Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood.
Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined.
Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (≥2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum.
Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03).
Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects.
negative life events; stress; pregnancy; maternal sensitization; childhood wheeze
The relationship between stress and quality of life in adults with asthma has not been well studied. Stress, quantified by negative life events, may be linked to quality of life in asthma through multiple pathways, including increase in disease severity and adverse effects on socioeconomic status (SES).
The responses to a self‐completed questionnaire assessing negative life events (NLEs) in the previous 12 months (from a 24‐item checklist) among 189 adults with asthma from a well‐characterised cohort were analysed. The relationship between the number of NLEs reported and asthma‐specific quality of life (AQOL) was measured with the Marks instrument. General linear modelling was used to test the conjoint effects of NLEs, SES and disease severity based on the Severity of Asthma Score, a validated acute and chronic disease measure.
Those with annual family incomes <$60 000 reported significantly more NLEs than those with higher incomes (p = 0.03). The number of NLEs did not differ significantly between those with forced expiratory volume in 1 s <80% predicted and those with >80% predicted, nor among those with lower compared with higher Severity of Asthma Score. The frequency of NLEs was associated with poorer (higher numerical score) AQOL (p = 0.002). When studied together in the same model, combinations of income level and asthma severity (greater or lesser Severity of Asthma Score; p<0.001) and number of NLEs (p = 0.03) were both significantly associated with AQOL.
NLEs are associated with quality of life among adults with asthma, especially among those of lower SES. Clinicians should be aware of this relationship, especially in vulnerable patient subsets.
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) or fear of anxiety sensations has been linked to childhood learning history for somatic symptoms, suggesting that parental AS may impact children’s responses to pain. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested a conceptual model in which parent AS predicted child AS, which in turn predicted a hypothesized latent construct consisting of children’s pain intensity ratings for three laboratory pain tasks (cold pressor, thermal heat and pressure). This conceptual model was tested in 211 non-clinical parent-child pairs (104 girls, mean age = 12.4 years; 178 mothers). Our model was supported in girls only indicating that the sex of the child moderated the hypothesized relationships. Thus, parent AS was related to child laboratory pain intensity via its contribution to child AS in girls but not in boys. In girls, 42% of the effect of parent AS on laboratory pain intensity was explained via child AS. In boys, there was no clear link between parent AS and child AS, although child AS was predictive of experimental pain intensity across sex. Our results are consistent with the notion that parent AS may operate via healthy girls’ own fear of anxiety symptoms to influence their responses to laboratory pain stimuli.
Perspective-The present study highlights sex differences in the links among parent and child anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety sensations) and children’s experimental pain responses. Among girls, childhood learning history related to somatic symptoms may be a particularly salient factor in the development of AS and pain responsivity.
anxiety sensitivity; laboratory pain; children; adolescents; parent; sex differences
Previous research has established links between parent and child pain. However, little is known about sex-specific parent-child pain relationships in a nonclinical population. A sample of 186 children aged eight to 18 years (49% female) provided information on maternal and self bodily pain, assessed by asking children about the presence and location of bodily pain experienced. Children also completed three laboratory pain tasks and reported on cold pressor pain intensity, pressure pain intensity and heat pain intensity. The presence of child-reported maternal pain was consistently correlated with daughters’ bodily and laboratory pain, but not with sons’ pain in bivariate analyses. Multivariate analyses controlling for child age and maternal psychological distress indicated that children of mothers with bodily pain reported more total bodily pain sites as well as greater pressure and cold pain intensity, relative to children of mothers without bodily pain. For cold pain intensity, these results differed for boys versus girls, in that daughters reporting maternal pain evidenced significantly higher cold pain intensity compared with daughters not reporting maternal pain. No such differences were found for boys. The findings suggest that children’s perceptions of maternal pain may play a role in influencing children’s own experience of pain, and that maternal pain models may affect boys and girls differently.
