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1.  Outcome of locking compression plates in humeral shaft nonunions 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2013;47(2):150-155.
Background:
Nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus are frequently seen in clinical practice (incidence of up to 15% in certain studies) and osteosynthesis using dynamic compression plates, intra medullary nails and Ilizarov fixators have been reported previously. Locking compression plates (LCP) are useful in the presence of disuse osteoporosis, segmental bone loss and cortical defects that preclude strong fixation. We report a prospective followup study of the outcome of the use of LCP for humeral nonunion following failed internal fixation in which implants other than LCP had been used.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty four patients with nonunion of humeral shaft fractures following failed internal fixation were included in the study. The mean followup period was 3.4 years (range: 2.4 to 5.7 years) and the minimum followup period was 2 years. Mean age of the patients was 41.04 years (range: 24 to 57 years). All 24 patients underwent osteosynthesis using LCP and autologous bone grafting (cortico-cancellous iliac crest graft combined with or without fibular strut graft). Main outcome measurements included radiographic assessment of fracture union and pre and postoperative functional evaluation using the modified Constant and Murley scoring system.
Results:
23 out of 24 fractures united following osteosynthesis. Average time to union was 16 weeks (range: 10 to 28 weeks). Complications included delayed union (n = 2), transient radial nerve palsy (n = 2) and persistent nonunion (n = 1). Functional evaluation using the Constant and Murley score showed excellent results in 11, good in 10, fair in two and poor outcome in one patient.
Conclusions:
Locking compression plating and cancellous bone grafting is a reliable option for achieving union in humeral diaphyseal nonunion with failed previous internal fixation and results in good functional outcome in patients with higher physiological demands.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.108899
PMCID: PMC3654464  PMID: 23682176
Nonunion humerus; internal fixation of humerus; locking compression plates; osteosynthesis
2.  Ilizarov’s method for treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(4):444-447.
Background:
Nonunion in diaphyseal fractures of the humerus can be treated by various modalities like plating and bone grafting, exchange nailing, fibular strut grafting and Ilizarov’s method of ring fixation. To achieve union in infected nonunion in which multiple surgeries have already been done is further challenging. We conducted a prospective study wherein the outcome of the treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus by Ilizarov’s method was analyzed.
Materials and Methods:
Nineteen patients with diaphyseal nonunion of the humerus were treated by Ilizarov’s external fixator. These included nonunion after plating (n=11), intramedullary nailing (n=1) or conservative methods (n=7). In post-surgical infected nonunion (n=6), the implants were removed, debridement done, bone fragments were docked followed by application of ring fixator and compression. In aseptic nonunion (n=13), distraction for three weeks followed by compression was the protocol. Early shoulder and elbow physiotherapy was instituted. The apparatus was removed after clinical and radiological union and the results were assessed for bone healing and functional status.
Results:
Fracture union was achieved in all the 19 cases. Pin site infection was seen in 2 cases (10.52%). The bone healing results were excellent in eighteen cases (94.73%) and good in one case (5.26%).The functional results were found to be excellent in fourteen cases (73.68%), good in four (21.05%) and fair in one case (5.26%).
Conclusion:
Ilizarov’s method is an excellent option for treatment of septic and aseptic non union of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus as it addresses all the problems associated with non union of the humerus like infection, deformity and joint stiffness.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.69319
PMCID: PMC2947734  PMID: 20924488
Non union humerus; Ilizarov’s ring fixator; bone healing
3.  Nonunited humerus shaft fractures treated by external fixator augmented by intramedullary rod 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(1):58-64.
Background:
Nonunion of humeral shaft fractures after previously failed surgical treatment presents a challenging therapeutic problem especially in the presence of osteoporosis, bone defect, and joint stiffness. It would be beneficial to combine the use of external fixation technique and intramedullary rod in the treatment of such cases. The present study evaluates the results of using external fixator augmented by intramedullary rod and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) for the treatment of humerus shaft nonunion following previously failed surgical treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Eighteen patients with atrophic nonunion of the humeral shaft following previous implant surgery with no active infection were included in the present study. The procedure included exploration of the nonunion, insertion of intramedullary rod (IM rod), autogenous ICBG and application of external fixator for compression. Ilizarov fixator was used in eight cases and monolateral fixator in ten cases. The monolateral fixator was preferred for females and obese patients to avoid abutment against the breast or chest wall following the use of Ilizarov fixator. The fixator was removed after clinical and radiological healing of the nonunion, but the IM rod was left indefinitely. The evaluation of results included both bone results (union rate, angular deformity and limb shortening) and functional outcome using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale.
Results:
The mean follow-up was 35 months (range 24 to 52 months). Bone union was obtained in all cases. The functional outcome was satisfactory in 15 cases (83%) and unsatisfactory in 3 cases (17%) due to joint stiffness. The time to bone healing averaged 4.2 months (range 3 to 7 months). The external fixator time averaged 4.5 months (range 3.2 to 8 months). Superficial pin tract infection occurred in 39% (28/72) of the pins. No cases of nerve palsy, refracture, or deep infection were encountered.
Conclusion:
The proposed technique is effective in treating humeral nonunion especially in the presence of osteoporosis and short bone segments. The inclusion of intramedullary rod as internal splint improves stability of fixation and prevents refracture after fixator removal.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.91636
PMCID: PMC3270607  PMID: 22345808
Humerus; nonunion; external fixation; intramedullary fixation
4.  Osteosynthesis of femoral-neck nonunion with angle blade plate and autogenous fibular graft 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):827-832.
Purpose
Revision internal fixation for femoral-neck nonunion is a challenging procedure. Treatment options are osteotomy, osteosynthesis using various implants and grafting techniques (muscle pedicle, vascularised or nonvascularised fibular graft) or arthroplasty. The objective of this article is to report the outcome of revision internal fixation using an angle blade plate and autogenous fibular graft in symptomatic aseptic femoral-neck nonunion.
