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1.  Application of a shape-memory alloy internal fixator for treatment of acetabular fractures with a follow-up of two to nine years in China 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(7):1033-1040.
Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40–50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D’Aubigne−Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0867-1
PMCID: PMC2989048  PMID: 20012433
2.  Surgical Dislocation Technique for the Treatment of Acetabular Fractures 
Background
Surgical hip dislocation allows for a 360° view of the acetabulum and may facilitate a reduction in selected acetabular fractures. To our knowledge there is no description in the literature of the different techniques used to reduce acetabular fractures through this approach. The aims of this study are to describe a technique of hip surgical dislocation to treat a variety of acetabular fracture patterns and to ascertain the early results with this technique, including the quality of fracture reductions achieved, clinical results, operative time, and complications such as avascular necrosis and heterotopic ossification.
Description of Technique
The procedure involves digastric trochanteric flip osteotomy and safe dislocation of the femoral head, preserving its vessels. T-type, transverse fractures alone or associated with posterior wall could be reduced with specific clamps and reduction adequacy can be judged by direct view. Anterior column fixation could be performed with one or two screws; the posterior column could be fixed with a single posterior plate or with two plates if a transverse fracture is associated with a posterior wall fracture.
Methods
Between 2005 and 2011, we used this approach selectively to manage those types of fractures; during the period in question, we treated 312 acetabular fractures surgically, of which 31 (10%) were treated using this approach. Patient demographic, injury, and surgical variables as well as complications were recorded. Outcomes were evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel system. Radiographic outcome was scored according to Matta’s criteria on postoperative radiographs (AP and Judet views). Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 43 months; range, 24–87 months).
Results
Fracture reduction was defined as anatomic in 65% cases, imperfect in 16%, and poor in 19%. Mean Merle d’Aubigné score was 15 points (out of 18, with higher scores being better). Two patients developed symptomatic femoral head avascular necrosis.
Conclusions
In complex cases, surgical dislocation presents several advantages; a single approach may reduce surgical time, permit direct intraarticular assessment, and facilitate screw placement closer to the articular surface. It also presents several limitations; some difficulties with bone-reduction clamp positioning, limited fixation of the anterior column, and a small risk of greater trochanter malunion.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3228-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3228-8
PMCID: PMC3825905  PMID: 24002867
3.  Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study 
Background and Purpose
Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification).
Results
115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them.
In the subgroup of anatomically reconstructed fractures no significant influence of the analyzed cofactors could be observed.
Conclusion
Anatomical reduction appears to be an important parameter for a good clinical outcome in patients with both column acetabular fractures. Additional fracture characteristics such as the initial displacement and intraarticular fragments seem to influence the results. Patients should also be advised that both column acetabular fractures with more than two additional associated factors have a significantly higher risk of joint degeneration.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-7-9
PMCID: PMC3606597  PMID: 23510122
Both column acetabular fractures; Outcome prediction; Long term results
4.  Massive heterotopic ossification associated with late deficits in posterior wall of acetabulum after failed acetabular fracture operation 
Background
Heterotopic ossification is a common postoperative complication of acetabular fracture. However, functionally significant heterotopic ossification with associated late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum is rare and challenging to treat. When heterotopic ossification is a late complication of failed acetabular fracture operation, it is disabling and may only be treated by THA. THA is highly susceptible to premature failure in young and active patients and may require numerous revisions.
Case presentation
This article describes a 40-year-old man with massive heterotopic ossification associated with late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum after a failed acetabular fracture operation. The primary fracture type was a 62-A2.3 fracture according to the AO/OTA Classification.Surgical excision and anatomical reconstruction of the acetabular wall using heterotopic ossific bone were performed 10 months after the fracture repair. Postoperatively, indomethacin was administered for prophylaxis against recurrence of heterotopic ossification, and hip range of motion was progressively increased. At 5 years and 6 months follow-up, the patient’s pain was relieved and hip function had recovered. Though radiography and CT showed minimal subchondral cysts and mild joint-space narrowing, there was no evidence of graft resorption, progressive posttraumatic osteoarthritis or necrosis of the femoral head.
Conclusion
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of such a challenging condition. Although it is an extremely rare case, it provides an attractive option for avoiding THA, as the long-term follow-up shows a satisfactory outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-368
PMCID: PMC3877962  PMID: 24369897
Heterotopic ossification; Late bone defects; Posterior wall; Acetabulum; Acetabular fracture
5.  Long term results after surgical management of posterior wall acetabular fractures 
Background
Posterior wall fractures are the most common of all acetabular fractures, and there is universal consensus that displaced fractures are best treated with anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation. Though early and mid term results for such studies are available, few shed light on long term results. This study was performed to evaluate long term functional and radiological outcomes in patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures and to determine factors that may contribute adversely to a satisfactory final outcome.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively analysed the hospital records for patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for posterior wall acetabular fractures. Twenty-five patients (20 men, five women), including one with bilateral posterior wall fracture, with a mean age of 41.28 ± 7.16 years (range 25–60 years) and a mean follow-up of 12.92 ± 6.36 years (range 5–22 years) who met the inclusion criteria formed the study cohort. Matta’s criteria were used to grade postoperative reduction and final radiological outcome. Functional outcome at final follow-up was assessed according to d’Aubigné and Postel score.
