This study investigated whether infants’ temperament at 18 months is associated with the feeding of foods and drinks that may increase the risk for later obesity.
This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and infants (N = 40,266) participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected by questionnaire. Predictor variables were: infants’ temperament at 18 months (internalizing, externalizing, and surgency/extraversion), and mothers’ negative affectivity. Outcomes variables were feeding of sweet foods, sweet drinks, and night-time caloric drinks at 18 months (all dichotomized). Confounders were child’s gender, weight-for-height at 18 months, breastfeeding, and mother’s level of education.
After controlling for confounders, infant temperament dimensions at 18 months were significantly associated with mothers’ feeding of potentially obesogenic foods and drinks independent of mothers’ negative affectivity. Infants who were more internalizing were more likely to be given sweet foods (OR 1.47, CI 1.32–1.65), sweet drinks (OR 1.76, CI 1.56–1.98), and drinks at night (OR 2.91, CI 2.54–3.33); infants who were more externalizing were more likely to be given sweet food (OR 1.53, CI 1.40–1.67) and sweet drinks (OR 1.22, CI 1.11–1.34); and infants who were more surgent were more likely to be given drinks at night (OR1.66, CI 1.42–1.92).
The association between infant temperament and maternal feeding patterns suggests early mechanisms for later obesity that should be investigated in future studies.
infant temperament; sweet foods; sweet drinks; night-time caloric drinks
To investigate whether temperament in 1.5-year-olds predicts their consumption of potentially obesogenic foods and drinks at ages 3 and 7 years.
Participants were 6 997 mothers and infants from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Questionnaires were collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at child ages 6 months and 1.5, 3, and 7 years. Predictor variables: children’s temperament at age 1.5 (internalizing, externalizing, surgent) and mothers’ negative affectivity. Outcome variables: children’s consumption of sweet foods, sweet drinks, and fruits/vegetables at ages 3 and 7 (dichotomized at the 85th percentile).
Controlling for covariates, internalizing 1.5-year-olds (anxious, dependent) were 77% and 63% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively; they were 55% and 43% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Externalizing 1.5-year-olds (hyperactive, aggressive) were 34% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at age 7, 39% and 44% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively, and they were 47% and 33% less likely to consume fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. Surgent 1.5-year-olds (active, sociable) were 197% and 78% more likely to consume two portions of fruits/vegetables daily at ages 3 and 7, respectively. The association of maternal negative affectivity was limited to the child’s consumption of sweet foods at 3 and 7 years.
Early child temperament is a risk factor for obesogenic diet in later childhood. Mechanisms explaining this association need to be explored.
child; temperament; obesity; diet; eating
The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective population-based study of 100,000 births throughout Norway. Eating disorder status was measured 6 months prior to pregnancy and during pregnancy. Maternal feeding, child eating, and psychological variables were reported by mothers when their child was 36 months old. Mothers with BN and BED were more likely to report restrictive feeding styles and infant eating problems than mothers without eating disorders. Regarding pressured feeding style, no significant differences emerged across groups. Differences in self-reported feeding styles and children’s eating behavior exist between mothers with and without eating disorders. Longitudinal follow-up will assist with determining the implications of feeding style on later growth trajectories and development.
Eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; bulimia; binge eating; mothers; child psychology
Objective To chart mothers’ trajectories of mental health from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum in order to investigate the association between infants’ congenital heart defects (CHD) and compromised maternal mental health. Methods Mothers of infants with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 141) and mothers (n = 36,437) enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed at regular intervals from pregnancy up to 36 months postpartum, including measurements at 6 and 18 months, using an 8-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results Mean score trajectories of SCL-8 for mothers of infants with severe CHD deviated significantly from cohort controls 6, 18, and 36 months postpartum, indicating heightened symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions Mothers of infants with severe CHD are at risk of compromised mental health from delivery to 36 months postpartum. Strain due to CHD-related interventions is identified as a possible partial mediator of the distress.
