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1.  Phagocytosis of Necrotic Cells by Macrophages Is Phosphatidylserine Dependent and Does Not Induce Inflammatory Cytokine Production 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(3):1089-1100.
Apoptotic cells are cleared by phagocytosis during development, homeostasis, and pathology. However, it is still unclear how necrotic cells are removed. We compared the phagocytic uptake by macrophages of variants of L929sA murine fibrosarcoma cells induced to die by tumor necrosis factor-induced necrosis or by Fas-mediated apoptosis. We show that apoptotic and necrotic cells are recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages, whereas living cells are not. In both cases, phagocytosis occurred through a phosphatidylserine-dependent mechanism, suggesting that externalization of phosphatidylserine is a general trigger for clearance by macrophages. However, uptake of apoptotic cells was more efficient both quantitatively and kinetically than phagocytosis of necrotic cells. Electron microscopy showed clear morphological differences in the mechanisms used by macrophages to engulf necrotic and apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cells were taken up as condensed membrane-bound particles of various sizes rather than as whole cells, whereas necrotic cells were internalized only as small cellular particles after loss of membrane integrity. Uptake of neither apoptotic nor necrotic L929 cells by macrophages modulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by the phagocytes.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0668
PMCID: PMC363082  PMID: 14668480
2.  Distinct Modes of Macrophage Recognition for Apoptotic and Necrotic Cells Are Not Specified Exclusively by Phosphatidylserine Exposure 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2001;12(4):919-930.
The distinction between physiological (apoptotic) and pathological (necrotic) cell deaths reflects mechanistic differences in cellular disintegration and is of functional significance with respect to the outcomes that are triggered by the cell corpses. Mechanistically, apoptotic cells die via an active and ordered pathway; necrotic deaths, conversely, are chaotic and passive. Macrophages and other phagocytic cells recognize and engulf these dead cells. This clearance is believed to reveal an innate immunity, associated with inflammation in cases of pathological but not physiological cell deaths. Using objective and quantitative measures to assess these processes, we find that macrophages bind and engulf native apoptotic and necrotic cells to similar extents and with similar kinetics. However, recognition of these two classes of dying cells occurs via distinct and noncompeting mechanisms. Phosphatidylserine, which is externalized on both apoptotic and necrotic cells, is not a specific ligand for the recognition of either one. The distinct modes of recognition for these different corpses are linked to opposing responses from engulfing macrophages. Necrotic cells, when recognized, enhance proinflammatory responses of activated macrophages, although they are not sufficient to trigger macrophage activation. In marked contrast, apoptotic cells profoundly inhibit phlogistic macrophage responses; this represents a cell-associated, dominant-acting anti-inflammatory signaling activity acquired posttranslationally during the process of physiological cell death.
PMCID: PMC32276  PMID: 11294896
3.  Release of mitochondrial cytochrome C in both apoptosis and necrosis induced by beta-lapachone in human carcinoma cells. 
Molecular Medicine  1999;5(4):232-239.
BACKGROUND: There are two fundamental forms of cell death: apoptosis and necrosis. Molecular studies of cell death thus far favor a model in which apoptosis and necrosis share very few molecular regulators. It appears that apoptotic processes triggered by a variety of stimuli converge on the activation of a member of the caspase family, such as caspase 3, which leads to the execution of apoptosis. It has been suggested that blocking of caspase activation in an apoptotic process may divert cell death to a necrotic demise, suggesting that apoptosis and necrosis may share some upstream events. Activation of caspase is preceded by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first studied cell death induced by beta-lapachone by MTT and colony-formation assay. To determine whether the cell death induced by beta-lapachone occurs through necrosis or apoptosis, we used the PI staining procedure to determine the sub-G1 fraction and the Annexin-V staining for externalization of phophatidylserine. We next compared the release of mitochondrial cytochrome C in apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome C was determined by Western blot analysis. To investigate changes in mitochondria that resulted in cytochrome C release, the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi) was analyzed by the accumulation of rhodamine 123, a membrane-permeant cationic fluorescent dye. The activation of caspase in apoptosis and necrosis were measured by using a profluorescent substrate for caspase-like proteases, PhiPhiLuxG6D2. RESULTS: beta-lapachone induced cell death in a spectrum of human carcinoma cells, including nonproliferating cells. It induced apoptosis in human ovary, colon, and lung cancer cells, and necrotic cell death in four human breast cancer cell lines. Mitochondrial cytochrome C release was found in both apoptosis and necrosis. This cytochrome C release occurred shortly after beta-lapachone treatment when cells were fully viable by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay, suggesting that cytochrome C release is an early event in beta-lapachone induced apoptosis as well as necrosis. The mitochondrial cytochrome C release induced by beta-lapachone is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta psi). There was activation of caspase 3 in apoptotic cell death, but not in necrotic cell death. This lack of activation of CPP 32 in human breast cancer cells is consistent with the necrotic cell death induced by beta-lapachone as determined by absence of sub-G1 fraction, externalization of phosphatidylserine. CONCLUSIONS: beta-lapachone induces either apoptotic or necrotic cell death in a variety of human carcinoma cells including ovary, colon, lung, prostate, and breast, suggesting a wide spectrum of anti-cancer activity in vitro. Both apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by beta-lapachone are preceded by a rapid release of cytochrome C, followed by the activation of caspase 3 in apoptotic cell death but not in necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that beta-lapachone is a potential anti-cancer drug acting on the mitochondrial cytochrome C-caspase pathway, and that cytochrome C is involved in the early phase of necrosis.