Results
Anatomic reduction was achieved in 22 hips, imperfect in four and poor in none. Radiological outcome at final follow-up revealed excellent results in ten hips, good in eight, fair in five and poor in three. The final d’Aubigné and Postel scores were excellent in 14 hips, good in six and fair and poor in three each. Patients with anatomical reduction had a favourable functional and radiological long term outcome. However, the presence of associated injuries in lower limbs and a body mass index (BMI) >25 adversely affected the final functional outcome. Osteonecrosis was seen in three patients, heterotopic ossification in two and Morel Lavallee lesion in one. One patient had postoperative sciatic nerve palsy, which recovered 6 weeks after surgery.
Conclusion
Anatomic postoperative reduction leads to optimal functional and radiological outcome on long term follow-up; however, the presence of associated lower-limb injuries and BMI >25 adversely affects a satisfactory final outcome in patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures.
Level of evidence
(Level 4) Retrospective case series.
doi:10.1007/s10195-014-0297-8
PMCID: PMC4182623  PMID: 24879360
Acetabular fracture; Posterior wall fracture of the acetabulum; Long term outcome
6.  Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with Acetabular Fractures 
HSS Journal  2008;5(1):12-18.
Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracture–dislocation of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate placement of retractors, instrument- or implant-related complications, heterotopic ossification, hematoma, and scarring. Natural history studies suggest that nerve recovery depends on several factors. Prevention requires attention to intraoperative limb positioning, retractor placement, and instrumentation. Somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography may help minimize iatrogenic nerve injury. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis can help reduce delayed sciatic nerve entrapment. Reports on sciatic nerve decompression are not uniformly consistent but appear to have better outcomes for sensory than motor neuropathy.
doi:10.1007/s11420-008-9099-y
PMCID: PMC2642541  PMID: 19089496
sciatic nerve palsy; acetabular fracture; hip dislocation; heterotopic ossification
7.  Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population.
Clinical Need
Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries.
The Technology
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR.
A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada.
Review Strategy
A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety).
The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained.
Summary of Findings
 
Health Outcomes
The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score.
The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported.
None of the reviewed studies reported procedure-related deaths. Four studies reported implant survival rates ranging from 94.4% to 99.7% for a follow-up period of 2.8 to 3.5 years. Three studies reported on the range of motion. One reported improvement in all motions including flexion, extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation, and another reported improvement in flexion. Yet another reported improvement in range of motion for flexion abduction-adduction and rotation arc. However, the author reported a decrease in the range of motion in the arc of flexion in patients with Brooker class III or IV heterotopic bone (all patients were men).
Safety of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty
There is a concern about metal wear debris and its systemic distribution throughout the body. Detectable metal concentrations in the serum and urine of patients with metal hip implants have been described as early as the 1970s, and this issue is still controversial after 35 years.
Several studies have reported high concentration of cobalt and chromium in serum and/or urine of the patients with metal hip implants. Potential toxicological effects of the elevated metal ions have heightened concerns about safety of MOM bearings. This is of particular concern in young and active patients in whom life expectancy after implantation is long.
Since 1997, 15 studies, including 1 randomized clinical trial, have reported high levels of metal ions after THR with metal implants. Some of these studies have reported higher metal levels in patients with loose implants.
Adverse Biological Effects of Cobalt and Chromium
Because patients who receive a MOM hip arthroplasty are shown to be exposed to high concentrations of metallic ions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the literature for reports of adverse biological effects of cobalt and chromium. Cobalt and chromium make up the major part of the metal articulations; therefore, they are a focus of concern.
Risk of Cancer
To date, only one study has examined the incidence of cancer after MOM and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasties. The results were compared to that of general population in Finland. The mean duration of follow-up for MOM arthroplasty was 15.7 years; for polyethylene arthroplasty, it was 12.5 years. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers in the MOM group was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79–1.13). In the polyethylene on metal group it was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68–0.86). The combined standardized incidence ratio for lymphoma and leukemia in the patients who had MOM THR was 1.59 (95% CI, 0.82–2.77). It was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.29–1.05) for the patients who had polyethylene on metal THR. Patients with MOM THR had a significantly higher risk of leukemia. All patients who had leukemia were aged over than 60 years.
Cobalt Cardiotoxicity
 
Epidemiological Studies of Myocardiopathy of Beer Drinkers
An unusual type of myocardiopathy, characterized by pericardial effusion, elevated hemoglobin concentrations, and congestive heart failure, occurred as an epidemic affecting 48 habitual beer drinkers in Quebec City between 1965 and 1966. This epidemic was directly related the consumption of a popular beer containing cobalt sulfate. The epidemic appeared 1 month after cobalt sulfate was added to the specific brewery, and no further cases were seen a month after this specific chemical was no longer used in making this beer. A beer of the same name is made in Montreal, and the only difference at that time was that the Quebec brand of beer contained about 10 times more cobalt sulphate. Cobalt has been added to some Canadian beers since 1965 to improve the stability of the foam but it has been added in larger breweries only to draught beer. However, in small breweries, such as those in Quebec City, separate batches were not brewed for bottle and draught beer; therefore, cobalt was added to all of the beer processed in this brewery.
In March 1966, a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Health for Quebec that included members of the department of forensic medicine of Quebec’s Ministry of Justice, epidemiologists, members of Food and Drug Directorate of Ottawa, toxicologists, biomedical researchers, pathologists, and members of provincial police. Epidemiological studies were carried out by the Provincial Ministry of Health and the Quebec City Health Department.
The association between the development of myocardiopathy and the consumption of the particular brand of beer was proven. The mortality rate of this epidemic was 46.1% and those who survived were desperately ill, and recovered only after a struggle for their lives.
