Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracture–dislocation of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate placement of retractors, instrument- or implant-related complications, heterotopic ossification, hematoma, and scarring. Natural history studies suggest that nerve recovery depends on several factors. Prevention requires attention to intraoperative limb positioning, retractor placement, and instrumentation. Somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography may help minimize iatrogenic nerve injury. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis can help reduce delayed sciatic nerve entrapment. Reports on sciatic nerve decompression are not uniformly consistent but appear to have better outcomes for sensory than motor neuropathy.
sciatic nerve palsy; acetabular fracture; hip dislocation; heterotopic ossification
Heterotopic ossification is a common postoperative complication of acetabular fracture. However, functionally significant heterotopic ossification with associated late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum is rare and challenging to treat. When heterotopic ossification is a late complication of failed acetabular fracture operation, it is disabling and may only be treated by THA. THA is highly susceptible to premature failure in young and active patients and may require numerous revisions.
This article describes a 40-year-old man with massive heterotopic ossification associated with late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum after a failed acetabular fracture operation. The primary fracture type was a 62-A2.3 fracture according to the AO/OTA Classification.Surgical excision and anatomical reconstruction of the acetabular wall using heterotopic ossific bone were performed 10 months after the fracture repair. Postoperatively, indomethacin was administered for prophylaxis against recurrence of heterotopic ossification, and hip range of motion was progressively increased. At 5 years and 6 months follow-up, the patient’s pain was relieved and hip function had recovered. Though radiography and CT showed minimal subchondral cysts and mild joint-space narrowing, there was no evidence of graft resorption, progressive posttraumatic osteoarthritis or necrosis of the femoral head.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of such a challenging condition. Although it is an extremely rare case, it provides an attractive option for avoiding THA, as the long-term follow-up shows a satisfactory outcome.
Heterotopic ossification; Late bone defects; Posterior wall; Acetabulum; Acetabular fracture
Objective: To explore the treatment strategies and clinical effect of the acetabular malunion with traumatic arthritis by total hip arthroplasty.
Methodology: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 47 cases of acetabular malunion with traumatic arthritis from June 2000 to December 2009. All the patients underwent total hip arthroplasty with bone grafting or titanium cage for bone defect of the acetabulum. Harris hip scoring system was used for evaluating the functional recovery of the hip joint.
Results: Thirty three cases had an average of 47 months follow-up. No prosthesis was loosened and the function of hip joint was improved obviously with the Harris hip scores improving from 43.5 to 87.6. However, there were one case of sciatic nerve injury and four cases of heterotopic ossification postoperatively.
Conclusion: Total hip arthroplasty might be an effective treatment of acetabular malunion with traumatic arthritis. Proper evaluation and reasonable reconstruction of acetabular defect as well as reasonable selection of prosthesis are essential to obtain an excellent outcome.
Acetabular fracture; Traumatic arthritis; Total hip arthroplasty; Harris scoring system
For decades, acetabular fractures were treated conservatively. Judet et al. in 1960s established the operative treatment of these fractures by continuous improvement of pre-operative evaluation and classification of fractures. Several studies demonstrated that accurate fracture reduction decreases the incidence of post-traumatic arthritis and improves functional outcome.
We report 67 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for acetabular fracture; 44 patients were available for follow-up. In 35 (79.5%) cases, congruent reductions were achieved. The final mean Harris hip score was 81.8 (53-95). Functional outcomes according to Harris score were excellent and good in 31 patients (70.5%).
The results of internal fixation of displaced acetabular fractures in our series were satisfactory.
Acetabulum; Surgical Procedures, Operative; Fractures, Bone
Femoral head fractures may present in various patterns with or without associated fractures around the hip. As a result, the treating orthopaedic surgeon must understand not only the fracture pattern, but also patient-related fractures and the relevant operative exposures and reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome while minimizing complications. Treatment options range from non-operative treatment to fracture fragment excision or fracture fixation using various surgical exposures and implants. This article reviews the current literature on the treatment options for femoral head fractures and presents modern operative techniques that have improved exposure of the fracture while minimizing associated risks such as avascular necrosis, heterotopic ossification, and neurovascular compromise. A sound understanding of the anatomy and these newer techniques can enable the surgeon to provide improved expectations and clinical outcomes.
Femoral head fracture; Hip; Surgical dislocation; Hip dislocation; Trauma
There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women) with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years) managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d’Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2–11 years).
Patients with congruent reduction (n=45) had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26) was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation.
Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments in the cotyloid fossa or non–weight-bearing part of the hip with a congruous joint do not seem to adversely affect the functional outcome. Displaced transverse fractures with “V” sign may require operative treatment.
Acetabulum fracture; anterior column fractures; posterior column fractures; conservative treatment
Acetabular fractures in the elderly are increasingly common; however, an antecedent of trauma may not be known, and the diagnosis easily missed. Early identification and prompt management are needed in order to minimise morbidity rates, but little has been published on occult acetabular fracture.
In this paper we present three cases of occult acetabular fracture in patients older than 75 years. All three are females and had previously been operated on the ipsilateral hip with an implant (two proximal femur fractures treated with a proximal intramedullary femoral nail, and one case of total joint replacement); these acetabular fractures could be related to the existence of a stress shielding mechanism.
We believe that whenever an elderly patient feels groin pain, and anteroposterior pelvis X-rays are normal, oblique Judet projections (obturator and iliac) should be obtained. In any case, displacement will make any fracture evident within a few weeks.
Acetabular fracture; elderly; fracture; hip arthroplasty; occult; missed diagnosis; total hip replacement
The general outcome of posterior wall acetabular fractures is still the source of discussion. Posterior wall fractures are recognized throughout the literature as being difficult to treat. The aim of the present study was to analyze in our own patients the relevance of the classical prognostic criteria for the outcome of isolated posterior wall fractures and those with associated lesions.
Materials and methods
A prospective cohort of 33 consecutive patients treated operatively between 1996 and 2006 in a single level 1 trauma center for a posterior wall fracture of the acetabulum was analyzed retrospectively. Included were posterior wall acetabular fractures or associated posterior wall fractures, such as the combinations of posterior column with posterior wall, transverse with posterior wall, or T-shaped fracture with posterior wall fracture. Outcome measurement of the postoperative survival of the hip joints until the primary outcome reoperation (total hip replacement or fusion) and secondary outcome diagnosis of symptomatic osteoarthritis were performed.
Twenty-six of the 33 patients with posterior wall fractures also had a dislocated joint. Twelve had isolated and 21 associated fractures. Six patients were reoperated with a THA (four patients within 2 years and one after 10 years), and one arthrodesis was done to treat a hematogenous septic arthritis in a degenerative hip joint. Secondary arthritis was observed in 10 patients.
No difference was found between the outcome in cases of isolated posterior wall acetabular fracture and the outcome in those with associated lesions. The classical prognostic criteria were not found to be relevant to the outcome for our group.
Acetabulum; Posterior wall acetabular fractures; Associated lesion; Outcome; Prognosis
Controversy exists regarding the outcome of THA after prior pelvic osteotomy.
We conducted a retrospective chart and radiographic review to obtain outcome measures for perioperative complications, acetabular and femoral component revisions, Harris hip score, and survivorship and compared these outcomes for patients presenting with developmental dysplasia of the hip treated surgically using THA with and without prior pelvic osteotomy.
Patients and Methods
We performed 103 primary THAs in 87 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip with a minimum 3-year followup. Previous pelvic osteotomy was performed in 52 hips (Salter, 40; Chiari, nine; Salter and Chiari, three), and 51 hips had no previous surgery (control group).
The pelvic osteotomy group did not have higher rates of femoral or acetabular intraoperative fracture or dislocation compared with the control group. The overall revision rate was 28.8% in the pelvic osteotomy group compared with 19.6% in the control group. The revision rate for aseptic loosening was 23.1% in the pelvic osteotomy group compared with 17.6% in the control group. Harris hip scores (range, 20–87) were not compromised, and overall survivorship rates 8 years postoperatively were not different at any time between the pelvic osteotomy (83.3%) and control (88.4%) groups.
Prior pelvic osteotomy did not lead to a higher perioperative complication rate, higher revision rate, compromised Harris hip score, or shortened survivorship in eventual THA in developmental dysplasia of the hip.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40–50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D’Aubigne−Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply.
