Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBT) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. We review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive literature search was conducted in Spring 2007. In total 33 studies were reviewed—26 epidemiological and 7 intervention studies. Findings suggest that some theoretical constructs have received fairly consistent support (e.g., self-efficacy, social norms), while others have yielded inconsistent or null results (e.g., perceived susceptibility, knowledge, behavioral intentions, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, response efficacy, perceived severity). We offer some possible explanations for these inconsistent findings, including differences in theoretical constructs and measures across studies and a need to examine the environmental structures that influence risky behaviors. Greater integration of CBT with a risk environment perspective may yield more conclusive findings and more effective interventions in the future.
HIV risk behavior; injection drug use; Cognitive Behavioral Theory; literature review
To examine correlates of sexual experimentation and risk among urban, early adolescent girls (N = 236, 12.38 ± 1.2 years).
Measures of HIV risk-related attitudes, interpersonal influences, and intentions were compared based on girls’ degree of sexual experimentation and risk.
Girls in high sexual experimentation and risk groups scored highest on deviant peer norms; endorsements of risky behaviors; and inability to refuse unprotected sex, offset negative partner influences, avoid intercourse, and assert sexual desires. Greater experimentation occurred among girls with older versus same-age or younger partners.
Risk correlates should be considered in designing HIV prevention programs.
early adolescent females; HIV infection risks; psychosocial influences
Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior, underscoring the need for targeted, effective, prevention interventions geared toward this population. In a randomized controlled trial, 484 detained adolescents received a theory-based intervention or an information-only control. We have previously demonstrated that the theory-based intervention was superior to the control condition in changing theoretical mediators and in producing longitudinal decreases in risky sexual behavior. In the present study, we examined differential response to the intervention based on the adolescents’ level of positive outlook (composed of self-esteem, perceived control over the future and optimism toward the future). Changes to putative theoretical mediators (attitudes, perceived norms, self-efficacy and intentions) were measured immediately post-intervention, and behavioral data were obtained 3, 6, 9 and 12 months later. Positive outlook significantly moderated program effects both in the context of the mediational path model and in the context of the longitudinal growth model. Specifically, intervention effects were strongest for those scoring relatively lower on the positive outlook dimension, whereas adolescents high in positive outlook demonstrated greater attitudes and self-efficacy and decreased risky sexual behavior, regardless of condition. Findings are discussed in terms of targeting and tailoring of intervention content.
This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was administered to a sample of 522 African-American female adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18, residing in the southeast United States and participating in a sexual risk reduction intervention. The WASO demonstrated internal consistency across multiple administrations and yielded satisfactory construct validity. Worry was found to negatively correlate with sexual communication self-efficacy (with a new male partner and a steady male partner), frequency of sexual communication with male partner, attitudes about condom use and social support; worry was positively correlated with perceived barriers to condom use, condom negotiation, locus of control and depression. Overall, the results indicate that the WASO is a reliable and valid measure of assessing adolescents’ worry about STIs, HIV and pregnancy. The WASO represents a brief self-administered instrument that can be easily integrated into sexual risk reduction assessments and interventions. Future studies employing the WASO might consider testing it with more diverse samples in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, age and sexual orientation.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.
A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents’ individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents’ susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a “chat room” experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social norms communicated either by high-peer-status (i.e., popular, well-liked) or low-peer-status (i.e., unpopular, disliked) grade mates who actually were electronic confederates. Changes in adolescents’ responses before and after exposure to peer norms were used as a measure of peer influence susceptibility. These same adolescents completed a questionnaire assessment at the study outset and again 18 months later to assess their actual engagement in deviant behavior and their perceptions of their best friend’s engagement in deviant behavior. Only among adolescents with high levels of susceptibility to high-status peers was a significant longitudinal association revealed between their best friend’s baseline deviant behavior and adolescents’ own deviant behavior 18 months later. Findings support the predictive validity of a performance-based susceptibility measure and suggest that adolescents’ peer influence susceptibility may generalize across peer contexts.
peer influence; deviant/delinquent behavior; susceptibility; adolescents
We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles.
China; Normative beliefs; Sexually transmitted infection; Gender roles
HIV is disproportionately prevalent among Blacks. Black women most often contract HIV from having risky sex, and adolescence is a time when risky sex behaviors peak. This study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of an intervention designed to help Black adolescent girls avoid risky sex behaviors. The intervention included group education for girls followed by a service learning opportunity in which the girls practiced the assertiveness and communication skills they had learned in the education sessions, and individual education for the girls’ mothers. The intervention was guided by a risk and protective factors framework and by the goal of promoting racial/ethnic pride in the girls. We determined that the intervention was feasible. Schools allowed recruitment of potential participants and the use of their facilities for meeting with the girls. We encountered little participant dropout from the study, and the intervention was highly regarded by the girls who participated and their mothers. We found improvements in aspects of the girls’ relationships with their mothers, their sexual assertiveness, and their self-efficacy to use condoms.