Similar cases were seen in Omaha (Nebraska). The epidemic started after a cobalt additive was used in 1 of the beers marketed in Nebraska. Sixty-four patients with the clinical diagnosis of alcoholic myocardiopathy were seen during an 18-month period (1964–1965). Thirty of these patients died. The first patient became ill within 1 month after cobalt was added to the beer, and the last patient was seen within 1 month of withdrawal of cobalt.
A similar epidemic occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1964 and 1967, 42 patients with acute heart failure were admitted to a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Twenty of these patients were drinking 6 to 30 bottles per day of a particular brand of beer exclusively. The other 14 patients also drank the same brand of beer, but not exclusively. The mortality rate from the acute illness was 18%, but late deaths accounted for a total mortality rate of 43%. Examination of the tissue from these patients revealed markedly abnormal changes in myofibrils (heart muscles), mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
In Belgium, a similar epidemic was reported in 1966, in which, cobalt was used in some Belgian beers. There was a difference in mortality between the Canadian or American epidemic and this series. Only 1 of 24 patients died, 1.5 years after the diagnosis. In March 1965, at an international meeting in Brussels, a new heart disease in chronic beer drinkers was described. This disease consists of massive pericardial effusion, low cardiac output, raised venous pressure, and polycythemia in some cases. This syndrome was thought to be different from the 2 other forms of alcoholic heart disease (beriberi and a form characterized by myocardial fibrosis).
The mystery of the above epidemics as stated by investigators is that the amount of cobalt added to the beer was below the therapeutic doses used for anemia. For example, 24 pints of Quebec brand of beer in Quebec would contain 8 mg of cobalt chloride, whereas an intake of 50 to 100 mg of cobalt as an antianemic agent has been well tolerated. Thus, greater cobalt intake alone does not explain the occurrence of myocardiopathy. It seems that there are individual differences in cobalt toxicity. Other features, like subclinical alcoholic heart disease, deficient diet, and electrolyte imbalance could have been precipitating factors that made these patients susceptible to cobalt’s toxic effects.
In the Omaha epidemic, 60% of the patients had weight loss, anorexia, and occasional vomiting and diarrhea 2 to 6 months before the onset of cardiac symptoms. In the Quebec epidemic, patients lost their appetite 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis of myocardiopathy and developed nausea in the weeks before hospital admission. In the Belgium epidemic, anorexia was one of the most predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and the quality and quantity of food intake was poor. Alcohol has been shown to increase the uptake of intracoronary injected cobalt by 47%. When cobalt enters the cells, calcium exits; this shifts the cobalt to calcium ratio. The increased uptake of cobalt in alcoholic patients may explain the high incidence of cardiomyopathies in beer drinkers’ epidemics.
As all of the above suggest, it may be that prior chronic exposure to alcohol and/or a nutritionally deficient diet may have a marked synergistic effect with the cardiotoxicity of cobalt.
Conclusions
MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been shown to be an effective arthroplasty procedure as tested in younger patients.
However, evidence for effectiveness is based only on 7 case series with short duration of follow-up (2.8–3.5 years). There are no RCTs or other well-controlled studies that compare MOM hip resurfacing with THR.
Revision rates reported in the MOM studies using implants currently licensed in Canada (hybrid systems, uncemented acetabular, and cemented femoral) range from 0.3% to 3.6% for a mean follow-up ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 years.
Fracture of femoral neck is not very common; it occurs in 0.4% to 2.2% of cases (as observed in a short follow-up period).
All the studies that measured health outcomes have reported improvement in Harris Hip and SF-12 scores; 1 study reported significant reduction in pain and improvement in function, and 2 studies reported significant improvement in SF-12 scores. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA Hip scores.
Concerns remain on the potential adverse effects of metal ions. Longer-term follow-up data will help to resolve the inconsistency of findings on adverse effects, including toxicity and carcinogenicity.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The device cost for MOM ranges from $4,300 to $6,000 (Cdn). Traditional hip replacement devices cost about $2,000 (Cdn). Using Ontario Case Costing Initiative data, the total estimated costs for hip resurfacing surgery including physician fees, device fees, follow-up consultation, and postsurgery rehabilitation is about $15,000 (Cdn).
Cost of Total Hip Replacement Surgery in Ontario
MOM hip arthroplasty is generally recommended for patients aged under 55 years because its bone-conserving advantage enables patients to “buy time” and hence helps THRs to last over the lifetime of the patient. In 2004/2005, 15.9% of patients who received THRs were aged 55 years and younger. It is estimated that there are from 600 to 1,000 annual MOM hip arthroplasty surgeries in Canada with an estimated 100 to 150 surgeries in Ontario. Given the increased public awareness of this device, it is forecasted that demand for MOM hip arthroplasty will steadily increase with a conservative estimate of demand rising to 1,400 cases by 2010 (Figure 10). The net budget impact over a 5-year period could be $500,000 to $4.7 million, mainly because of the increasing cost of the device.
Projected Number of Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries in Ontario: to 2010
PMCID: PMC3379532  PMID: 23074495
8.  Conservatively treated acetabular fractures: A retrospective analysis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(1):36-45.
Background:
There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women) with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years) managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d’Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2–11 years).
Results:
Patients with congruent reduction (n=45) had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26) was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation.
Conclusions:
Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments in the cotyloid fossa or non–weight-bearing part of the hip with a congruous joint do not seem to adversely affect the functional outcome. Displaced transverse fractures with “V” sign may require operative treatment.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.91633
PMCID: PMC3270603  PMID: 22345805
Acetabulum fracture; anterior column fractures; posterior column fractures; conservative treatment
9.  A 42-year-old patient presenting with femoral head migration after hemiarthroplasty performed 22 years earlier: a case report 
Introduction
Treatment of femoral neck fractures in young adults may require total hip arthroplasty or hip hemiarthroplasty using a bipolar cup. The latter can, however, result in migration of the femoral head and poor long-term results.
