Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracture–dislocation of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate placement of retractors, instrument- or implant-related complications, heterotopic ossification, hematoma, and scarring. Natural history studies suggest that nerve recovery depends on several factors. Prevention requires attention to intraoperative limb positioning, retractor placement, and instrumentation. Somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography may help minimize iatrogenic nerve injury. Heterotopic ossification prophylaxis can help reduce delayed sciatic nerve entrapment. Reports on sciatic nerve decompression are not uniformly consistent but appear to have better outcomes for sensory than motor neuropathy.
sciatic nerve palsy; acetabular fracture; hip dislocation; heterotopic ossification
Femoral head fractures may present in various patterns with or without associated fractures around the hip. As a result, the treating orthopaedic surgeon must understand not only the fracture pattern, but also patient-related fractures and the relevant operative exposures and reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome while minimizing complications. Treatment options range from non-operative treatment to fracture fragment excision or fracture fixation using various surgical exposures and implants. This article reviews the current literature on the treatment options for femoral head fractures and presents modern operative techniques that have improved exposure of the fracture while minimizing associated risks such as avascular necrosis, heterotopic ossification, and neurovascular compromise. A sound understanding of the anatomy and these newer techniques can enable the surgeon to provide improved expectations and clinical outcomes.
Femoral head fracture; Hip; Surgical dislocation; Hip dislocation; Trauma
There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women) with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years) managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d’Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2–11 years).
Patients with congruent reduction (n=45) had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26) was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation.
Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments in the cotyloid fossa or non–weight-bearing part of the hip with a congruous joint do not seem to adversely affect the functional outcome. Displaced transverse fractures with “V” sign may require operative treatment.
Acetabulum fracture; anterior column fractures; posterior column fractures; conservative treatment
Isolated acetabular revision can be associated with variable patient outcomes; there is a risk of hip instability. We evaluated 42 isolated acetabular revision operations and investigated the impact of patient age, diagnosis, bone stock, bone loss, bone augmentation, and obesity on pain and the Harris hip score. Preoperative radiographs were graded according to Paprosky et al. Postoperative radiographs were graded according to Moore et al. and for implant position, prosthetic fixation, and osteolysis. Complications, patient outcome, reoperations, and acetabular rerevisions were recorded. All patients had complete clinical and radiographic followup with a minimum followup of 2 years (mean, 6.4 years; range, 2–13 years). The mean pain score and the mean Harris hip score improved postoperatively. There was one infection 6 months after operation. There were no dislocations. There were three acetabular rerevisions (7%) for aseptic loosening. Patient age, preoperative diagnosis, bone loss, and pelvic bone augmentation had no influence on pain or Harris hip scores. Before operation, obese patients tended to have less pain than nonobese patients but at followup obese patients had less improvement in pain scores than nonobese patients.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Acetabular fractures in the elderly are increasingly common; however, an antecedent of trauma may not be known, and the diagnosis easily missed. Early identification and prompt management are needed in order to minimise morbidity rates, but little has been published on occult acetabular fracture.
In this paper we present three cases of occult acetabular fracture in patients older than 75 years. All three are females and had previously been operated on the ipsilateral hip with an implant (two proximal femur fractures treated with a proximal intramedullary femoral nail, and one case of total joint replacement); these acetabular fractures could be related to the existence of a stress shielding mechanism.
We believe that whenever an elderly patient feels groin pain, and anteroposterior pelvis X-rays are normal, oblique Judet projections (obturator and iliac) should be obtained. In any case, displacement will make any fracture evident within a few weeks.
Acetabular fracture; elderly; fracture; hip arthroplasty; occult; missed diagnosis; total hip replacement
Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the most elderly patients with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck. However, there is inadequate evidence to support the choice between unipolar HA or bipolar HA. The primary aim of this study was to analyse the outcome regarding hip function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients randomised to either a unipolar or bipolar HA. The secondary aim was to analyse the degree of acetabular erosion and its influence upon outcome.