We investigated alcohol-related sexual risk behavior from the perspective of social norms theory. Adults (N = 895, 62% men) residing in a South African township completed street-intercept surveys that assessed risk and protective behaviors (e.g., multiple partners, drinking before sex, meeting sex partners in shebeens, condom use) and corresponding norms. Men consistently overestimated the actual frequency of risky behaviors, as reported by the sample, and underestimated the frequency of condom use. Relative to actual attitudes, men believed that other men were more approving of risk behavior and less approving of condom use. Both behavioral and attitudinal norms predicted the respondents' self-reported risk behavior. These findings indicate that correcting inaccurate norms in HIV-risk reduction efforts is worthwhile.
Alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and risky driving from adolescence into young adulthood were compared by drinking onset age.
Surveys were administered in Grades 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, 10, 12, and at approximately age 23. Participants were placed into Drinking Onset groups based on self-reported alcohol use frequency on the adolescent surveys. Driving records were examined in three age periods: under 21, 21–25, and 26+.
The earliest drinking initiators reported higher alcohol use and misuse on each survey, and were more likely to have risky driving offenses before age 21 and to have alcohol driving offenses in all three age periods.
The earliest drinking initiators engaged in risky drinking behavior and risky driving behavior that was consistently higher than those with later drinking initiation, beginning in adolescence and persisting well into young adulthood.
Adolescent; Young Adult; Underage Drinking; Driving
Cycling is a complex activity requiring motor, sensory and cognitive skills that develop at different rates from childhood to adolescence. While children can successfully ride a two-wheeled bicycle at age five or six, judgment of road hazards are poor at that age and matures slowly until adult-like judgment is reached in early adolescence. Safe cycling depends on the care, skills and judgment of cyclists and motorists; roadway design that promotes safe coexistence of bicycles and motor vehicles; and the use of safety devices, including bicycle helmets, lights and reflective tape. Whereas, research into optimal roadway design and educational programs for drivers to improve road safety has yielded contradictory results, the benefits of bicycle helmet use and programs to enhance their use have been clearly shown. This paper has the following objectives for paediatricians and family physicians:
To understand the relationship between bicycle safety and children’s motor and cognitive skills.To understand the effectiveness and limitations of strategies to improve bicycle safety.To describe activities to promote bicycle safety that physicians can undertake in clinical settings and in the community.
Advocacy; Bicycle helmet; Bicycle safety; Physician counselling
The researchers undertook to identify the factors that are most likely to influence children's intentions to use bicycle helmets. To determine the most important intention influencing factors, a random sample of 797 students in grades 4 through 6 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning their beliefs about helmet use. They were asked about their perceptions of the risk of riding bicycles unprotected, the severity of possible head injuries, and about other bicycle-safety related behaviors. Factors that best predicted the student's intentions to use bicycle helmets involved both behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs. Analysis of factors influencing those with low intentions to use helmets, compared to those with high intentions, suggests the most effective messages that health planners can provide preadolescents to influence them to use helmets. They are that helmet use is fun and attractive, helmets provide a new look and a sporting image, and friends approve of and value this behavior. Parents, and particularly mothers, can reinforce their children's intentions to use helmets and their involvement should be encouraged.
Cellular phone use (CPU) is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents.
A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age.
The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts.
There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.
Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teenagers and in many instances appear linked to negative peer influences on adolescent driving behavior. This article examines a range of developmental and structural factors that potentially increase the risks associated with adolescent driving. Developmental risk factors for adolescents include a propensity toward engaging in deviant and risky behavior, a desire to please peers, and the potential cost to an adolescent of alienating peers with his or her behavior while driving. Structural features of the driving situation that create risks for negative peer influences on driving behavior include the inability of adolescents to look at peers who may be pressuring them, divided attention, the need to behave in a conventional manner among peers who may not value conventional behavior, and the lack of accountability by peers for the effects of any risky driving they promote. A range of potential peer influences are considered, including passive and active distraction and direct disruption of driving, as well as more positive influences, such as peer modeling of good driving behavior and positive reinforcement of good driving. Although the range of risk factors created by peers is large, this range presents a number of promising targets for intervention to improve teen driving safety.