Children; Pain; Sex differences; Social learning
Previous research has established links between parent and child pain. Yet little is known about sex-specific parent-child pain relationships in a non-clinical population. A sample of 186 children aged 8–18 years (49% female) provided information on maternal and self bodily-pain, assessed by asking children about the presence and location of bodily pain experienced. Children also completed three laboratory pain tasks and reported on cold pressor pain intensity, pressure pain intensity and heat pain intensity. The presence of child-reported maternal pain was consistently correlated with daughters’ bodily and laboratory pain, but not with sons’ pain in bivariate analyses. Multivariate analyses controlling for child age and maternal psychological distress indicated that children of mothers with bodily pain reported more total bodily pain sites as well as greater pressure and cold pain intensity, relative to children of mothers without bodily pain. For cold pain intensity, these results differed for boys vs. girls, in that daughters reporting maternal pain evidenced significantly higher cold pain intensity compared to daughters not reporting maternal pain. No such differences were found for boys. The findings suggest that children’s perceptions of maternal pain may play a role in influencing children’s own experience of pain and that maternal pain models may affect boys and girls differently.
pain; sex differences; social learning; children
Few studies have examined religiosity as a protective factor using a longitudinal design to predict resilience in persons at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD).
High-risk offspring selected for having a depressed parent and control offspring of non-depressed parents were evaluated for psychiatric disorders in childhood/adolescence and at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. Religious/spiritual importance, services attendance and negative life events (NLEs) were assessed at the 10-year follow-up. Models tested differences in relationships between religiosity/spirituality and subsequent disorders among offspring based on parent depression status, history of prior MDD and level of NLE exposure. Resilience was defined as lower odds for disorders with greater religiosity/spirituality in higher-risk versus lower-risk offspring.
Increased attendance was associated with significantly reduced odds for mood disorder (by 43%) and any psychiatric disorder (by 53%) in all offspring ; however, odds were significantly lower in offspring of non-depressed parents than in offspring of depressed parents. In analyses confined to offspring of depressed parents, those with high and those with average/low NLE exposure were compared: increased attendance was associated with significantly reduced odds for MDD, mood disorder and any psychiatric disorder (by 76, 69 and 64% respectively) and increased importance was associated with significantly reduced odds for mood disorder (by 74%) only in offspring of depressed parents with high NLE exposure. Moreover, those associations differed significantly between offspring of depressed parents with high NLE exposure and offspring of depressed parents with average/low NLE exposure.
Greater religiosity may contribute to development of resilience in certain high-risk individuals.
High-risk; longitudinal; major depression; religiosity; resilience
Research in the field of pediatric pain has largely ignored the role of fathers in their children’s pain experiences. The first objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the presence of mothers versus fathers on children’s subjective ratings, facial expressions and physiological responses to acute pain. The second objective was to examine whether child and parent sex influence parents’ proxy ratings of their children’s pain. The final objective was to compare levels of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ assessments of their children’s pain. Participants included 73 children (37 boys, 36 girls), four to 12 years of age, along with 32 fathers and 41 mothers. Children undertook the cold pressor pain task while observed by one of their parents. During the task, the children’s heart rates and facial expressions were recorded. Children provided self-reports and parents provided proxy reports of child pain intensity using the seven-point Faces Pain Scale. Neither child nor parent sex had a significant impact on children’s subjective reports, facial expressions or heart rates in response to acute pain. Fathers gave their sons higher pain ratings than their daughters, whereas mothers’ ratings of their sons’ and daughters’ pain did not differ. Kappa statistics and t tests revealed that fathers tended to be more accurate judges of their children’s pain than mothers. Overall, this research highlights the importance of examining both parent and child sex differences in pediatric pain research.
Agreement; Assessment; Child; Cold pressor; Pain; Parent
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) can cause severe disease such as bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in humans. Besides production of Shiga toxins, the presence of LEE (eae-gene) and non-LEE (nle) encoded effector genes harboured on O-islands OI-122, OI-71 and OI-57 is associated with EHEC virulence and their frequency in outbreaks. Genes encoded by the EHEC-plasmid are putative virulence markers of EHEC. EHEC-plasmids, LEE and non-LEE effector genes have also been detected in some strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between EHEC and EPEC for virulence genes encoded by genomic O-islands and by the EHEC-plasmids.