Methods
Twenty-two patients who had been treated previously with cannulated screws or dynamic hip screw for femoral-neck fracture and progressed to nonunion were treated with revision internal fixation using an angle blade plate and autogenous nonvascularised fibular graft. Mean patient age was 38 (range 21–52) years, with average duration between injury and revision surgery 11.2m (range 8–16 months).
Results
Other than one nonunion, we achieved union in all patients (21 patients, 91%) after an average period of 4.4 months. The functional outcome after 3.2 years as per scoring system given by Nagi et al.. showed excellent results in four, good in ten, fair in six and poor in two patients. Patients with poor results included one with nonunion and other with avascular necrosis with collapse of the femoral head. Average limb shortening was 1.5 cm, and mean femoral-neck-shaft angle was 116°. There was no instance of fibular graft fracture, slippage or implant cut-through.
Conclusion
Angle blade plate provides rigid stability and offloads any shearing force over the fibular graft when used for revision internal fixation in aseptic femoral-neck nonunion. Thus, the fibular graft only serves the purpose of osteogenesis and stimulates the surrounding host cells to promote healing at the nonunion site. We recommend the angle blade plate and autogenous fibular graft as a viable option for hip-joint salvage in revision internal fixation of aseptic femoral-neck nonunion.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1344-1
PMCID: PMC3311820  PMID: 21881882
5.  A Case Series and Review of Salvage Surgery for Refractory Humeral Shaft Nonunion following Two or More Prior Surgical Procedures 
The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal  2005;25:194-199.
The orthopedic surgery literature is replete with techniques for managing primary humeral shaft nonunions, with success rates upwards of 90 percent with plate fixation and autogenous bone grafting. Despite this success, persistent nonunion following one or more initial failed nonunion interventions can occur, imposing a significant clinical and surgical challenge. We report the application of a standard treatment protocol for refractory humeral shaft nonunions including optimization of patient co-morbidities in the peri-operative period, rigid 4.5mm compression plating with a minimum of eight cortices of fixation proximal and distal to the nonunion site, and utilization of autogenous bone grafting. This study, a retrospective review of seven patients, all managed based on this standard treatment protocol, revealed that all achieved fracture nonunion within six months of revision surgery. Six of seven patients were clinically satisfied with the outcome of surgery; one remained dissatisfied secondary to a chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. Although more complex surgical options such as Ilizarov external fixation and allograft cortical strut augmentation have been reported, and are available in the salvage situation of refractory humeral nonunions, we conclude strict application of basic nonunion principles can result in successful salvage of humerus nonunions in patients who have failed two or more prior surgical interventions.
PMCID: PMC1888765  PMID: 16089097
6.  Gap nonunion of forearm bones treated by modified Nicoll's technique 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(1):84-88.
Background:
The management of an atrophic nonunion with a gap following a fracture of the radius and/or ulna is a challenging problem. Various methods of treatment available in the literature are cortical tibial graft (Boyd), ulnar segment graft (Miller and Phalen), iliac crest graft (Spira), cancellous insert graft (Nicoll), vascularized fibular graft (Jupiter), and bone transport by ring fixator (Tesworth). The present study reports the results of tricorticocancellous bone block grafts using modified Nicoll's technique, in diaphyseal defects of forearm bones.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 38 forearm bones (either radius or ulna or both) in 23 patients with a gap of 1.5–7.5 cm were treated by debridement and tricorticocancellous bone block graft under compression with intramedullary nail fixation between June 1985 and June 2005. There were 15 male and 8 female patients. Sixteen patients had open and seven patients had closed fractures initially. Time of presentation since the original injury varied from 9 months to 84 months. Eighteen patients had already undergone one to three operations.
Results:
Thirty-six bones showed union at both host graft junctions. The mean duration of union was 17.5 weeks (range, 14–60 weeks). Two bones had union only at one host graft junction and did not show any evidence of callus formation up to 9 months on the other end, hence requiring subsequent procedure in the form of phemister bone grafting. Patients were followed for a minimum period of 2 years (range, 2–7 years). Results were based on the status of union and range of motion (ROM) for elbow/wrist and grip strength at the final follow-up. Complications observed were the reactivation of infection (n = 1) and herniation of the muscles at the donor site (n = 1).
Conclusion:
The tricorticocancellous strut bone grafting under optimal compression, augmented with intramedullary fixation, provides a promising solution to difficult problem of an atrophic nonunion of forearms bones with gap.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.58611
PMCID: PMC2822425  PMID: 20165682
Gap nonunion of radius/ulna; intramedullary fixation; tricorticocancellous strut bone graft
7.  Fibular fixation as an adjuvant to tibial intramedullary nailing in the treatment of combined distal third tibia and fibula fractures: a biomechanical investigation 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2008;51(1):45-50.
Objective
Distal third tibia fractures have classically been treated with standard plating, but intramedullary (IM) nailing has gained popularity. Owing to the lack of interference fit of the nail in the metaphyseal bone of the distal tibia, it may be beneficial to add rigid plating of the fibula to augment the overall stability of fracture fixation in this area. This study sought to assess the biomechanical effect of adding a fibular plate to standard IM nailing in the treatment of distal third tibia and fibula fractures.
Methods
Eight cadaveric tibia specimens were used. Tibial fixation consisted of a solid titanium nail locked with 3 screws distally and 2 proximally, and fibular fixation consisted of a 3.5 mm low-contact dynamic compression plate. A section of tibia and fibula was removed. Testing was accomplished with an MTS machine. Each leg was tested 3 times; with and without a fibular plate and with a repetition of the initial test condition. Vertical displacements were tested with an axial load up to 500 N, and angular rotation was tested with torques up to 5 N•m.
