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1.  Functional Redundancy of Yeast Proteins Reh1 and Rei1 in Cytoplasmic 60S Subunit Maturation▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;29(14):4014-4023.
The biogenesis of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit in eukaryotes involves nucleolar, nucleoplasmic, and cytoplasmic steps. The cytoplasmic protein Rei1, found in all eukaryotes, was previously shown to be necessary for the nuclear reimport of 60S subunit export factor Arx1. In this study we investigate the function of Reh1, a protein with high sequence similarity to Rei1. We demonstrate an overlapping function for Reh1 and Rei1 in the cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S subunit that is independent of Arx1 recycling. We observe that strains lacking both Reh1 and Rei1 accumulate salt-labile 60S subunits, suggesting that Reh1/Rei1 is necessary for the cytoplasmic 60S subunit to adopt its mature, stable form.
PMCID: PMC2704747  PMID: 19433447
2.  Nuclear Recycling of the Pre-60S Ribosomal Subunit-Associated Factor Arx1 Depends on Rei1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(10):3718-3727.
Arx1 and Rei1 are found on late pre-60S ribosomal particles containing the export adaptor Nmd3. Arx1 is related to methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs), and Rei1 is a C2H2 zinc finger protein whose function in ribosome biogenesis has not been previously characterized. Arx1 and Rei1 localized predominately to the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, but could be coimmunoprecipitated, suggesting that they are transiently in the same 60S complex. arx1Δ mutants showed a modest accumulation of 60S subunits in the nucleus, suggesting that Arx1 enhances 60S export. Deletion of REI1 led to cold sensitivity and redistribution of Arx1 to the cytoplasm, where it remained bound to free 60S subunits. However, deletion of ARX1 or the fusion of enhanced GFP (eGFP) to Rpl25 suppressed the cold sensitivity of an rei1Δ mutant. The presence of eGFP on Rpl25 or its neighboring protein Rpl35 reduced the binding of Arx1 to 60S subunits, suggesting that Arx1 binds to 60S subunits in the vicinity of the exit tunnel. Mutations in Arx1 that disrupted its binding to 60S also suppressed an rei1Δ mutant and restored the normal nuclear localization of Arx1. These results indicate that the cold sensitivity of rei1Δ cells is due to the persistence of Arx1 on 60S subunits in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, these results suggest that Rei1 is needed for release of Arx1 from nascent 60S subunits after export to the cytoplasm but not for the subsequent nuclear import of Arx1.
PMCID: PMC1489010  PMID: 16648468
3.  Cytoplasmic Recycling of 60S Preribosomal Factors Depends on the AAA Protein Drg1▿ † 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(19):6581-6592.
Allelic forms of DRG1/AFG2 confer resistance to the drug diazaborine, an inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results show that the AAA-ATPase Drg1 is essential for 60S maturation and associates with 60S precursor particles in the cytoplasm. Functional inactivation of Drg1 leads to an increased cytoplasmic localization of shuttling pre-60S maturation factors like Rlp24, Arx1, and Tif6. Surprisingly, Nog1, a nuclear pre-60S factor, was also relocalized to the cytoplasm under these conditions, suggesting that it is a previously unsuspected shuttling preribosomal factor that is exported with the precursor particles and very rapidly reimported. Proteins that became cytoplasmic under drg1 mutant conditions were blocked on pre-60S particles at a step that precedes the association of Rei1, a later-acting preribosomal factor. A similar cytoplasmic accumulation of Nog1 and Rlp24 in pre-60S-bound form could be seen after overexpression of a dominant-negative Drg1 variant mutated in the D2 ATPase domain. We conclude that the ATPase activity of Drg1 is required for the release of shuttling proteins from the pre-60S particles shortly after their nuclear export. This early cytoplasmic release reaction defines a novel step in eukaryotic ribosome maturation.
PMCID: PMC2099225  PMID: 17646390
4.  Integrity of the P-site is probed during maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2012;197(6):747-759.
The P-site of the 60S ribosomal subunit signals to Tif6 via Elf1 during ribosomal maturation, suggesting a quasifunctional check of the integrity of the 60S subunit before the first round of translation.
Eukaryotic ribosomes are preassembled in the nucleus and mature in the cytoplasm. Release of the antiassociation factor Tif6 by the translocase-like guanosine triphosphatase Efl1 is a critical late maturation step. In this paper, we show that a loop of Rpl10 that embraces the P-site transfer ribonucleic acid was required for release of Tif6, 90 Å away. Mutations in this P-site loop blocked 60S maturation but were suppressed by mutations in Tif6 or Efl1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the mutant Efl1 proteins suggest that they promote a conformation change in Efl1 equivalent to changes that elongation factor G and eEF2 undergo during translocation. These results identify molecular signaling from the P-site to Tif6 via Efl1, suggesting that the integrity of the P-site is interrogated during maturation. We propose that Efl1 promotes a functional check of the integrity of the 60S subunit before its first round of translation.
PMCID: PMC3373404  PMID: 22689654
5.  Structure of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit with nuclear export factor Arx1 bound at the exit tunnel 
Nature structural & molecular biology  2012;19(12):1234-1241.
