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1.  Knowledge and Acceptability of Pap Smears, Self-Sampling and HPV Vaccination among Adult Women in Kenya 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40766.
Our study aimed to assess adult women’s knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.
Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.
Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years) had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%). Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%), very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%). Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82%) and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%). Nearly all women (94%) reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.
These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.
PMCID: PMC3393696  PMID: 22808257
2.  The Frequency of Pap Smear Screening in the United States 
U.S. professional medical societies and the national health systems of all other industrialized nations recommend that most women need not undergo Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening annually. There are no data, however, regarding the frequency at which women actually undergo screening.
To describe the frequency of cervical cancer screening in the United States.
National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics.
Representative sample of U.S. women age 21 and older who denied a history of cancer (N = 16,467).
Pap smear screening frequency, categorized as no regular screening or screening at 1 of 3 discrete screening intervals (every year, every 2 years, or every 3 years) based on each woman's reported number of Pap smears in the previous 6 years.
The vast majority (93%) of American women report having had at least one Pap smear in their lifetime. Among women with no history of abnormal smears, 55% undergo Pap smear screening annually, 17% report a 2-year screening interval, 16% report being screened every 3 years, and 11% are not being screened regularly. Even the very elderly report frequent screening—38% of women age 75 to 84 and 20% of women age 85 and older reported annual Pap smears. Overall, 20% of women reported having had at least one abnormal Pap smear. Among these women, rates of frequent Pap smear screening are considerably higher—80% undergo annual screening, with only a modest decline in screening frequency with increasing age.
The majority of American women report being screened for cervical cancer more frequently than recommended. Lengthening the screening interval would not only reduce the volume of specimens that cytotechnologists are required to read, but would also reduce the follow-up testing after abnormal smears.
PMCID: PMC1492158  PMID: 15009779
cervical cancer screening; Pap smear; test frequency; overutilization
3.  Papanicolaou test utilization and frequency of screening opportunities among women diagnosed with cervical cancer 
Open Medicine  2009;3(3):e140-e147.
Although the importance of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test screening in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer is well established, in 1994–95 one in 4 women in Manitoba aged 18 to 69 years reported never having had a Pap test or not having had a Pap test in the last 3 years. The objectives of this study were to examine the screening history of women in Manitoba diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and to explore whether opportunities for screening were missed.
In this case-control study women aged 18 years and older who resided in Manitoba and were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer between 1989 and 2001 were each matched by age and area of residence to 5 controls, (N = 4009). Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between Pap test utilization and the likelihood of diagnosis with invasive cervical cancer. Generalized linear models using the negative binomial distribution were used to assess the association between cancer status and rates of prior Pap testing and of opportunities to be screened. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used for the analysis of physician characteristics.
Forty-six percent of women in Manitoba diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and 67% of the control group had received a Pap test in the 5 years before the case’s diagnosis. After adjustment for age, income and residence, the rate of Pap testing was significantly higher in the control group (rate ratio [RR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–1.73). Conversely, when cervical cancer was the outcome, women who had not had Pap tests were more likely to be diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77, 95% CI 2.30–3.30) than women who did have a Pap test. Although women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer had fewer Pap tests, they had had as many opportunities to be screened as controls (RR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.12). Compared with urban family physicians, rural family physicians were less likely to provide Pap tests (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.58–0.80) and specialists were more likely to provide Pap tests (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.30–2.22).
Women who were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in the province of Manitoba, Canada, had fewer Pap tests but the same frequency of opportunities to be screened as matched controls. These results reinforce the need to educate women about cervical cancer screening and the importance of receiving Pap tests.
PMCID: PMC3090124  PMID: 21603052
4.  Anal Dysplasia Screening 
Executive Summary
This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC. The screening process is now thought to be improved with the addition of testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in high-risk populations. High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection. Human papillomavirus is extremely prevalent, particularly in young, sexually active populations. Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
Anal cancer is rare. It occurs at a rate of about 1 to 2 per 100,000 in the general population. It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men. The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic disease state of long-term immunosuppression. In Ontario, there are about 25,000 people living with HIV infection; more than 6,000 of these are women. About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999. It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it.
Health Technology Description
Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination. Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology. It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions. Abnormal cytological findings are subjected to further evaluations by high-resolution anoscopy, a technique similar to cervical colposcopy, and biopsy. Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains.
Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia. Moreover, there are no formal screening programs provincially, nationally, or internationally. The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups. In Ontario, reimbursement exists only for Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
The scientific evidence base was evaluated through a systematic literature review. Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases Branch, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Cancer Care Ontario; HIV/AIDS researchers; pathology experts; and HIV/AIDS clinical program directors. An Ontario-based budget impact was also done.
No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality. In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia. The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia. All involved hospital-based specialty HIV/AIDS care clinics with mainly HIV-positive males. All studies involved experienced pathologists, so the results generally represent best-case scenarios. Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
In the largest study of HIV-positive males, sensitivity varied from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%–56%) to 69% (95% CI, 60%–78%). Specificity ranged from 59% (95% CI, 53%–65%) to 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%). In the only study of HIV-negative males, sensitivity ranged from 26% (95% CI, 5%-47%) to 47% (95% CI, 26%–68%). Specificity ranged from 81% (95% CI, 76%–85%) to 92% (95% CI, 89%–95%).
In comparison, cervical Pap testing has also been evaluated mainly in settings where there is a high prevalence of the disease, and estimates of sensitivitykij and specificity were also low and highly variable. In a systematic review involving cervical Pap testing, sensitivity ranged from 30% to 87% (mean, 47%) and specificity from 86% to 100% (mean, 95%).
No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity. There are, however, strong parallels with cervical pap testing for cervical cancer. Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer. Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test. In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications. A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.
PMCID: PMC3377578  PMID: 23074504
5.  Low Papanicolaou Smear Screening Rate of Women with HIV Infection: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan, 2000–2010 
Journal of Women's Health  2013;22(12):1016-1022.
Women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of contracting cervical cancer. Recent guidelines recommend that all HIV-positive women should receive two Pap smears in the first year after their HIV diagnosis.
This was a population-based cohort study, and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan was used to estimate the Pap smear screening rate for 1449 HIV-infected women aged 18 years and over from 2000 to 2010. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV-infected women who had received Pap smears.
Of 1449 women, 618 (43%) women received at least one Pap smear. Only 14.7% of the HIV-infected women received Pap smears within one year after being diagnosed with HIV. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors associated with receiving at least one Pap smear after HIV diagnosis were increasing age (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03–1.05), high monthly income (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.51–2.23), any history of antiretroviral therapy (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.38–2.29), retention in HIV care (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04–1.77), a history of sexually transmitted diseases (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.50–2.56), and any history of treatment for opportunistic infections (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.91–3.16).
A great need exists to develop strategies for promoting receipt of Pap smear screening services that specifically target severely disadvantaged women with HIV, particularly younger, lower income women and those in an asymptomatic phase.
PMCID: PMC3852610  PMID: 23992102
6.  Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(2):133-139.
OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the effect of demographic and health care characteristics on Pap smear rates. RESULTS: Overall, 81% (95% confidence interval 79%, 84%) of women in the study sample reported having had a Pap smear within three years. In unadjusted analyses, Pap smear rates differed by ethnicity (p=0.003), with women identified as Haitian having a lower crude Pap smear rate (78%) than women identified as African American (87%), English-speaking Caribbean (88%), or Latina (92%). Women identified as Haitian had a higher rate than women identified as non-Hispanic white (74%). Adjustment for differences in demographic factors known to predict Pap smear acquisition (age, marital status, education level, and household income) only partially accounted for the observed difference in Pap smear rates. However, adjustment for these variables as well as those related to health care access (single site for primary care, health insurance status, and physician gender) eliminated the ethnic difference in Pap smear rates. CONCLUSIONS: The lower crude Pap smear rate for Haitian immigrants relative to other women of color was in part due to differences in (1) utilization of a single source for primary care, (2) health insurance, and (3) care provided by female physicians. Public health programs, such as the cancer prevention programs currently utilized in eastern Massachusetts, may influence these factors. Thus, the relatively high Pap rate among women in this study may reflect the success of these programs. Public health and elected officials will need to consider closely how implementing or withdrawing these programs may impact immigrant and minority communities.
PMCID: PMC1497699  PMID: 15842114
7.  Improving care for women living with HIV: initial outcomes of an integration experience 
Women living with HIV are at higher risk of developing HPV-related diseases. Albeit they are systematically referred for cervical cancer screening, difficulties in obtaining timely appointments are the main barrier for an adequate gynecological care. In our unit, according to a previous survey, 67% of women reported this problem. Therefore, in January 2011 the integration of HIV and gynecological care was sought through the provision of gynecological care within the Infectious Diseases Unit in our hospital.