One hundred twenty patients with a mean age of 86 years and an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck were randomly allocated to treatment by either unipolar or bipolar HA. Outcome measurements included hip function (Harris Hip Score, HHS), HRQoL (EQ-5D) and acetabular erosion. The patients were summoned at four and 12 months for follow-up.
There were no significant differences between the groups regarding complications. The HHS scores were equal at both follow-ups, but there was a trend towards better HRQoL in the bipolar HA group at four months, EQ-5D index score 0.62 vs 0.54 (p = 0.06). Twenty percent of the patients in the unipolar HA group displayed acetabular erosion at the 12-month follow-up compared to 5% in the bipolar HA group (p = 0.03), and there were trends towards worse hip function and HRQoL among patients with acetabular erosion compared to those without: HHS scores 70.4 and 79.3, respectively (p = 0.09), and EQ-5D index scores 0.48 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.13).
Unipolar HA and bipolar HA appeared to produce equivalent clinical outcomes after one year, but the significantly higher incidence of acetabular erosion in the unipolar HA group may imply that bipolar HA should be the preferred treatment.
Operative management of displaced acetabular fractures yields better results than nonoperative management. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical tactic for repair of common fracture patterns have been advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. In some cases, as in the elderly, or in those cases in which there is significant destruction of the articular cartilage, primary total hip arthroplasty may provide the best solution. Removal of the femoral head allows for excellent exposure of the acetabulum, making it possible to stabilize most fractures without the need for extensile or intrapelvic approaches. The surgical technique that has been successfully used calls for gaining primary stability of the acetabular columns by open reduction and internal fixation and then using the acetabular component to replace the articular surface. The columns need not be anatomically reduced. Multiholed acetabular shells can be used as internal fixation devices by placing screws into the columns enhancing the stability of the repair. In older individuals with severe osteoporosis, a typical fracture pattern results in intrapelvic dislocation of the femoral head with a blowout fracture of the anterior column and medial wall. Reinforcement rings with cemented acetabular fixation can be used in these cases. The femoral head can be used as bulk bone graft to replace and reinforce the reconstruction. Techniques common to revision of failed acetabular components are helpful in this setting. The results of reconstruction of severe acetabular fractures with total hip replacement have been reported to be similar to those achieved for reconstruction of osteoarthritis.
Controversy exists regarding the outcome of THA after prior pelvic osteotomy.
We conducted a retrospective chart and radiographic review to obtain outcome measures for perioperative complications, acetabular and femoral component revisions, Harris hip score, and survivorship and compared these outcomes for patients presenting with developmental dysplasia of the hip treated surgically using THA with and without prior pelvic osteotomy.
Patients and Methods
We performed 103 primary THAs in 87 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip with a minimum 3-year followup. Previous pelvic osteotomy was performed in 52 hips (Salter, 40; Chiari, nine; Salter and Chiari, three), and 51 hips had no previous surgery (control group).
The pelvic osteotomy group did not have higher rates of femoral or acetabular intraoperative fracture or dislocation compared with the control group. The overall revision rate was 28.8% in the pelvic osteotomy group compared with 19.6% in the control group. The revision rate for aseptic loosening was 23.1% in the pelvic osteotomy group compared with 17.6% in the control group. Harris hip scores (range, 20–87) were not compromised, and overall survivorship rates 8 years postoperatively were not different at any time between the pelvic osteotomy (83.3%) and control (88.4%) groups.
Prior pelvic osteotomy did not lead to a higher perioperative complication rate, higher revision rate, compromised Harris hip score, or shortened survivorship in eventual THA in developmental dysplasia of the hip.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Ninety-nine hips treated by the Chiari pelvic osteotomy were included in this study designed as a retrospective review. The group consisted of 36 male and 50 female patients, with mean age of 15.6 years. Each was diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or avascular necrosis of the femoral head—Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCP)—and postreduction avascular necrosis (PAN). Five hip parameters (the acetabular angle of Sharp, the center-edge (CE) angle of Wiberg, the percentage of femoral head uncoverage, the acetabular depth ratio, and the Shenton-Menard arch continuity) were evaluated. Functional outcome was assessed according to Harris hip score (HHS) and McKay criteria for clinical evaluation. The postoperative results showed improvement in all the radiographic parameters. The angle of Sharp showed a decrease of 8.62º (p < 0.01). The CE angle of Wiberg showed an increase of 28.76º (p < 0.01), and the uncoverage of the femoral head showed a decrease of 51.51% (p < 0.01). The improvement of HHS was 11.93 (p < 0.05). The patients’ satisfaction was indicated by grade 4.1 ± 0.94 and the doctor’s satisfaction by grade 3.7 ± 1.16. The Chiari pelvic osteotomy, in spite of the development of biologically better procedures, has retained its position in the treatment of adolescent hip disorders.
Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components.
We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility) cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively.
There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01). The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution.
We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.
We describe the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of 77 primary total hip replacements in 69 patients using the fully hydroxyapatite-coated JRI (Furlong) total hip replacement. The total cases followed up were 77 hips, performed at a mean duration of 11 years and 2 months. Twelve hips could not be followed up for various reasons, which are discussed in the results section. The mean Harris hip score was 89. Seventeen acetabular cups were revised for aseptic loosening. Only one femoral stem was revised, for fracture. By Engh’s criteria there were a further two unstable cups with no symptoms, and all femoral stems were stable. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis revealed a survival of 98.8% for the femoral stem, 78.7% for the acetabular cup, and a combined survival of 77.8% for both components. Our findings suggest that the JRI (Furlong) hip gives a durable femoral stem implant fixation, whereas the prosthesis–bone interface achieved with the acetabular component is questionable.
We conducted a prospective study of the clinical and radiographic variables related to the survival of 114 cementless resurfacing double-cup hip replacements (RHR) with a mean follow-up of 9 (range: 1–16) years. Three patients died, and 22 were unavailable for the final review in 2003. Sixty-one RHRs had to be revised to a total hip replacement. Failure analysis of these revised RHRs showed femoral head and neck resorption under the prosthesis in 33, acetabular protrusion in seven, both femoral and acetabular resorption in 14 and a femoral-neck fracture in three. One hip had dislocated, and there were three hips with unexplained pain. The Kaplan–Meier 5-year mean survival was 92%, the 10-year survival was 47% (95% CI 37–57%) and the 15-year survival was 30% (95% CI 20–40%). Pre-operative joint destruction (grade 1), a high degree of radiological osteoporosis, a body mass index >25 and prosthesis mismatch were significantly related to failure of the RHR. We believe that in young, non-obese patients with pre-operative radiological central destruction but without severe proximal femoral osteoporosis, a resurfacing arthroplasty may have some value. Our failures were mainly due to femoral resorption under the prosthetic femoral component.
The ilio-inguinal approach has come to be used routinely in the management of acetabular fractures involving the anterior wall. Thrombotic complications following surgery via this route are a serious, but rare, complication.
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient who slipped on an icy pavement and fell on his left hip. He sustained a comminuted acetabular fracture (a transtectal T-fracture with an incomplete posterior stem through the ischial tuberosity), and was operated on five days later, via an ilio-inguinal approach. In the recovery room, his left lower limb was found to be cool and pale. Immediate re-exploration showed a left external iliac artery thrombosis, and thrombectomy was performed. In the surgical management of acetabular fractures, thrombosis of a major pelvic artery is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We discuss the possible aetiology (initial vessel trauma versus iatrogenic, intraoperative arterial injury) and pathomechanism, and wish to draw attention to this complication and to recommend ways in which it can be prevented.
We recommend circulation monitoring in patients with acetabular fractures, especially where nerve blocks and/or deep sedation/analgesia have been used. High-risk patients should be identified and subjected to intensive preoperative screening, including ultrasonography and if necessary angiography.