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PMCID: PMC2230323  PMID: 10448645
4.  Two Modes of Cell Death Caused by Exposure to Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70278.
High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity (“nanoelectroporation”), leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1–2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr) does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6–24 hr post nsPEF). These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070278
PMCID: PMC3720895  PMID: 23894630
5.  Constitutive ERK MAP Kinase Activity Regulates Macrophage ATP Production and Mitochondrial Integrity1 
A unique feature of human alveolar macrophages is their prolonged survival in the face of a stressful environment. We have shown previously that the ERK MAP kinase is constitutively active in these cells and is important in prolonging cell survival. This study examines the role of the ERK pathway in maintaining mitochondrial energy production. The data demonstrate that ATP levels in alveolar macrophages depend on intact mitochondria and optimal functioning of the electron transport chain. Significant levels of MEK and ERK localize to the mitochondria and inhibition of ERK activity induces an early and profound depletion in cellular ATP coincident with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The effect of ERK suppression on ATP levels was specific as it did not occur with PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 or JNK suppression. ERK inhibition led to cytosolic release of mitochondrial proteins and caspase activation. Both ERK inhibition and mitochondrial blockers induced loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell death. The cell death induced by ERK inhibition had hallmarks of both apoptotic (caspase activation) and necrotic (ATP loss) cell death. By blocking ERK-inhibition induced reactive oxygen species, caspase activation was prevented, though necrotic pathways continued to induce cell death. This suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction caused by ERK inhibition generates both apoptotic and necrotic cell death-inducing pathways. As a composite, these data demonstrate a novel mitochondrial role for ERK in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in human alveolar macrophages.
PMCID: PMC2410094  PMID: 18490749
Human Macrophages; Lung; Kinases; Apoptosis
6.  Stage-Specific Expression of TNFα Regulates Bad/Bid-Mediated Apoptosis and RIP1/ROS-Mediated Secondary Necrosis in Birnavirus-Infected Fish Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16740.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) can induce Bad-mediated apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis in fish cells, but it is not known how these two types of cell death are regulated by IPNV. We found that IPNV infection can regulate Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic death pathways via the up-regulation of TNFα in zebrafish ZF4 cells. Using a DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, two major subsets of differentially expressed genes were characterized, including the innate immune response gene TNFα and the pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bid. In the early replication stage (0–6 h post-infection, or p.i.), we observed that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα underwent a rapid six-fold induction. Then, during the early-middle replication stages (6–12 h p.i.), TNFα level was eight-fold induction and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad and Bid were up-regulated. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of TNFα expression (AG-126 or TNFα-specific siRNA) were used to block apoptotic and necrotic death signaling during the early or early-middle stages of IPNV infection. Inhibition of TNFα expression dramatically reduced the Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic cell death pathways and rescued host cell viability. Moreover, we used Rip1-specific inhibitors (Nec-1 and Rip1-specific siRNA) to block Rip1 expression. The Rip1/ROS-mediated secondary necrotic pathway appeared to be reduced in IPNV-infected fish cells during the middle-late stage of infection (12–18 h p.i.). Taken together, our results indicate that IPNV triggers two death pathways via up-stream induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, and these results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RNA viruses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016740
PMCID: PMC3033425  PMID: 21304825
7.  C1q Differentially Modulates Phagocytosis and Cytokine Responses during Ingestion of Apoptotic Cells by Human Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells1 
C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is also a pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. C1q deficiency in humans leads to development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, and it has been speculated that impaired clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to disease development. Since phagocytes initiate specific and appropriate immune responses as a result of initial ligand-receptor interactions, regulation of gene expression by C1q may also contribute to the sculpting of an immune response to the ingested “self-Ags.” In this study, the role of C1q in apoptotic cell clearance and subsequent modulation of cytokine release by phagocytes was assessed including donor matched human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), and dendritic cells (DCs). First, C1q binding is much greater to late compared with early apoptotic cells. Second, C1q binding to apoptotic cells significantly enhanced the levels of ingestion by monocytes but had no effect on HMDM and DC uptake. Third, in the presence of serum, C1q bound to apoptotic cells, activated the complement pathway, leading to C3b deposition, and enhancement of uptake of apoptotic cells by monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs. Finally, although C1q, either immobilized on a plate or bound to apoptotic cells, modulates the LPS-induced cytokine levels released by human monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs toward a more limited immune response, both the degree and direction of modulation differed significantly depending on the differentiation state of the phagocyte, providing further evidence of the integration of these cell- and environment-specific signals in determining appropriate immune responses.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902232
PMCID: PMC2843563  PMID: 19864605
8.  The role of death effector domain (DED)-containing proteins in acute oxidative cell injury in hepatocytes 
Free radical biology & medicine  2012;52(9):1911-1917.