Pre-ribosomal particles evolve in the nucleus through transient interaction with biogenesis factors, before export to the cytoplasm. Here, we report the architecture of the late pre-60S particle purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae through Arx1, a nuclear export factor with structural homology to methionine aminopeptidases, or its binding partner Alb1. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the Arx1-particle at 11.9 Å resolution reveals regions of extra densities on the pre-60S particle attributed to associated biogenesis factors, confirming the immature state of the nascent subunit. One of these densities could be unambiguously assigned to Arx1. Immuno-electron microscopy and UV cross-linking localize Arx1 close to the ribosomal exit tunnel in direct contact with ES27, a highly dynamic eukaryotic rRNA expansion segment. The binding of Arx1 at the exit tunnel may position this export factor to prevent premature recruitment of ribosome-associated factors active during translation.
PMCID: PMC3678077  PMID: 23142978
6.  Yvh1 is required for a late maturation step in the 60S biogenesis pathway 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;186(6):863-880.
The step by step assembly process from preribosome in the nucleus to translation-competent 60S ribosome subunit in the cytoplasm is revealed (also see Lo et al. in this issue).
Before entering translation, preribosomal particles undergo sequential late maturation steps. In the case of pre-60S particles, these steps involve the release of shuttling maturation factors and transport receptors. In this study, we report a new maturation step in the 60S biogenesis pathway in budding yeast. We show that efficient release of the nucleolar/nuclear ribosomal-like protein Mrt4 (homologous to the acidic ribosomal P-protein Rpp0) from pre-60S particles requires the highly conserved protein Yvh1, which associates only with late pre-60S particles. Cell biological and biochemical analyses reveal that Mrt4 fails to dissociate from late pre-60S particles in yvh1Δ cells, inducing a delay in nuclear pre–ribosomal RNA processing and a pre-60S export defect in yvh1Δ cells. Moreover, we have isolated gain of function alleles of Mrt4 that specifically bypass the requirement for Yvh1 and rescue all yvh1Δ-associated phenotypes. Together, our data suggest that Yvh1-mediated release of Mrt4 precedes cytoplasmic loading of Rpp0 on pre-60S particles and is an obligatory late step toward construction of translation-competent 60S subunits.
PMCID: PMC2753168  PMID: 19797079
7.  Final Pre-40S Maturation Depends on the Functional Integrity of the 60S Subunit Ribosomal Protein L3 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(3):e1004205.
Ribosomal protein L3 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in the assembly of early pre-60S particles. We report that the rpl3[W255C] allele, which affects the affinity and function of translation elongation factors, impairs cytoplasmic maturation of 20S pre-rRNA. This was not seen for other mutations in or depletion of L3 or other 60S ribosomal proteins. Surprisingly, pre-40S particles containing 20S pre-rRNA form translation-competent 80S ribosomes, and translation inhibition partially suppresses 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The GTP-dependent translation initiation factor Fun12 (yeast eIF5B) shows similar in vivo binding to ribosomal particles from wild-type and rpl3[W255C] cells. However, the GTPase activity of eIF5B failed to stimulate processing of 20S pre-rRNA when assayed with ribosomal particles purified from rpl3[W255C] cells. We conclude that L3 plays an important role in the function of eIF5B in stimulating 3′ end processing of 18S rRNA in the context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation. These findings indicate that the correct conformation of the GTPase activation region is assessed in a quality control step during maturation of cytoplasmic pre-ribosomal particles.
Author Summary
Recent progress has provided us with detailed knowledge of the structure and function of eukaryotic ribosomes. However, our understanding of the intricate processes of pre-ribosome assembly and the transition to translation-competent ribosomal subunits remains incomplete. The early and intermediate steps of ribosome assembly occur successively in the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. The pre-ribosomal subunits are then exported to the cytoplasm where final maturation steps, notably including D site cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA, confer subunit joining and translation competence. Recent evidence indicates that pre-40S subunits are subject to a quality control step involving the GTP-dependent translation initiation factor eIF5B/Fun12, in the context of 80S-like ribosomes. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of 60S subunits in promoting 20S pre-rRNA cleavage. In particular, we show that a specific point mutation in the 60S subunit ribosomal protein L3 (rpl3[W255C]) leads to the accumulation of pre-40S particles that contain the 20S pre-rRNA but are translation-competent. Notably, this mutation prevents the stimulation of the GTPase activity of eIF5B/Fun12, which is also required for site D cleavage. We conclude that L3 plays an important role in regulating the function of eIF5B/Fun12 during 3′ end processing of 18S rRNA at site D, in the context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation.
PMCID: PMC3945201  PMID: 24603549
8.  Targeted proteomics reveals compositional dynamics of 60S pre-ribosomes after nuclear export 
A combination of genetic trapping, affinity-capture and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry is used to characterize the dynamic proteome of pre-60S ribosomal particles after nuclear export. These results identify Bud20 as a novel shuttling factor for pre-60S export.
Co-enrichment of assembly and transport factors with maturing pre-ribosomal particles can be reliably and rapidly measured by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS).Genetic trapping and affinity-capture combined with SRM-MS reveal the dynamic proteome pre-60S particles after nuclear export.We identified Bud20 as a novel shuttling factor that facilitates nuclear export of pre-60S particles.Our workflow is a versatile discovery tool to dissect the assembly and transport pathways of diverse large macromolecular assemblies.