Nle genes ent/espL2, nleB and nleE (OI-122), nleA, nleF and nleH1-2 (OI-71), nleG5-2 and nleG6-2 (OI-57), espK (CP-933N) and the EHEC-plasmid encoded genes ehxA, espP, etpD and katP were searched in 73 typical and in 235 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Typical and atypical EPEC each fall into two clusters. Cluster 1 typical (n = 46) and atypical (n = 129) EPEC strains were characterized by the presence of OI-122 encoded genes and grouped together with 64 investigated EHEC strains. Cluster 2 typical (n = 27) and atypical (n = 106) strains grouped together with 52 LEE-negative, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and with 21 apathogenic E. coli strains. Typical EPEC Cluster 1 strains belonged to serotypes frequently involved in severe illness and outbreaks in children (O111:H2, O114:H2, O55:H6, O127:H6 and O142:H6). Atypical EPEC Cluster 1 strains were characterized by serotypes related to EHEC (O26:H11, O55:H7, O145:H28, O103:H2 and O103:H25).
The OI-122 encoded nleB gene was found to be most closely associated with Cluster 1 strains and may serve as a diagnostic tool for the identification of virulent EHEC and EPEC seropathotypes. OI-71 encoded genes nleA, nleF and nleH1-2 are less associated with Cluster 1 strains. EHEC-plasmid, OI-57 and CP-933 associated genes showed only weak similarities with virulent Cluster 1 EHEC and EPEC strains.
Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an autoimmune disease that is associated with transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies that are reactive to SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens. Cardiac involvement, hematologic abnormality and hepatic disease may occur in the infants suffering with NLE, in addition to the characteristic skin lesions. We report here on a case of NLE in a 4-week-old female infant who was born to an asymptomatic mother, and the baby displayed the characteristic clinical and histological features of cutaneous NLE with transient anemia and hepatitis. Both the infant and mother were positive for anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La. There have been 18 case reports of NLE in the Korean literature, including 7 case reports in the dermatological field. We describe herein another case of NLE that showed transient anemia and hepatitis, and we also review the case reports of NLE in the Korean literature.
Anemia; Anti-SSA/Ro; Anti-SSB/La; Hepatitis; Neonatal lupus erythematosus
Rapid and specific detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with a high level of virulence for humans has become a priority for public health authorities. This study reports on the development of a low-density macroarray for simultaneously testing the genes stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA and six different nle genes issued from genomic islands OI-122 (ent, nleB, and nleE) and OI-71 (nleF, nleH1-2, and nleA). Various strains of E. coli isolated from the environment, food, animals, and healthy children have been compared with clinical isolates of various seropathotypes. The eae gene was detected in all enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains as well as in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains, except in EHEC O91:H21 and EHEC O113:H21. The gene ehxA was more prevalent in EHEC (90%) than in STEC (42.66%) strains, in which it was unequally distributed. The nle genes were detected only in some EPEC and EHEC strains but with various distributions, showing that nle genes are strain and/or serotype specific, probably reflecting adaptation of the strains to different hosts or environmental niches. One characteristic nle gene distribution in EHEC O157:[H7], O111:[H8], O26:[H11], O103:H25, O118:[H16], O121:[H19], O5:H−, O55:H7, O123:H11, O172:H25, and O165:H25 was ent/espL2, nleB, nleE, nleF, nleH1-2, nleA. (Brackets indicate genotyping of the flic or rfb genes.) A second nle pattern (ent/espL2, nleB, nleE, nleH1-2) was characteristic of EHEC O103:H2, O145:[H28], O45:H2, and O15:H2. The presence of eae, ent/espL2, nleB, nleE, and nleH1-2 genes is a clear signature of STEC strains with high virulence for humans.