The authors investigated whether a causal-indicator model or an effect-indicator model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is more suitable for predicting behavioral intention and for which behaviors. No previous studies have evaluated this question using the same sample and same behavior. In this study, African American adolescents ages 12–17 participating in risk reduction classes were assessed on their initial attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention regarding condom use. Second-order structural equation modeling indicated that the effect-indicator model exhibited superior fit above the causal-indicator model. Furthermore, modeling the behavioral antecedents in a causal way may not be as accurate due to the underlying uni-dimensional nature of attitudes, subjective norms, and control. The TPB was not disconfirmed as a suitable model for African American adolescents’ regarding condom use. Prevention programs may benefit by focusing on adolescent behavior change with regard to the global components in order to influence more specific concepts of these social cognitions. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Despite limitations including correlational data, this study yields implications for prevention programming and, more broadly, an important theoretical elaboration on effect-indicator and causal-indicator models of the TPB.
African American adolescents; Theory of planned behavior; Condom use intentions; Effect indicator model
Adolescents and young adults account for over 10 million HIV infections worldwide. Prevention of secondary transmission is a major concern as many HIV-positive youth continue to engage in risky sexual behavior. This study pilot-tested “+CLICK”, an innovative, web-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive youth as an adjunct to traditional clinic-based, self-management education. The theory-based application, developed for perinatally and behaviorally infected youth 13–24 years of age, provides tailored activities addressing attitudes, knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy related to sexual risk reduction. HIV-positive youth (N = 32) pilot-tested “+CLICK” to assess usability (ease of use, credibility, understandability, acceptability, motivation) and short-term psychosocial outcomes (importance and self-efficacy related to abstinence and condom use) using a single group, pre-/post-test study design in a hospital-based pediatric clinic and community locations. A subsample of participants (n = 20) assessed feasibility for clinic use. Participants were 62.5% female, 68.8% Black, and 28.1% Hispanic. Mean age was 17.8 years (SD = 2.55), 43.8% were infected behaviorally, 56.2% perinatally, and 68.8% were sexually experienced. Usability ratings were high: 84.4% rated the application very easy to use; 93.8% perceived content as trustworthy; 87.5% agreed most words were understandable; 87.5% would use the application again. Short-term psychosocial outcomes indicate a significant increase in condom use self-efficacy (p = 0.008) and positive trends toward importance (p = 0.067) and self-efficacy (p = 0.071) for waiting before having sex. Regarding feasibility, participants accessed “+CLICK” during waiting periods (average time, 15 minutes) in their routine clinic visit. Clinic staff rated “+CLICK” highly in providing consistent, confidential, and motivational sexual health education without significant disruption to clinic flow. Results suggest that the application is a feasible tool for use in the clinic and has the potential to affect psychological antecedents to sexual behavior change. Further research on long-term and behavioral effects is indicated prior to broader dissemination into clinical practice.
HIV-positive; youth; computer-based interventions; behavioral interventions; self-management training
Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community.
Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors.
Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving.
For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points.
Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them.
Driving; personality; aggression; risk-taking; drink/driving; motor vehicle offenses; points
European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention interventions based on social influences approaches have had limited success. The attitudes-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model is a social cognition model that states smoking behaviour is determined by smoking intention which, in turn, is predicted by seven ASE determinants; disadvantages, advantages, social acceptance, social norms, modelling, perceived pressure, self-efficacy. Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model. The ASE model is, thus, closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This study assessed the utility of the ASE model using cross-sectional data from Spanish and UK adolescents.
In 1997, questionnaires were simultaneously administered to Spanish (n = 3716) and UK adolescents (n = 3715) who were considered at high risk of smoking. Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions.
All UK participants were aged 12 or 13 and most Spanish participants were aged between 12 and 14 (range 12–16 years). Amongst 12 and 13 year olds, regular smoking was more common in Spain. Almost half the participants were female (47.2% in Spain; 49.9% in the UK). Gender did not vary significantly according to age.
The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention. The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country. Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale) but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants.
The findings suggest resisting peer pressure interventions could potentially influence smoking amongst UK adolescents but not Spanish adolescents. Interventions that promote self-efficacy, on the other hand, would possibly have a greater influence on smoking amongst Spanish adolescents.
The ASE model may not capture important cultural factors related to adolescent smoking and the relative contribution of particular ASE determinants to adolescent smoking intentions may differ between countries. Future European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention programmes may benefit from greater undestanding of country-level cultural norms.
