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1.  Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Levels Are Decreased in Chinese Subjects With Impaired Fasting Glucose and Inversely Associated With Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(9):2810-2814.
OBJECTIVE
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a hormone secreted from the small intestine, has recently been shown to stimulate glycogen synthesis and inhibit gluconeogenesis through insulin-independent pathways. This study investigated the change of FGF19 in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explored the association of serum FGF19 levels with parameters of glucose metabolism in Chinese subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Fasting serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in 81 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 91 impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 93 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 104 newly diagnosed T2DM subjects, and their association with parameters of glucose metabolism was studied. An ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed in subjects with NGT, IFG, and T2DM. Serum FGF19 levels at 2 h after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the different glucose tolerance categories were studied in a subgroup.
RESULTS
Fasting serum FGF19 levels in subjects with IFG (210 pg/mL [142–327]) (median [interquartile range]) and T2DM (196 pg/mL [137–280]) were significantly lower than those in NGT subjects (289 pg/mL [224–393]) (both P < 0.001). However, no significant difference in fasting FGF19 levels was observed between IGT (246 pg/mL [138–379]) and NGT subjects. Fasting serum FGF19 levels were negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and independently associated with the deterioration of glucometabolic status from NGT to IFG and T2DM.
CONCLUSIONS
Fasting serum FGF19 levels were decreased in Chinese subjects with IFG and inversely associated with fasting glucose levels.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1766
PMCID: PMC3747891  PMID: 23628619
2.  In Vivo Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Obese Youth 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(1):100-105.
OBJECTIVE—Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) represents a pre-diabetic state. Controversy continues in regards to its pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in insulin sensitivity (IS) and secretion in obese adolescents with IGT compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 12 obese adolescents with NGT, 19 with IGT, and 17 with type 2 diabetes underwent evaluation of insulin sensitivity (3-h hyperinsulinemic [80mu/m2/min]–euglycemic clamp), first-phase insulin and second-phase insulin secretion (2-h hyperglycemic clamp), body composition, and abdominal adiposity. Glucose disposition index (GDI) was calculated as the product of first-phase insulin × insulin sensitivity.
RESULTS—Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was significantly lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with subjects with NGT and IGT, with no difference between the latter two. However, compared with youth with NGT, youth with IGT have significantly lower first-phase insulin and C-peptide levels and GDI (P = 0.012), whereas youth with type 2 diabetes have an additional defect in second-phase insulin. Fasting and 2-h glucose correlated with GDI (r = −0.68, P < 0.001 and r = −0.73, P < 0.001, respectively) and first-phase insulin but not with insulin sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with youth with NGT, obese adolescents with IGT have evidence of a β-cell defect manifested in impaired first-phase insulin secretion, with a more profound defect in type 2 diabetes involving both first- and second-phase insulin. GDI shows a significantly declining pattern: it is highest in NGT, intermediate in IGT, and lowest in type 2 diabetes. Such data suggest that measures to prevent progression or conversion from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes should target improvement in β-cell function.
doi:10.2337/dc08-1030
PMCID: PMC2606839  PMID: 18835946
3.  Elevated 1 h postload plasma glucose levels identify adults with normal glucose tolerance but increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
Objective
To determine the ability of the proposed diagnostic value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ≥155mg/dL to identify individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cohort of adult white individuals.
Design
The study group comprised 710 white individuals participating to the CATAnzaro MEtabolic RIsk factors (CATAMERI) Study, a cross-sectional study assessing cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals carrying at least one risk factor including dysglycemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. a 75 g oral Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min sampling for plasma glucose and insulin measurements. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed in the whole cohort.
Results
Of the 710 participants examined, 295 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), 109 individuals had NGT 1h-high, 104 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 202 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT 1h-low, NGT 1h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ALT, GGT, and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), assessed by the liver IR index, as well as lower high density lipoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, NGT 1h-high participants had a 1.5-fold increased risk of having NAFLD and an even increased risk was observed in subjects with IGT (1.8-fold), but not in the isolated IFG group (1.01-fold).
Conclusions
These data suggest that the value of a 1-hour OGTT glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of NGT individuals at risk for NAFLD.
doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000016
PMCID: PMC4212569  PMID: 25452862
NAFLD; IGT; OGTT
4.  One-Hour Postload Plasma Glucose Levels and Left Ventricular Mass in Hypertensive Patients 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(6):1406-1411.