Results
The difference in axial rotation was the only statistically significant finding (p = 0.003), with fibular fixation resulting in 1.1° less rotation through the osteotomy site (17.96° v. 19.10°). Over 35% of this rotational displacement occurred at the nail–locking bolt interface with the application of small torsional forces.
Conclusion
Fibular plating in addition to tibial IM fixation of distal third tibia and fibula fractures leads to slightly increased resistance to torsional forces. This small improvement may not be clinically relevant.
PMCID: PMC2386295  PMID: 18248705
8.  Osteogenic Protein-1 for Long Bone Nonunion 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the efficacy of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) for long bone nonunion.
Clinical Need
Although most fractures heal within a normal period, about 5% to 10% do not heal and are classified as delayed or nonunion fractures. Nonunion and segmental bone loss after fracture, reconstructive surgery, or lesion excision can present complex orthopedic problems, and the multiple surgical procedures often needed are associated with patient morbidity and reduced quality of life.
Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of a delayed union or nonunion fractures, including deficiencies of calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin C, and side effects of medications such as anticoagulants, steroids, some anti-inflammatory drugs, and radiation. It has been shown that smoking interferes with bone repair in several ways.
Incidence of Nonunion and Delayed Union Cases
An estimated 5% to 10% of fractures do not heal properly and go on to delayed union or nonunion. If this overall estimate of incidence were applied to the Ontario population1, the estimated number of delayed union or nonunion in the province would be between 3,863 and 7,725.
Treatment of Nonunion Cases
The treatment of nonunion cases is a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. However, the basic principle behind treatment is to provide both mechanical and biological support to the nonunion site.
Fracture stabilization and immobilization is frequently used with the other treatment modalities that provide biological support to the fractured bone. Biological support includes materials that could be served as a source of osteogenic cells (osteogenesis), a stimulator of mesenchymal cells (osteoinduction), or a scaffold-like structure (osteoconduction).
The capacity to heal a fracture is a latent potential of the stromal stem cells, which synthesize new bone. This process has been defined as osteogenesis. Activation of the stem cells to initiate osteogenic response and to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts is called osteoinduction. These 2 properties accelerate the rate of fracture healing or reactivate the ineffective healing process. Osteoconduction occurs when passive structures facilitate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells, the perivascular tissue, and capillaries into these structures.
Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes
Bone graft and bone graft substitutes have one or more of the following components:
Undifferentiated stem cells
Growth factors
Structural lattice
Undifferentiated stem cells are unspecialized, multipotential cells that can differentiate into a variety of specialized cells. They can also replicate themselves. The role of stem cells is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are residing. A single stem cell can generate all cell types of that tissue. Bone marrow is a source of at least 2 kinds of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells that form all types of blood cells, and bone marrow stromal stem cells that have osteogenic properties and can generate bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue.
Bone marrow has been used to stimulate bone formation in bone defects and cases of nonunion fractures. Bone marrow can be aspirated from the iliac crest and injected percutaneously with fluoroscopic guidance into the site of the nonunion fracture. The effectiveness of this technique depends on the number and activity of stem cells in the aspirated bone marrow. It may be possible to increase the proliferation and speed differentiation of stem cells by exposing them to growth factor or by combining them with collagen.
Many growth factors and cytokines induced in response to injury are believed to have a considerable role in the process of repair. Of the many bone growth factors studied, bone morphogenetics (BMPs) have generated the greatest attention because of their osteoinductive potential. The BMPs that have been most widely studied for their ability to induce bone regeneration in humans include BMP-2 and BMP-7 (osteogenic protein). Human osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has been cloned and produced with recombinant technology and is free from the risk of infection or allergic reaction.
The structural lattice is osteoconductive; it supports the ingrowth of developing capillaries and perivascular tissues. Three distinct groups of structural lattice have been identified: collagen, calcium sulphate, and calcium phosphate. These materials can be used to replace a lost segment of bone.
Grafts Used for Nonunion
Autologous bone graft is generally considered the gold standard and the best material for grafting because it contains several elements that are critical in promoting bone formation, including osteoprogenitor cells, the matrix, and bone morphogenetic proteins. The osteoconductive property of cancellous autograft is related to the porosity of bone. The highly porous, scaffold-like structure of the graft allows host osteoblasts and host osteoprogenitor cells to migrate easily into the area of the defect and to begin regeneration of bone. Sources of cancellous bone are the iliac crest, the distal femur, the greater trochanter, and the proximal tibia. However, harvesting the autologous bone graft is associated with postoperative pain at the donor site, potential injury to the surrounding arteries, nerves, and tissues, and the risk of infection. Thus the development of synthetic materials with osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties that can eliminate the need for harvesting has become a major goal of orthopedic research.
Allograft is the graft of tissue between individuals who are of the same species but are of a disparate genotype. Allograft has osteoconductive and limited osteoinductive properties. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is human cortical and cancellous allograft. These products are prepared by acid extraction of allograft bone, resulting in the loss of most of the mineralized component while collagen and noncollagenous proteins, including growth factors, are retained. Figures 1 to 5 demonstrate the osteogenic, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction properties of autologous bone graft, allograft, OP-1, bone graft substitutes, and bone marrow.
Autologous Bone Graft
Osteogenic Protein-1
Allograft bone and Demineralized Bone Matrix
Bone Graft Substitutes
Autologous Bone Marrow Graft
New Technology Being Reviewed: Osteogenic Protein-1
Health Canada issued a Class IV licence for OP-1 in June 2004 (licence number 36320). The manufacturer of OP-1 is Stryker Biotech (Hapkinton, MA).
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of the OP-1 implant as an “alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions where use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.” Regulatory agencies in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand have permitted the use of this implant in specific cases, such as in tibial nonunions, or in more general cases, such as in long bone nonunions.