Apoptosis is a mechanism that regulates hepatic tissue homeostasis and contributes to both acute and chronic injury in liver disease. The apoptotic signaling cascade involves activation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and subsequent recruitment of proteins containing death-effector domains (DED) which regulate downstream effector molecules. Prominent among these are the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and the cellular caspase 8 (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and alterations of these proteins can lead to severe disruption of physiological processes including acute liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. Their role in cell signaling events independent of the DISC remains undetermined. Oxidative stress can cause cell injury from direct effects on molecules or by activating intracellular signaling pathways including the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). In this context, prolonged activation of the cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1/cJun signaling pathway promotes hepatocellular apoptosis, while activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk) exerts protection. We investigated the role of FADD and cFLIP in acute oxidant stress induced by the superoxide generator menadione in hepatocytes. Menadione resulted in dose-dependent predominantly necrotic cell death. Hepatocytes expressing a truncated, dominant-negative FADD protein were partially protected, while cFLIP-deficient hepatocytes displayed increased cell death from menadione. In parallel, Erk phosphorylation was enhanced in hepatocytes expressing dnFADD and decreased in cFLIP-deficient hepatocytes. Hepatocyte injury was accompanied by increased release of proapoptotic factors and increased JNK/cJun activation. Thus, FADD and cFLIP contribute to the regulation of cell death from acute oxidant stress in hepatocytes involving MAPK signaling. This implies that DED-containing proteins are involved in the regulation of cellular survival beyond their role in cell death receptor-ligand mediated apoptosis.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.049
PMCID: PMC3341470  PMID: 22406316
FADD; cFLIP; oxidant stress; MAPK; apoptosis; hepatocyte
9.  Dynamics of Nontypical Apoptotic Morphological Changes Visualized by Green Fluorescent Protein in Living Cells with Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(6):5056-5063.
Morphologically, apoptotic cells are characterized by highly condensed membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. Recently, we reported that apoptosis precedes necrosis in a fish cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). In the present study, we tested the possibility that nontypical apoptosis is a component of IPNV-induced fish cell death. A variant type of green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was expressed in a fish cell line such that EGFP served as a protein marker for visualizing dynamic apoptotic cell morphological changes and for tracing membrane integrity changes during IPNV infection. Direct morphological changes were visualized by fluorescence microscopy by EGFP in living cells infected with IPNV. The nontypical apoptotic morphological change stage occurred during the pre-late stage (6 to 7 h postinfection). Nontypical apoptotic features, including highly condensed membrane blebbing, occurred during the middle apoptotic stage. At the pre-late apoptotic stage, membrane vesicles quickly formed, blebbed, and were finally pinched off from the cell membrane. At the same time, at this pre-late apoptotic stage, apoptotic cells formed unique small holes in their membranes that ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 μm according to examination by scanning electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. Quantitation of the intra- and extracellular release of EGFP by CHSE-214-EGFP cells after IPNV infection was done by Western blotting and fluorometry. Membrane integrity was quickly lost during the late apoptotic stage (after 8 h postinfection), and morphological change and membrane integrity loss could be prevented and blocked by treatment with apoptosis inhibitors such as cycloheximide, genistein, and EDTA before IPNV infection. Together, these findings show the apoptotic features at the onset of pathology in host cells (early and middle apoptotic stages), followed secondarily by nontypical apoptosis (pre-late apoptotic stage) and then by postapoptotic necrosis (late apoptotic stage), of a fish cell line. Our results demonstrate that nontypical apoptosis is a component of IPNV-induced fish cell death.
PMCID: PMC112550  PMID: 10233968
10.  Photodynamic Treatment Induces an Apoptotic Pathway Involving Calcium, Nitric Oxide, p53, p21-Activated Kinase 2, and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase and Inactivates Survival Signal in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells 
Photodynamic treatment (PDT) elicits a diverse range of cellular responses, including apoptosis. Previously, we showed that PDT stimulates caspase-3 activity, and subsequent cleavage and activation of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) in human epidermal carcinoma A431 cells. In the current study, pretreatment with nitric oxide (NO) scavengers inhibited PDT-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, p21-activated protein kinase 2 (PAK2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and gene expression of p53 and p21 involved in apoptotic signaling. Moreover, PAK2 activity was required for PDT-induced JNK activation and apoptosis. Inhibition of p53 mRNA expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) additionally blocked activation of PAK2 and apoptosis induced by PDT. Importantly, our data also show that PDT triggers cell death via inactivation of ERK-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway. PDT triggers cell death via inactivation of the HSP90/multi-chaperone complex and subsequent degradation of Ras, further inhibiting anti-apoptotic processes, such as the Ras→ERK signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, we did not observe two-stage JNK activation for regulation of PAK2 activity in the PDT-induced apoptotic pathway in HUVECs, which was reported earlier in A431 cells. Based on the collective results, we have proposed a model for the PDT-triggered inactivation of the survival signal and apoptotic signaling cascade with Rose Bengal (RB), which sequentially involves singlet oxygen, Ca2+, NO, p53, caspase-9, caspase-3, PAK2, and JNK.