OBJECTIVE
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, recognizes a multifactorial pathogenesis. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dL for the 1-h postload plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) identifies subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high risk for type 2 diabetes. We addressed the question if glucose tolerance status, particularly 1-h postload plasma glucose levels, affects left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac geometry in essential hypertension.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We enrolled 767 never-treated hypertensive subjects, 393 women and 374 men (mean age 49.6 ± 8.5 years). All patients underwent an OGTT for the evaluation of glucose tolerance and standard echocardiography. LVM was calculated using the Devereux formula and normalized by body surface area (LVM index [LVMI]). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Matsuda index. Among all participants, 514 had NGT, 168 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 85 had type 2 diabetes. According to the 1-h postload plasma glucose cutoff point of 155 mg/dL, we divided normotolerant subjects into two groups: NGT <155 mg/dL (n = 356) and NGT ≥155 mg/dL (n = 158).
RESULTS
Subjects in the NGT ≥155 mg/dL group had worse insulin sensitivity than subjects in the NGT <155 mg/dL group (Matsuda index 63.9 vs. 88.8; P < 0.0001). Men with NGT ≥155 mg/dL had a higher LVMI than men with NGT <155 mg/dL (126.6 vs. 114.3 g/m2; P = 0.002) and a different LVH prevalence (41.1 vs. 25.8%; P < 0.0001). At multiple regression analysis, 1-h glucose resulted in the major determinant of LVMI in normotolerant, IGT, and diabetic groups.
CONCLUSIONS
These data show that NGT ≥155 mg/dL subjects, compared with NGT <155 mg/dL subjects, have a higher LVMI and a greater prevalence of LVH similar to that of IGT and diabetic patients.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0155
PMCID: PMC3114345  PMID: 21515837
5.  From Pre-Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Youth 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(10):2225-2231.
OBJECTIVE
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are considered pre-diabetes states. There are limited data in pediatrics in regard to their pathophysiology. We investigated differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion among youth with IFG, IGT, and coexistent IFG/IGT compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 24 obese adolescents with NGT, 13 with IFG, 29 with IGT, 11 with combined IFG/IGT, and 30 with type 2 diabetes underwent evaluation of hepatic glucose production ([6,6-2H2]glucose), insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd, euglycemic clamp), first- and second-phase insulin secretion (hyperglycemic clamp), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), abdominal adiposity (computed tomography), and substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry).
RESULTS
Adolescents with NGT, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes had similar body composition and abdominal fat distribution. Rd was lower (P = 0.009) in adolescents with type 2 diabetes than in those with NGT. Compared with adolescents with NGT, first-phase insulin was lower in those with IFG, IGT, and IFG/IGT with further deterioration in those with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.001), and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity (glucose disposition index [GDI]) was also lower in those with IFG, IGT, and IFG/IGT (40, 47, and 47%, respectively), with a further decrease (80%) in those with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.001). GDI was the major determinant of fasting and 2-h glucose levels.
CONCLUSIONS
Obese adolescents who show signs of glucose dysregulation, including abnormal fasting glucose, glucose intolerance or both, are more likely to have impaired insulin secretion rather than reduced insulin sensitivity. Given the impairment in insulin secretion, they are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes. Further deterioration in insulin sensitivity or secretion may enhance the risk for this progression.
doi:10.2337/dc10-0004
PMCID: PMC2945164  PMID: 20592052
6.  Association between One-Hour Post-Load Plasma Glucose Levels and Vascular Stiffness in Essential Hypertension 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44470.
Objectives
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dl for the 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes (T2D) and for subclinical organ damage. Thus, we addressed the question if 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels, affects PWV and its central hemodynamic correlates, as augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AI).
Methods
We enrolled 584 newly diagnosed hypertensives. All patients underwent OGTT and measurements of PWV, AP and AI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda-index.
Results
Among participants, 424 were NGT and 160 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of 424 NGT, 278 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dl (NGT<155) and 146 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dl (NGT≥155). NGT≥155 had a worse insulin sensitivity and higher hs-CRP than NGT<155, similar to IGT subjects. In addition, NGT ≥155 in comparison with NGT<155 had higher central systolic blood pressure (134±12 vs 131±10 mmHg), as well as PWV (8.4±3.7 vs 6.7±1.7 m/s), AP (12.5±7.1 vs 9.8±5.7 mmHg) and AI (29.4±11.9 vs 25.1±12.4%), and similar to IGT. At multiple regression analysis, 1-h post-load plasma glucose resulted the major determinant of all indices of vascular stiffness.