A weekly specific clinic for women living with HIV cared by HIV and gynecological specialists was implemented. Appointments are given at the HIV clinic, with no need of referral. Pap smear and colposcopy are offered in the same place. Data are collected through standardized forms. Baseline data from the first hundred patients referred are presented.
Ninety-six women were assisted. Median age was 40 years (IQR 36–46.5). Median time from HIV diagnosis was 10.6 years (IQR 4.9–16.4). 82% patients were on HAART. Median CD4 cell count was 473 cells/cc (IQR: 287–614) and 49% had viral load<50. 48% lacked a gynecological control for the last 2 years. 24% had been previously diagnosed and/or treated for HPV-related pathology. Cervical Pap smear results (n=94): 59% were negative; 20% had LGSIL and 2% had HGSIL. Of those diagnosed with SIL, 29% had history of HPV-related lesions. Of note, 23% had infections or inflammatory results. Clinically significant abnormal colposcopies were seen in 21/93 (23%) patients. Of those, 30% were diagnosed SIL in the Pap smear.
Integrating the gynecologist with the ID Unit allowed women living with HIV easier access to gynecological control. The high number of abnormalities in the Pap smears detected in this pilot study reinforces the need of improving cervical cancer screening for prevention and early treatment through integrated approaches.
PMCID: PMC3512433
American journal of public health  2010;100(10):1924-1929.
We conducted a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a cervical cancer control intervention for Vietnamese women.
The study group included 234 women who had not received a Pap test in the last three years. Experimental group participants received a lay health worker home visit. Our trial end-point was Pap smear receipt within six months of randomization. Pap testing completion was ascertained through women's self-reports and medical record reviews. We examined intervention effects among women who had ever received a Pap smear (prior to randomization) and women who had never received a Pap smear.
Three-quarters of the experimental group women completed a home visit. Ever screened experimental group women were significantly more likely to report Pap testing (p<0.02) and have records verified Pap testing (p<0.04) than ever screened control group women. There were no significant differences between the trial arms for women who had never been screened.
Our findings indicate that lay health worker interventions for Vietnamese women are feasible to implement and can positively impact levels of Pap testing use among ever screened women (but not never screened women).
PMCID: PMC2936992  PMID: 20724673
Asian Americans; Cancer; Screening
9.  Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear 
To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.
A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.
The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%).
The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.
PMCID: PMC3302762  PMID: 22423181
cervical; cancer; screening; VIA; Pap smear; colposcopy; sensitivity; specificity; predictive value; primary health care setting
10.  Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study 
Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition.
To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+) among this group of patients.
The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times), and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count <350 cells/μL had a significant correlation with ASCUS+ (P = 0.043). There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level.
There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.
PMCID: PMC3025856  PMID: 21211065
11.  Frequency of Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening in HIV–Infected Women in a County-Based HIV Clinic in the Western United States 
Journal of Women's Health  2010;19(4):709-712.
Women's primary-care services are frequently dispensed to HIV-infected women through HIV specialty clinics. Our objective was to evaluate cervical cancer and breast cancer screening practices in a county-based HIV clinic in San Mateo, California.
This was a retrospective cohort study of medical records of HIV-infected women obtaining HIV care at this site.
Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, 69 women were documented to have at least 12 months of medical care at the clinic. Median followup time was 51 months. Over 253 person-years of followup, there were 656 pap smears performed per 1,000 person-years; 77.9% of women had at least one Pap smear during the study time period. A total of 59.5% (47/79) of normal pap smears had a followup pap smear within 18 months; 62.0% of abnormal pap smears had a followup pap smear within 12 months. A CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3 was associated with not receiving a pap smear in multivariable analysis. Mammogram screening was performed on 64.7% of women aged 40 or older.
Based on the results of this study, the majority of HIV-infected women at this clinic received cervical and breast cancer screening at some point during their care. Only two-thirds of abnormal pap smear results had followup pap smear screening within a year. With the increased risk of cervical cancer in HIV-infected women, efforts should be made to promote cervical cancer screening, particularly in high-risk women.
PMCID: PMC2867552  PMID: 20201703
12.  Disability and Pap Smear Receipt Among U.S. Women, 2000 and 2005 
Sexually experienced women are at risk of cervical cancer, one of the most common female reproductive cancers. Nearly 20% of U.S. women aged 18–64 have a disability, and disability is associated with health care access; however, the relationship between disability and Pap smear receipt remains underexplored.