Construction and intracellular targeting of eukaryotic pre-ribosomal particles involve a multitude of diverse transiently associating trans-acting assembly factors, energy-consuming enzymes, and transport factors. The ability to rapidly and reliably measure co-enrichment of multiple factors with maturing pre-ribosomal particles presents a major biochemical bottleneck towards revealing their function and the precise contribution of >50 energy-consuming steps that drive ribosome assembly. Here, we devised a workflow that combines genetic trapping, affinity-capture, and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), to overcome this deficiency. We exploited this approach to interrogate the dynamic proteome of pre-60S particles after nuclear export. We uncovered assembly factors that travel with pre-60S particles to the cytoplasm, where they are released before initiating translation. Notably, we identified a novel shuttling factor that facilitates nuclear export of pre-60S particles. Capturing and quantitating protein interaction networks of trapped intermediates of macromolecular complexes by our workflow is a reliable discovery tool to unveil dynamic processes that contribute to their in vivo assembly and transport.
PMCID: PMC3542530  PMID: 23212245
nuclear export; ribosome assembly; selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; targeted proteomics
9.  Role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the Nuclear Export of 40S Pre-Ribosomes 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(8):e1002915.
Nuclear export of mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits (pre40S and pre60S) is fundamental to all eukaryotes. While genetic approaches in budding yeast have identified bona fide export factors for mRNAs and pre60S subunits, little is known regarding nuclear export of pre40S subunits. The yeast heterodimeric transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15 in humans) binds mRNAs and pre60S subunits in the nucleus and facilitates their passage through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm by interacting with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins that line its transport channel. By exploiting a combination of genetic, cell-biological, and biochemical approaches, we uncovered an unanticipated role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the nuclear export of 40S pre-ribosomes. We show that recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to pre40S subunits requires loops emanating from its NTF2-like domains and that the C-terminal FG-rich nucleoporin interacting UBA-like domain within Mex67 contributes to the transport of pre40S subunits to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the same loops also recruit Mex67-Mtr2 to pre60S subunits and to the Nup84 complex, the respective interactions crucial for nuclear export of pre60S subunits and mRNAs. Thus Mex67-Mtr2 is a unique transport receptor that employs a common interaction surface to participate in the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits and mRNAs. Mex67-Mtr2 could engage a regulatory crosstalk among the three major export pathways for optimal cellular growth and proliferation.
Author Summary
Eukaryotic pre-ribosomal subunits (pre40S and pre60S) are one of the largest RNA containing cargos that are transported from the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm. While genetic approaches in budding yeast have identified bona fide export factors for pre60S subunits, little is known regarding nuclear export of pre40S subunits. The conserved transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15 in humans) binds mRNAs and pre60S subunits in the nucleus, and facilitates their passage through the NPC, by interacting with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins that line its transport channel. Here, we report an additional role of Mex67-Mtr2. We show that Mex67-Mtr2 binds pre40S subunits via loops present on its NTF2-like domains and that the C-terminal FG-rich nucleoporin interacting UBA-like domain within Mex67 contributes to the transport of pre40S subunits to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the same loops of Mex67-Mtr2 also contribute to the nuclear export of pre60S subunits and mRNAs. Thus, the transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 could employ a common interaction surface to engage a regulatory crosstalk among the three major export pathways.
PMCID: PMC3431309  PMID: 22956913
10.  Ribosome stalk assembly requires the dual-specificity phosphatase Yvh1 for the exchange of Mrt4 with P0 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;186(6):849-862.
The step by step assembly process from preribosome in the nucleus to translation-competent 60S ribosome subunit in the cytoplasm is revealed (also see Kemmler et al. in this issue).
The ribosome stalk is essential for recruitment of translation factors. In yeast, P0 and Rpl12 correspond to bacterial L10 and L11 and form the stalk base of mature ribosomes, whereas Mrt4 is a nuclear paralogue of P0. In this study, we show that the dual-specificity phosphatase Yvh1 is required for the release of Mrt4 from the pre-60S subunits. Deletion of YVH1 leads to the persistence of Mrt4 on pre-60S subunits in the cytoplasm. A mutation in Mrt4 at the protein–RNA interface bypasses the requirement for Yvh1. Pre-60S subunits associated with Yvh1 contain Rpl12 but lack both Mrt4 and P0. These results suggest a linear series of events in which Yvh1 binds to the pre-60S subunit to displace Mrt4. Subsequently, P0 loads onto the subunit to assemble the mature stalk, and Yvh1 is released. The initial assembly of the ribosome with Mrt4 may provide functional compartmentalization of ribosome assembly in addition to the spatial separation afforded by the nuclear envelope.
PMCID: PMC2753163  PMID: 19797078
11.  Rrp12 and the Exportin Crm1 Participate in Late Assembly Events in the Nucleolus during 40S Ribosomal Subunit Biogenesis 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(12):e1004836.
During the biogenesis of small ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes, the pre-40S particles formed in the nucleolus are rapidly transported to the cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear export of these particles and its coordination with other biogenesis steps are mostly unknown. Here we show that yeast Rrp12 is required for the exit of pre-40S particles to the cytoplasm and for proper maturation dynamics of upstream 90S pre-ribosomes. Due to this, in vivo elimination of Rrp12 leads to an accumulation of nucleoplasmic 90S to pre-40S transitional particles, abnormal 35S pre-rRNA processing, delayed elimination of processing byproducts, and no export of intermediate pre-40S complexes. The exportin Crm1 is also required for the same pre-ribosome maturation events that involve Rrp12. Thus, in addition to their implication in nuclear export, Rrp12 and Crm1 participate in earlier biosynthetic steps that take place in the nucleolus. Our results indicate that, in the 40S subunit synthesis pathway, the completion of early pre-40S particle assembly, the initiation of byproduct degradation and the priming for nuclear export occur in an integrated manner in late 90S pre-ribosomes.