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the previously described gene nleA4795 and variants of nleA, putatively encoding non-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-encoded type III effector proteins with functions that are unknown. nleA variants were detected in 150 out of 170 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains, two of them being eae negative. Besides the known variants nleA4795, Z6024, and the espI-like gene, 11 novel nleA variants with different lengths and sequence identities at the deduced amino acid level (between 71% and 96%) have been identified. Whereas most of the serogroups associated with more severe disease were quite homogenous with respect to the presence of a particular nleA variant, other serogroups were not. Moreover, Southern blot hybridization revealed that certain strains carry two copies of nleA in their chromosome, frequently encoding different variants. In most cases, the open reading frame of one of the copies was disrupted, usually by an insertion element. Furthermore, transmission of the type III effector-encoding gene could be shown by transduction of nleA-carrying bacteriophages to a laboratory E. coli strain.
This study employed a mixed-method design to test sex-specific parent-child pain associations. Subjects were 179 chronic pain patients aged 11–19 years (mean = 14.34; 72% female) presenting for treatment at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic. Mothers and children completed questionnaires prior to their clinic visit, including measures of children’s pain, functioning and psychological characteristics. Mothers also reported on their own pain and psychological functioning. Interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 34 mothers and children prior to the clinic visit and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The quantitative data suggest stronger mother-daughter than mother-son pain relationships. The qualitative data suggest that girls’ pain and pain-related disability is related to an overly enmeshed mother-daughter relationship and the presence of maternal models of pain, while boys’ pain and disability is linked to male pain models and criticism and to maternal worry and solicitousness. Boys and girls appear to have developmentally incongruous levels of autonomy and conformity to maternal expectations. The mixed-method data suggest distinct trajectories through which mother and father involvement may be linked to chronic pain in adolescent boys and girls.
Sex differences; parent-child relationships; chronic pain
Mother-child concordance regarding children’s somatic and emotional symptoms was assessed in children with recurrent abdominal pain (n = 88), emotional disorders (n = 51), and well children (n = 56). Children between 6 and 18 years of age and their mothers completed questionnaires assessing the children’s somatic symptoms, functional disability, and depression. Mothers of children with recurrent abdominal pain reported more child somatic and depressive symptoms than did their children, and mothers of children with emotional disorders reported more child depressive symptoms than did their children. Higher levels of maternal distress were associated with greater mother-child discordance in the direction of mothers reporting more child symptoms than did their children. No significant child age or sex differences were found in concordance patterns.
Somatic symptoms; emotional symptoms; recurrent abdominal pain; mother-child concordance
Case report: An asymptomatic mother with primary Sjögren's syndrome and anti-SSA/Ro52, anti-SSA/Ro60, and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies is described who, at gestational week 23 during her first pregnancy, was diagnosed as having a male fetus with CHB due to third degree atrioventricular block. The boy from the second pregnancy developed skin eruptions which clinically and by biopsy were compatible with NLE at week 20+1 post partum.
Conclusions: Our case of NLE, starting at week 20+1 of age, seems to be the latest reported clinical case of NLE. Development of CHB and NLE in two consecutive boy pregnancies is unusual.
How does the preceding experience of pain by the mother affect the child's response to the painful event? This work intends to be a preliminary answer to this problem. A questionnaire with 10 items was administered to 217 mothers aged 26/45 years, with 1 (44%) or 2 (47%) children, and from different regions of central and southern Italy. The majority of the mothers had a memory of a supporting response by her family to her experience of pain. 50% of the mothers recalled an episode of physical pain and 20% an episode of moral pain. The memory of moral pain was more widespread in the South (71% of all the mothers). The definition of pain was negative (62%): pain was experienced either as a threat to health or a limitation to one's freedom. The children, conversely, dealt with pain in 67% of the cases by looking for their parents and asking for help; 33% dealt with pain alone. 91% of the mothers who become upset when they have pain have children who, when they are ill, behave in the same manner.