doi:10.3390/ijms12021041
PMCID: PMC3083688  PMID: 21541041
PDT; apoptosis; calcium; NO
11.  GRP78-targeting subtilase cytotoxin sensitizes cancer cells to photodynamic therapy 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(7):e741-.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accumulating evidence indicate that GRP78 is overexpressed in many cancer cell lines, and contributes to the invasion and metastasis in many human tumors. Besides, GRP78 upregulation is detected in response to different ER stress-inducing anticancer therapies, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study demonstrates that GRP78 mRNA and protein levels are elevated in response to PDT in various cancer cell lines. Stable overexpression of GRP78 confers resistance to PDT substantiating its cytoprotective role. Moreover, GRP78-targeting subtilase cytotoxin catalytic subunit fused with epidermal growth factor (EGF-SubA) sensitizes various cancer cells to Photofrin-mediated PDT. The combination treatment is cytotoxic to apoptosis-competent SW-900 lung cancer cells, as well as to Bax-deficient and apoptosis-resistant DU-145 prostate cancer cells. In these cells, PDT and EGF-SubA cytotoxin induce protein kinase R-like ER kinase and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 branches of UPR and also increase the level of C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) homologous protein, an ER stress-associated apoptosis-promoting transcription factor. Although some apoptotic events such as disruption of mitochondrial membrane and caspase activation are detected after PDT, there is no phosphatidylserine plasma membrane externalization or DNA fragmentation, suggesting that in DU-145 cells the late apoptotic events are missing. Moreover, in SW-900 cells, EGF-SubA cytotoxin potentiates PDT-mediated cell death but attenuates PDT-induced apoptosis. In addition, the cell death cannot be reversed by caspase inhibitor z-VAD, confirming that apoptosis is not a major cell death mode triggered by the combination therapy. Moreover, no typical features of necrotic or autophagic cell death are recognized. Instead, an extensive cellular vacuolation of ER origin is observed. Altogether, these findings indicate that PDT and GRP78-targeting cytotoxin treatment can efficiently kill cancer cells independent on their apoptotic competence and triggers an atypical, non-apoptotic cell death.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.265
PMCID: PMC3730435  PMID: 23887632
GRP78; subtilase cytotoxin; cancer; photodynamic therapy
12.  Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 triggers proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2010;51(4):1226-1236.
Regulation of hepatocellular apoptosis is crucial for liver homeostasis. Increased sensitivity of hepatocytes towards apoptosis results in chronic liver injury, whereas apoptosis resistance is linked to hepatocarcinogenesis and non-responsiveness to therapy-induced cell death. Recently, we have demonstrated an essential role of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in hepatocyte survival. In mice lacking Mcl-1 specifically in hepatocytes (Mcl-1Δhep) spontaneous apoptosis caused severe liver damage. Here, we demonstrate that chronically increased apoptosis of hepatocytes coincides with strong hepatocyte proliferation resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver cell tumor formation was observed in >50% of Mcl-1Δhep mice already by the age of 8 months, whereas 12 month-old wild-type and heterozygous Mcl-1flox/wt mice lacked tumors. Tumors revealed a heterogenous spectrum ranging from small dysplastic nodules to HCC. The neoplastic nature of the tumors was confirmed by histology, expression of the HCC marker glutamine synthetase and chromosomal aberrations. Liver carcinogenesis in Mcl-1Δhep mice was paralleled by markedly increased levels of survivin, an important regulator of mitosis which is selectively overexpressed in common human cancers.
Conclusion
The present study provides in vivo evidence that increased apoptosis of hepatocytes not only impairs liver homeostasis but is also accompanied by hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. Our findings might have implications for understanding apoptosis-related human liver diseases.
The survival of multicellular organisms depends on the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Under physiological conditions apoptosis contributes to liver homeostasis by removing damaged hepatocytes. Proliferation, growth and programmed hepatocyte cell death are highly coordinated and tightly controlled events in the normal liver (1).
On the one hand, increased apoptosis sensitivity contributes to liver injury. On the other hand, defective apoptosis was demonstrated to lead to excessive hepatocellular survival and has emerged as a major mechanism by which pre-malignant hepatocytes obtain a competitive advantage over normal liver cells (2). Various molecular alterations have been characterized causing an imbalance in the regulation of apoptosis. Among these are alterations in p53 signalling, expression of death receptors, growth factors and mitochondrial integrity (3). Decreased activity of pro-apoptotic signalling as well as increased activity of anti-apoptotic events are associated with HCC development and progression (4).
Among the main cellular changes that trigger apoptosis of hepatocytes is the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane followed by the release of pro-apoptotic factors (5). The Bcl-2 protein family plays a pivotal role for mitochondrial integrity and the selective interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic family members regulate mitochondrial activation (6). Bcl-2 family members are similar within the Bcl-2 homology regions (BH1-BH4) and can be divided in pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.
Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins comprise (1) multi-domain members, which lack the BH4 domain (e.g. Bax, Bak), and (2) BH3-only proteins, which lack BH1, 2 and 4 domains (e.g. Bid, Noxa, Puma). BH3-only proteins initiate the mitochondrial signalling cascade by sensing cellular damage (7). After activation, BH3-only proteins are released to neutralise anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Subsequently, Bax and Bak trigger mitochondrial membrane leakage and the release of mitochondrial proteins, including cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low pI) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Smac/DIABLO proteins inactivate the IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins) family, which consists of IAP1/2, BRUCE, NAIP, ILP2, ML-IAP, survivin and XIAP. XIAP is a direct caspase inhibitor. Other IAPs including survivin have several functions apart from caspase inhibition, eg, triggering of ubiquitination processes (8). Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (eg, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), interact with Bax and Bak to inhibit the activation of mitochondria (7).
Both Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 have been identified as major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the liver (9-11). Liver homeostasis is severely disturbed in Mcl-1Δhep mice (10, 11). Spontaneous hepatocyte apoptosis was observed in livers of Mcl-1Δhep mice in profound liver cell damage and increased susceptibility of hepatocytes towards pro-apoptotic stimuli (10). In addition, Mcl-1 has been shown to be highly expressed in a subset of human HCC, contributing to apoptosis resistance of cancer cells (12, 13). Thus, abrogation of the pro-survival function of Mcl-1 (1) either by diminishing its levels or (2) by inactivating its function, have shown promising results with regards to treatment of HCC (12, 13).