We followed prospectively 27 patients with severe acetabular bone-stock deficiencies due to developmental dysplasia of the hip. Mean preoperative patient age was 56 (34–78) years, mean Harris hip score was 31 (16–66) points and pre-operative mean acetabular angle of Sharp was 47° (34°–61°). Operative acetabular reconstruction was performed in 28 hips using reinforcement ring with a hook placed in the true acetabulum and autologous bone grafting. A 2-year clinical and radiological follow-up was available in 27 hips. Mean Harris hip score improved to 91 (70–100) points. There were no clinical or radiological signs of aseptic loosening in 25 hips, and the bone graft was radiologically incorporated in all hips. In 24 hips, a radiostereometric analysis showed low rates of non-progressive translation and rotation in 21 reinforcement rings. Three rings showed progressive translation and/or rotation at the 2-year follow-up and were rated probably loose.
Pelvic discontinuity is an increasingly common complication of THA. Treatments of this complex situation are varied, including cup-cage constructs, acetabular allografts with plating, pelvic distraction technique, and custom triflange acetabular components. It is unclear whether any of these offer substantial advantages.
We therefore determined (1) revision and overall survival rates, (2) discontinuity healing rate, and (3) Harris hip score (HHS) after treatment of pelvic discontinuity with a custom triflange acetabular component and (4) the cost of this reconstructive operation compared to other constructs.
We retrospectively reviewed 57 patients with pelvic discontinuity treated with revision THA using a custom triflange acetabular component. We reviewed operative reports, radiographs, and clinical data for clinical and radiographic results. We also performed a cost comparison with utilization of other techniques. Minimum followup was 24 months (average, 65 months; range, 24–215 months).
Fifty-six of 57 (98%) were free of revision for aseptic loosening at latest followup. Fifty-four (95%) were free of revision of the triflange component for any reason. Thirty-seven (65%) were free of revision for any reason. Twenty-eight (49%) were free of revision for any reason and free of any component migration and had a healed discontinuity. Forty-six (81%) had a stable triflange component with a healed pelvic discontinuity. Average HHS was 74.8. The costs of the custom triflange implants and a Trabecular Metal® cup-cage construct were equivalent: $12,500 and $11,250, respectively.
In this group of patients with osteolytic pelvic discontinuity, triflange implants provided predictable mid-term fixation at a cost equivalent to other treatment methods.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
A 4-U hybrid total hip arthroplasty (THA) system was specifically designed for patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Straight stem with an appropriate offset and various size variations are advantages. We followed 128 hips in 124 patients, 13 men and 111 women, for a mean of 6.5 years (range, 5.0–7.5 years). Two acetabular and femoral components in two patients had been revised for infection, one acetabular component had been revised for recurrent dislocation, and one femoral component had been revised for periprosthetic femoral fracture. None of the acetabular or femoral components were revised for loosening or were found to be loose at follow-up. The Harris hip score increased from a preoperative average of 42 points to 88 points at the most recent follow-up. Primary THA using the 4-U system had a good mid-term result in patients with DDH. This system could be applied for all patients including those with the narrowest and deformed femurs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of cementless acetabular revision with deep frozen morsellised allografts. Sixty-one patients (65 hips) underwent acetabular revision using cementless components and deep frozen morsellised allografts. Fifty-seven hips (53 patients) were reviewed at a mean of 105.1 months (range 72–180 months) after revision. The study group included 29 males and 24 females with a mean age of 46.4 years. One cup underwent further revision for aseptic loosening and two were defined as radiographic failures. The mean time for allograft incorporation was 12.5 months (range 6–24 months) after index surgery. The mean Harris hip score of the patients improved from 61.1 points preoperatively to 91.6 points postoperatively. Linear and cavitary osteolysis was observed in two and 12 hips, respectively. The acetabular revision using cementless components with deep frozen morsellized allografts provides favourable clinical and radiographic results, although the initial disease and age may adversely affect the outcomes.