According to the manufacturer, OP-1 is indicated for the treatment of long bone nonunions. It is contraindicated in the patient has a hypersensitivity to the active substance or collagen, and it should not be applied at the site of a resected tumour that is at or near the defect or fracture. Finally, it should not be used in patients who are skeletally immature (< 18 years of age), or if there is no radiological evidence of closure of epiphysis.
Review Strategy
Objective
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of cases of long bone nonunion and bone defects
To compare the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of long bone nonunions and bone defects with the alternative technologies, particularly the gold standard autologous bone graft.
Literature Search
International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessments (INAHTA), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) were searched for health technology assessments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations were searched from January 1, 1996 to January 27, 2004 for studies on OP-1. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The search yielded 47 citations. Three studies met inclusion criteria (2 RCTs and 1 Ontario-based study presented at an international conference.
Summary of Findings
Friedlaender et al. conducted a prospective, randomized, partially blinded clinical trial on the treatment tibial nonunions with OP-1. Tibial nonunions were chosen for this study because of their high frequency, challenging treatment requirements, and substantial morbidity. All of the nonunions were at least 9 months old and had shown no progress toward healing over the previous 3 months. The patients were randomized to receive either treatment with autologous bone grafting or treatment with OP-1 in a type-1 collagen carrier. Both groups received reduction and fixation with an intramedullary rod. Table 1 summarizes the clinical outcomes of this study.
Outcomes in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Tibial Nonunions: Osteogenic Protein-1 versus Autologous Bone Grafting
Clinical success was defined as full weight-bearing, loss of severe pain at the fracture site on weight-bearing, and no further surgical treatment to enhance fracture repair.
The results of this study demonstrated that recombinant OP-1 is associated with substantial clinical and radiographic success for the treatment of tibial nonunions when used with intramedullary rod fixation. No adverse event related to sensitization was reported. Five per cent of the patients in the OP-1 group had circulating antibodies against type 1 collagen. Only 10% of the patients had a low level of anti-OP-1 antibodies, and all effects were transient. Furthermore, the success rate with the OP-1 implant was comparable with those achieved with autograft at 9 and 24 months follow-up. Eighty-two per cent of patients were successful at 24 months follow-up in both groups.
Statistically significant increased blood loss in the group treated with the autograft was observed (P = .049). Patients treated with autograft had longer operation and hospitalization times. All patients in the autograft group had pain at the donor site after surgery, and more than 80% judged their postoperative pain as moderate or severe. At their 6-month visit, 20% of the patients in the autograft group had persistent pain, mild or moderate in nature, at the donor site. This number fell to 13% at 12 months.
All patients in each of the groups had at least 1 adverse event that wasn’t serious, such as fever, nausea and vomiting, leg edema, discomfort, and bruising at the operative site. The incidence of these events was similar in both groups. Serious adverse events were observed in 44% of both groups, none of which were considered related to the OP-1 implant or autograft.
On the basis of this data, the FDA issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of OP-1 implant as an alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions when the use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.
Study on Fibular Defects
Geesink et al. investigated the osteogenic activity of OP-1 by assessing its value in bridging fibular defects made at the time of tibial osteotomy for varus or valgus deformity of the knee. This study had 2 phases and included 12 patients in each phase. Each phase included 12 patients (6 in each group). Patients in the first phase received either DBM or were left untreated. Patients in the second phase received either OP-1 on collagen type-1 or collagen type-1 alone.
Radiological and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) evaluation showed that in patients in whom the defect was left untreated, no formation of bone occurred. At 12 months follow-up, new bone formation with bridging occurred in 4 of the 6 patients in DMB group, and 5 of the 6 patients in OP-1 group. One patient in OP-1 group did not show any evidence of new bone formation at any point during the study.
Ontario Pilot Study
A prospective pilot study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to investigate the safety and efficacy of OP-1 for the treatment of recalcitrant long bone nonunions. The study looked at 15 patients with complex, recalcitrant, long bone nonunions whose previous treatment had failed. The investigators concluded that this bone graft substitute appears to be safe and effective in providing sufficient biological stimulation in difficult to treat nonunions. Results of a more complete study on 70 patients are ready for publication. According to the principal investigator, OP-1 was 90% effective in inducing bone formation and bone healing in this sample.
Alternative Technologies
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a literature search from January 1, 2000 to February 28, 2005 to identify studies on nonunions/bone defects that had been treated with alternative technologies. A review of these studies showed that, in addition to the gold standard autologous bone marrow grafting, bone allografts, demineralized bone matrices, bone graft substitutes, and autologous bone marrow have been used for treatment of nonunions and bone defects. These studies were categorized according to the osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenesis properties of the technologies studied.
A review of these studies showed that bone allografts have been used mostly in various reconstruction procedures to restore the defect after excavating a bone lesion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of DBM in healing fracture nonunions. Calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate have been used mostly for repair of bone defects.
Several investigators have looked at the use of autologous bone marrow for treatment of long bone nonunions. The results of these studies show that method of percutaneous bone marrow grafting is highly effective in the treatment of long bone nonunions. In a total of 301 fractures across all studies, 268 (89%) healed with a mean healing time of 2.5 to 8 months. This healing time as derived from these case series is less than the timing of the primary end point in Friedlaender’s study (9 months). Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies. Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies.
Studies that used Percutaneous Bone Marrow Grafting for Treatment of Nonunions
Economic Analysis
Based on annual estimated incidence of long-bone nonunion of 3,863 - 7,725, the annual hospitalization costs associated with this condition is between $21.2 and $42.3 million based on a unit cost of $5,477 per hospital separation. When utilized, the device, a single vial of OP-1, is approximately $5,000 and if adopted universally in Ontario, the total device costs would be in the range of $19.3 - $38.6 million annually. The physician fee for harvest, insertion of bone, or OP-1 is $193 and is $193 for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Total annual physician costs are expected to be in the range of from $0.7 million to $1.3 million per year. Expenditures associated with long-bone nonunion are unlikely to increase since incidence of long-bone nonunion is unlikely to change in the future. However, the rate of uptake of OP-1 could have a significant impact on costs if the uptake were large.