Conclusion
Hypertensive NGT≥155 subjects, compared with NGT<155, have higher PWV and its hemodynamic correlates that increase their cardiovascular risk profile.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044470
PMCID: PMC3441532  PMID: 23028545
7.  Vitamin D and 1-hour post-load plasma glucose in hypertensive patients 
Background
A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dl for 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage. We designed this study to address if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] circulating levels are associated with glucose tolerance status, and in particular with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels.
Methods
We enrolled 300 consecutive Caucasian hypertensive never-treated outpatients (160 men and 140 women, aged 52.9 ± 9.2 years). Subjects underwent OGTT and measurements of 25(OH)D and standard laboratory tests. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI formula and insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda-index.
Results
Among participants, 230 were NGT, 44 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 26 had type-2 diabetes. According to 1-h post-load plasma glucose cut-off point of 155 mg/dL, we divided NGT subjects into: NGT < 155 (n = 156) and NGT > 155 mg/dL (n = 74).
NGT ≥ 155 had higher significant fasting and post-load glucose and insulin, parathyroid hormone and hs-CRP levels than NGT < 155. On the contrary, Matsuda-index, e-GFR, and 25(OH)D were significantly lower in NGT ≥ 155 than NGT < 155 subjects. In the multiple regression analysis, 25(OH)D levels resulted the major determinant of 1-h post-load plasma glucose in all population and in the four groups of glucose tolerance status. In the whole population, Matsuda-index, hs-CRP and e-GFR explained another 12.2%, 6.7% and 1.7% of its variation.
Conclusions
Our data demonstrate a significant and inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and glucose tolerance status, particularly with 1-h post-load glucose.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-13-48
PMCID: PMC3931918  PMID: 24555478
Vitamin D; Glucose tolerance; Insulin resistance
8.  Serum Progranulin Concentrations May Be Associated With Macrophage Infiltration Into Omental Adipose Tissue 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):627-636.
OBJECTIVE—Progranulin is an important molecule in inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation is frequently associated with central obesity and associated disturbances; however, the role of circulating progranulin in human obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia is unknown.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—For the measurement of progranulin serum concentrations, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using this ELISA, we assessed circulating progranulin in a cross-sectional study of 209 subjects with a wide range of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance and in 60 individuals with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes before and after a 4-week physical training program. Progranulin mRNA and protein expression was measured in paired samples of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue (adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction) from 55 lean or obese individuals. Measurement of Erk activation and chemotactic activity induced by progranulin in vitro was performed using THP-1–based cell migration assays.
RESULTS—Progranulin serum concentrations were significantly higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with NGT and in obese subjects with predominant visceral fat accumulation. Circulating progranulin significantly correlates with BMI, macrophage infiltration in omental adipose tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations, A1C values, and total cholesterol. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed CRP levels as the strongest independent predictor of circulating progranulin. The extent of in vitro progranulin-mediated chemotaxis is similar to that of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but independent of Gα. Moreover, in type 2 diabetes, but not in IGT and NGT individuals, physical training for 4 weeks resulted in significantly decreased circulating progranulin levels.
CONCLUSIONS—Elevated progranulin serum concentrations are associated with visceral obesity, elevated plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia. We identified progranulin as a novel marker of chronic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes that closely reflects omental adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Physical training significantly reduces elevated circulating progranulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-1147
PMCID: PMC2646061  PMID: 19056610
9.  The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum 
Physiological Reports  2014;2(8):e12114.
Abstract
We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty‐four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2, P > 0.05) underwent a 180‐min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6‐2H2]glucose and ingestion of [U‐13C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C‐peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg−1 min−1) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; RaOGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate‐intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control.
This study shows that following an exercise bout, plasma glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test are increased in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but unchanged in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. While rates of glucose disappearance and rates of glucose appearance from endogenous sources and from orally ingested glucose were all increased following exercise, there was a 20% greater peak value for the rate of orally ingested glucose appearance in normal glucose tolerant subjects, when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. In summary, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying level of glycemic control.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12114
PMCID: PMC4246585  PMID: 25168869
Glucose kinetics; oral glucose tolerance test; physical activity; type 2 diabetes
10.  Decreased Insulin Clearance in Individuals with Elevated 1-h Post-Load Plasma Glucose Levels 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77440.
Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl) at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low). To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001) and insulin clearance (P = 0.006) after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02) in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077440
PMCID: PMC3806727  PMID: 24194886
11.  One-Hour Postload Plasma Glucose Levels and Diastolic Function in Hypertensive Patients 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(10):2291-2296.