Case presentation
We report a case of femoral head migration after hemiarthroplasty performed for femoral neck fracture that had occurred 22 years earlier, when the patient (a Japanese man) was 20 years old. He experienced peri-prosthetic fracture of the femur, subsequent migration of the prosthesis, and a massive bone defect of the pelvic side acetabular roof. After bone union of the femoral shaft fracture, the patient was referred to our hospital for reconstruction of the acetabular roof. Intra-operatively, we placed two alloimplants of bone from around the transplanted femoral head into the weight-bearing region of the acetabular roof using an impaction bone graft method. We then implanted an acetabular roof reinforcement plate and a cemented polyethylene cup in the position of the original acetabular cup. Eighteen months post-operatively, X-rays showed union of the transplanted bone.
Conclusions
Treatment of femoral neck fractures in young adults is usually accomplished by osteosynthesis, but it may be complicated by femoral head avascular necrosis or by infection or osteomyelitis. In such cases, once an infection has subsided, either hip hemiarthroplasty using a bipolar cup or total hip arthroplasty may be required. However, if the acetabular side articular cartilage is damaged, a bipolar cup should not be used. Total hip arthroplasty should be performed to prevent migration of the implant.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-9-17
PMCID: PMC4326395  PMID: 25592554
Acetabular articular cartilage; Femoral head migration; Femoral neck fracture; Hemiarthroplasty; Infection
10.  Posterior acetabular arc angle of unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocation 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(12):2443-2449.
Purpose
Posterior hip fracture–dislocation needs stability evaluation. A previous study in the normal acetabulum has shown that the coronal posterior acetabular arc angle (PAAA) could be used to assess an unstable posterior hip fracture. Our study was designed to assess PAAA of unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocation and whether posterior acetabular wall fracture involves the superior acetabular dome.
Methods
Using coronal computed tomography (CT) of the acetabulum and 3D reconstruction of the lateral pelvis, we measured coronal, vertical PAAA and posterior acetabular wall depth of 21 unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocations and of 50 % normal contralateral acetabula. Posterior acetabular wall fracture was assessed to determine whether the fracture involved the superior acetabular dome and then defined as a high or low wall fracture using vertical PAAA in reference to the centroacetabulo–greater sciatic notch line.
Results
The coronal PAAA of unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocations and of 50 % of the posterior acetabular wall of normal the contralateral acetabulum were 54.48° (9.09°) and 57.43° (5.88°) and corresponded to 15.06 (4.39) and 15.61 (2.01) mm of the posterior acetabular wall without significant difference (p > 0.05). The vertical PAAA of unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocation was 101.67° (20.44°). There were 16 high posterior acetabular wall fractures with 35.00 (16.18) vertical PAAA involving the acetabular dome and 5 low wall fractures. High posterior wall fractures resulted in four avascular necroses of the femoral head, three sciatic nerve injuries and one osteoarthritic hip.
Conclusion
Coronal and vertical PAAA of unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocations were 54.48° and 101.67°. Vertical PAAA assesses high or low posterior acetabular wall fracture by referring to the centroacetabulo–greater sciatic notch line. High posterior wall fracture seems to be the most frequent and is involved with many complications.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2090-3
PMCID: PMC3843213  PMID: 24026218
Unstable posterior hip fracture–dislocation; Coronal; Vertical; Posterior acetabular arc angle; Centroacetabulo–greater sciatic notch line; High; Low; Posterior wall fracture; Complications
11.  Reconstruction nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures 
The surgical management of ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft presents a difficult and challenging problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to report the mid-term results and complications in a series of patients who sustained ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures and treated in our trauma department with a single reconstruction nail for both fractures. Eleven patients were included in the study with an average age of 46.4 years. The mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 15–75 months). There were no cases of a missed diagnosis at initial presentation. The mean time to union was 4.5 months for the neck fracture and 8.2 months for the shaft. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or non-union of the neck fracture. The mean Harris Hip Score was (85 ± 4.3). Complications included two cases of shaft fracture non-union and one case of peroneal nerve palsy. Heterotopic ossification at the tip of the greater trochanter was evident in two cases without causing any functional deficit. The current study suggests that reconstruction nailing produces satisfactory clinical and functional results in the mid-term. The complications involved only the femoral shaft fracture and were successfully treated with a single operative procedure.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0117-0
PMCID: PMC3150652  PMID: 21779894
Femoral shaft fractures; Ipsilateral hip; Reconstruction nail
12.  Reconstruction nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures 
The surgical management of ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft presents a difficult and challenging problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to report the mid-term results and complications in a series of patients who sustained ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures and treated in our trauma department with a single reconstruction nail for both fractures. Eleven patients were included in the study with an average age of 46.4 years. The mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 15–75 months). There were no cases of a missed diagnosis at initial presentation. The mean time to union was 4.5 months for the neck fracture and 8.2 months for the shaft. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or non-union of the neck fracture. The mean Harris Hip Score was (85 ± 4.3). Complications included two cases of shaft fracture non-union and one case of peroneal nerve palsy. Heterotopic ossification at the tip of the greater trochanter was evident in two cases without causing any functional deficit. The current study suggests that reconstruction nailing produces satisfactory clinical and functional results in the mid-term. The complications involved only the femoral shaft fracture and were successfully treated with a single operative procedure.
doi:10.1007/s11751-011-0117-0
PMCID: PMC3150652  PMID: 21779894
Femoral shaft fractures; Ipsilateral hip; Reconstruction nail
13.  Cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):56-60.
Objectives:
The use of cement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate in elderly patients, hence cementless hemiarthroplasty is suggested. We evaluated the results of cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-eight patients (29 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 88 years (range: 78 to 102 years). having femoral neck fractures were treated with the use of cementless hemiarthroplasty. Porous-coated femoral stems were used in 30 patients (62%) and modular type femoral revision stems in 18 patients (38%). Bipolar femoral heads were used in all patients. Radiological follow-up after operation was done at the one, three, six months and annually.