To examine the effect of a community-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening program on sexual risk behavior among African-American adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents testing positive for an STI and receiving post-test counseling would reduce risky sexual practices, whereas STI-negative adolescents would show little or no change in protective sexual behavior after screening.
From August 2006 to January 2008, we recruited 636 sexually active African American adolescents (ages 14–17) from community-based organizations in two mid-sized U.S. cities with high STI prevalence. Participants were screened for three STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis) and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Youth who tested positive for an STI (6.6%) received treatment and counseling. Youth testing negative received no further intervention. Approximately 85% of participants completed 3- and 6 month follow-up assessments. Generalized estimating equations determined the effects of STI screening on adolescents' number of sexual partners and occurrence of unprotected sex.
Adolescents who tested positive for an STI reduced their number of vaginal and oral sex partners and the probability of unprotected sex. STI-negative adolescents demonstrated no change in numbers of partners or in unprotected sex.
Community-based STI screening can help to reduce sexual risk behavior in youth who test positive for STIs. Alternative approaches will be needed to reduce risk behavior in youth who test negative but who are nevertheless at risk for acquiring an STI.
community-based STI screening; STI/HIV prevention; African-American adolescents
The availability of candidate gene markers for biobehavioral traits will undoubtedly result in increasing attention to genetic influences in studies of childhood risk factors for health behaviors. However, a strict emphasis on genomics without consideration of the social contexts that give rise to risky behaviors will miss opportunities to understand more fully the powerful effect of the family on childhood development. This article discusses the rationale for using the family as a critical context for studying the translation of genetic propensity for risky behavior into developmental pathways that span childhood and adolescence. Attention is given to the importance of family environmental factors; the emerging literature on genetic influences on potential intermediate phenotypes; the need for rich and detailed characterizations of both phenotypes and environmental risk factors embedded within genomic studies of children; and implications for interventions and preventions aimed at risky behaviors. Via discussion of these issues, pragmatic considerations of how studying families as a context may facilitate the thoughtful inclusion of children into genetic paradigms are emphasized.
childhood; developmental pathways; genomics; shared environment; substance use
The links between youth’s daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers’, fathers’, and two adolescent-age siblings’ cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day’s free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers’ familism values were related to youth’s time in religious activities, and that parents’ educational values were linked to youth’s time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents’ cultural practices and values, particularly fathers’, moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment.
Adolescence; Time use; Culture; Mexican American; Family processes; Adjustment
Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity, emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we found that risk-taking declines linearly from childhood to adulthood when individuals make choices over monetary gambles. Further, with age we found increases in the sensitivity to economic risk, defined as the degree to which a preference for assured monetary gains over a risky payoff depends upon the variability in the risky payoff. These findings indicate that decisions about economic risk may follow a different developmental trajectory than other kinds of risk-taking, and that changes in sensitivity to risk may be a major factor in the development of mature risk aversion.
risk; decision-making; gambling; child development; risk preference
Adolescent alcohol use is a significant public health problem. Drinking before 13 years of age is correlated to the use of illicit drugs, and other risky behaviors, such as cigarette smoking.
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between adolescents’ early alcohol use and participation in risky behaviors such as smoking marijuana and cigarettes, as well as risky sexual behaviors.
Respondents for this cross-sectional secondary analysis came from a sample of 809 racially diverse adolescents in a community-based study examining familial influences on offspring outcomes.
Early-onset drinking, compared to nondrinking, was significantly related to participating in many of the risky behaviors. Many of the relationships persisted in the multivariable models that adjusted for demographic characteristics.
Early drinking was associated with participation in various risky behaviors (e.g., multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse) which may negatively alter an adolescent’s future. Screening should focus on the co-occurrence of such behaviors.
early alcohol use; risky behaviors; binge drinking; adolescents; marijuana
There has been excellent research in adolescent medicine in the last few years, research that is beginning to document the effectiveness of programs that can reduce high-risk behaviors. Adolescent clinics that feature medical care, condom availability, and clinic-based health education may change knowledge but do not change behavior. Linked programs that feature curriculum-based health education, conflict resolution, mentoring, and vocational and jobs programs may change knowledge and reduce risky behavior. There is little knowledge of what the pre-participation opinion of the teenagers is about such services. In this descriptive study of the first 46 entrants into a new teen clinic for males, clients were surveyed about which programs were desirable. Most of the clients felt medical care and free condoms were important. Many felt job-related services were desired. One half felt a general support group and health education related to sexually transmissible infections was desirable. Education about the types of services that are potentially effective may need to be provided to adolescent males to empower them to choose appropriate services.