Author Summary
During the synthesis of small ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes, the pre-40S particles formed in the nucleolus are rapidly transported to the cytoplasm. The mechanisms involved in the nuclear export of these particles and its coordination with other steps of the 40S synthesis pathway are mostly unknown. In this work we studied the function of Rrp12, the only major non-ribosomal factor of nuclear pre-40S particles that does not remain stably associated to them during maturation in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate that Rrp12 is required for the exit of pre-40S particles to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, we also found that Rrp12, together with the Crm1 exportin, participates in processes that occur in early pre-ribosomes in the nucleolus, including the processing of the pre-rRNA and the elimination of processing byproducts. Thus, Rrp12 and Crm1 participate in maturation steps that take place upstream of nuclear export. Our results indicate that, in the 40S subunit synthesis pathway, the completion of early pre-40S particle assembly, the initiation of byproduct degradation and the priming for nuclear export occur in an integrated manner in nucleolar pre-ribosomes.
PMCID: PMC4256259  PMID: 25474739
12.  Transportin 3 Promotes a Nuclear Maturation Step Required for Efficient HIV-1 Integration 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(8):e1002194.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a major global health threat and understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of HIV replication is critical for the development of novel therapeutics. To replicate, HIV-1 must access the nucleus of infected cells and integrate into host chromosomes, however little is known about the events occurring post-nuclear entry but before integration. Here we show that the karyopherin Transportin 3 (Tnp3) promotes HIV-1 integration in different cell types. Furthermore Tnp3 binds the viral capsid proteins and tRNAs incorporated into viral particles. Interaction between Tnp3, capsid and tRNAs is stronger in the presence of RanGTP, consistent with the possibility that Tnp3 is an export factor for these substrates. In agreement with this interpretation, we found that Tnp3 exports from the nuclei viral tRNAs in a RanGTP-dependent way. Tnp3 also binds and exports from the nuclei some species of cellular tRNAs with a defective 3′CCA end. Depletion of Tnp3 results in a re-distribution of HIV-1 capsid proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm however HIV-1 bearing the N74D mutation in capsid, which is insensitive to Tnp3 depletion, does not show nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of capsid proteins. We propose that Tnp3 promotes HIV-1 infection by displacing any capsid and tRNA that remain bound to the pre-integration complex after nuclear entry to facilitate integration. The results also provide evidence for a novel tRNA nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathway in human cells.
Author Summary
HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, is a virus that enters the nucleus of infected cells and must integrate its genome into the host cell DNA. Here we show that efficient HIV-1 integration depends on a host cell factor called Transportin 3. We also show that Transportin 3 can export out of the nucleus the viral capsid proteins and viral transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and that this activity is important for HIV-1 integration. We propose that Transportin 3 facilitates a maturation process inside the nucleus by removing remaining capsid proteins and tRNAs still bound to the virus. The mature viral complex, free of any bulky component, can then more easily integrate. Transportin 3 also export certain cellular tRNAs out of the nucleus, presumably as a way to control cell metabolism. By feeding into this tRNA shuttling pathway, HIV-1 can complete its life cycle. Our work sheds new light into the biology of HIV-1 and points to the existence of a new pathway in human cells to shuttle certain tRNAs between nucleus and cytoplasm.
PMCID: PMC3161976  PMID: 21901095
13.  The kinase activity of human Rio1 is required for final steps of cytoplasmic maturation of 40S subunits 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(1):22-35.
hRio1 is an atypical protein kinase of the conserved RIO family. Depletion of hRio1 affects the last step of 18S rRNA maturation and causes defects in recycling of trans-acting factors from pre-40S subunits in the cytoplasm. The kinase activity of hRio1 is essential for recycling of the endonuclease hNob1 and its binding partner hDim2 from pre-40S.
RIO proteins form a conserved family of atypical protein kinases. Humans possess three distinct RIO kinases—hRio1, hRio2, and hRio3, of which only hRio2 has been characterized with respect to its role in ribosomal biogenesis. Here we show that both hRio1 and hRio3, like hRio2, are associated with precursors of 40S ribosomal subunits in human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of hRio1 by RNA interference affects the last step of 18S rRNA maturation and causes defects in the recycling of several trans-acting factors (hEnp1, hRio2, hLtv1, hDim2/PNO1, and hNob1) from pre-40S subunits in the cytoplasm. Although the effects of hRio1 and hRio2 depletion are similar, we show that the two kinases are not fully interchangeable. Moreover, rescue experiments with a kinase-dead mutant of hRio1 revealed that the kinase activity of hRio1 is essential for the recycling of the endonuclease hNob1 and its binding partner hDim2 from cytoplasmic pre-40S. Kinase-dead hRio1 is trapped on pre-40S particles containing hDim2 and hNob1 but devoid of hEnp1, hLtv1, and hRio2. These data reveal a role of hRio1 in the final stages of cytoplasmic pre-40S maturation.