OBJECTIVE
To address whether glucose tolerance status, and in particular 1-h postload plasma glucose levels, may affect diastolic function in 161 never-treated hypertensive white subjects. Impaired left ventricular relaxation, an early sign of diastolic dysfunction, represents the first manifestation of myocardial involvement in diabetic cardiomyopathy. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dL for the 1-h postload plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high risk for type 2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Subjects underwent OGTT and standard echocardiography. Diastolic function was assessed by pulsed Doppler transmitral flow velocity and tissue Doppler imaging. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda index.
RESULTS
Among the participants, 120 had NGT, 26 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 15 had type 2 diabetes. According to the 1-h postload plasma glucose cutoff point of 155 mg/dL, we divided NGT subjects as follows: NGT <155 mg/dL (n = 90) and NGT ≥155 mg/dL (n = 30). Those with NGT ≥155 mg/dL had higher left atrium dimensions (P < 0.0001) and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) (P = 0.037) than those with NGT <155 mg/dL. By contrast, early/late transmitral flow velocity and all tissue Doppler parameters were significantly lower in those with NGT ≥155 mg/dL than in those with NGT<155 mg/dL. At multiple regression analysis, 1-h glucose was the major determinant of left atrium area, IVRT, septal e′, septal e′-to-a′ ratio, lateral e′, and lateral e′-to-a′ ratio.
CONCLUSIONS
The main finding of this study is that 1-h postload plasma glucose is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Subjects with NGT ≥155 mg/dL had significantly worse diastolic function than those with NGT<155 mg/dL.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0879
PMCID: PMC3177717  PMID: 21911775
12.  Effect of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade on Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Parameters in Patients With Impaired Glucose Tolerance 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(4):914-919.
OBJECTIVE
The study investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on glucose homeostasis and inflammatory parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We prospectively studied the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 13 obese males with IGT and in 13 matched control subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during hyperglycemic testing over 90 min. Adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were analyzed. Measurements were performed at baseline and after a 4-week treatment with 160 mg/day valsartan. The results of the IGT and NGT groups were compared.
RESULTS
At baseline, HOMA-IR (IGT 4.1 ± 3 vs. NGT 2.3 ± 1.0, P < 0.01), hsCRP (IGT 3.9 ± 1.9 vs. NGT 1.8 ± 1 mg/l, P < 0.05), and RBP4 (IGT 27.1 ± 2.1 vs. NGT 24.0 ± 2.0 ng/ml, P < 0.05) were significantly higher, whereas ISI (IGT 1.5 ± 0.9 vs. NGT 1.8 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and plasma adiponectin (IGT 3.2 ± 0.9, NGT 5.2 ± 2.4 μg/ml, P < 0.05) were significantly lower in the IGT group compared with the NGT group. Under ARB, there was an increase in both groups of adiponectin (IGT 4.1 ± 1.9 μg/ml, NGT 6.3 ± 2.9 μg/ml, P < 0.05) and an increase in ISI (IGT 1.5 ± 0.9 to 2.3 ± 1 μg/ml, NGT 1.8 ± 1 to 2.5 ± 2 μg/ml, P < 0.05). HOMA-IR (4.1 ± 3 to 2.6 ± 2; P < 0.01), hsCRP (3.9 ± 1.9 to 1.8 ± 1 mg/l, P < 0.05), and RBP4 (27.1 ± 2.1 to 22.1 ± 1.8 ng/ml, P < 0.01) decreased significantly in the IGT group.
CONCLUSIONS
Insulin sensitivity and associated inflammatory factors improve under ARB in IGT patients.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1381
PMCID: PMC2845051  PMID: 20086255
13.  Glucose challenge increases circulating progenitor cells in Asian Indian male subjects with normal glucose tolerance which is compromised in subjects with pre-diabetes: A pilot study 
Background
Haematopoietic stem cells undergo mobilization from bone marrow to blood in response to physiological stimuli such as ischemia and tissue injury. The aim of study was to determine the kinetics of circulating CD34+ and CD133+CD34+ progenitor cells in response to 75 g glucose load in subjects with normal and impaired glucose metabolism.
Methods
Asian Indian male subjects (n = 50) with no prior history of glucose imbalance were subjected to 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 24 subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 17 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 9 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The IGT and IFG subjects were grouped together as pre-diabetes group (n = 26). Progenitor cell counts in peripheral circulation at fasting and 2 hour post glucose challenge were measured using direct two-color flow cytometry.