The use of OP-1 and autologous bone marrow transplantation may offset pain medication costs compared with those associated with autologous bone harvest given that the former procedures do not involve the pain associated with the bone harvest site. However, given that this pain is normally not permanent, the overall offset is likely to be small. There are likely to be smaller OHIP costs associated with OP-1 than bone-harvest procedures given that only 1, rather than 2, incisions are needed when comparing the former with the latter procedure. This offset could amount to between $0.3 million to $0.7 million annually.
No data on the cost-effectiveness of OP-1 is available.
PMCID: PMC3382627  PMID: 23074475
9.  Salvage of a femoral nonunion after primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of bone: A case report and literature review 
Summary
Background
With the advent of superb microsurgery techniques and advanced stabilization instruments, recent decades have seen great progress in treating nonunions secondary to traumatic fractures. However, those nonunions that are secondary to primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of bone and often related to irradiation still remain a challenging problem. The condition could be more perplexing when bone healing abilities are greatly compromised and reliable stabilization is difficult.
Case Report
We performed an operation using free vascularized fibular graft in combination with a locking plate on a 47-year-old female patient who had suffered from a three-year femoral nonunion after courses of radiochemotherapy for the treatment of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of bone, a spontaneous femoral shaft fracture, an intramedullary nailing, and some nonoperative interventions in sequence. Primary union of the graft was obtained at 9 months without wound infection. No recurrence of lymphoma occurred in the 61-month follow-up, nor did a stress fracture or failure of fixation. Limb salvage was achieved and the range of motion of the adjacent joints was acceptable.
Conclusions
Free vascularized fibular graft in combination with a locking plate can effectively enhance bone union in compromised bone and soft tissue milieu. More cases have yet to be further investigated.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882035
PMCID: PMC3539489  PMID: 22037750
free vascularized fibular graft; nonunion; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; locking plate
10.  Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2007;41(2):129-133.
Background:
Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure. The present study analyzes various reconstructive procedures in terms of morbidity and various complications encountered.
Materials and Methods:
Thirteen cases (M-six and F-seven; lower end femur-six and upper end tibia -seven) of GCT around the knee, radiologically either Campanacci Grade II, Grade II with pathological fracture or Grade III were included. Mean age was 25.6 years (range 19-30 years).
Resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail (n=5), resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail (n=3) and resection arthrodesis with intercalary fibular autograft and simultaneous limb lengthening (n=5) were the procedure performed.
Results:
Shortening was the major problem following resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail. Only two patients agreed for subsequent limb lengthening. The rest continued to walk with shortening. Infection was the major problem in all cases of resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail and required multiple drainage procedures. Fusion was achieved after two years in two patients. In the third patient the allograft sequestrated. The patient underwent sequestrectomy, telescoping of fragments and ilizarov fixator application with subsequent limb lengthening. The patient was finally given an ischial weight relieving orthosis, 54 months after the index procedure.
After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (∼15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella. Simultaneous limb lengthening with a distal tibial corticotomy was performed on an ilizarov fixator. The complications were superficial infection (n=5), stress fracture of fibula (n=2). The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting. The usual time taken for union and limb length equalization was approximately one year.
Conclusion:
Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.32044
PMCID: PMC2989136  PMID: 21139765
Enbloc resection; giant cell tumor; reconstruction of knee
11.  Surgical treatment of upper, middle and lower cervical injuries and non-unions by anterior procedures 
European Spine Journal  2009;19(Suppl 1):33-39.
The goals of any treatment of cervical spine injuries are: return to maximum functional ability, minimum of residual pain, decrease of any neurological deficit, minimum of residual deformity and prevention of further disability. The advantages of surgical treatment are the ability to reach optimal reduction, immediate stability, direct decompression of the cord and the exiting roots, the need for only minimum external fixation, the possibility for early mobilisation and clearly decreased nursing problems. There are some reasons why those goals can be reached better by anterior surgery. Usually the bony compression of the cord and roots comes from the front therefore anterior decompression is usually the procedure of choice. Also, the anterior stabilisation with a plate is usually simpler than a posterior instrumentation. It needs to be stressed that closed reduction by traction can align the fractured spine and indirectly decompress the neural structures in about 70%. The necessary weight is 2.5 kg per level of injury. In the upper cervical spine, the odontoid fracture type 2 is an indication for anterior surgery by direct screw fixation. Joint C1/C2 dislocations or fractures or certain odontoid fractures can be treated with a fusion of the C1/C2 joint by anterior transarticular screw fixation. In the lower and middle cervical spine, anterior plating combined with iliac crest or fibular strut graft is the procedure of choice, however, a solid graft can also be replaced by filled solid or expandable vertebral cages. The complication of this surgery is low, when properly executed and anterior surgery may only be contra-indicated in case of a significant lesion or locked joints.
doi:10.1007/s00586-009-1120-8
PMCID: PMC2899722  PMID: 19826842
Cervical spine; Fracture-dislocation; Anterior surgery; Upper cervical spine; Lower cervical spine
12.  Outcome of diaphyseal forearm fracture-nonunions treated by autologous bone grafting and compression plating 
Background
The treatment of forearm fracture-nonunions continues to represent a therapeutic challenge, and reported outcomes are moderate at best. Limiting aspects of this particular anatomic location include the relation between restoration of shaft length with the anatomy and long-term functional outcome of adjacent joints, as well as the risk of elbow and wrist stiffness related to prolonged immobilization. The present study was designed to assess the outcome of autologous bone grafting with compression plating and early functional rehabilitation in patients with forearm fracture non-unions.