Data on 20,907 women aged 21–64 from the 2000 and 2005 National Health Interview Surveys were used to investigate the relationship between disability and cervical cancer screening. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between disability and both women's receipt of a Pap smear and their receipt of a doctor's recommendation for a Pap smear in the past year.
Having a disability was negatively associated with Pap smear receipt (odds ratio, 0.6). Compared with women with no disabilities, those with mobility limitations and those with other types of limitations had reduced odds of having received a Pap smear (0.5–0.7). Disability was positively associated with having received a recommendation for a Pap smear (1.2); however, among women who had received a recommendation, those with disabilities had reduced odds of having received a Pap smear (0.5). Among women who had not received a Pap smear, 31% of those with disabilities and 13% of others cited cost or lack of insurance as the primary reason.
The negative relationship between Pap smear receipt and multiple types of disability suggests barriers beyond the human-made physical features of the environment. Efforts to reduce inequalities in reproductive health care access should consider the needs of women with disabilities.
PMCID: PMC4181604  PMID: 21126302
13.  PA03.11. Evaluation of socioeconomic status and other factors with special reference to cervical cancer A survey based study 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S80.
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. It is the third most common type of cancer in women. Cervical cancers start in the cells on the surface of the cervix. Most cervical cancers are from squamous cells. It starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by a Pap smear and is 100% treatable. It can take years for precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou test (also called Pap smear, Pap test, cervical smear, or smear test) is a screening test used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the endocervical canal (transformation zone) of the female reproductive system. The test aims to detect potentially precancerous changes (called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical dysplasia), which are usually caused by sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses. The present study was planned in the direction to evaluate.
In the present work, overall 50 patients of age group between 2050 yrs were selected to study their abnormal pap smear reports in relation to socioeconomic status, smoking, parity, and oral contraceptive and their relationship with abnormal cellular changes. So the patients were randomly selected for Pap smear from IPD or OPD of prasuti tantra and stri roga department of sdmca Hassan.
Out of 50 patients,10 patients belongs to higher class, 20 patients belongs to middle class,10 patients belongs lower middle class and 10 patients belongs to lower class.
Cervical cancer is ranked as the most frequent cancer in women in India. India has a population of approximately 365.71 million women above 15 years of age, who are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Getting regular Pap smears can help detect precancerous changes, which can be treated before they turn into cervical cancer. Pap smears effectively spot such changes, but they must be done regularly. Middle class women are more prone to this disease. PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE.
PMCID: PMC4147555
14.  Rationale and design of the research project of the South Florida Center for the Reduction of Cancer Health Disparities (SUCCESS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15(1):299.
In the United States certain minority groups, such as racial/ethnic immigrant women, are less likely than non-Hispanic White women to be screened for cervical cancer. Barriers to such care include health insurance, cost, knowledge, attitudes, health literacy, and cultural norms and practices. Among the most promising approaches to increase screening in these groups are patient navigators that can link women to sources of appropriate care. Another recent promising approach is using human papilloma virus (HPV) self-sampling. In this manuscript, we describe our National Cancer Institute-sponsored study testing such approaches among immigrant minority women.
The South Florida Center for the Reduction of Cancer Health Disparities (SUCCESS) is conducting a three-arm randomized trial among Hispanic, Haitian, and African American women in Miami-Dade County. Community health workers (CHW) based in each of three communities are recruiting 200 women at each site (600 total). Eligibility criteria include women aged 30–65 years who have not had a Pap smear test in the last 3 years. Prior to randomization, all women undergo a standardized structured interview. Women randomized to public health outreach, Group 1, receive culturally tailored educational materials. Women in Group 2 receive an individualized comprehensive cervical cancer CHW-led education session followed by patient navigation to obtain the Pap smear test at community-based facilities. Women in Group 3 have the option of navigation to a Pap smear test or performing HPV self-sampling. The primary outcome is self-report of completed screening through a Pap smear test or HPV self-sampling within 6 months after enrollment.
SUCCESS is one of the first trials testing HPV self-sampling as a screening strategy among underserved minority women. If successful, HPV self-sampling may be an important option in community outreach programs aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer.
Trial registration
Clinical # NCT02121548, registered April 21, 2014.
PMCID: PMC4127186  PMID: 25056208
Cervical cancer; Community-based participatory research; Haitian; Health disparities; Hispanic; Human papilloma virus; Immigrant; Minority; Screening
15.  Impact of patient adherence and test performance on the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in developing countries: the case of Honduras 
We examined the impact of patient adherence and screening test performance on the cost-effectiveness of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Pap smears when used with colposcopy for diagnosis.