Results
The pre-diabetes group was more insulin resistant (p < 0.0001) as measured by homeostasis assessment model (HOMA-IR) compared to NGT group. A 2.5-fold increase in CD34+ cells (p = 0.003) and CD133+CD34+ (p = 0.019) cells was seen 2 hours post glucose challenge in the NGT group. This increase for both the cell types was attenuated in subjects with IGT. CD34+ cell counts in response to glucose challenge inversely correlated with neutrophil counts (ρ = -0.330, p = 0.019), while post load counts of CD133+CD34+ cells inversely correlated with serum creatinine (ρ = -0.312, p = 0.023).
Conclusion
There is a 2.5-fold increase in the circulating levels of haematopoietic stem cells in response to glucose challenge in healthy Asian Indian male subjects which is attenuated in subjects with pre-diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-2
PMCID: PMC3027185  PMID: 21219665
14.  Retinol-binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Protein Expression Is Increased in Omental Adipose Tissue of Severely Obese Patients 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2009;18(4):663-666.
Visceral fat has been linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and emerging data links RBP4 gene expression in adipose tissue with insulin resistance. In this study, we examined RBP4 protein expression in omental adipose tissue obtained from 24 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and 10 lean controls (4 males/6 females, BMI = 23.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2) undergoing elective abdominal surgeries. Twelve of the obese patients had T2DM (2 males/10 females, BMI: 44.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2) and 12 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT: 4 males/8 females, BMI: 47.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Adipose RBP4, glucose transport protein-4 (GLUT4), and p85 protein expression were determined by western blot. Blood samples from the bariatric patients were analyzed for serum RBP4, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Adipose RBP4 protein expression (NGT: 11.0 ± 0.6; T2DM: 11.8 ± 0.7; lean: 8.7 ± 0.8 arbitrary units) was significantly increased in both NGT (P = 0.03) and T2DM (P = 0.005), compared to lean controls. GLUT4 protein was decreased in both NGT (P = 0.02) and T2DM (P = 0.03), and p85 expression was increased in T2DM subjects, compared to NGT (P = 0.03) and lean controls (P = 0.003). Regression analysis showed a strong correlation between adipose RBP4 protein and BMI for all subjects, as well as between adipose RBP4 and fasting glucose levels in T2DM subjects (r = 0.76, P = 0.004). Further, in T2DM, serum RBP4 was correlated with p85 expression (r = 0.68, P = 0.01), and adipose RBP4 protein trended toward an association with p85 protein (r = 0.55, P = 0.06). These data suggest that RBP4 may regulate adiposity, and p85 expression in obese-T2DM, thus providing a link to impaired insulin signaling and diabetes in severely obese patients.
doi:10.1038/oby.2009.328
PMCID: PMC2919818  PMID: 19816414
15.  Elevated Plasma SPARC Levels Are Associated with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81615.
Objective
Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women.
Design/Methods
Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA.
Results
GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT) and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG), Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT.
Conclusions
SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081615
PMCID: PMC3857203  PMID: 24349098
16.  Short-Term Intensive Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Partially Restores Both Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Subjects With Long-Term Remission 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(8):1848-1853.
OBJECTIVE
To examine the effect of intensive glycemic control therapy (IT) on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Forty-eight newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to IT for 2 weeks and followed up for 1 year. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted in NGT, IGT, and diabetic subjects. Blood glucose and insulin were measured before and after IT and at the 1-year follow-up.
RESULTS
IT lowered the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) for insulin resistance (IR) significantly, from 3.12 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) to 1.72 ± 0.8, a level comparable to the IGT (1.96 ± 1.1) and NGT (1.37 ± 0.6) subjects in the remission group; however, no HOMA-IR improvement was observed in nonremission subjects. HOMA-β in the remission group was improved (mean, interquartile range) from 18.4 (8.3–28.5) to 44.6 (32.1–69.1) and acute insulin response of insulin (AIRins) from 1.50 ± 0.22 to 1.83 ± 0.19 μIU/mL after IT, but was still significantly lower than those in NGT individuals (HOMA-β: 86.4 [56.7–185.2], P < 0.01; AIRins: 2.54 ± 0.39 μIU/mL, P < 0.01). After IT and at 1 year, the hyperbolic relationship between HOMA-β and HOMA sensitivity of remission subjects shifted close to that of IGT subjects.
CONCLUSIONS
IT in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes not only partially restored β-cell function but also greatly restored insulin sensitivity. Compared with IGT and NGT subjects, β-cell function was less restored than insulin sensitivity after IT in the remission subjects.
doi:10.2337/dc10-2105
PMCID: PMC3142020  PMID: 21680726
17.  Insulin‐secretion capacity in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes in obese and non‐obese Japanese patients 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  Pronounced reduction of insulin secretion in response to a rise in glucose level has been reported in Japanese patients compared with Caucasian patients, but the mean body mass index (BMI) is also lower in Japanese patients. As BMI is a determinant of insulin secretion, we examined insulin‐secretion capacity in obese and non‐obese Japanese patients.