Extraarticular fractures of the pelvic ring after periacetabular osteotomy could impair stability of the acetabular fragment and cause poor clinical and radiographic outcomes. We evaluated 17 patients (17 hips) with fractures of either the ipsilateral os pubis (n = 12) or os ischium (n = 5) during the postoperative period after periacetabular osteotomy. Ischial fractures seemed more debilitating with two of five resulting in painful nonunions for which additional surgery was performed. In contrast, only one patient with pubic fracture had additional surgery. Ischial fractures took almost twice as long to achieve resolution of symptoms compared with pubic fractures, and when left untreated, asymptomatic nonunions developed in three of five. However, we observed no effect on acetabular fragment positioning or long-term clinical outcome. It is essential to be aware of this potential complication and realize it could be accompanied by substantial morbidity for patients during the rehabilitation period after periacetabular osteotomy, but does not seem to influence the longer-term outcome.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results of acetabular revisions with the use of an oblong revision cup that is designed with its longitudinal diameter elongated relative to its transverse diameter. Between 1996 and 2001, 62 hips in 60 patients underwent an acetabular revision with the insertion of a LOR acetabular component. Seven hips were lost to follow-up or the patients died; the remaining 55 hips (53 patients) remained in follow-up for an average of 7.2 years (range: 5.0–10.1 years). One socket was revised for aseptic loosening, and another was operated on for a late polyethylene liner dissociation. The average Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 34 to 79. Results were rated as excellent in 16 hips, good in 28, fair in six and poor in three. Radiographic analysis demonstrated an improvement in the average vertical displacement of the hip centre: 49 hips had a well-fixed, bone-ingrown cup and four had a stable fibrous union. For large superolateral acetabular bone deficiencies, this implant facilitated a complex reconstruction without the need for bulk structural acetabular bone grafts, provided good clinical results and showed satisfactory stability at the midterm follow-up.
Heterotopic ossification is a well-known complication after fixation of an acetabular fracture. Indomethacin and radiation therapy are used as prophylaxis to prevent heterotopic ossification. It is unclear, however, whether either is superior, although this may relate to lack of power in individual studies. To compare the effectiveness of indomethacin with the effectiveness of radiation therapy, we conducted a systematic review in which all published prospective studies were evaluated. We performed a literature search in PubMed®, MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register. The retrieved studies were analyzed and categorized according to the quality and validity score of Jadad et al. We found five appropriate prospective studies, describing 384 patients. Although the quality of the available studies made a proper meta-analysis inappropriate, the incidence of heterotopic ossification was significantly lower in patients treated with radiation than in patients receiving indomethacin (five of 160 versus 20 of 224, respectively). Until further information is available, we believe the evidence supports radiation therapy as the preferred method for preventing heterotopic ossification after operative treatment of acetabular fractures.
Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Possible immunization to blood group or other antigens and subsequent inhibition of remodeling or incorporation after use of untreated human bone allograft was described previously. This study presents the immunological, clinical and radiological results of 30 patients with acetabular revisions using fresh frozen non-irradiated bone allograft.
AB0-incompatible (donor-recipient) bone transplantation was performed in 22 cases, Rh(D) incompatible transplantation in 6 cases. The mean follow up of 23 months included measuring Harris hip score and radiological examination with evaluation of remodeling of the bone graft, implant migration and heterotopic ossification. In addition, all patients were screened for alloimmunization to Rh blood group antigens.
Compared to the whole study group, there were no differences in clinical or radiological measurements for the groups with AB0- or Rh(D)-incompatible bone transplantation. The mean Harris Hip Score was 80.6. X-rays confirmed total remodeling of all allografts with no acetabular loosening. At follow up, blood tests revealed no alloimmunization to Rh blood group donor antigens.
The use of fresh frozen non-irradiated bone allograft in acetabular revision is a reliable supplement to reconstruction. The risk of alloimmunization to donor-blood group antigens after AB0- or Rh-incompatible allograft transplantation with a negative long-term influence on bone-remodeling or the clinical outcome is negligible.