Results:
The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 18 months to eight years). None of the patients died during hospitalization. Medical complications occurred in six patients (12%) within the follow-up period and four patients (8%) died within this period. Only two hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty due to acetabular erosion. Femoral revision was planned for one patient with a subsidence of > 3 mm. None of the patients had acetabular protrusion or heterotopic ossification. The mean Harris-hip score was 84 (range: 52 to 92). Dislocation occured in one patient (2%).
Conclusion:
Cementless hemiarthroplasty is a suitable method of treatment for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems especially of a cardiopulmonary nature. This method decreases the risk of hypotension and fat embolism associated with cemented hemiarthroplasty.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.38582
PMCID: PMC2759587  PMID: 19823656
Cementless femoral prosthesis; cementless hemiarthroplasty; femoral neck fracture; hemiarthroplasty in elderly
14.  Femoral head fractures 
Femoral head fractures may present in various patterns with or without associated fractures around the hip. As a result, the treating orthopaedic surgeon must understand not only the fracture pattern, but also patient-related fractures and the relevant operative exposures and reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome while minimizing complications. Treatment options range from non-operative treatment to fracture fragment excision or fracture fixation using various surgical exposures and implants. This article reviews the current literature on the treatment options for femoral head fractures and presents modern operative techniques that have improved exposure of the fracture while minimizing associated risks such as avascular necrosis, heterotopic ossification, and neurovascular compromise. A sound understanding of the anatomy and these newer techniques can enable the surgeon to provide improved expectations and clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s12178-012-9129-8
PMCID: PMC3535084  PMID: 22628176
Femoral head fracture; Hip; Surgical dislocation; Hip dislocation; Trauma
15.  Unipolar hemiarthroplasty versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the most elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures: a randomised, controlled trial 
International Orthopaedics  2011;35(11):1703-1711.
Purpose
Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the most elderly patients with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck. However, there is inadequate evidence to support the choice between unipolar HA or bipolar HA. The primary aim of this study was to analyse the outcome regarding hip function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients randomised to either a unipolar or bipolar HA. The secondary aim was to analyse the degree of acetabular erosion and its influence upon outcome.
Methods
One hundred twenty patients with a mean age of 86 years and an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck were randomly allocated to treatment by either unipolar or bipolar HA. Outcome measurements included hip function (Harris Hip Score, HHS), HRQoL (EQ-5D) and acetabular erosion. The patients were summoned at four and 12 months for follow-up.
Results
There were no significant differences between the groups regarding complications. The HHS scores were equal at both follow-ups, but there was a trend towards better HRQoL in the bipolar HA group at four months, EQ-5D index score 0.62 vs 0.54 (p = 0.06). Twenty percent of the patients in the unipolar HA group displayed acetabular erosion at the 12-month follow-up compared to 5% in the bipolar HA group (p = 0.03), and there were trends towards worse hip function and HRQoL among patients with acetabular erosion compared to those without: HHS scores 70.4 and 79.3, respectively (p = 0.09), and EQ-5D index scores 0.48 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.13).
Conclusion
Unipolar HA and bipolar HA appeared to produce equivalent clinical outcomes after one year, but the significantly higher incidence of acetabular erosion in the unipolar HA group may imply that bipolar HA should be the preferred treatment.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1213-y
PMCID: PMC3193971  PMID: 21301830
16.  Is Radiation Superior to Indomethacin to Prevent Heterotopic Ossification in Acetabular Fractures?: A Systematic Review 
Heterotopic ossification is a well-known complication after fixation of an acetabular fracture. Indomethacin and radiation therapy are used as prophylaxis to prevent heterotopic ossification. It is unclear, however, whether either is superior, although this may relate to lack of power in individual studies. To compare the effectiveness of indomethacin with the effectiveness of radiation therapy, we conducted a systematic review in which all published prospective studies were evaluated. We performed a literature search in PubMed®, MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register. The retrieved studies were analyzed and categorized according to the quality and validity score of Jadad et al. We found five appropriate prospective studies, describing 384 patients. Although the quality of the available studies made a proper meta-analysis inappropriate, the incidence of heterotopic ossification was significantly lower in patients treated with radiation than in patients receiving indomethacin (five of 160 versus 20 of 224, respectively). Until further information is available, we believe the evidence supports radiation therapy as the preferred method for preventing heterotopic ossification after operative treatment of acetabular fractures.
Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0532-9
PMCID: PMC2628498  PMID: 18820982
17.  Two-year follow-up of revision total hip arthroplasty using a ceramic revision head with a retained well-fixed femoral component: a case series 
Introduction
It is known that a well-fixed stem can be left in situ when only the acetabular component and femoral head have to be changed. However, in a revision case, the use of a ceramic head on an existing taper is not recommended. Slight damages of the taper may increase the risk of a ceramic fracture. Until now in a revision case a primary ceramic-on-ceramic or ceramic-on-polyethylene pairing was changed to a metal-on-polyethylene pairing or the well-fixed stem was removed as well. During the past several years, a ceramic head with a metallic sleeve has been introduced as an option for revisions with a stem left in situ. We report short-term results of a ceramic revision head in this clinical setting.