Materials and Methods:  Using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we estimated the insulin‐secreting capacity in obese (BMI ≥ 25) and non‐obese (BMI < 25) Japanese patients, including 1848 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 321 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 69 diabetes (DM) patients.
Results:  The insulinogenic index (I.I.), calculated by dividing the increment in serum insulin by the increment in plasma glucose from 0 to 30 min during OGTT, decreased from NGT to IGT and to DM in patients with and without obesity. In patients with NGT, IGT and DM, the I.I. values of obese patients were higher than those of the non‐obese patients. The peak of insulin concentration in OGTT appeared at 60 min in NGT and at 120 min in IGT in both obese and non‐obese patients, but in DM it was observed at 120 min in obese patients and at 60 min in non‐obese patients.
Conclusions:  These results show that early‐phase insulin secretion in obese Japanese patients is higher than in non‐obese patients in all stages of glucose tolerance, and delayed insulin‐secretion capacity is also conserved in obese Japanese patients, even in IGT and DM, which is similar to Caucasian patients. (J Diabetes Invest, doi:10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00180.x, 2011)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00180.x
PMCID: PMC4014949  PMID: 24843576
Insulin secretion; Non‐obese Japanese; Obese Japanese
18.  Metabolic inflexibility during submaximal aerobic exercise is associated with glucose intolerance in obese older adults 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;22(2):451-457.
Objective
People with type 2 diabetes have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic impairments that are linked to obesity and often occur prior to the development of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that obese, older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower ability to shift from fat to carbohydrate oxidation when transitioning from rest to submaximal exercise than normal glucose tolerant (NGT) controls.
Design and Methods
Glucose tolerance, body composition, and substrate oxidation (measured by RER: respiratory exchange ratio) during submaximal exercise (50% and 60% VO2max) and insulin infusion (3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) were assessed in 23 sedentary, overweight-obese, older men and women.
Results
Obese subjects with NGT (n=13) and IGT (n=10) had similar resting RER, but during submaximal exercise those with IGT had a lower RER and less transition to carbohydrate oxidation than the NGT group (P<0.05). The IGT group also oxidized less carbohydrate during insulin infusion than NGT (P<0.05). RER at each exercise intensity independently correlated with120-minute postprandial glucose (r= −0.54–−0.58, P<0.05), but not with body composition, VO2max, or RER during insulin infusion.
Conclusions
Obese, older adults have metabolic inflexibility during exercise that is associated with the degree of glucose intolerance independent of age and body composition.
doi:10.1002/oby.20609
PMCID: PMC3875833  PMID: 23983100
type 2 diabetes; metabolism; exercise physiology; substrate oxidation
19.  Effects of Short-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on Fasting Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Levels in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26359.
Background
To investigate the effects of short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on plasma fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM).
Method
Sixty-eight patients with nT2DM (nT2DM group), and 52 gender-, age- and body mass index (BMI) -matched normal glucose tolerance (NGT group) controls participated in the study. 30 nT2DM patients with FBG≥14.0 mmol/L were treated with CSII for 2 weeks, and were underwent a euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp pre- and post-treatment. Plasma FGF-21 concentrations were measured with a commercial ELISA kit. The relationship between plasma FGF-21 levels and metabolic parameters was also analyzed.
Results
Fasting plasma FGF-21 levels were higher in the nT2DM group than in NGT groups (1.60±0.08 vs. 1.13±0.26 µg/L, P<0.01). In nT2DM patients, fasting plasma FGF-21 concentrations were significantly decreased after CSII treatment for 2 weeks (1.60±0.08 vs.1.30±0.05 µg/L, P<0.05), accompanied by a significant increase in the whole body glucose uptake (M value) and blood glucose control. The changes in plasma FGF-21 levels (ΔFGF-21) were positively associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance shown by the changes in M value.
