy most commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. The Phoenix ESBL test (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) is a recently developed automated system for detection of ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria. An algorithm based on phenotypic responses to a panel of cephalosporins (ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone plus clavulanic acid) was used to test 510 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Citrobacter koseri. Of these isolates, 319 were identified as ESBL producers, and the remaining 191 were identified as non-ESBL producers based on the results of current phenotypic tests. Combined use of isoelectric focusing, PCR, and/or DNA sequencing demonstrated that 288 isolates possessed blaTEM-1- and/or blaSHV-1-derived genes, and 28 had a blaCTX-M gene. Among the 191 non-ESBL-producing isolates, 77 isolates produced an AmpC-type enzyme, 110 isolates possessed TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 β-lactamases, and the remaining four isolates (all K. oxytoca strains) hyperproduced K1 chromosomal β-lactamase. The Phoenix ESBL test system gave positive results for all the 319 ESBL-producing isolates and also for two of the four K1-hyperproducing isolates of K. oxytoca. Compared with the phenotypic tests and molecular analyses, the Phoenix system displayed 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. These findings suggest that the Phoenix ESBL test can be a rapid and reliable method for laboratory detection of ESBL resistance in gram-negative bacteria.
PMCID: PMC153891  PMID: 12682131
23.  A complex mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase with mutations encountered in both IRT-4 and extended-spectrum TEM-15, produced by an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. 
Escherichia coli GR102 was isolated from feces of a leukemic patient. It expressed different levels of resistance to amoxicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate and to the various cephalosporins tested. The double-disk synergy test was weakly positive. Production of a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.6 was transferred to E. coli HB101 by conjugation. The nucleotide sequence was determined by direct sequencing of the amplification products obtained by PCR performed with TEM gene primers. This enzyme differed from TEM-1 (blaT-1B gene) by four amino acid substitutions: Met-->Leu-69, Glu-->Lys-104, Gly-->Ser-238 and Asn-->Asp-276. The amino acid susbstitutions Leu-69 and Asp-276 are known to be responsible for inhibitor resistance of the IRT-4 mutant, as are Lys-104 and Ser-238 substitutions for hydrolytic activity of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases TEM-15, TEM-4, and TEM-3. These combined mutations led to a mutant enzyme which conferred a level of resistance to coamoxiclav (MIC, 64 microg/ml) much lower than that conferred by IRT-4 (MIC, 2,048 microg/ml) but higher than that conferred by TEM-15 or TEM-1 (MIC, 16 microg/ml). In addition, the MIC of ceftazidime for E. coli transconjugant GR202 (1 microg/ml) was lower than that for E. coli TEM-15 (16 microg/ml) and higher than that for E. coli IRT-4 or TEM-1 (0.06 microg/ml). The MICs observed for this TEM-type enzyme were related to the kinetic constants Km and k(cat) and the 50% inhibitory concentration, which were intermediate between those observed for IRT-4 and TEM-15. In conclusion, this new type of complex mutant derived from TEM-1 (CMT-1) is able to confer resistance at a very low level to inhibitors and at a low level to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. CMT-1 received the designation TEM-50.
PMCID: PMC163908  PMID: 9174192
24.  Activities of beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. 
Seven extended-spectrum beta-lactamases related to TEM and four enzymes derived from SHV-1 were transferred to a common Escherichia coli host so that the activity of a variety of beta-lactams could be tested in a uniform genetic environment. For most derivatives, penicillinase activity was 10% or less than that of strains making TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 beta-lactamase, suggesting that reduced catalytic efficiency accompanied the broader substrate spectrum. Despite this deficit, resistance to aztreonam, carumonam, cefdinir, cefepime, cefixime, cefmenoxime, cefotaxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, and E1040 was enhanced. For strains producing TEM-type enzymes, however, MICs of carumonam, cefepime, cefmenoxime, cefotiam, cefpirome, and ceftibuten were 8 micrograms/ml or less. Susceptibilities of cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, flomoxef, imipenem, meropenem, moxalactam, temocillin, FCE 22101, and Sch 34343 were unaffected. FCE 22101, imipenem, meropenem, and Sch 34343 were inhibitory for all strains at 1 microgram/ml or less. In E. coli an OmpF- porin mutation in combination with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase enhanced resistance to many of these agents, but generally by only fourfold. Hyperproduction of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase increased resistance to 7-alpha-methoxy beta-lactams but not that to temocillin. When tested at 8 micrograms/ml, clavulanate was more potent than sulbactam or tazobactam in overcoming resistance to ampicillin, while cefoperazone-sulbactam was more active than ticarcillin-clavulanate or piperacillin-tazobactam, especially against TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC171706  PMID: 2193623
25.  A Novel Extended-Spectrum TEM-Type β-Lactamase (TEM-52) Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Moxalactam in Klebsiella pneumoniae 
Klebsiella pneumoniae NEM865 was isolated from the culture of a stool sample from a patient previously treated with ceftazidime (CAZ). Analysis of this strain by the disk diffusion test revealed synergies between amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMX-CA) and CAZ, AMX-CA and cefotaxime (CTX), AMX-CA and aztreonam (ATM), and more surprisingly, AMX-CA and moxalactam (MOX). Clavulanic acid (CA) decreased the MICs of CAZ, CTX, and MOX, which suggested that NEM865 produced a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Genetic, restriction endonuclease, and Southern blot analyses revealed that the resistance phenotype was due to the presence in NEM865 of a 13.5-kb mobilizable plasmid, designated pNEC865, harboring a Tn3-like element. Sequence analysis revealed that the blaT gene of pNEC865 differed from blaTEM-1 by three mutations leading to the following amino acid substitutions: Glu104→Lys, Met182→Thr, and Gly238→Ser (Ambler numbering). The association of these three mutations has thus far never been described, and the blaT gene carried by pNEC865 was therefore designated blaTEM-52. The enzymatic parameters of TEM-52 and TEM-3 were found to be very similar except for those for MOX, for which the affinity of TEM-52 (Ki, 0.16 μM) was 10-fold higher than that of TEM-3 (Ki, 1.9 μM). Allelic replacement analysis revealed that the combination of Lys104, Thr182, and Ser238 was responsible for the increase in the MICs of MOX for the TEM-52 producers.
PMCID: PMC105464  PMID: 9449269

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