It is in the South that the relationships in the family remain mainly unchanged (68%) on the occasion of an illness of a child, while it is in central Italy that these improve more easily. For mothers, pain is a substantially negative experience. The study shows that a family experience of pain is passed, as far as the manner of dealing with it is concernec, from one generation to another.
Key words Pain; Family experience; Mother; Child
Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an autoimmune disease affecting the fetus as a result of transplacental transfer of anti-Ro autoantibodies. Typically, it presents in the first few months of life with an annular form of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. We report an unusual case of NLE presenting at birth with scaly erythematous telangiectatic patches and macules with skin atrophy involving the face, head, and upper trunk. Thrombocytopenia was discovered on laboratory investigations. Histopathology of skin biopsy was consistent with subacute cutaneous lupus. The mother was clinically free of disease and had no family history of autoimmune disease. Serology (extra-nuclear antigens) was positive in both the baby and the mother. This is a rare presentation of a rare disease.
Atrophic lesions; congenital lupus erythematosus; Saudi Arabia
To examine the relationships among maternal and child depressive symptoms and child and family psychosocial factors.
Secondary analysis of baseline data for a coping skills intervention for school-age children (ages 8-12) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers. Children and mothers completed measures of depressive symptoms, coping, quality of life, and family functioning.
There was a strong relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms (r = .44, p < .001). Maternal depressive symptoms were negatively related to child quality of life, perceptions of coping, and family functioning. Impact of diabetes on quality of life, upset related to coping, and family warmth mediated the relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms.
Maternal depression may negatively affect child adjustment through its influence on quality of life, coping, and family functioning. Implications for interventions to improve psychosocial adjustment in children with T1D are discussed.
We investigated the relationship between parents’ empathic responses prior to their children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and children’s pain/distress during the procedures. We hypothesized: (1) parents’ empathic distress would be positively associated with children’s pain/distress, (2) parents’ empathic concern would be negatively associated with children’s pain/distress; and (3) parents’ enduring dispositions and social support would be associated with their empathic responses. Parents completed: (1) measures of dispositions and perceived social support several weeks before their children underwent the procedures, and (2) state measures of empathic distress and empathic concern just before the procedures. Empathic distress was positively associated with children’s pain; empathic concern was negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Predictions about dispositions and social support were also substantially confirmed.
To investigate the extent to which three putative “environmental” risk factors, maternal and paternal punitive discipline and negative life events, share genetic influences with, and moderate the heritability of, externalizing behavior.
The sample consisted of 2647 participants, aged 12–19 years, from the G1219 and G1219Twins longitudinal studies. Externalizing behavior was measured using the Youth Self-Report, maternal punitive discipline (MPD), paternal punitive discipline (PPD) and exposure to negative life events (NLE) were assessed using the Negative Sanctions Scale and the Life Event Scale for Adolescents respectively.
Genetic influences overlapped for externalizing behavior and each “environmental” risk, indicating gene-environment correlation. When controlling for the gene-environment correlation genetic variance decreased, and both shared and non-shared environmental influences increased, as a function of MPD. Genetic variance increased as a function of PPD, and for NLE the only interaction effect was on the level of non-shared environment influence unique to externalizing behavior.
The magnitude of the influence of genetic risk on externalizing behavior is contextually dependent, even after controlling for gene-environment correlation.
gene-environment interaction; gene-environment correlation; externalizing behavior; negative life events; punitive discipline
Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.
eating behavior; body dissatisfaction; gender differences
To examine relationships among trait anxiety sensitivity, state task-specific anticipatory anxiety, and laboratory pain responses in healthy children and adolescents.
Participants (N=118, 49.2% female, ages 8-18 years) completed a measure of anxiety sensitivity and rated anticipatory anxiety prior to undergoing thermal, pressure, and cold pain tasks. Linear and logistic regressions were used to test the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity and anticipatory anxiety would predict incremental variance in pain response after controlling for sex, age, and anxious symptoms.