Methods
Prospective follow-up study in 31 consecutive patients presenting with non-unions of the forearm diaphysis (radius, n = 11; ulna, n = 9; both bones, n = 11). Surgical revision was performed by restoring anatomic forearm length by autologous bone grafting of the resected non-union from the iliac crest and compression plating using a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate (DCP) or limited-contact DCP (LC-DCP). The main outcome parameters consisted of radiographic bony union and functional outcome, as determined by the criteria defined by Harald Tscherne in 1978. Patients were routinely followed on a short term between 6 weeks to 6 months, with an average long-term follow-up of 3.6 years (range 2 to 6 years).
Results
Radiographically, a bony union was achieved in 30/31 patients within a mean time of 3.5 months of revision surgery (range 2 to 5 months). Clinically, 29/31 patients showed a good functional outcome, according to the Tscherne criteria, and 26/31 patients were able to resume their previous work. Two postoperative infections occurred, and one patient developed a persistent infected nonunion. No case of postoperative failure of fixation was seen in the entire cohort.
Conclusion
Revision osteosynthesis of forearm nonunions by autologous iliac crest bone grafting and compression plating represents a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of these challenging conditions.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-3-5
PMCID: PMC2694823  PMID: 19450257
13.  Surgical management of pilon fractures with large segmental bone defects using fibular strut allografts: a report of two cases 
We present two patients with open pilon fractures with large bone defects treated successfully with fibular strut allografts. The patients were initially treated by massive irrigation, wound debridement, and temporary external fixation. After complete wound healing, the bone defects were managed. Because autologous iliac crest or fibular bone grafts were impossible to be harvested due to multiple fractures, the bone defects were reconstructed with fibular strut allografts. Fixation was performed with a periarticular distal tibia locking plate. At 2 months postoperatively, the patients ambulated with partial weight-bearing; at 6 months, they had full range of motion of the ankle joint and full weight-bearing.
doi:10.1007/s00590-010-0732-3
PMCID: PMC3150798  PMID: 21874131
Pilon fracture; Large segmental bone defect; Fibular strut allograft; Locking plate
14.  Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it 
Orthopedic Reviews  2010;2(1):e4.
Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically.
Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate.
doi:10.4081/or.2010.e4
PMCID: PMC3143947  PMID: 21808699
fracture stabilization; bone healing; dynamic osteosynthesis; plate fixation.
15.  Fibular strut grafting for fibrous dysplasia of the femoral neck. 
When fibrous dysplasia affects the femoral neck, normal bone is replaced by fibro-osseous dysplastic bone that is both mechanically weakened and biomechanically abnormal. Surgical management is recommended for persistent pain, progressive deformity, or impending fracture. Surgical options include curettage and cancellous bone grafting, osteotomy and nail-plate fixation, intramedullary rodding, and cortical bone grafting. We present the case of a patient with a painful, dysplastic lesion of the femoral neck who underwent cortical bone grafting using dual fibular strut grafts. To ensure long-term graft incorporation, the fibular cortical grafts bridged the lesion in the femoral neck and were securely anchored to the normal bone of the lateral femoral cortex and a head of the femur. No supplemental internal fixation was required. The biological basis for success of the fibular strut grafting procedure is that creeping substitution of the cortical graft necrotic bone does not replace the interstitial lamellae, which persist to lend structural support. Fibular strut grafting is an excellent procedure for fibrous dysplasia of the femoral neck.
Images
PMCID: PMC2571794  PMID: 1404469
16.  Results of non-vascularised fibular grafting in gap non-union of long bones in paediatric age group 
Background
Bone defect has always been a challenge to treat for the orthopaedic surgeon. Fibular grafting is a popular method for bridging the gap in bone defects created by tumour excision, trauma or bone loss as sequelae to infection. Fibula is a popular substitute for this method because of its easy accessibility and minimal donor site morbidity. The present study is aimed at finding the results in paediatric population.
Material and methods
20 patients with bone defect (19 as a result of chronic osteomyelitis and one as a result of excision of a tumour) were included in the current study. The age of the patients ranged from one year to 12 years. The fibular graft was applied after freshening of bone end and fixed with K wire or plating and cancellous bone graft was also applied at both ends. The limb was immobilized in plaster till union of fibula at both ends.
Results
The average gap was 8 cm (range 6–12 cm). Out of the twenty cases nine involved the humerus, seven in the tibia, two in radius and one each in femur and ulna. Union was achieved at both ends in 80% of the patients after the first surgery. Three out of six patients with K wire as fixation device failed and one out of fourteen patients with plate as fixation device ended in non-union. Union was achieved in these patients after revision surgery. One patient had stress fracture at distal end of the plate after weight bearing. Union occurred in this patient after plaster immobilization. Range of motion at distal and proximal joint was comparable to normal side. Superficial infection was seen in two patients and they responded to antibiotics.
Conclusion
Non-vascularised fibular grafting is a good option for bone defects in paediatric population provide adequate fixation and immobilization has been done.
Level of evidence
Level IV (Therapeutic).
doi:10.1016/j.jcot.2013.09.001
PMCID: PMC3880954
Bone defect; Non-vascularised fibular grafting; K wire; Osteomyelitis
17.  Intramedullary fixation of distal fibular fractures: a systematic review of clinical and functional outcomes 
Background
Ankle fractures are extremely common and represent nearly one quarter of all lower-limb fractures. In the majority of patients, fractures involve the distal fibula. The current standard in treating unstable fractures is through open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with plates and screws. Due to concerns with potentially devastating wound complications, minimally invasive strategies such as intramedullary fixation have been introduced. This systematic review was performed to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of intramedullary fixation of distal fibular fractures using either compression screws or nails.
Materials and methods
Numerous databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar) were searched, 17 studies consisting of 1,008 patients with distal fibular fractures treated with intramedullary fixation were found.