Methods
Eight patients with a ceramic revision head were clinically and radiologically followed up two years after revision surgery. Their Harris Hip Score and visual analogue scale scores for pain and satisfaction were recorded, and their radiographs were checked for osteolysis and heterotopic ossifications.
Results
The mean Harris Hip Score increased from 46.5 points before surgery to 88.3 points 2 years after surgery. The mean visual analogue scale score for pain improved from 6.7 to 1.1, and the mean visual analogue scale for satisfaction rose from 5.1 to 8.3. The radiological results did not show osteolysis in any of the patients. Grade I heterotopic ossification according to the Brooker classification system was seen in one patient.
Conclusions
The early clinical and radiological results in this case series are in agreement with previously published studies. Ceramic revision heads with a metallic sleeve are a promising approach in the revision of a ceramic head with a well-fixed stem which can be left in situ. This solution avoids an unnecessary exchange of a well-fixed stem and thereby shortens the surgical time of the revision and may reduce the peri-operative complications.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-434
PMCID: PMC4302118  PMID: 25515611
Ceramic head; Revision; Total hip arthroplasty; Well-fixed stem
18.  Total Hip Arthroplasty for the Sequelae of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease 
Background
The durability and risks associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) for patients with a history of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) are not well known.
Questions/purpose
We sought to (1) determine the survivorship of THAs performed for LCPD; (2) assess hip scores and complications associated with THA in this patient population; and (3) compare results between patients who had undergone surgery in childhood with patients who had conservative treatment.
Methods
We reviewed 99 primary THAs performed in 95 patients with a history of LCPD with minimum 2-year followup (mean ± SD, 8 ± 5 years). Mean age at THA was 48 ± 15 years.
Results
A total of 10 revisions were performed. Using revision for any reason as the end point, the 8-year survival rate was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76%–96%) for cementless implants compared with 86% (95% CI, 57%–96%) for hybrid implants. The mean Harris hip score improved by 31 ± 16 (n = 76). Complications occurred in 16% of hips. The most common major complication was intraoperative fracture (eight femoral, one acetabular). Three patients developed sciatic nerve palsy after a mean lengthening of 2.2 ± 1 cm compared with a mean of 1.4 ± 1 cm in patients with intact sciatic nerve (p = 0.3).
Conclusions
Cementless THAs for the sequelae of LCPD demonstrate 90% survival from any revision at 8 years followup. THAs for the sequelae of LCPD can be complicated and technically difficult. Intraoperative fractures and nerve injuries are common. Care should be taken to avoid excessive limb lengthening.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, retrospective case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3006-7
PMCID: PMC3734404  PMID: 23633183
19.  Posterior wall reconstruction using iliac crest strut graft in severely comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(8):1223-1228.
Osteosynthesis of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fractures is a challenging task for surgeons. We report a series of eight cases of such fractures where the comminuted fragments were excised and the defect in the posterior acetabular wall was reconstructed with iliac crest strut graft. The graft was buttressed with a reconstruction plate on its posterior aspect. The patients were followed up every week until radiological signs of union were seen. Subsequent follow-up was after six months, one year and annually. Patients were evaluated clinically by Merle d’Aubigne and Postel score and radiologically by Matta score at their final follow-up. All fractures united radiologically after an average follow-up of 3.2 months. The clinical outcome after mean follow-up of 3.34 years (minimum two years and maximum five years) was as follows: two (25%) were excellent, two (25%) were very good, three (37.5%) were good and one (12.5%) was fair. Radiological grading at last follow-up showed excellent in one (12.5%), good in four (50%) and fair in three (37.5%) patients. No complication in the form of infection, heterotopic ossification, neurovascular injury or graft resorption was noticed. To conclude, excision of the small comminuted fragments and reconstruction of the wall using iliac crest strut graft is a viable alternative technique for reconstruction of the comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture. The medium-term clinical and radiological results of this technique are satisfactory.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1177-3
PMCID: PMC3167440  PMID: 21136052
20.  Reconstruction of bone defects with impacted allograft in femoral stem revision surgery 
International Orthopaedics  2007;31(4):457-464.
A retrospective clinical review was done on 54 revision hip patients. Radiological analysis examined the Gross and AAOS classifications, stem position, cement mantles, allograft and evolution (subsidence, resorption and remodelling). The Harris Hip score was used for clinical assessment. We used bone bank allograft and a polished non-collared stem LD. The follow-up period was 60.5 months (19.4–152.4), and the average age 68.5 (range: 22–85). There were 21 females and 33 males. The surgical approach was: lateral (5.56%) posterior (91.4%); trochanteric osteotomy: 25.9%; associated acetabular revision: 59.3%; previous operations: 1.9. The preoperative Harris score was 35 (28–40) and rose to 81 (50–99) postoperatively. The stem alignment was neutral (44.44%), varus (38.89%) and valgus (16.67%). The femur/stem diameter relationship was 1.8 (1.2–2.7). There were no changes in stem alignment in 94.4%. An adequate cement mantle was: proximal zone (61.1%), medium zone (27.8%) and distal zone (16.7%). The rate of any subsidence was 38.9% (progressive: 12.96%). The rate of complications was 40.7% and included periprosthetic fracture: 14.8%; superficial infection: 1.9%; deep late infection: 1.9%; dislocation: 3.7%; heterotopic ossification: 13%. The rate of new stem revision was 16.6%. The clinical and radiological success rate was 77.78%. A greater incidence of revisions has been found in stem malalignment, progressive subsidence, a Harris increase of <20 points, allograft resorption, small diameter stems and inadequate cement mantle. We recommend hard impaction and a cement mantle of at least 2 mm. Non-progressive subsidence does not increase stem loosening. The technique has been useful in recovering bone stock in a severely defective femur and achieves a stable reconstruction. The level of evidence was therapeutic study level III-2 (retrospective cohort study; see the instructions to the authors for a complete description of the levels of evidence).