PMCID: PMC3248900  PMID: 22072790
14.  Distinct cytoplasmic maturation steps of 40S ribosomal subunit precursors require hRio2 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;185(7):1167-1180.
During their biogenesis, 40S ribosomal subunit precursors are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where final maturation occurs. In this study, we show that the protein kinase human Rio2 (hRio2) is part of a late 40S preribosomal particle in human cells. Using a novel 40S biogenesis and export assay, we analyzed the contribution of hRio2 to late 40S maturation. Although hRio2 is not absolutely required for pre-40S export, deletion of its binding site for the export receptor CRM1 decelerated the kinetics of this process. Moreover, in the absence of hRio2, final cytoplasmic 40S maturation is blocked because the recycling of several trans-acting factors and cytoplasmic 18S-E precursor ribosomal RNA (rRNA [pre-rRNA]) processing are defective. Intriguingly, the physical presence of hRio2 but not its kinase activity is necessary for the release of hEnp1 from cytoplasmic 40S precursors. In contrast, hRio2 kinase activity is essential for the recycling of hDim2, hLtv1, and hNob1 as well as for 18S-E pre-rRNA processing. Thus, hRio2 is involved in late 40S maturation at several distinct steps.
PMCID: PMC2712965  PMID: 19564402
15.  Poly(A)-binding proteins: multifunctional scaffolds for the post-transcriptional control of gene expression 
Genome Biology  2003;4(7):223.
The poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are highly conserved polypeptides that bind to poly(A) tails of mRNAs. Although they lack catalytic activity, PABPs have several roles, including actions in regulating the length of the poly(A) tail, in regulating the export of mRNAs from the nucleus, in translation initiation and termination, in recycling of ribosomes, and in mRNA stability.
Most eukaryotic mRNAs are subject to considerable post-transcriptional modification, including capping, splicing, and polyadenylation. The process of polyadenylation adds a 3' poly(A) tail and provides the mRNA with a binding site for a major class of regulatory factors, the poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs). These highly conserved polypeptides are found only in eukaryotes; single-celled eukaryotes each have a single PABP, whereas humans have five and Arabidopis has eight. They typically bind poly(A) using one or more RNA-recognition motifs, globular domains common to numerous other eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Although they lack catalytic activity, PABPs have several roles in mediating gene expression. Nuclear PABPs are necessary for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail, regulating its ultimate length and stimulating maturation of the mRNA. Association with PABP is also a requirement for some mRNAs to be exported from the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, PABPs facilitate the formation of the 'closed loop' structure of the messenger ribonucleoprotein particle that is crucial for additional PABP activities that promote translation initiation and termination, recycling of ribosomes, and stability of the mRNA. Collectively, these sequential nuclear and cytoplasmic contributions comprise a cycle in which PABPs and the poly(A) tail first create and then eliminate a network of cis- acting interactions that control mRNA function.
PMCID: PMC193625  PMID: 12844354
16.  Functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein Rpl3p in ribosome synthesis 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(12):4203-4213.
Ribosome synthesis in eukaryotes requires a multitude of trans-acting factors. These factors act at many steps as the pre-ribosomal particles travel from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In contrast to the well-studied trans-acting factors, little is known about the contribution of the ribosomal proteins to ribosome biogenesis. Herein, we have analysed the role of ribosomal protein Rpl3p in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. In vivo depletion of Rpl3p results in a deficit in 60S ribosomal subunits and the appearance of half-mer polysomes. This phenotype is likely due to the instability of early and intermediate pre-ribosomal particles, as evidenced by the low steady-state levels of 27SA3, 27SBS and 7SL/S precursors. Furthermore, depletion of Rpl3p impairs the nucleocytoplasmic export of pre-60S ribosomal particles. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis indicates that Rpl3p-depleted cells arrest in the G1 phase. Altogether, we suggest that upon depletion of Rpl3p, early assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits is aborted and subsequent steps during their maturation and export prevented.
PMCID: PMC1919493  PMID: 17569673
17.  Nucleocytoplasmic Recycling of the Nuclear Localization Signal Receptor α Subunit In Vivo Is Dependent on a Nuclear Export Signal, Energy, and RCC1  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;139(2):313-325.
Nuclear protein import requires a nuclear localization signal (NLS) receptor and at least three other cytoplasmic factors. The α subunit of the NLS receptor, Rag cohort 1 (Rch1), enters the nucleus, probably in a complex with the β subunit of the receptor, as well as other import factors and the import substrate. To learn more about which factors and/or events end the import reaction and how the import factors return to the cytoplasm, we have studied nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Rch1 in vivo. Recombinant Rch1 microinjected into Vero or tsBN2 cells was found primarily in the cytoplasm. Rch1 injected into the nucleus was rapidly exported in a temperature-dependent manner. In contrast, a mutant of Rch1 lacking the first 243 residues accumulated in the nuclei of Vero cells after cytoplasmic injection. After nuclear injection, the truncated Rch1 was retained in the nucleus, but either Rch1 residues 207–217 or a heterologous nuclear export signal, but not a mutant form of residues 207–217, restored nuclear export. Loss of the nuclear transport factor RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation) at the nonpermissive temperature in the thermosensitive mutant cell line tsBN2 caused nuclear accumulation of wild-type Rch1 injected into the cytoplasm. However, free Rch1 injected into nuclei of tsBN2 cells at the nonpermissive temperature was exported. These results suggested that RCC1 acts at an earlier step in Rch1 recycling, possibly the disassembly of an import complex that contains Rch1 and the import substrate. Consistent with this possibility, incubation of purified RanGTP and RCC1 with NLS receptor and import substrate prevented assembly of receptor/substrate complexes or stimulated their disassembly.