Conclusion
Plasma FGF-21 level is associated with whole body insulin sensitivity and significantly reduced following short-term CSII treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026359
PMCID: PMC3202531  PMID: 22046277
20.  Insulin secretion and sensitivity during oral glucose tolerance test in Korean lean elderly women. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2001;16(5):592-597.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes including undiagnosed isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia (IPH) are common in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the insulin secretion and sensitivity in Korean elderly lean diabetic women. Forty-one lean women aged 65-88 years took 2 hr oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were stratified according to the WHO criteria (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], n=20; IGT, n=6; and type 2 diabetics, n=15 including seven IPH). HbA1c and fructosamine progressively increased from the NGT to the diabetic subjects (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Compared with subjects with NGT, the insulinogenic index, a marker of early insulin secretion and the AUC(ins), a marker of total insulin secretion, decreased significantly in diabetic group [0.53 (-0.44 -1.45) vs. 0.18 (0.00 -1.11), p=0.03 and 306+/-165 vs. 199+/-78 pmol/L, p=0.02 respectively]. A significant difference was found in the AUC(c-peptide) among each group (221+/-59 vs. 206+/-34 vs. 149+/-51 pmol/L, p=0.001 for each). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a marker of insulin resistance, was not different among the groups. We conclude that compared with NGT subjects, elderly lean women with diabetes have impaired oral glucose-induced insulin secretion but have relatively preserved insulin sensitivity. This suggests that insulin resistance is not necessarily an essential component of Korean elderly lean diabetic women.
PMCID: PMC3057583  PMID: 11641528
21.  Evidence for Early Defects in Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Before the Onset of Glucose Dysregulation in Obese Youths  
Diabetes  2012;61(3):606-614.
We sought to determine whether obese adolescents with high-“normal” 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels display defects in insulin secretion and sensitivity associated with future development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by applying mathematical modeling during the hyperglycemic clamp in 60 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) obese adolescents, divided into three groups based on the 2-h glucose values (<100, 100–119, 120–139 mg/dL), and in 21 IGT obese adolescents. Glucose tolerance was reevaluated after 2 years. Insulin sensitivity decreased significantly across 2-h glucose NGT categories, while the highest NGT category and IGT group were similar. First-phase insulin secretion decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was found between the highest NGT group and IGT subjects. Second-phase secretion was similar across all NGT and IGT groups. The disposition index (CDI) decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was observed between the highest NGT and IGT subjects. Age and CDI were the best predictors of 2-h glucose after two years. Across rising categories of normal 2-h glucose levels, NGT obese adolescents exhibit significant impairment of β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity associated with the development of IGT.
doi:10.2337/db11-1111
PMCID: PMC3282810  PMID: 22315322
22.  Allele Summation of Diabetes Risk Genes Predicts Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Female and Obese Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38224.
Introduction
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in approximately 40 genes have been associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in genome-wide association studies. It is not known whether a similar genetic impact on the risk of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glycemia [IFG]) exists.
Methods
In our cohort of 1442 non-diabetic subjects of European origin (normal glucose tolerance [NGT] n = 1046, isolated IFG n = 142, isolated IGT n = 140, IFG+IGT n = 114), an impact on glucose homeostasis has been shown for 9 SNPs in previous studies in this specific cohort. We analyzed these SNPs (within or in the vicinity of the genes TCF7L2, KCNJ11, HHEX, SLC30A8, WFS1, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, PPARG) for association with prediabetes.
Results
The genetic risk load was significantly associated with the risk for IGT (p = 0.0006) in a model including gender, age, BMI and insulin sensitivity. To further evaluate potential confounding effects, we stratified the population on gender, BMI and insulin sensitivity. The association of the risk score with IGT was present in female participants (p = 0.008), but not in male participants. The risk score was significantly associated with IGT (p = 0.008) in subjects with a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m2 but not in non-obese individuals. Furthermore, only in insulin resistant subjects a significant association between the genetic load and the risk for IGT (p = 0.01) was found.
Discussion
We found that T2D genetic risk alleles cause an increased risk for IGT. This effect was not present in male, lean and insulin sensitive subjects, suggesting a protective role of beneficial environmental factors on the genetic risk.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038224
PMCID: PMC3387191  PMID: 22768041
23.  Impact of gastric emptying to the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a 75‐g oral glucose load in older subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance 
Physiological Reports  2014;2(11):e12204.