Acetabular revision; Allograft bone; Remodeling; Alloimmunization; AB0; Rhesus
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with well designed cementless acetabular implants has shown excellent results. The purpose of this study was to assess our clinical and radiological outcomes using an uncemented cup. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all consecutive primary THAs performed with the Morscher press-fit cup, an uncemented non-modular acetabular component, between March 1996 and December 1998. Patients were evaluated at ten years with clinical and radiological follow-up, patient satisfaction and questionnaire assessment using the Harris hip score (HHS), Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, the UCLA score, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and a visual analog scale. Five hundred sixty-one THAs were performed in 518 patients. At 120 months (± 7.3 months), 303 patients with 335 THAs were still available for follow-up. None of the patients had required cup revision for aseptic loosening. At ten years, the cup survivorship was 98.8% (95% CI 97.4–99.5) with cup revision for any cause as an endpoint. No radiolucencies were seen around the cups, but osteolytic defects involved 21 stems (8.3%). Mean total linear polyethylene wear was 0.9 mm. The Morscher acetabular replacement cup provides excellent results at ten years. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening of the cup, and no osteolytic defects were found around the cup. Patient satisfaction was high and the clinical results were very good.
Congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare neurological entity, is characterized by varying degrees of sensory loss and autonomic dysfunction. Orthopedic manifestations of congenital insensitivity to pain include delayed diagnosis of fractures, nonunions, malunions, Charcot arthropathy, acro-osteolysis, avascular necrosis, osteomyelitis, heterotopic ossification and joint dislocations. We here report the case of a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain who had multiple lower extremity fractures at varying intervals, the most recent being a femoral neck fracture managed by total hip replacement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cementless hip arthroplasty in such a patient.
A 37-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of painless swellings in her lower limb and limping. She had been diagnosed with multiple lower extremity fractures at different times. On physical examination, we found multiple perioral mucosal ulcers, shortening of her nails and acro-osteolysis, a prematurely aged facial appearance, undersized skeletal structure, Charcot arthropathy of her right ankle, anosmia, insensitivity to temperature differences and evidence of mild intellectual disability. A right subtrochanteric femur fracture was treated with an intramedullary nail. Eighteen months later, she presented with similar symptoms and we diagnosed a right femoral neck fracture. We removed the nail and performed cementless total right hip arthroplasty.
Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare condition that is associated with severe orthopedic problems. This case report, which will be of particular interest to orthopedic surgeons, presents several difficulties in the management of patients with congenital insensitivity to pain and notes the importance of close follow-up and early recognition of complications. Cementless total hip arthroplasty may be a good therapeutic option for femoral neck fracture in these patients.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results in a group of patients who underwent aseptic revision hip arthroplasty using the cement within cement (CWC) technique. Between 1999 and 2005, 37 aseptic revision hip operations were performed. There were 30 women and five men, with an average age of 68 years. The reasons for revision were femoral stem fracture, cup failure, acetabular protrusion after hemi-arthroplasty and recurrent dislocation. At an average follow-up of 46 months, none of the patients required further femoral revision. The average post-operative Merle D’Aubigne score was 16.6 points (p<0.05). No evidence of radiological stem failure was observed and no femoral component was considered to be at risk for loosening. In this series of patients, the CWC technique provided consistent with high functional outcomes. This valid and effective alternative should be considered in carefully selected aseptic cases.
Open acetabular fractures in children are rare, but potentially devastating injuries. Secondary to the low incidence, there is an apparent lack of reports on appropriate management strategies for open pediatric acetabular fractures in the literature.
Description of a case study.
A 3 years and ten months-old girl was ejected as a passenger from an all terrain vehicle. She sustained a displaced, grade IIIA open left anterior column acetabular fracture. The injury was treated by extending the open wound to a formal first window of the ilioinguinal approach. After surgical debridement, the anterior column was reduced anatomically and fixed by two lag screws which avoided the tri-radiate cartilage. A vaginal laceration was debrided and repaired. The patient was treated in a spica cast without weight bearing on the left lower extremity for 8 weeks. No perioperative complications occurred. The acetabular fracture healed in an anatomic position within 8 weeks. To avoid premature closure of the tri-radiate cartilage, the patient underwent a physeal bar resection at one year after injury. At two-year follow up, she was walking and running without pain and had a free range of motion of her left hip.
Operative management should represent the therapy of choice for open, displaced pediatric acetabular fractures. After fracture healing, a scheduled physeal bar resection may be required for injuries which involve the tri-radiate cartilage.