Ninety-nine hips treated by the Chiari pelvic osteotomy were included in this study designed as a retrospective review. The group consisted of 36 male and 50 female patients, with mean age of 15.6 years. Each was diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or avascular necrosis of the femoral head—Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCP)—and postreduction avascular necrosis (PAN). Five hip parameters (the acetabular angle of Sharp, the center-edge (CE) angle of Wiberg, the percentage of femoral head uncoverage, the acetabular depth ratio, and the Shenton-Menard arch continuity) were evaluated. Functional outcome was assessed according to Harris hip score (HHS) and McKay criteria for clinical evaluation. The postoperative results showed improvement in all the radiographic parameters. The angle of Sharp showed a decrease of 8.62º (p < 0.01). The CE angle of Wiberg showed an increase of 28.76º (p < 0.01), and the uncoverage of the femoral head showed a decrease of 51.51% (p < 0.01). The improvement of HHS was 11.93 (p < 0.05). The patients’ satisfaction was indicated by grade 4.1 ± 0.94 and the doctor’s satisfaction by grade 3.7 ± 1.16. The Chiari pelvic osteotomy, in spite of the development of biologically better procedures, has retained its position in the treatment of adolescent hip disorders.
Background and Purpose
Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface.
A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification).
115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them.
In the subgroup of anatomically reconstructed fractures no significant influence of the analyzed cofactors could be observed.
Anatomical reduction appears to be an important parameter for a good clinical outcome in patients with both column acetabular fractures. Additional fracture characteristics such as the initial displacement and intraarticular fragments seem to influence the results. Patients should also be advised that both column acetabular fractures with more than two additional associated factors have a significantly higher risk of joint degeneration.
Both column acetabular fractures; Outcome prediction; Long term results
Isolated acetabular revision can be associated with variable patient outcomes; there is a risk of hip instability. We evaluated 42 isolated acetabular revision operations and investigated the impact of patient age, diagnosis, bone stock, bone loss, bone augmentation, and obesity on pain and the Harris hip score. Preoperative radiographs were graded according to Paprosky et al. Postoperative radiographs were graded according to Moore et al. and for implant position, prosthetic fixation, and osteolysis. Complications, patient outcome, reoperations, and acetabular rerevisions were recorded. All patients had complete clinical and radiographic followup with a minimum followup of 2 years (mean, 6.4 years; range, 2–13 years). The mean pain score and the mean Harris hip score improved postoperatively. There was one infection 6 months after operation. There were no dislocations. There were three acetabular rerevisions (7%) for aseptic loosening. Patient age, preoperative diagnosis, bone loss, and pelvic bone augmentation had no influence on pain or Harris hip scores. Before operation, obese patients tended to have less pain than nonobese patients but at followup obese patients had less improvement in pain scores than nonobese patients.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Between 1982 and 1995, 84 patients with
displaced acetabular fractures underwent open reduction and
internal fixation in our institution. The mean follow-up was 5.5
years with a minimum of 2 years. There were 33 simple and 51
complex fractures according to the classification of Judet and
Letournels. Reduction after operation was anatomical in 49% of
the patients, satisfactory in 24%, and unsatisfactory in 27%.
Using Merle d’Aubigné’s scale, the clinical results were
excellent in 39% of the patients, good in 29%, fair in 8%, and
poor in 24%. Factors of statistical significance associated with
a poor clinical outcome were T-shaped fractures, unsatisfactory
reduction (>3 mm residual displacement), age >40 years and
development of avascular necrosis. Acetabular surgery is
demanding, and a high rate of complications can be expected.
Trauma centres should designate a group of surgeons who will
consistently treat these fractures in order to obtain more
experience and better results.
To evaluate the effects of clinical factors on outcome after acetabular revision with a cementless beaded cup.
Retrospective case series.
Tertiary care referral centre.
Forty-one patients who underwent acetabular revision with a cementless cup were followed up for a mean of 3.4 years.
Acetabular revision with a beaded cementless cup in all patients. A morcellized allograft was used in 10 patients.
A modified Harris hip score (range of motion measurement omitted), the SF-36 health survey, and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effects of age, gender, morcellized allografting, time to revision from the previous operation, acetabular screw fixation and concurrent femoral revision on outcome.
Gender accounted for a significant portion of the variation seen in the SF-36 physical component scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.02), with women tending to have worse results. Increasing age was associated with lower WOMAC index function scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), whereas concurrent femoral revision tended to have a positive effect on WOMAC index function (r = 0.39, p = 0.01). None of the potential clinical predictors had any significant effect on the SF-36 mental component scores, or WOMAC index pain and stiffness scores.
In cementless acetabular revision arthroplasty, physical function, as measured by generic and limb-specific scales, may be affected by gender, age and the presence of a concurrent femoral revision. Time to revision from the previous operation, morcellized allografting and screw fixation of the acetabulum did not affect outcomes. This information may provide some prognostic value for patients’ expectations.