In this study, we show that liver-specific depletion of Mcl-1 increases hepatocyte apoptosis, induces hepatocellular proliferation and causes HCC in the absence of overt inflammation.
doi:10.1002/hep.23479
PMCID: PMC2936921  PMID: 20099303
liver; hepatocellular carcinoma; apoptosis; Bcl-2 proteins; survivin
13.  Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway 
eLife  2013;2:e01004.
Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-α is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001
eLife digest
The tissues of developing organisms can be shaped by apoptosis, a form of regulated cell killing. Although this process can occur in individual cells, apoptotic signals may also dictate the ‘communal death’ of many cells simultaneously. This occurs frequently in animal development: in human fetuses, for example, cells in the hand are directed to die to remove webbing between the fingers.
Apoptosis has been thought to resemble a form of silent suicide by cells, but more recent work suggests that apoptotic cells can also transmit signals. Now, Pérez-Garijo et al. find that these cells can stimulate other cells to die in both fruit flies and mice.
In fruit flies, apoptosis is activated by proteins known as Grim, Hid and Reaper. To explore whether apoptotic cells could communicate with other cells, Pérez-Garijo et al. created ‘undead’ cells in which one of these proteins was turned on, but other downstream proteins (that are responsible for the cellular execution phase of apoptosis) had been turned off: these cells were undergoing apoptosis, but could not complete the process and die.
Strikingly, undead cells in the posterior (back) region of the wing imaginal disc—the tissue in the larva that gives rise to the wing in the adult fruit fly—could trigger apoptosis in cells in the anterior (front) half. Pérez-Garijo et al. found that the JNK pathway activated apoptosis in anterior cells. In fruit flies, the Eiger protein turns on this pathway; when Eiger was absent from posterior cells in the wing imaginal disc, apoptosis in anterior cells ceased, indicating that Eiger might signal at long range.
Eiger is related to a protein called TNF that has been implicated in cycles of destruction and renewal of hair follicles in mice. Pérez-Garijo et al. found that TNF is produced by apoptotic cells in hair follicles, and that blocking TNF inhibits the death of other cells in the same cohort: this suggests that a common mechanism could regulate the communal death of cells in flies and mammals. These studies therefore shed light on a conserved pathway in the modulation of tissue development.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.01004
PMCID: PMC3779319  PMID: 24066226
apoptosis; TNF; signaling by apoptotic cells; JNK pathway; hair follicle cycle; cell death; D. melanogaster; Mouse
14.  H. pylori Infection Inhibits Phagocyte Clearance of Apoptotic Gastric Epithelial Cells 
Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of H. pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR+ mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive apoptotic epithelial cell material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in apoptotic epithelial cell clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the apoptotic epithelial cells by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-α, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared to uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells and higher levels of non-phagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1203330
PMCID: PMC3725581  PMID: 23686492
15.  Phosphatidylserine-dependent ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes TGF-β1 secretion and the resolution of inflammation 
Ingestion of apoptotic cells in vitro by macrophages induces TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect and suppression of proinflammatory mediators. Here, we show in vivo that direct instillation of apoptotic cells enhanced the resolution of acute inflammation. This enhancement appeared to require phosphatidylserine (PS) on the apoptotic cells and local induction of TGF-β1. Working with thioglycollate-stimulated peritonea or LPS-stimulated lungs, we examined the effect of apoptotic cell uptake on TGF-β1 induction. Viable or opsonized apoptotic human Jurkat T cells, or apoptotic PLB-985 cells, human monomyelocytes that do not express PS during apoptosis, failed to induce TGF-β1. PS liposomes, or PS directly transferred onto the PLB-985 surface membranes, restored the TGF-β1 induction. Apoptotic cell instillation into LPS-stimulated lungs reduced proinflammatory chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Additionally, total inflammatory cell counts in the BALF were markedly reduced 1–5 days after apoptotic cell instillation, an effect that could be reversed by opsonization or coinstillation of TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. This reduction resulted from early decrease in neutrophils and later decreases in lymphocytes and macrophages. In conclusion, apoptotic cell recognition and clearance, via exposure of PS and ligation of its receptor, induce TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in accelerated resolution of inflammation.
doi:10.1172/JCI11638
PMCID: PMC150814  PMID: 11781349
16.  Serum-dependent processing of late apoptotic cells for enhanced efferocytosis 
Cell Death & Disease  2014;5(5):e1264-.
Binding of the serum protein complement component C1q to the surface of dying cells facilitates their clearance by phagocytes in a process termed efferocytosis. Here, we investigate during which phase of apoptotic cell death progression C1q binding takes place. Purified C1q was found to bind to all dying cells and, albeit weaker, also to viable cells. The presence of serum abrogated completely the binding to viable cells. In addition, C1q binding to dying cells was limited to a specific subpopulation of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. Co-culturing serum-treated apoptotic cells with human monocytes revealed a much higher phagocytosis of C1q-positive than of C1q-negative late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. But this phagocytosis-promoting activity could not be observed with purified C1q. Serum-treated C1q-positive late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells exhibited a similar volume, a similar degraded protein composition, but a much lower DNA content in comparison with the remaining late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. This was mediated by a serum-bound nuclease activity that could be abrogated by G-actin, which is a specific inhibitor of serum DNase I. These results show that serum factors are involved in the prevention of C1q binding to viable cells and in the processing of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells promoting cell death progression toward apoptotic bodies. This process leads to the exposure of C1q-binding structures and facilitates efferocytosis.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.210
PMCID: PMC4047901  PMID: 24874736
complement component C1q; phagocytosis; serum; efferocytosis
17.  Simultaneous Induction of Non-Canonical Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells by ROS-Dependent ERK and JNK Activation 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e9996.