anxiety; critically ill children; depression; longitudinal research; parent stress
Objective To examine the relationship between the severity of infants’ congenital heart defects (CHD) and their mothers’ symptoms of depression and anxiety from pregnancy to 18 months postpartum. Methods Mothers of infants with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 162) and mothers (n = 44 400) within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed with an eight-item short version (SCL-8) of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 at the 30th week of gestation and at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Results Only the postpartum mental health trajectory of mothers of infants with severe CHD deviated from the mental health trajectory of the cohort at 6 and 18 months postpartum, showing significantly elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The results elucidate the relationship between infants’ CHD severity and maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, possibly identifying a specifically vulnerable patient dyad in need of postoperative interventions.
anxiety; cardiology; depression; mental health; motherhood
Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth.
This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. ≥ 5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression.
In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG.
Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention.
Moba; The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study; Diet; Dietary guidelines; Pregnancy; Postpartum weight retention
The role of children's personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6–12 years (N = 327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their child's personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Imagination). Mothers also completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing their child's consumption of sweet drinks, sweet foods, and fruit and vegetables, and reported their child's height and weight. Controlling for age and mothers' education, boys and girls who were less benevolent consumed more sweet drinks, and girls who were less conscientious and more neurotic consumed more sweet drinks. Boys and girls who were more benevolent and imaginative consumed more fruits and vegetables, and boys who were more extraverted, more conscientious, and less neurotic consumed more fruits and vegetables. Controlling for maternal education, boys and girls who were less extraverted, and girls who were less benevolent, less conscientious, and more neurotic were more likely to be overweight or obese. These findings suggest that children's personality traits play an important yet understudied role in their diet. Further investigation of mechanisms that relate child traits to obesogenic eating and overweight would be valuable.
Eating; diet; food consumption; weight; obesity; personality; temperament; behavior problems; gender; children
Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, compared with bottle-feeding, may promote maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine whether preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration are associated with less maternal restrictive behavior and less pressure to eat.
We studied 1160 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main outcome measures were mothers’ reports of restricting their children’s food intake and of pressuring their children to eat more food, as measured by a modified Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) at 1 year postpartum. Restriction was defined by strongly agreeing or agreeing with the following question from the modified CFQ: “I have to be careful not to feed my child too much.” We derived a continuous pressure to eat score from 5 questions of the modified CFQ. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, breastfeeding duration, and mothers’ restriction of children’s access to food. We used multiple linear regression, both before and after adjusting for several groups of confounders, to predict the effects of breastfeeding on the mothers’ scores for pressuring their children to eat.
The mean (SD) age of the women was 32.4 (4.8) years; 24% of the women were nonwhite, and 32% were primigravidas. At 6 months postpartum, 24% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding, 25% were mixed feeding, 41% had weaned, and 10% had fed their infants formula only. The mean (SD) duration of breastfeeding was 6.3 (4.5) months. Thirteen percent of the mothers strongly agreed or agreed with the restriction question. The mean (SD) score on the pressure to eat scale was 5.3 (3.7), and the range was 0 to 20. After adjusting for mothers’ preexisting concerns about their children’s future eating and weight status, as well as sociodemographic, economic, and anthropometric predictors of breastfeeding duration, we found that the longer the mothers breastfed, the less likely they were to restrict their children’s food intake at age 1 year. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–0.95) for each 1-month increment in breastfeeding duration. In addition, we found that compared with mothers who were exclusively formula feeding, mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months of age had much lower odds of restricting their children’s food intake at 1 year (odds ratio: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.72). Preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration (β = −0.01 points on the 0–20 scale for each additional 1 month of breastfeeding [95% CI: −0.07 to 0.05]) were not related to mothers’ pressuring their children to eat more.
Mothers who fed their infants breast milk in early infancy and who breastfed for longer periods reported less restrictive behavior regarding child feeding at 1 year. Additional longitudinal studies should examine the extent to which any protective effect of breastfeeding on overweight is explained by decreased maternal feeding restriction.