Anticipatory anxiety accounted for 35-38% of unique variance in pain report across tasks, and 10% of unique variance in thermal tolerance. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to pain responses.
Task-specific anxiety is an important predictor of pain report and, in certain cases, pain tolerance. Interventions designed to reduce task-specific anticipatory anxiety may help reduce pain responses in children and adolescents.
laboratory pain; anxiety; anxiety sensitivity; children; adolescents
This multi-method study examined the association between family instability and children’s internal representations of security in the family system within the context of maternal communications about disruptive family events. Participants included 224 kindergarten children (100 boys and 124 girls) and their parents. Parents reported on the frequency of unstable family events, mothers reported their patterns of communication to children following disruptive events, and children completed a story-stem battery to assess their internal representations of family security. Consistent with predictions, heightened family instability was associated with less security in child representations. The implication of these results for notions of children’s security in the family system, including exploratory findings on the protective role of maternal communications for children’s representations, are discussed.
risk; representations; communication; parenting; adversity
In this study, we characterized the genetic background of various nleA variants in 106 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains. The flanking regions of eight nleA variants were analyzed by DNA sequencing and compared with the corresponding regions of five previously described NleA-encoding prophages. The analyzed nleA variants were all located downstream of the DNA region responsible for phage morphogenesis. In particular, the type III effector genes avrA, ospB, nleH, and nleG and IS elements were detected in the neighborhood of nleA. The structure of the eight analyzed regions flanking nleA primarily resembled the corresponding region of the NleA4795-encoding prophage BP-4795. Using PCR, the gene order flanking 13 nleA variants in strains of different serogroups was compared to the respective regions in reference strains. The analyses showed that strains which harbor prophages with conserved flanking regions of a particular nleA variant predominantly occurred, and IS elements were additionally detected in these regions. We were able to mobilize nleA by transduction in 20% of strains determined, which comprised in particular EPEC strains harboring an nleA variant, the gene encoding the protein known as “EspI-like.” Plaque hybridization was used to identify phages that harbor the genes stx and nleA. However, only two strains harbored variant nleA4795 in the genome of an Stx1 prophage.
This study aimed to: (1) determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in mothers of five year old very low birth weight (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) children; (2) determine what extent stress mediates the relationship between case status and maternal HRQoL; and (3) examine the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, birth, and child health-related factors in predicting maternal HRQoL among mothers of five year old VLBW children.
A telephone interview was administered to 297 mothers of VLBW children and 290 mothers of NBW children who were enrolled in the Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort Study.
Mothers of VLBW children experienced worse physical and mental HRQoL than mothers of NBW children (52.8 versus 55.3 points, p<0.0001, and 48.9 versus 50.5 points, p=0.02, respectively). Adjusted analyses showed that maternal mental HRQoL was similar between cases and controls while physical HRQoL when children were age five was significantly different between cases and controls (Beta:−2.02, p=0.0006); this relationship was mediated by maternal stress. Among mothers of VLBW children, stress significantly contributed to adverse HRQoL outcomes when children were age five. Child behavior problems at age two were also associated with worse subsequent maternal mental HRQoL (Beta: −1.8 per SD, p=0.004), while each week of neonatal intensive care unit stay was associated with worse physical HRQoL (Beta: −0.26, p=0.02).
While caring for a VLBW child negatively impacts the HRQoL of mothers, this relationship was partially explained by maternal stress. Addressing maternal stress may be an important way to improve long-term HRQoL.
Very low birth weight; maternal stress; maternal health-related quality of life; life course
The current study examined the moderating effect of children’s cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and non-supportive responses) and children’s emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children’s negative emotions and children’s regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children’s vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers’ non-supportive emotion socialization and children’s emotion regulation behaviors such that non-supportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children’s emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against non-supportive emotion socialization.
vagal suppression; vagal tone; emotion regulation; physiological regulation; emotion socialization; negative emotions; preschool; RSA