Background
Chemotherapy-induced reduction in tumor load is a function of apoptotic cell death, orchestrated by intracellular caspases. However, the effectiveness of these therapies is compromised by mutations affecting specific genes, controlling and/or regulating apoptotic signaling. Therefore, it is desirable to identify novel pathways of cell death, which could function in tandem with or in the absence of efficient apoptotic machinery. In this regard, recent evidence supports the existence of a novel cell death pathway termed autophagy, which is activated upon growth factor deprivation or exposure to genotoxic compounds. The functional relevance of this pathway in terms of its ability to serve as a stress response or a truly death effector mechanism is still in question; however, reports indicate that autophagy is a specialized form of cell death under certain conditions.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We report here the simultaneous induction of non-canonical autophagy and apoptosis in human cancer cells upon exposure to a small molecule compound that triggers intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Whereas, silencing of beclin1 neither inhibited the hallmarks of autophagy nor the induction of cell death, Atg 7 or Ulk1 knockdown significantly abrogated drug-induced H2O2-mediated autophagy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that activated extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are upstream effectors controlling both autophagy and apoptosis in response to elevated intracellular H2O2. Interestingly, inhibition of JNK activity reversed the increase in Atg7 expression in this system, thus indicating that JNK may regulate autophagy by activating Atg7. Of note, the small molecule compound triggered autophagy and apoptosis in primary cells derived from patients with lymphoma, but not in non-transformed cells.
Conclusions/Significance
Considering that loss of tumor suppressor beclin 1 is associated with neoplasia, the ability of this small molecule compound to engage both autophagic and apoptotic machineries via ROS production and subsequent activation of ERK and JNK could have potential translational implications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009996
PMCID: PMC2848860  PMID: 20368806
18.  Modified Annexin V/Propidium Iodide Apoptosis Assay For Accurate Assessment of Cell Death 
Studies of cellular apoptosis have been significantly impacted since the introduction of flow cytometry-based methods. Propidium iodide (PI) is widely used in conjunction with Annexin V to determine if cells are viable, apoptotic, or necrotic through differences in plasma membrane integrity and permeability1,2. The Annexin V/ PI protocol is a commonly used approach for studying apoptotic cells3. PI is used more often than other nuclear stains because it is economical, stable and a good indicator of cell viability, based on its capacity to exclude dye in living cells 4,5. The ability of PI to enter a cell is dependent upon the permeability of the membrane; PI does not stain live or early apoptotic cells due to the presence of an intact plasma membrane 1,2,6. In late apoptotic and necrotic cells, the integrity of the plasma and nuclear membranes decreases7,8, allowing PI to pass through the membranes, intercalate into nucleic acids, and display red fluorescence 1,2,9. Unfortunately, we find that conventional Annexin V/ PI protocols lead to a significant number of false positive events (up to 40%), which are associated with PI staining of RNA within the cytoplasmic compartment10. Primary cells and cell lines in a broad range of animal models are affected, with large cells (nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios <0.5) showing the highest occurrence10. Herein, we demonstrate a modified Annexin V/ PI method that provides a significant improvement for assessment of cell death compared to conventional methods. This protocol takes advantage of changes in cellular permeability during cell fixing to promote entry of RNase A into cells following staining. Both the timing and concentration of RNase A have been optimized for removal of cytoplasmic RNA. The result is a significant improvement over conventional Annexin V/ PI protocols (< 5% events with cytoplasmic PI staining).
doi:10.3791/2597
PMCID: PMC3169266  PMID: 21540825
19.  Multisite phosphorylation of c-Jun at threonine 91/93/95 triggers the onset of c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(10):e852-.
Cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis by trophic/potassium (TK) deprivation is a model of election to study the interplay of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways in neuronal cell death. In this model, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces pro-apoptotic genes through the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor. On the other side, a survival pathway initiated by lithium leads to repression of pro-apoptotic c-Jun/AP-1 target genes without interfering with JNK activity. Yet, the mechanism by which lithium inhibits c-Jun activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we used this model system to study the regulation and function of site-specific c-Jun phosphorylation at the S63 and T91/T93 JNK sites in neuronal cell death. We found that TK-deprivation led to c-Jun multiphosphorylation at all three JNK sites. However, immunofluorescence analysis of c-Jun phosphorylation at single cell level revealed that the S63 site was phosphorylated in all c-Jun-expressing cells, whereas the response of T91/T93 phosphorylation was more sensitive, mirroring the switch-like apoptotic response of CGCs. Conversely, lithium prevented T91T93 phosphorylation and cell death without affecting the S63 site, suggesting that T91T93 phosphorylation triggers c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity. Accordingly, a c-Jun mutant lacking the T95 priming site for T91/93 phosphorylation protected CGCs from apoptosis, whereas it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Vice versa, a c-Jun mutant bearing aspartate substitution of T95 overwhelmed lithium-mediate protection of CGCs from TK-deprivation, validating that inhibition of T91/T93/T95 phosphorylation underlies the effect of lithium on cell death. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed multiphosphorylation of c-Jun at T91/T93/T95 in cells. Moreover, JNK phosphorylated recombinant c-Jun at T91/T93 in a T95-dependent manner. On the basis of our results, we propose that T91/T93/T95 multiphosphorylation of c-Jun functions as a sensitivity amplifier of the JNK cascade, setting the threshold for c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in neuronal cells.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.381
PMCID: PMC3824690  PMID: 24113186
c-Jun; JNK; cell death; neurons; trophic/potassium deprivation; lithium
20.  Dlk/ZIP kinase-induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells: requirement of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(11):1801-1808.