Mercury is a neurotoxin, and limited prenatal exposure to it can affect long-term child neurodevelopment. However, results of epidemiologic studies of such exposure have been inconsistent. We examined the association of prenatal mercury exposure from maternal fish consumption with child neurodevelopment in northern Italy.
A population-based cohort of 606 children and their mothers was studied from pregnancy to age 18 months. Mercury levels were measured in maternal hair and blood during pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood and breast milk. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were measured in maternal serum. Maternal and child intakes of fish were assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) was used to evaluate child neurodevelopment. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association of mercury exposure with BSID-III scores, after controlling for maternal fish intake, PUFAs during pregnancy, and several other confounders.
Mean weekly fish intake during pregnancy was less than 2 servings. Mercury concentrations in biological samples were low (mean, 1061 ng/g in hair) and moderately correlated with fish intake, particularly of carnivorous species. Maternal ω-3 PUFA concentrations were poorly correlated with fish intake. Maternal intelligence quotient (IQ) and child intake of fish were significantly associated with neurodevelopment scores. In multivariate models, the level of Hg exposure was not associated with neurodevelopmental performance at 18 months.
In this Italian population, neurodevelopment at 18 months was associated with child intake of fresh fish and maternal IQ rather than with mercury exposure. The expected beneficial effect of maternal fish intake (from maternal ω-3 PUFAs) was not found.
mercury; polyunsaturated fatty acids; nervous system development; fish; Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
The goal of the present study was to determine whether mothers’ assessment of their infants’ temperament is associated with objective measures of their infant’s acceptance patterns and their judgments of their infants' liking of a green vegetable. To this end, infants (N=92) were video-recorded as their mothers fed them green beans. From these videos, we determined the frequency of facial distaste expressions made during the first two minutes of the feeding. Other measures included intake, maternal ratings of infants’ enjoyment of this vegetable, and temperament. Infants who scored high on the approach dimension of the temperament questionnaire were less likely to express facial expressions of distaste, consumed more food, and were perceived by their mothers as enjoying the food more. Mediation analyses revealed that ratings of enjoyment were not directly related to the child’s approach temperament, but rather the relationship between mothers’ ratings and temperament was mediated by the amount of time infants spent eating the vegetable. Regression analyses suggested that in addition to the length of time children ate, mothers’ ratings of their infants’ enjoyment was predicted by the number of squints that the infant expressed during the meal. These findings suggest that although certain aspects of children’s temperament are related to their food acceptance mothers attend to facial expressions and time spent eating independently of these temperamental characteristics when judging their infant’s enjoyment of a food. Understanding how mothers use this information to decide which foods to feed their infants is an important area for future research.
feeding; facial reactivity; FACS; temperament; green vegetables; nutrition; mother-infant interactions
Our purpose was to assess early infant-feeding patterns in a cohort of low-income black mothers and to examine associations between maternal perception of infant temperament and complementary feeding (CF) before 4 months.
We used cross-sectional data from the 3-month visit (n = 217) of the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study to assess relationships between early feeding of solids or juice and 6 dimensions of perceived infant temperament. Descriptive statistics were used to assess infant-feeding patterns, and logistic regression models were fit for each diet-temperament relationship found significant in the bivariate analyses.
Seventy-seven percent of the infants were fed solid foods at 3 months, 25% were fed juice, and 6% were exclusively breastfed. In multivariable analyses, 2 dimensions of perceived infant temperament were associated with early feeding of solid foods (distress-to-limitations odds ratio [OR]: 1.97 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.44]; activity-level OR: 1.75 [95% CI: 1.07–2.85]), whereas 1 dimension, low-intensity pleasure, was associated with early feeding of juice (OR: 0.51 [95% CI: 0.34–0.78]). Maternal characteristics significantly associated with early CF included breastfeeding, obesity, and depressive symptoms.