Between 1997 and 2001 we treated 54 elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures by primary hemiarthroplasty using a cemented bipolar prosthesis. Mean patient age was 75.6 (64–91) years and mean follow-up was 22.3 (5–48) months. Seven patients died before the fourth post-operative month. Thirty-three patients were able to walk with a walker in the first post-operative week. There were no dislocations or aseptic loosening. One deep infection was encountered after 1 year. Acetabular erosion was seen in one patient and non-union of the greater trochanter was seen in four. Five patients experienced leg-length discrepancy. We obtained 17 excellent and 14 good results after 12 months according to the Harris hip-scoring system. We observed that the inner motion of the bipolar head decreased over time.
Extraarticular fractures of the pelvic ring after periacetabular osteotomy could impair stability of the acetabular fragment and cause poor clinical and radiographic outcomes. We evaluated 17 patients (17 hips) with fractures of either the ipsilateral os pubis (n = 12) or os ischium (n = 5) during the postoperative period after periacetabular osteotomy. Ischial fractures seemed more debilitating with two of five resulting in painful nonunions for which additional surgery was performed. In contrast, only one patient with pubic fracture had additional surgery. Ischial fractures took almost twice as long to achieve resolution of symptoms compared with pubic fractures, and when left untreated, asymptomatic nonunions developed in three of five. However, we observed no effect on acetabular fragment positioning or long-term clinical outcome. It is essential to be aware of this potential complication and realize it could be accompanied by substantial morbidity for patients during the rehabilitation period after periacetabular osteotomy, but does not seem to influence the longer-term outcome.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the most elderly patients with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck. However, there is inadequate evidence to support the choice between unipolar HA or bipolar HA. The primary aim of this study was to analyse the outcome regarding hip function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients randomised to either a unipolar or bipolar HA. The secondary aim was to analyse the degree of acetabular erosion and its influence upon outcome.
One hundred twenty patients with a mean age of 86 years and an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck were randomly allocated to treatment by either unipolar or bipolar HA. Outcome measurements included hip function (Harris Hip Score, HHS), HRQoL (EQ-5D) and acetabular erosion. The patients were summoned at four and 12 months for follow-up.
There were no significant differences between the groups regarding complications. The HHS scores were equal at both follow-ups, but there was a trend towards better HRQoL in the bipolar HA group at four months, EQ-5D index score 0.62 vs 0.54 (p = 0.06). Twenty percent of the patients in the unipolar HA group displayed acetabular erosion at the 12-month follow-up compared to 5% in the bipolar HA group (p = 0.03), and there were trends towards worse hip function and HRQoL among patients with acetabular erosion compared to those without: HHS scores 70.4 and 79.3, respectively (p = 0.09), and EQ-5D index scores 0.48 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.13).
Unipolar HA and bipolar HA appeared to produce equivalent clinical outcomes after one year, but the significantly higher incidence of acetabular erosion in the unipolar HA group may imply that bipolar HA should be the preferred treatment.
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results of acetabular revisions with the use of an oblong revision cup that is designed with its longitudinal diameter elongated relative to its transverse diameter. Between 1996 and 2001, 62 hips in 60 patients underwent an acetabular revision with the insertion of a LOR acetabular component. Seven hips were lost to follow-up or the patients died; the remaining 55 hips (53 patients) remained in follow-up for an average of 7.2 years (range: 5.0–10.1 years). One socket was revised for aseptic loosening, and another was operated on for a late polyethylene liner dissociation. The average Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 34 to 79. Results were rated as excellent in 16 hips, good in 28, fair in six and poor in three. Radiographic analysis demonstrated an improvement in the average vertical displacement of the hip centre: 49 hips had a well-fixed, bone-ingrown cup and four had a stable fibrous union. For large superolateral acetabular bone deficiencies, this implant facilitated a complex reconstruction without the need for bulk structural acetabular bone grafts, provided good clinical results and showed satisfactory stability at the midterm follow-up.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid- to long-term survivorship of Bimetric cementless total hip replacement and assess how it is affected by the acetabular design. This was a retrospective analysis of 127 Bimetric cementless total hip replacements in 110 patients with a follow-up of 7–18 years. A single design stem and three different cementless metal-backed acetabular designs were used. Patients were assessed clinically using the Harris hip score and radiologically by independent review of current hip radiographs. There was only one case of aseptic loosening of the femoral stem. The earliest acetabular design showed a high failure rate whilst the latter two designs showed a 96% survivorship at a mean of 9.5 years. We conclude that a combination of the bimetric stem with either of the latter acetabular cup designs has a good mid- to long-term performance.