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0211-y
PMCID: PMC2267641  PMID: 17279411
21.  Extensively coated revision stems in proximally deficient femur: Early results in 15 patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):287-293.
Background:
Hip replacement following failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw for intertrochanteric fractures) or previous hip arthroplasty presents a major surgical challenge. Proximal fitting revision stems do not achieve adequate fixation. Distal fixation with long-stemmed extensively coated cementless implants (like the Solution™ system) affords a suitable solution. We present our early results of 15 patients treated with extensively coated cementless revision stems.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with severely compromised proximal femora following either failed hip arthroplasty or failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric fractures) were operated by the senior author over a two-year period. Eight patients had aseptic loosening of their femoral stems following cemented hip replacements, with severe thinning of their proximal cortices and impending stress fractures. Seven had secondary hip arthritis following failure of long implants for comminuted intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric femoral fractures. All patients were treated by removal of implant (cemented stems/DHS implants) and insertion of long-stemmed extensively coated cementless revision (‘Solution™ DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US’) stems along with press-fit acetabular component (Duraloc Cup, DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US). All eight hip revisions needed extended trochanteric osteotomies.
Results:
All patients were primarily kept in bed on physiotherapy for six weeks and then gradually progressed to weight-bearing walking over the next six to eight weeks. The Harris Hip Scores and patient satisfaction were used for final evaluation. We achieved good results in the short term studied. In our first three patients (all following failed cemented total hip replacements), we resorted to cerclage wiring to hold osteotomised segments (done to facilitate stem removal). The subsequent 12 proceeded without the need for cerclage wiring. One patient had a intraoperative severe comminuted fracture extending into the supracondylar region while hammering in the stem. Post cerclage wiring, she was put on a long knee brace and her mobilization was delayed to 12 weeks.
Conclusions:
The extensively coated cementless (‘Solution™’) femoral stem provides a reasonable ‘solution’ to the deficient femur in hip revision. The proximal femoral deficiences can be relatively easily bypassed and distal fixation can be achieved with this stem. Extreme care needs to be taken to avoid fractures and penetration of the femoral shaft, which can, however, be managed by cerclage wiring. Principles of a successful outcome include preservation of the functional continuity of the abduction apparatus, care to recognize and prevent distal extension of fracture while inserting the stem (preemptive cerclage wiring) and supervised rehabilitation.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.39554
PMCID: PMC2739478  PMID: 19753154
Cementless fixation; extensively coated; proximally deficient femur
22.  Fractures of the Femur. End Results* 
Melvin Starkey Henderson was born in St. Paul, Minnesota and received his early schooling there and in Winnipeg, Manitoba [4]. He received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Toronto. He then interned in the City and County Hospital in his home town of St. Paul, and in 1907 went to work as an assistant with the founders of the recently formed Mayo Clinic, William James and Charles Horace Mayo. To further his training and evidently at the suggestion of the Mayo brothers, in 1911 Dr. Henderson went abroad to work under Sir Robert Jones in Liverpool and then Sir Harold Stiles in Edinburgh. He returned to organize and direct the section of orthopaedic surgery at the Mayo Clinic and spent his entire professional career there.
Dr. Henderson was involved in many national and international organizations, and was a founder and first President of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons when it was established at the Kahler Hotel in Rochester, Minnesota, on June 5, 1934, after several previous organizational meetings [5]. Wickstrom [5], describing the organization of the Board, commented, “After all, in the opinion of the East coast establishment, Dr. Henderson (who was born in St. Paul, was educated in Canada, and had his beginning with the Mayo brothers as a clinical assistant riding a bicycle around Rochester, making house calls on the Mayo brothers’ patients) was a mere upstart.” However, at the time Dr. Henderson was 50 years old and had been President of the American Orthopaedic Association and Clinical Orthopaedic Society, as well as prominent in the American Medical Association and other organizations. Dr. Henderson was one of three of the first 15 AAOS Presidents (the other two being Drs. Philip D. Wilson and John C. Wilson, Sr.) who had a son who succeeded him as President. He was greatly respected for his organizational abilities, particularly at the Board, whose objectives were uncertain in the beginning and required sage guidance [5].