Low-income black mothers may represent a priority population for interventions aimed at improving adherence to optimal infant feeding recommendations. That maternal perceptions of several domains of perceived infant temperament are related to early CF suggests that this is an important factor to include in future observational research and in the design of interventions.
infancy; temperament; complementary feeding; breastfeeding; overweight
Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior.
We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a) maternal responsiveness, b) feeding style, and c) feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old.
If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective in helping mothers develop healthy infant feeding practices that contribute to improving infant health and development and reducing the risk of early-onset childhood obesity.
Current Controlled Trials ACTRN126100000415000
In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 2.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered.
caries risk indicators; dental caries; obesity; social determinants; sugar consumption
Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA).
Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy.
Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p = 0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p = 0.04), and folate supplementation (p = 0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p = 0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders.
Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight.
National dietary surveys among Norwegian 12-months olds have been conducted twice: in 1999 and 2007. At both time-points diet were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) (the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007). Modifications in the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999 have been made; therefore, the objective of the present study has been to explore the comparability of the data obtained by the two questionnaires. Moreover, reliability of maternal recall of infant feeding practices was assessed.
Three hundred Norwegian infants born in April 2007 were invited to participate by completing both the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007. An invitation letter and one of two questionnaires were sent by mail to the mother/parents about two weeks before the child turned 12 months of age. The study had a cross-over design where half of the sample received the SFFQ-1999 first and then about 2–3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-2007. The second half received the SFFQ-2007 first, and then 2–3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-1999.
Ninety three participants completed both questionnaires (SFFQ-1999 and SFFQ-2007). For nutrients, the largest significant differences between the questionnaires were found for intake of vitamin D and added sugar, where added sugar was reported lower and vitamin D was reported higher with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. For food items, lower intake of yoghurt and higher intake of vegetables and fish were observed with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. In addition, reliable answers with regard to breastfeeding status, age for breastfeeding cessation and age for introducing solid foods were found.
There was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires for most nutrients and foods. The differences between the two questionnaires could mainly be explained by modifications that had occurred over time, where changes in the food composition databases used and especially changes in commercial recipes with regard to baby food products seemed to be of major importance. The differences are important to take into account when interpreting dietary trends among Norwegian 12 month-olds in the period from 1999 to 2007. This study also implies that maternal recall of infant feeding practices is reliable.
Infants; SFFQ; FFQ; Comparability; Norway; Trends; Maternal recall; Reliability; Breastfeeding
Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months.
This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected.
Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively.
The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding is less likely to take place among lower-educated, primiparous women may help health practitioners focus their support and education for this group.
Exclusive breastfeeding; Predictors; Canada; Alberta pregnancy outcomes; Nutrition study
To assess the feasibility of a pediatric primary care based intervention to promote healthful behaviors among 0–6 month old infants and their mothers. We enrolled two intervention practices (60 mother-infant pairs) and one usual care control practice (24 pairs) in a non-randomized controlled trial. We completed visits and interviews with 80 (95%) pairs at birth and 6 months. The intervention included (1) brief focused negotiation by pediatricians, (2) motivational counseling by a health educator, and (3) group parenting workshops. We evaluated the intervention effects on infant feeding, sleep duration, TV viewing, and mothers’ responsiveness to satiety cues. Maternal behavioral targets included postpartum diet, physical activity, TV and sleep. At 6 months, fewer intervention than control infants had been introduced to solid foods (57% vs. 82%; P = 0.04), and intervention infants viewed less TV (mean 1.2 vs. 1.5 h/d; P = 0.07). Compared to control infants, intervention infants had larger increases in their nocturnal sleep duration from baseline to follow up (mean increase 1.9 vs. 1.3 h/d; P = 0.05); larger reductions in settling time (mean reduction −0.70 vs. −0.10 h/d; P = 0.02); and larger reductions in hours/day of nighttime wakefulness (mean reduction −2.9 vs. −1.5 h/d; P = 0.08). There were no differences in breastfeeding, response to satiety cues, or maternal health behaviors. A program of brief focused negotiation by pediatricians, individual coaching by health educators using motivational interviewing, and group parenting workshops tended to improve infant feeding, sleep and media exposure, but had less impact on mothers’ own health-related behaviors.