PMCID: PMC2139786  PMID: 9334337
18.  Kap120 Functions as a Nuclear Import Receptor for Ribosome Assembly Factor Rpf1 in Yeast†  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(8):3170-3180.
The nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules is mediated by receptors specialized in passage through the nuclear pore complex. The majority of these receptors belong to the importin β protein family, which has 14 members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nine importins carry various cargos from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, whereas four exportins mediate nuclear export. Kap120 is the only receptor whose transport cargo has not been found previously. Here, we characterize Kap120 as an importin for the ribosome maturation factor Rpf1, which was identified in a two-hybrid screen. Kap120 binds directly to Rpf1 in vitro and is released by Ran-GTP. At least three parallel import pathways exist for Rpf1, since nuclear import is defective in strains with the importins Kap120, Kap114, and Nmd5 deleted. Both kap120 and rpf1 mutants accumulate large ribosomal subunits in the nucleus. The nuclear accumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits in kap120 mutants is abolished upon RPF1 overexpression, indicating that Kap120 does not function in the actual ribosomal export step but rather in import of ribosome maturation factors.
PMCID: PMC1446960  PMID: 16581791
19.  Arx1 Is a Nuclear Export Receptor for the 60S Ribosomal Subunit in Yeast 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(2):735-744.
We previously showed that nuclear export of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit relies on Nmd3 in a Crm1-dependent manner. Recently the general mRNA export factor, the Mtr2/Mex67 heterodimer, was shown to act as an export receptor in parallel with Crm1. These observations raise the possibility that nuclear export of the 60S subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires multiple export receptors. Here, we show that the previously characterized 60S subunit biogenesis factor, Arx1, also acts as an export receptor for the 60S subunit. We found that deletion of ARX1 was synthetic lethal with nmd3 and mtr2 mutants and was synthetic sick with several nucleoporin mutants. Deletion of ARX1 led to accumulation of pre-60S particles in the nucleus that were enriched for Nmd3, Crm1, Mex67, and Mtr2, suggesting that in the absence of Arx1, 60S export is impaired even though the subunit is loaded with export receptors. Finally, Arx1 interacted with several nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid as well as in vitro assays. These results show that Arx1 can directly bridge the interaction between the pre-60S particle and the NPC and thus is a third export receptor for the 60S subunit in yeast.
PMCID: PMC2230582  PMID: 18077551
20.  The Conserved Bud20 Zinc Finger Protein Is a New Component of the Ribosomal 60S Subunit Export Machinery 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2012;32(24):4898-4912.
The nuclear export of the preribosomal 60S (pre-60S) subunit is coordinated with late steps in ribosome assembly. Here, we show that Bud20, a conserved C2H2-type zinc finger protein, is an unrecognized shuttling factor required for the efficient export of pre-60S subunits. Bud20 associates with late pre-60S particles in the nucleoplasm and accompanies them into the cytoplasm, where it is released through the action of the Drg1 AAA-ATPase. Cytoplasmic Bud20 is then reimported via a Kap123-dependent pathway. The deletion of Bud20 induces a strong pre-60S export defect and causes synthetic lethality when combined with mutant alleles of known pre-60S subunit export factors. The function of Bud20 in ribosome export depends on a short conserved N-terminal sequence, as we observed that mutations or the deletion of this motif impaired 60S subunit export and generated the genetic link to other pre-60S export factors. We suggest that the shuttling Bud20 is recruited to the nascent 60S subunit via its central zinc finger rRNA binding domain to facilitate the subsequent nuclear export of the preribosome employing its N-terminal extension.
PMCID: PMC3510546  PMID: 23045392
21.  Defining the pathway of cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit 
Molecular cell  2010;39(2):196-208.
In eukaryotic cells the final maturation of ribosomes occurs in the cytoplasm, where trans-acting factors are removed and critical ribosomal proteins are added for functionality. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of cytoplasmic maturation, ordering the known steps into a coherent pathway. Maturation is initiated by the ATPase Drg1. Downstream, assembly of the ribosome stalk is essential for the release of Tif6. The stalk recruits GTPases during translation. Because the GTPase Efl1, which is required for the release of Tif6, resembles the translation elongation factor eEF2, we suggest that assembly of the stalk recruits Efl1, triggering a step in 60S biogenesis that mimics aspects of translocation. Efl1 could thereby provide a mechanism to functionally check the nascent subunit. Finally, the release of Tif6 is a prerequisite for the release of the nuclear export adapter Nmd3. Establishing this pathway provides an important conceptual framework for understanding ribosome maturation.
PMCID: PMC2925414  PMID: 20670889
ribosome; ribosome biogenesis; EFL1; NMD3; TIF6
22.  Retention of OsNMD3 in the cytoplasm disturbs protein synthesis efficiency and affects plant development in rice 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2014;65(12):3055-3069.