Results
Mean rate of union was 98.5 %, with functional outcome reported as being good or excellent in up to 91.3 % of patients. Regarding unlocked intramedullary nailing, the mean rate of union was 100 %, with up to 92 % of patients reporting good or excellent functional outcomes. Considering locked intramedullary nailing, the mean rate of union was 98 %, with the majority of patients reporting good or excellent functional outcomes. The mean complication rate across studies was 10.3 %, with issues such as implant-related problems requiring metalwork removal, fibular shortening and metalwork failure predominating.
Conclusion
Overall, intramedullary fixation of unstable distal fibular fractures can give excellent results that are comparable with modern plating techniques. However, as yet, there is unconvincing evidence that it is superior to standard techniques with regards to clinical and functional outcome.
Level of evidence
Level IV evidence.
doi:10.1007/s10195-014-0320-0
PMCID: PMC4244552  PMID: 25304004
Fibular; Ankle; Fracture; Intramedullary
18.  Non-union of the humeral shaft treated by internal fixation 
International Orthopaedics  2002;26(4):214-216.
We reviewed 40 cases with non-union of the humeral shaft. There were 31 men and nine women patients with an average age of 38.5 (35–65) years. Thirty-four non-unions were of the atrophic type. Non-union was most often found at the transition of the middle third to the lower third of the humeral shaft. Six fractures were classified as open at the time of the initial injury. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a dynamic compression plate (DCP). Cancellous bone graft was used in all atrophic non-unions. In one patient an additional fibular graft was used. The average follow-up was 13 (6–18) months. Final results were available for 34 patients. Thirty-one fractures (91%) healed in an average of 4.5 (3–9) months. Main complications were temporary radial nerve palsy in two patients and deep infection in one.
doi:10.1007/s00264-002-0354-4
PMCID: PMC3620955  PMID: 12185522
19.  Free fibular strut graft in neglected femoral neck fractures in adult 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2009;43(1):62-66.
Background:
Neglected femoral neck fracture in adults still poses a formidable challenge. Existing treatment options varies from osteotomy (with or without graft) to osteosynthesis using various implants and grafting techniques (muscle pedicle, vascularized, and nonvascularized fibula). The aim of this study was to assess outcome of nonvascularized fibular strut graft and cancellous screw fixation in neglected femoral neck fractures in the younger age group.
Materials and Methods:
Medical records of 32 patients of neglected femoral neck fracture, in the age group of 22-45 years (mean 37.8 years), operated between May 1994 to December 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 patients having three years minimum follow-up (mean 4.6 years) were included. Delay between injury and operation varied from four weeks to 42 weeks (mean 16.4 weeks). Closed reduction was achieved in 17 patients; open reduction through Watson-Jones anterolateral approach was performed in the remaining 15 patients in whom closed reduction failed. The fracture was transfixed with three parallel guide wires. Appropriate sized cannulated lag screw (7 mm) was then inserted in two of the wires. Selection of the third guide wire for fibula depended on the space available in both anteroposterior and lateral view.
Results:
Satisfactory bony union was obtained in 25 patients, of whom in four cases, the union occurred in 10-20° (mean 15°) of varus. Nonunion occurred in three patients (9.37%), and aseptic necrosis occurred in another six patients (18.75%). Of the 25 patients where union was achieved, five patients showed excellent results; 14 good and six had poor functional result, as evaluated using modified Anglen criteria.
Conclusion:
Nonvascularized fibular strut graft along with cancellous screws provides a dependable and technically less-demanding alternative procedure for neglected femoral neck fractures in young adults. Fibula being cortical provides mechanical strength besides stimulating the union and getting incorporated as biological graft.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.45325
PMCID: PMC2739491  PMID: 19753182
Cancellous screw; femoral neck fracture; free fibular graft; neglected
20.  The Mechanical Benefit of Medial Support Screws in Locking Plating of Proximal Humerus Fractures 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e103297.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures.
Methods
Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed.
Results
Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001). When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P≤0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture.
Conclusions
Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103297
PMCID: PMC4118867  PMID: 25084520
21.  Pseudarthrosis of the surgical neck of humerus treated by buttressing with a medial cortico-cancellous graft 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(1):54-57.
Background:
Pseudarthrosis of surgical neck of humerus is uncommon condition. Different methods of improving the stability of fixation have been described, including impaling the shaft into the head, placing a tension suture through the rotator cuff, or using an intramedullary cortical graft. We report our results of cortico-cancellous strut graft medially to counter the varus force, in conjunction with a fixed-angle implant on the lateral side.
Materials and Methods:
We used this technique in seven cases of pseudarthrosis of surgical neck of the humerus. There were four women and three men, ranging in age from 22 to 65 years. All were treated with a tricortical medial buttress bone graft and fixed-angle fixation device on the lateral side. A locking proximal humerus plate (Synthes) was used in six cases, and a bent reconstruction plate (Synthes) was applied in one case. The one in which reconstruction plate was applied was operated before the advent of locking plates. The limb was immobilized in 30° of abduction over a cushion for 6 weeks, followed by a sling for another 6 weeks.
Results:
The followup varied from 18 to 96 months. All our cases healed within mean 5.1 months (range 4–6 months). There was one case of avascular necrosis. All cases had useful function of shoulder.
Conclusion:
The medial buttressing by strut graft with external fixation by laterally placed fixed angle plate is successful to achieve fracture union in pseudarthrosis of surgical neck of humerus.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.91635
PMCID: PMC3270606  PMID: 22345807
Pseudarthrosis; surgical neck humerus; medial buttressing; bone graft
22.  Anterior minimally invasive bridge-plate technique for treatment of humeral shaft nonunion 
Background
The present study introduces a new surgical technique and the results of a case series of patients with humeral shaft nonunion.
Materials and methods
Fifteen patients with diagnosis of diaphyseal nonunion of humerus were operated by a bridge-plate technique. A 4.5-mm plate is slid on the anterior surface of the humerus, submuscular to the brachial muscle. With the plate over the anterior surface of the humerus, screws are inserted from anterior to posterior on the ends of the plate. When there is a small bone gap, an iliac autologous graft is inserted. Minimum follow-up was 1 year.