Postpartum women; Infancy; Nutrition; Physical activity; Obesity prevention
Exposure to solid food or cow's milk (complementary food) before age 4 months may confer immune protection (tolerance) or detriment (allergy).
We explored the relationship between introduction of complementary food <4 months and Immunoglobulin E (IgE) to egg, milk, and peanut allergen at 2 years in the WHEALS birth cohort of Detroit, Michigan, USA.
At infant age 1, 6, and 12 months, mothers were interviewed about feeding practices. Blood samples were collected at age 2 to 3 years to assess sensitization (IgE ≥ 0.35 IU/ml) to egg, milk or peanut.
For the 594 maternal-infant pairs analyzed, maternal mean age was 29.7 years and 60.6% self-reported as African-American or Black. Infant exposure to complementary food < 4 months was reported by 39.7% of mothers. IgE>0.35 IU/ml for egg, milk, or peanut allergen at age 2 years was observed in 23.9% (95% Confidence Interval = 20.5–27.6%), 30.6% (26.9–34.5%), and 11.4% (8.9–14.3%) of children, respectively. The association between early feeding and sensitization was modified by parental history of asthma or allergy. In multivariable analysis, early feeding reduced the risk of peanut sensitization among children with a parental history; adjusted Odds Ratio=0.2 (0.1–0.7), p=0.007. The relationship also became significant for egg when a cut-off for IgE of > 0.70 IU/ml was used, aOR=0.5 (0.3–0.9), p=0.022.
In this cohort, complementary food introduced <4 months was associated with a reduced risk of peanut (and perhaps egg) sensitization by age 2–3 years, but only for children with a parental history of asthma or allergy.
Feeding practices represent a modifiable risk factor for prevention of allergy. Avoidance of food allergy through dietary manipulation remains controversial. Identifying factors related to food sensitization could inform allergy prevention.
Among children with a parental history of asthma or allergy, exposure to early complementary food reduces the risk of peanut and egg sensitization.
Food Allergy; food sensitization; infant feeding; birth cohort
Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results.
To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling.
Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02).
This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission.
The rate of breast-feeding in the first 3 months post partum was studied in a group of 456 mothers. At 3 months 58% had been or still were breast-feeding their infants. The mothers who breast-fed were older, had a higher level of education, had a higher socioeconomic status, and were more likely to live on farms or in small towns, to have attended prenatal education classes and to have previously breast-feds. There were no significant differences between the method of feeding and the sex or birthweight of the infant, the maternal weight/height ratio or the participation of the father in the prenatal education classes. At 1 month 45% of the infants, at 2 months 35% and at 3 months 28% were being breast-fed. Public programs to promote breast-feeding as normal, beneficial and satisfying to both mother and infant are necessary so that more mothers will attempt to breast-feed their infants. Support for continuance of breast-feeding is needed in the hospital as well as in the home and the community.
To investigate associations between maternal stress and smoking prior to, during, and six months after the pregnancy.
A prospective population-based cohort study.
71,757 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) participating twice during pregnancy and at six months postpartum.
Respondents’ estimates of anxiety and depression, relationship discord, and negative life events were measured along with self-reports of smoking behaviour and demographic variables. Smoking was assessed at gestation weeks 17 and 30 and at six months postpartum.
Of the 27.5% women who smoked at conception, 55.8% quit smoking during pregnancy. At six months postpartum, 28.9% of quitters had relapsed to smoking. In total, 12.9% of the sample reported smoking during the pregnancy. Adjusted for well-known risk factors, women reporting high levels of anxiety and depression had a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.80: 95% CI 0.73, 0.88) and an increased likelihood of relapsing after delivery (OR 1.26: 95% CI 1.11, 1.44). Both relationship discord (OR 0.82: 95% CI 0.75, 0.90) and exposure to negative life events (OR 0.93: 95% CI 0.90, 0.96) had a negative influence on quitting smoking during pregnancy but had no influence on relapse to smoking postpartum.