Trapping OsNMD3 in the cytoplasm by overexpression of the truncated nuclear localization sequence form in rice alters ribosome assembly and protein synthesis efficiency, leading to pleiotropic abnormalities in plant growth.
The ribosome is the basic machinery for translation, and biogenesis of ribosomes involves many coordinated events. However, knowledge about ribosomal dynamics in higher plants is very limited. This study chose a highly conserved trans-factor, the 60S ribosomal subunit nuclear export adaptor NMD3, to characterize the mechanism of ribosome biogenesis in the monocot plant Oryza sativa (rice). O. sativa NMD3 (OsNMD3) shares all the common motifs and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm via CRM1/XPO1. A dominant negative form of OsNMD3 with a truncated nuclear localization sequence (OsNMD3ΔNLS) was retained in the cytoplasm, consequently interfering with the release of OsNMD3 from pre-60S particles and disturbing the assembly of ribosome subunits. Analyses of the transactivation activity and cellulose biosynthesis level revealed low protein synthesis efficiency in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Pharmaceutical treatments demonstrated structural alterations in ribosomes in the transgenic plants. Moreover, global expression profiles of the wild-type and transgenic plants were investigated using the Illumina RNA sequencing approach. These expression profiles suggested that overexpression of OsNMD3ΔNLS affected ribosome biogenesis and certain basic pathways, leading to pleiotropic abnormalities in plant growth. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that OsNMD3 is important for ribosome assembly and the maintenance of normal protein synthesis efficiency.
PMCID: PMC4071826  PMID: 24723395
Agronomic trait; dominant negative; OsNMD3; ribosome biogenesis; rice; translational efficiency.
23.  Mak5 and Ebp2 Act Together on Early Pre-60S Particles and Their Reduced Functionality Bypasses the Requirement for the Essential Pre-60S Factor Nsa1 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82741.
Ribosomes are the molecular machines that translate mRNAs into proteins. The synthesis of ribosomes is therefore a fundamental cellular process and consists in the ordered assembly of 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) into a small 40S and a large 60S ribosomal subunit that form the translating 80S ribosomes. Most of our knowledge concerning this dynamic multi-step process comes from studies with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have shown that assembly and maturation of pre-ribosomal particles, as they travel from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm, relies on a multitude (>200) of biogenesis factors. Amongst these are many energy-consuming enzymes, including 19 ATP-dependent RNA helicases and three AAA-ATPases. We have previously shown that the AAA-ATPase Rix7 promotes the release of the essential biogenesis factor Nsa1 from late nucleolar pre-60S particles. Here we show that mutant alleles of genes encoding the DEAD-box RNA helicase Mak5, the C/D-box snoRNP component Nop1 and the rRNA-binding protein Nop4 bypass the requirement for Nsa1. Interestingly, dominant-negative alleles of RIX7 retain their phenotype in the absence of Nsa1, suggesting that Rix7 may have additional nuclear substrates besides Nsa1. Mak5 is associated with the Nsa1 pre-60S particle and synthetic lethal screens with mak5 alleles identified the r-protein Rpl14 and the 60S biogenesis factors Ebp2, Nop16 and Rpf1, which are genetically linked amongst each other. We propose that these ’Mak5 cluster’ factors orchestrate the structural arrangement of a eukaryote-specific 60S subunit surface composed of Rpl6, Rpl14 and Rpl16 and rRNA expansion segments ES7L and ES39L. Finally, over-expression of Rix7 negatively affects growth of mak5 and ebp2 mutant cells both in the absence and presence of Nsa1, suggesting that Rix7, at least when excessively abundant, may act on structurally defective pre-60S subunits and may subject these to degradation.
PMCID: PMC3846774  PMID: 24312670
24.  Design principles of nuclear receptor signaling: how complex networking improves signal transduction 
Nuclear receptors often function in the cytoplasm.A triple conveyor belt pumps ligand (signal) into the nucleus and onto the DNA.The active export of importins enhances signaling to the nucleus.Sharing a single nuclear pore may reduce rather than increase crosstalk.
Nuclear receptors (NRs) derive their family name from the early observation that they are located in the nucleus, despite responding to extracellular signals such as hormones (e.g., cortisol) (Fanestil and Edelman, 1966). According to the ‘classical' paradigm of NR signaling, the NR resides in the nucleus, attached to a DNA response element, waiting for its ligand to bind. The actual systems have multiple additional features (reviewed in Cutress et al, 2008; Cao et al, 2009; Levin, 2009a; Bunce and Campbell, 2010), such as that NRs shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Von Knethen et al, 2010) and ligand addition changes receptor location dynamically (Pratt et al, 1989; Liu and DeFranco, 2000; Kumar et al, 2004, 2006; Tanaka et al, 2005; Heitzer et al, 2007; Prüfer and Boudreaux, 2007; Ricketson et al, 2007; Cutress et al, 2008): Figure 1 summarizes the current understanding of the topology of the reaction networks involved in NR signaling, in systems biological graphical notation (SBGN), with NR activation, importin-α and -β binding, nuclear pore complex (NPC)-mediated import, recycling of importins, NR binding to target promoter sequences, exportin-mediated nuclear export of the NR, exportin cycling and free energy-driven Ran recycling. This topology is surprisingly complex when compared with the ‘classical' paradigm. To address to what extent this extra complexity is just detail or contributes essential functionality, we have simulated the dynamics of the NR transcriptional response in maximally realistic mathematical models of increasingly complex designs.