Results
Bone healing was obtained in all patients: 1.5 months postoperatively in 11 patients, 2 months in 3 patients, and 3 months in 1 patient. There were no postoperative infections, there was one case with loosening of the screws and plate, and there were no nerve injuries.
Conclusions
The present technique avoids wide dissection, radial nerve isolation, and periosteum stripping. The anterior minimally invasive bridge-plate technique for treatment of humeral shaft nonunion is a safe procedure and obtained bone healing in all patients in this series.
doi:10.1007/s10195-012-0203-1
PMCID: PMC3506836  PMID: 22717617
Nonunion; Humerus; Bridge plate; MIPO
23.  Comparison of three plate system for lateral malleolar fixation 
Background
This study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes with three different implants and evaluate the effectiveness of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for the distal fibular fractures.
Methods
We performed a retrospective cohort single-surgical team single-facility study between 2000 and 2011. 147 patients receiving surgical interventions for closed, displaced distal fibular fractures were included. Based on the different implants, patients were divided into three groups: Group A: one-third tubular plate; Group B: locking compression (LCP) metaphyseal plate; Group C: LCP distal fibula plate. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared among the three groups.
Results
Totally, we found that patients in Group C had significant higher functional scores than those in Group A (p1 = 0.004; p2 = 0.002) (p1 stands for the p value for Olerud & Molandar Score, p2 stands for the p value for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score). The healing time was significant less in Group C than that in Group A (p < 0.0001) and Group B (p < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that: (1) For Weber A fracture, the functional scores of the Group C were higher than those in Group A (p1 = 0.020; p2 = 0.029) and B (p1 = 0.020; p2 = 0.034). (2) For Weber B fracture, the functional scores of the Group B (p1 = 0.033; p2 = 0.030) and C (p1 = 0.027; p2 = 0.017) were higher than those in Group A. No significant differences were observed in terms of the ankle range of motion, reduction accuracy and complication rate.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrated using LCP metaphyseal plate in patients associated with lateral malleolar fracture could achieve significantly better OMS & AOFAS scores and less healing time than using one-third tubular plate. Specifically, For Weber A fracture, LCP distal fibula plate is much better than one-third tubular plate and LCP metaphyseal plate. While for Weber B fracture, LCP distal fibula plate and LCP metaphyseal plate are better than one-third tubular plate. As to the complications, using MIPO technique in patients with distal fibular fractures is at least comparable to the traditional one.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-360
PMCID: PMC4223732  PMID: 25358474
Lateral malleolar fracture; One-third tubular plate; Locking compression plates; Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique; Complications
24.  Congenital pseudarthrosis of radius. A case report 
We report a case of a 9 year old female child with congenital pseudarthrosis of the radius. She had a history of fractures of both bones of the left forearm after trivial trauma at the age of 7 years (2003) and 8 years (2004). On each occasion she was treated conservatively in a POP cast 4 weeks. She reported to us in January 2005 complaining of a gradually increasing deformity of the left forearm. Radiologically, it was an apex anterior deformity of the distal aspect of the left radius. Clinically she had multiple café au lait spots over her body. Neurological and ophthalmological examinations were normal. The fibrous tissue and the fracture ends were excised. The fracture was stabilized with a 6-hole DCP with iliac crest graft to bridge the gap along with cortico-cancellous chips. The fracture united uneventfully at 3 months post-operatively. At 17 months post-operatively there is no evidence of recurrence of pseudarthrosis with a near normal range of movements. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the radius is an extremely rare condition with only 10 cases seems to have been reported. Dual onlay bone graft, vascularised fibular graft has been the treatment options the latter being the preferred one. But the disease being extremely rare not much has been documented about the treatment options. We treated this case by excision of the sclerotic bone ends along with a cuff of periosteum and internal fixation with DCP along with iliac strut graft to restore the length. Successful union was achieved in 3 months and the patient has satisfactory follow-up at 17 months.
doi:10.1007/s11751-006-0006-0
PMCID: PMC2780590
Congenital pseudarthrosis of radius; Deformity; Café au lait spots; Non-union; Strut grafting; Open reduction; Internal fixation
25.  Congenital pseudarthrosis of radius. A case report 
We report a case of a 9 year old female child with congenital pseudarthrosis of the radius. She had a history of fractures of both bones of the left forearm after trivial trauma at the age of 7 years (2003) and 8 years (2004). On each occasion she was treated conservatively in a POP cast 4 weeks. She reported to us in January 2005 complaining of a gradually increasing deformity of the left forearm. Radiologically, it was an apex anterior deformity of the distal aspect of the left radius. Clinically she had multiple café au lait spots over her body. Neurological and ophthalmological examinations were normal. The fibrous tissue and the fracture ends were excised. The fracture was stabilized with a 6-hole DCP with iliac crest graft to bridge the gap along with cortico-cancellous chips. The fracture united uneventfully at 3 months post-operatively. At 17 months post-operatively there is no evidence of recurrence of pseudarthrosis with a near normal range of movements. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the radius is an extremely rare condition with only 10 cases seems to have been reported. Dual onlay bone graft, vascularised fibular graft has been the treatment options the latter being the preferred one. But the disease being extremely rare not much has been documented about the treatment options. We treated this case by excision of the sclerotic bone ends along with a cuff of periosteum and internal fixation with DCP along with iliac strut graft to restore the length. Successful union was achieved in 3 months and the patient has satisfactory follow-up at 17 months.
doi:10.1007/s11751-006-0006-0
PMCID: PMC2780590
Congenital pseudarthrosis of radius; Deformity; Café au lait spots; Non-union; Strut grafting; Open reduction; Internal fixation

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