Operative management of displaced acetabular fractures yields better results than nonoperative management. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical tactic for repair of common fracture patterns have been advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. In some cases, as in the elderly, or in those cases in which there is significant destruction of the articular cartilage, primary total hip arthroplasty may provide the best solution. Removal of the femoral head allows for excellent exposure of the acetabulum, making it possible to stabilize most fractures without the need for extensile or intrapelvic approaches. The surgical technique that has been successfully used calls for gaining primary stability of the acetabular columns by open reduction and internal fixation and then using the acetabular component to replace the articular surface. The columns need not be anatomically reduced. Multiholed acetabular shells can be used as internal fixation devices by placing screws into the columns enhancing the stability of the repair. In older individuals with severe osteoporosis, a typical fracture pattern results in intrapelvic dislocation of the femoral head with a blowout fracture of the anterior column and medial wall. Reinforcement rings with cemented acetabular fixation can be used in these cases. The femoral head can be used as bulk bone graft to replace and reinforce the reconstruction. Techniques common to revision of failed acetabular components are helpful in this setting. The results of reconstruction of severe acetabular fractures with total hip replacement have been reported to be similar to those achieved for reconstruction of osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this report was to retrospectively review a series treated with pelvic tumour resection and massive allograft reconstruction, and determine survival of patients and implants, functional results and morbidity of surgical technique.
From 1999, 33 patients underwent pelvic tumour resection and massive allograft reconstruction. The mean age was 40 years (range, 14–72) and 29 patients had a primary malignant tumour. The resection involved the acetabular area in all but three patients.
At a median follow-up of 33 months (range, two–143) four patients had local recurrence. The morbidity was high: five deep infections (15 %), requiring two allograft removal, six hip dislocations (18 %), eight sciatic nerve palsy (24 %), persistent in six cases, and two loosening of the acetabular component. Implant survival was 87.3 % at last follow up. The cumulative overall patient’s survival was 41.5 % at five and ten years. The average MSTS functional score was 70 % (range, 54–100 %) when the acetabulum was preserved while it was 61 % (30–100 %) in patients with acetabular resection.
In conclusion, pelvic allografts represent a valid option for reconstruction after resection of pelvic tumours but due to the associated morbidity, patients should be carefully selected.
Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components.
We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility) cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively.
There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01). The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution.
We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.
We describe the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of 77 primary total hip replacements in 69 patients using the fully hydroxyapatite-coated JRI (Furlong) total hip replacement. The total cases followed up were 77 hips, performed at a mean duration of 11 years and 2 months. Twelve hips could not be followed up for various reasons, which are discussed in the results section. The mean Harris hip score was 89. Seventeen acetabular cups were revised for aseptic loosening. Only one femoral stem was revised, for fracture. By Engh’s criteria there were a further two unstable cups with no symptoms, and all femoral stems were stable. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis revealed a survival of 98.8% for the femoral stem, 78.7% for the acetabular cup, and a combined survival of 77.8% for both components. Our findings suggest that the JRI (Furlong) hip gives a durable femoral stem implant fixation, whereas the prosthesis–bone interface achieved with the acetabular component is questionable.
The Pembersal operation combines features of the Pemberton and Salter osteotomies. Results have usually been reported in patients with dysplasia but without frank dislocation. We asked if the following factors influence the outcome of the Pembersal operation in patients with dislocated hips: triradiate cartilage damage causing early closure; the acetabular index improvement; and the age of the patient at time of operation. We assessed triradiate cartilage damage, a modified McKay clinical classification, acetabular index, center-edge angles, Reimers index, acetabular depth-to-width ratios, Severin classification and Tönnis grading of 33 patients (44 hips) have been evaluated in this retrospective study. The mean age at surgery was 5 years (range, 1.5–14 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 10.5 years; range, 5–17 years). Preoperatively, three (7%) hips were Tönnis Grade 2, 10 (23%) were Grade 3, and 31 (70%) were Grade 4. Eight (18%) hips were Severin Class 1, 32 (73%) Class 2, and four (9%) were Class 3. According to McKay’s criteria satisfactory results with a rate of 76% were obtained. Premature closure of the triradiate cartilage occurred in eight (18%) hips and postoperative avascular necrosis of the femoral head in three (6%) hips. Satisfactory clinical and radiographic improvements in the aforementioned parameters can be obtained by Pembersal osteotomy.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.