Maternal stress and relationship discord may inhibit smoking cessation during pregnancy and promote resumption of smoking after pregnancy in women who have achieved abstinence.
Anxiety; Depression; Pregnancy; Risk Factors; Smoking; Smoking Cessation
To determine whether mothers with plans related to shared reading and baby books in the home at the time of delivery of their newborns would be more likely to engage in shared reading behaviors at age 6 months.
This was a cohort study with enrollment post-partum and follow-up at 6 months in an urban public hospital. Predictors: mothers' attitudes and resources related to shared reading during the postpartum period. Outcomes: mothers' shared reading activities and resources at 6 months (StimQ-READ).
173 mother-infant dyads were assessed. In multiple regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographics and maternal depression and literacy, StimQ-READ at 6 months was increased in association with all 3 postpartum predictors: plans for reading as a strategy for school success (adjusted mean 1.7 point increase in 6 month score; 95% CI: 0.3 – 3.0), plans to read in infancy (3.1 point increase; 95% CI: 1.6-4.6), and having baby books in the home (2.3 point increase; 95% CI: 0.9 – 3.6). In multiple logistic regression analysis, mothers with two or more attitudes and resources had an AOR of 6.2 (95% CI: 2.0-18.9) for having initiated reading at 6 months.
Maternal attitudes and resources in early infancy related to shared reading are important predictors of reading behaviors by 6 months. Cumulative postnatal attitudes and resources are the strongest predictors of later behaviors. Additional research is needed regarding whether guidance about shared reading in early infancy or pregnancy would enhance programs such as Reach Out and Read.
Parenting; Infancy; Reading; Developmental Outcomes
In 1979 and 1980 the Canadian Paediatric Society's Nutrition Committee published guidelines for professionals counselling mothers of infants on feeding practices. The practices in 1984-85 of mothers in Toronto were determined for comparison with the practices identified in a similar study conducted in Toronto and Montreal in 1977-78 to ascertain if practices had changed in favour of the recommendations. Between July 1984 and February 1985, 404 metropolitan Toronto mothers of infants were interviewed. Compared with the 1977-78 group of mothers, more of the 1984-85 mothers had chosen to breast-feed and fewer had stopped breast-feeding in the first month. As well, fewer of the 1984-85 infants had been fed unmodified cow's milk in the first 6 months of life and introduced to solid foods before 4 months of age. We conclude that major changes in infant feeding practices had occurred since 1977-78 and that the 1984-85 practices corresponded closely to the infant feeding guidelines.
Background. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established.
Methods. The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian mother-infant pair participants in randomized and ancillary HIV-infected cohorts of the Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) Study, a study comparing extended nevirapine versus single-dose nevirapine, to reduce MTCT of HIV among breast-fed infants. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the impact of maternal TB occurring during pregnancy and through 12 months after delivery on risk of MTCT.
Results. Of 783 mothers, 3 had prevalent TB and 30 had incident TB at 12 months after delivery. Of 33 mothers with TB, 10 (30%) transmitted HIV to their infants in comparison with 87 of 750 mothers without TB (12%; odds ratio [OR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–7.29; P = .02). In multivariable analysis, maternal TB was associated with 2.51-fold (95% CI, 1.05–6.02; P = .04) increased odds of HIV transmission adjusting for maternal factors (viral load, CD4 cell count, and antiretroviral therapy) and infant factors (breast-feeding duration, infant nevirapine administration, gestational age, and birth weight) associated with MTCT of HIV.
Conclusions. Maternal TB is associated with increased MTCT of HIV. Prevention of TB among HIV-infected mothers should be a high priority for communities with significant HIV/TB burden.
This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression.
Infant Autonomic Regulation; Prenatal Substance exposure; Aggression