We reproduce here an article in which Dr. Henderson reviewed 222 consecutive cases of femur fractures, 165 of which had been referred late because of complications of fractures treated elsewhere (clearly, by 1921, the Mayo Clinic was a referral source for others) [2]. Followup could not have been easy at a time when patients often came from a distance and travel was difficult, but it was described when available and in 40 of the 57 recent fractures, Henderson reported 87.5% were “cured.” Of the 165 old fractures, he was able to trace 143 (87%), a remarkable figure even today. He reported 90% of the femoral neck fractures were cured by various sorts of nonsurgical (6 patients) or surgical reconstructive (39 patients) means; 85% of the femoral shaft fractures were cured by either nonoperative (29 patients) or operative (69 patients) means. While he did not use the sort of outcomes we use today (the earliest orthopaedic outcome instruments were not introduced for four more decades: by Carroll B. Larson in 1963 [3] and William H. Harris in 1969 [1]), we can only presume Henderson meant union was achieved when patients were “cured” since nonunion or malunion would not have likely produced good results. That being the case, his rate of union was remarkable and would be enviable today in these sometimes difficult situations, attesting to his understanding of the individual situations and his skills. Melvin S. Henderson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
References
Harris WH. Traumatic arthritis of the hip after dislocation and acetabular fractures: treatment by mold arthroplasty: an end-result study using a new method of result evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:737–755.Henderson MS. Fractures of the femur: end results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1921;3:520–528.Larson CB. Rating scale for hip disabilities. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1963;31:85–93.Mostofi SB. Who's Who in Orthopedics. London, UK: Springer; 2005.Wickstrom JK. Fifty years of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery: 1934. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;257:3–10.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0033-2
PMCID: PMC2505283  PMID: 18196372
23.  Mentoring in complex surgery: minimising the learning curve complications from peri-acetabular osteotomy 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(5):921-925.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine whether a complex surgical procedure such as peri-acetabular osteotomy could be safely learnt by using a programme involving mentoring by a distant expert. To determine this, we examined the incidence of intra-operative complications, the acetabulum correction achieved, the late incidence of re-operation and progressive degenerative arthritis.
Methods
Between 1992 and 2004, peri-acetabular osteotomy was performed in 26 hips in 23 patients. The median follow-up was ten (5–17) years. The median age of the patients at operation was 28 (14–41) years. Clinical outcomes were reported and radiographic results were determined by an independent expert.
Results
There were no intra-articular osteotomies, sciatic nerve injuries, hingeing deformities or vascular injuries. There was one ischial nonunion. The lateral centre-edge angle improved from a median 4° pre-operatively to 25°. One revision osteotomy, one osteectomy and three total hip replacements were required, two for progression of osteoarthritis.
Conclusions
The programme of mentoring was successful in that there was a low incidence of the major intra-operative complications that are often reported during the learning curve period and the acetabular corrections achieved were similar to the originators.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1347-y
PMCID: PMC3337117  PMID: 21898037
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
24.  Patella Fracture Fixation with Suture and Wire: you Reap what you Sew 
Introduction
Operative fixation of displaced inferior pole patella fractures has now become the standard of care. This study aims to quantify clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes, as well as identify complications in a cohort of patients treated with non-absorbable braided suture fixation for inferior pole patellar fractures. These patients were then compared to a control group of patients treated for mid-pole fractures with K-wires or cannulated screws with tension band wiring.
Methods
In this IRB approved study, we identified a cohort of patients who were diagnosed and treated surgically for a displaced patella fracture. Demographic, injury, and surgical information were recorded. All patients were treated with a standard surgical technique utilizing non-absorbable braided suture woven through the patellar tendon and placed through drill holes to achieve reduction and fracture fixation. All patients were treated with a similar post-operative protocol and followed up at standard intervals. Data were collected concurrently at follow up visits.
For purpose of comparison, we identified a control cohort with middle third patella fractures treated with either k-wires or cannulated screws and tension band technique. Patients were followed by the treating surgeon at regular follow-up intervals. Outcomes included self-reported function and knee range of motion compared to the uninjured side.
Results
Forty-nine patients with 49 patella fractures identified retrospectively were treated over 9 years. This cohort consisted of 31 females (63.3%) and 18 males (36.7%) with an average age of 57.1 years (range 26 - 88 years). Patients had an average BMI of 26.48 (range 19 - 44.08).
Thirteen patients with inferior pole fractures underwent suture fixation and 36 patients with mid-pole fractures underwent tension band fixation (K-wire or cannulated screws with tension band). In the suture cohort, one fracture failed open repair (7.6%), which was revised again with sutures and progressed to union. Of the 36 fractures repaired with a tension band fixation, 11 underwent secondary surgery due to hardware pain or fixation failure (30.6%).
At one year, no difference was seen in knee range of motion between cohorts. All fractures healed radiographically. Those patients who required reoperation or removal of hardware had significantly diminished range of motion about their injured knee (p > 0.005).
Conclusions
Patients who sustain inferior pole patella fractures have limited options for fracture fixation. Suture repair is clinically acceptable, yielding similar results to patella fractures repaired with metal implants. Importantly, patients undergoing suture repair appear to have fewer hardware related postoperative complications than those receiving wire fixation for midpole fractures.
PMCID: PMC4127725  PMID: 25328461
Patella fracture; suture fixation; wire fixation
25.  Outcomes of Isolated Acetabular Revision 
Isolated acetabular revision can be associated with variable patient outcomes; there is a risk of hip instability. We evaluated 42 isolated acetabular revision operations and investigated the impact of patient age, diagnosis, bone stock, bone loss, bone augmentation, and obesity on pain and the Harris hip score. Preoperative radiographs were graded according to Paprosky et al. Postoperative radiographs were graded according to Moore et al. and for implant position, prosthetic fixation, and osteolysis. Complications, patient outcome, reoperations, and acetabular rerevisions were recorded. All patients had complete clinical and radiographic followup with a minimum followup of 2 years (mean, 6.4 years; range, 2–13 years). The mean pain score and the mean Harris hip score improved postoperatively. There was one infection 6 months after operation. There were no dislocations. There were three acetabular rerevisions (7%) for aseptic loosening. Patient age, preoperative diagnosis, bone loss, and pelvic bone augmentation had no influence on pain or Harris hip scores. Before operation, obese patients tended to have less pain than nonobese patients but at followup obese patients had less improvement in pain scores than nonobese patients.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1104-3
PMCID: PMC2806977  PMID: 19789935

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