Dlk/ZIP kinase is a member of the Death Associated Protein (DAP) kinase family of pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinases that have been implicated in regulation of apoptosis and tumour suppression. Expression of both Dlk/ZIP kinase and its interaction partner Par-4 is maintained in four medulloblastoma cell lines investigated, whereas three of seven neuroblastoma cell lines have lost expression of Par-4. Overexpression of a constitutively pro-apoptotic deletion mutant of Dlk/ZIP kinase induced significant apoptosis in D283 medulloblastoma cells. Cell death was characterized by apoptotic membrane blebbing, and a late stage during which the cells had ceased blebbing and were drastically shrunken or disrupted into apoptotic bodies. Over-expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein had no effect on Dlk/ZIP kinase-induced membrane blebbing, but potently inhibited Dlk/ZIP kinase-induced cytochrome c release and transition of cells to late stage apoptosis. Treatment with caspase inhibitors delayed, but did not prevent entry into late stage apoptosis. These results demonstrate that Dlk/ZIP kinase-triggered apoptosis involves the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. However, cell death proceeded in the presence of caspase inhibitors, suggesting that Dlk/ZIP kinase is able to activate alternative cell death pathways. Alterations of signal transduction pathways leading to Dlk/ZIP kinase induced apoptosis or loss of expression of upstream activators could play important roles in tumour progression and metastasis of neural tumours. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2158
PMCID: PMC2363987  PMID: 11742505
Dlk/ZIP kinase; DAP kinase family; apoptosis; mitochondria; Bcl-2 family; medulloblastoma
21.  Mertk Receptor Mutation Reduces Efferocytosis Efficiency and Promotes Apoptotic Cell Accumulation and Plaque Necrosis in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Apoe−/− Mice 
Objective
Atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to disruption and acute thrombotic vascular events are characterized by large necrotic cores. Necrotic cores result from the combination of macrophage apoptosis and defective phagocytic clearance (efferocytosis) of these apoptotic cells. We previously showed that macrophages with tyrosine kinase-defective Mertk receptor (MertkKD) have a defect in phagocytic clearance of apoptotic macrophages in vitro. Herein we test the hypothesis that the MertkKD mutation would result in increased accumulation of apoptotic cells and promote necrotic core expansion in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results
MertkKD;Apoe−/− mice and control Apoe−/− mice were fed a Western-type diet for 10 or 16 wks, and aortic root lesions were analyzed for apoptosis and plaque necrosis. We found that the plaques of the MertkKD;Apoe−/− mice had a significant increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Most importantly, there were more non-macrophage-associated apoptotic cells in the MertkKD lesions, consistent with defective efferocytosis. The more advanced (16-wk) MertkKD;Apoe−/− plaques were more necrotic, consistent with a progression from apoptotic cell accumulation to plaque necrosis in the setting of a defective efferocytosis receptor.
Conclusion
In a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, mutation of the phagocytic Mertk receptor promotes the accumulation of apoptotic cells and the formation of necrotic plaques. These data are consistent with the notion that a defect in an efferocytosis receptor can accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis and suggest a novel therapeutic target to prevent advanced plaque progression and its clinical consequences.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.167197
PMCID: PMC2575060  PMID: 18451332
Atherosclerosis-Pathophysiology; Apoptosis; Phagocytosis; Animal models of human disease
22.  Macrophage Response to Apoptotic Cells Varies with the Apoptotic Trigger and Is Not Altered by a Deficiency in LRP Expression 
Journal of Innate Immunity  2010;2(3):248-259.
Rapid engulfment of apoptotic cells in the absence of inflammation is required for maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP/CD91) is a receptor mediating interactions between macrophages and apoptotic cells, but recent reports have challenged the requirement of this surface protein in this process. To explore the role of LRP in the recognition of apoptotic cells, target cells were generated with two distinct inducers of apoptotic cell death, etoposide and actinomycin-D. Jurkat T cells rendered apoptotic with etoposide exposed phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and triggered engulfment by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), however they failed to suppress lipopolysaccharide-driven inflammatory cytokine secretion or, correspondingly, NFκB-dependent or TNFα promoter-driven transcriptional activity in transfected RAW264.7 macrophages. In contrast, induction of apoptosis in either Jurkat cells or HeLa epithelial cells with actinomycin-D resulted in diminution of proinflammatory signaling from RAW264.7 cells and BMDM. Treatment of actinomycin-treated Jurkat cells with Q-VD-OPh, an irreversible inhibitor of caspase activity, blocked apoptosis, as assessed by the inhibition of PtdSer exposure; however, the cells maintained anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory signaling mediated by actinomycin-treated cells was not affected by a macrophage-specific deletion in LRP. Moreover, the presence of LRP on macrophages did not alter the efficiency of engulfment of apoptotic cells in vitro or in vivo. These data demonstrate that the method of induction of apoptosis of target cells influences subsequent macrophage responsiveness, and that LRP is not required for engulfment of apoptotic cells regardless of the method of induction.
doi:10.1159/000295790
PMCID: PMC2956015  PMID: 20375555
Actinomycin-D; Apoptotic cells; Etoposide; LRP; Macrophages; Phagocytosis
23.  Stathmin Mediates Hepatocyte Resistance to Death from Oxidative Stress by down Regulating JNK 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109750.