The calculations revealed significant disadvantages of the classical and simplest mechanism for endocrine NR-mediated signaling, i.e., the one with localization of the NR exclusively on the DNA (design 1 in Figure 2A): the transcriptional response was very low (Figure 2B). A high concentration of free NR in the nucleus (design 2) improved sensitivity, but made the responsiveness much slower (Figure 2B). If the NR was equally distributed between the nucleus and the cytoplasm without the NR being able to traverse the nucleocytoplasmic membrane (design 3), then, although the NR diffuses more slowly than the much smaller ligand molecule, the higher concentration of the NR increased flux from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane; the steady state was reached faster (Figure 2B and C; compare design 3 relative to design 2). Enabling the NR to traverse the nucleocytoplasmic membrane (design 4), further accelerated the response (Figure 2B and C).
Designs 1–4 considered the permeation of the NR through the nuclear membrane to be passive, implying an import/export activity ratio of 1. When varying the import to export activity ratio (design 5), a trade-off between the fast responsiveness of design 4 and the high sensitivity of design 2 was calculated (Figure 2B). In order to maximize responsiveness, core-NR should be concentrated in the cytoplasm, whereas to gain sensitivity, liganded NR should be concentrated in the nucleus. This suggested that performance could be improved by making nuclear import and export selective for liganded over unliganded NR (design 6; Figure 2A). Indeed, retention of core-NR in the cytoplasm provided high influx of ligand into the nucleus (Figure 2D), and also the highest concentration of ligand in the nucleus (Figure 2C): Apart from its classical receptor role in transcription regulation, the NR may function as (part of) an active pump for its ligand, resembling a triple conveyor belt: importins and exportins cycle as conveyor belts and drive the cycling of the third conveyor belt consisting of the NR that pumps ligand into the nucleus.
Two other striking features of the NR signaling network (Figure 1) are related to the facts that the energy of GTP hydrolysis is coupled to an active export of importins rather than to direct active import of NR and that the same NPC is used for all transport processes. At first sight, the former may waste free energy and the latter might cause fragility due to interferences between different NRs and other signaling pathways. However, our models show that active nuclear export of importins is a design preventing NR sequestration in the nucleus by nuclear importins and, equally paradoxically, the transport of all cargo through the same NPC makes the transport of any particular cargo robust with respect to perturbations in the availability of any other cargo.
Our calculations also predict that there is an optimal ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic fractions of the NR (Figure 2G) that depends on the specific properties of the ligand and on the transcription activation requirements. This may help to explain the observation that different NRs have different predominant intracellular localizations. Our model calculations are thereby in line with many experimental observations, but specific cases of NR signaling may only exhibit a subset of all features. Our models can aid in identifying which subsets are important in any particular case of NR signaling, as we demonstrate for an example.
In this study, we have shown that complex networks of biochemical and signaling reactions can harbor subtle design principles that can be understood rationally in terms of simplified but not simple models (which are available to the reader).
The topology of nuclear receptor (NR) signaling is captured in a systems biological graphical notation. This enables us to identify a number of ‘design' aspects of the topology of these networks that might appear unnecessarily complex or even functionally paradoxical. In realistic kinetic models of increasing complexity, calculations show how these features correspond to potentially important design principles, e.g.: (i) cytosolic ‘nuclear' receptor may shuttle signal molecules to the nucleus, (ii) the active export of NRs may ensure that there is sufficient receptor protein to capture ligand at the cytoplasmic membrane, (iii) a three conveyor belts design dissipating GTP-free energy, greatly aids response, (iv) the active export of importins may prevent sequestration of NRs by importins in the nucleus and (v) the unspecific nature of the nuclear pore may ensure signal-flux robustness. In addition, the models developed are suitable for implementation in specific cases of NR-mediated signaling, to predict individual receptor functions and differential sensitivity toward physiological and pharmacological ligands.
PMCID: PMC3018161  PMID: 21179018
biochemical network; kinetic model; nuclear receptor; signaling; systems biology
25.  The Novel ATP-Binding Cassette Protein ARB1 Is a Shuttling Factor That Stimulates 40S and 60S Ribosome Biogenesis†  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(22):9859-9873.
ARB1 is an essential yeast protein closely related to members of a subclass of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins that are known to interact with ribosomes and function in protein synthesis or ribosome biogenesis. We show that depletion of ARB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells leads to a deficit in 18S rRNA and 40S subunits that can be attributed to slower cleavage at the A0, A1, and A2 processing sites in 35S pre-rRNA, delayed processing of 20S rRNA to mature 18S rRNA, and a possible defect in nuclear export of pre-40S subunits. Depletion of ARB1 also delays rRNA processing events in the 60S biogenesis pathway. We further demonstrate that ARB1 shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm, cosediments with 40S, 60S, and 80S/90S ribosomal species, and is physically associated in vivo with TIF6, LSG1, and other proteins implicated previously in different aspects of 60S or 40S biogenesis. Mutations of conserved ARB1 residues expected to function in ATP hydrolysis were lethal. We propose that ARB1 functions as a mechanochemical ATPase to stimulate multiple steps in the 40S and 60S ribosomal biogenesis pathways.
PMCID: PMC1280274  PMID: 16260602

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