Abstract
The majority of studies relating to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have not taken gastric emptying (GE), which exhibits a substantial inter‐individual variation, into account. We sought to evaluate the impact of GE, on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a 75‐g oral glucose load in older subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. Eighty‐seven healthy ‘older’ subjects (47F, 40M; age 71.0 ± 0.5 year) were given a drink comprising of 75‐g glucose and 150 mg C13‐acetate made up to 300 mL with water on a single occasion. Exhaled breath was obtained for analysis of 13CO2 and calculation of the 50% GE time (T50). Blood glucose, serum insulin and plasma glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) and glucose‐dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured, and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and the disposition index (DI), were calculated. Thirty‐one subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 46 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Blood glucose at t = 60 min and t = 120 min were related inversely to ISI (P < 0.001) and DI P < 0.001). The rise in blood glucose at t = 60 min was related inversely to the T50 in all subjects (P < 0.01), and those with IGT (P < 0.001), but not NGT. There were no significant relationships between the blood glucose at t = 120 min with the T50, but in both groups the change in blood glucose from baseline at t = 180 min was related (NGT: P < 0.001; IGT: P < 0.001) to the T50. We conclude that in NGT and IGT, the effect of GE on both the ‘early’ and ‘late’ glycemic responses to a 75‐g oral glucose load is complementary to that of insulin sensitivity.
The 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test is regarded as the ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, however, it is subject to substantial variability. This is likely to be accounted for not only by differences in insulin resistance and beta cell function but also by gastric emptying, which exhibits a wide inter‐individual variation. Our study characterized the impact of gastric emptying on glycemic, insulinemic, and incretin responses to a 75‐g oral glucose load in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose tolerance. We demonstrated that both the rate of gastric emptying and insulin sensitivity are independent, and complementary, determinants of both the ‘early’ and ‘late’ responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy older subjects.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12204
PMCID: PMC4255811  PMID: 25413324
Gastric emptying; glucose; IGT; insulin; insulin sensitivity; OGTT; older subjects
24.  25-Hydroxyvitamin D is closely related with the function of the pancreatic islet β cells 
Objectives: This study is to investigate the relationship between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and pancreatic islet β cell function under different glucose tolerance statuses in China.
Methodology: Totally, 180 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM group), 178 patients with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT group), and 160 normal control subjects (NGT group) were included to measure their body parameters and biochemical parameters. In oral glucose tolerance test, fasting serum 25-OH-D was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (Homa-IR), insulin acuity index (IAI), β-cell function index (Homa-BCF) as well as secretion index (IS) were determined.
Results: The levels of 25-OH-D, IAI and Homa-BCF in the DM group and IFG/IGT group were significantly lower than that in NGT group (P < 0.05). Homa-IR in DM group and IFG/IGT group was significantly higher than that in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis showed that 25-OH-D was positively correlated with fasting insulin (FINS) and Homa-BCF (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that 25-OH-D was one of the influential factors of pancreatic islet β cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that 25-OH-D is closely related with the function of the pancreatic islet β cells and is one of the influential factors of pancreatic islet β cell function.
PMCID: PMC3809301  PMID: 24353633
Vitamin D; Diabetes mellius; Type 2; Pancreatic islet β cell
25.  Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 in Muscle Is Associated with Lipodystrophy, Insulin Resistance and Lipid Disturbances in Patients with HIV 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e55632.
Background
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, increased FGF-21 mRNA expression in muscle was found in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the role for FGF-21 in muscle is not well understood. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy are characterised by various degree of lipid-driven insulin resistance. We hypothesized that muscle FGF-21 mRNA would be altered in HIV patients with lipodystrophy.
Design
Twenty-five HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy (LD) and 15 age-matched healthy controls, received an oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (50 mU/m2/min) combined with 6,6-H2 glucose infusion. Muscle biopsies were obtained and FGF-21 mRNA and glycogen synthase (GS) activity were measured.
Results
Subjects with HIV were insulin resistant compared with non-HIV subjects. Compared to controls, HIV subjects demonstrated a twofold increase of plasma FGF-21 from 70.4±56.8 pg/ml vs 109.1±71.8 pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.04) and an eight-fold increase in muscular FGF-21 mRNA expression (p = 0.001). Muscle FGF-21 mRNA correlated inversely with the rate of disappearance of glucose during insulin clamp (r = −0.54, p = 0.0009), and the GS fractional velocity in muscle (r = −0.39, p = 0.03), and directly with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p = 0.0022), HOMA-IR (r = 0.47, p = 0.004), triglycerides (r = 0.60. P = 0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.51, p = 0.0001) and limb fat mass (−0.46, p = 0.004), but not to plasma FGF-21.
Conclusion
FGF-21 mRNA is increased in skeletal muscle in HIV patients and correlates to whole-body (primarily reflecting muscle) insulin resistance, but not to plasma FGF-21. Those findings add to the evidence that FGF-21 is a myokine and may suggest that muscle FGF-21 is working in a local manner.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055632
PMCID: PMC3606412  PMID: 23533568

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