Stathmin 1 performs a critical function in cell proliferation by regulating microtubule polymerization. This proliferative function is thought to explain the frequent overexpression of stathmin in human cancer and its correlation with a bad prognosis. Whether stathmin also functions in cell death pathways is unclear. Stathmin regulates microtubules in part by binding free tubulin, a process inhibited by stathmin phosphorylation from kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The involvement of JNK activation both in stathmin phosphorylation, and in hepatocellular resistance to oxidative stress, led to an examination of the role of stathmin/JNK crosstalk in oxidant-induced hepatocyte death. Oxidative stress from menadione-generated superoxide induced JNK-dependent stathmin phosphorylation at Ser-16, Ser-25 and Ser-38 in hepatocytes. A stathmin knockdown sensitized hepatocytes to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death from menadione without altering levels of oxidant generation. The absence of stathmin during oxidative stress led to JNK overactivation that was the mechanism of cell death as a concomitant knockdown of JNK1 or JNK2 blocked death. Hepatocyte death from JNK overactivation was mediated by the effects of JNK on mitochondria. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization occurred in stathmin knockdown cells at low concentrations of menadione that triggered apoptosis, whereas mitochondrial β-oxidation and ATP homeostasis were compromised at higher, necrotic menadione concentrations. Stathmin therefore mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down regulating JNK and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which stathmin promotes cell survival and potentially tumor growth.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109750
PMCID: PMC4186850  PMID: 25285524
24.  An essential role for calcium flux in phagocytes for apoptotic cell engulfment and the anti-inflammatory response 
Cell death and differentiation  2009;16(10):1323-1331.
Cells undergo programmed cell death/apoptosis throughout the lifespan of an organism. The subsequent immunologically silent removal of apoptotic cells plays a role in the maintenance of tolerance; defects in corpse clearance have been associated with autoimmune disease. A number of receptors and signaling molecules involved in this process have been identified, but intracellular signaling downstream of corpse recognition is only being defined. Calcium plays a key role as a second messenger in many cell types, leading to the activation of downstream molecules and eventual transcription of effector genes, however, the role of calcium signaling during apoptotic cell removal is unclear. Here, using studies in cell lines and in the context of a whole organism, we demonstrate that apoptotic cell recognition induces both an acute and sustained calcium flux within phagocytes and that genes required for calcium flux are essential for engulfment. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and the entry of extracellular calcium via CRAC channels into the phagocytes are important during engulfment. Moreover, knockdown in C. elegans of stim-1 and jph-1, two genes linked to the entry of extracellular calcium into cells, led to increased persistence of apoptotic cells in the nematode. Loss of these genes appeared to affect early signaling events, leading to decreased enrichment of actin adjacent to the apoptotic cell during corpse removal. We also show that calcium is crucial for the secretion of TGF-β by phagocytes during engulfment of apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data point to a previously unappreciated and evolutionarily conserved role for calcium flux at two distinguishable steps: the formation of the phagocytic cup and internalization of the apoptotic cell, and the antiinflammatory signaling induced in phagocytes by contact with apoptotic cells.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2009.55
PMCID: PMC2856475  PMID: 19461656
25.  Apoptotic microtubules delimit an active caspase free area in the cellular cortex during the execution phase of apoptosis 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(3):e527-.
Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane, which has an important role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane permeability. The aim of this study was to examine the role of AMN in maintaining plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis. We demonstrated in camptothecin-induced apoptosis in H460 cells that AMN delimits an active caspase free area beneath plasma membrane that permits the preservation of cellular cortex and transmembrane proteins. AMN depolymerization in apoptotic cells by a short exposure to colchicine allowed active caspases to reach the cellular cortex and cleave many key proteins involved in plasma membrane structural support, cell adhesion and ionic homeostasis. Cleavage of cellular cortex and plasma membrane proteins, such as α-spectrin, paxilin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), E-cadherin and integrin subunit β4 was associated with cell collapse and cell detachment. Otherwise, cleavage-mediated inactivation of calcium ATPase pump (PMCA-4) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) involved in cell calcium extrusion resulted in calcium overload. Furthermore, cleavage of Na+/K+ pump subunit β was associated with altered sodium homeostasis. Cleavage of cell cortex and plasma membrane proteins in apoptotic cells after AMN depolymerization increased plasma permeability, ionic imbalance and bioenergetic collapse, leading apoptotic cells to secondary necrosis. The essential role of caspase-mediated cleavage in this process was demonstrated because the concomitant addition of colchicine that induces AMN depolymerization and the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD avoided the cleavage of cortical and plasma membrane proteins and prevented apoptotic cells to undergo secondary necrosis. Furthermore, the presence of AMN was also critical for proper phosphatidylserine externalization and apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. These results indicate that AMN is essential to preserve an active caspase free area in the cellular cortex of apoptotic cells that allows plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.58
PMCID: PMC3613836  PMID: 23470534
apoptosis; microtubules; cytoskeleton; caspases; secondary necrosis

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