Materials and Methods
Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using computer modeling. The primary outcome was cancer prevalence in the ten years following screening. Three hypothetical populations of 35-year-old women were compared: never-screened women, women screened with VIA, and women screened with Pap smears. We used community-based data from our screening program in Honduras to estimate screening test sensitivity and specificity, adherence to follow-up, and costs of screening and colposcopy services. Published data were used to model disease outcomes.
VIA was more sensitive than Pap smears (70% vs. 4%), less expensive (U.S. $0.23 vs. $3.17), and the 2-vist VIA system had a higher rate of adherence to follow-up than the 3-visit Pap smear system (84% vs. 38%). VIA had a higher false positive rate than Pap smears resulting in higher colposcopy referral rates, but more dysplasia was detected and treated. Cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that screening with VIA would cost U.S. $3,198 per cancer case avoided and reduce cancer cases by 42%, versus U.S. $36,802 and 2% for Pap screening. Although Pap smear quality was low in Honduras, sensitivity analysis showed that VIA was more cost-effective than Pap smears even when test accuracy was equivalent.
In developing countries, systems barriers can limit the cost-effectiveness of Pap smears. VIA may be a cost-effective alternative for some resource-poor settings, although systems barriers, quality control and feasibility issues must be considered.
PMCID: PMC2818139  PMID: 19944623
16.  Prevalence and Predictors of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Spanish Women With Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(8):1470-1472.
To examine the use of mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among women with diabetes and to identify predictors of adherence to these tests.
We analyzed data of a nationally representative sample of Spanish women. Diabetes status was self-reported. Screenings were assessed asking whether they had a mammography (≥40 years) and a Pap smear (18–69 years) within the previous 2 and 3 years, respectively.
Women with diabetes were less likely to receive mammography (57.9%) or have a Pap smear (61.5%) than women without diabetes (mammography 61.9%, P < 0.05; Pap smear 65.6%, P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, educational level, income, comorbidity, tobacco use, obesity, and physician visits, the corresponding odds ratios remained significant (0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.97) and (0.82, 95% CI 0.66–0.98). Higher educational level was a positive predictor for both tests among diabetic women.
Spanish women with diabetes underuse breast and cervical cancer screening tests.
PMCID: PMC2713643  PMID: 19470840
17.  Comparison of Conventional Cervical Cytology versus Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) among HIV-Infected Women in Western Kenya 
To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) versus conventional Pap smear as a screening tool for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/cancer among HIV-infected women.
Materials and Methods
150 HIV-infected women attending the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital HIV clinic in Eldoret underwent conventional Pap smear, VIA, colposcopy and biopsy. VIA and Pap smears were done by nurses while colposcopy and biopsy were done by a physician. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to compare the accuracies between VIA and Pap smear in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV).
Among the study participants: VIA was abnormal in 55.3% (83/150, CI=47.0–63.5%); Pap smear showed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse in 43.7% (59/135, CI=35.2–52.5%) and 10% (15/150) of the Pap smears were unsatisfactory. Of the abnormal Pap smears, 3% (2/59) had ASCUS, 7% (4/59) had ASC-high grade, 60% (35/59) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), 29% (17/59) had high grade SIL, and 2% (1/59) was suspicious for cervical cancer. Using cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or higher disease on biopsy as an end point, VIA has a sensitivity of 69.6% (CI=55.1–81.0%), specificity of 51.0% (CI=41.5–60.4%), PPV of 38.6% (CI=28.8–49.3%) and NPV of 79.1% (CI=67.8–87.2%). For conventional Pap smear, sensitivity was 52.5% (CI=42.1–71.5%), specificity 66.3% (CI=52.0–71.2%), PPV 39.7% (CI=27.6–51.8%), and NPV 76.8% (CI=67.0–85.6%).
VIA is comparable to Pap smear and acceptable for screening HIV-infected women in resource limited settings such as Western Kenya.
PMCID: PMC3289722  PMID: 22126834
Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA); Pap smear; Kenya; HIV
18.  Utilization of Papanicolaou Smears by South Asian Women Living in the United States 
Papanicolaou (Pap) smears are an underutilized screening modality among racial and ethnic minorities. However, no data exist on Pap smear utilization among South Asians, a rapidly growing population in the United States, whose country of origin includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. We determined rates and identified variables associated with Pap smear receipt by South Asians.
A self-administered survey instrument was mailed to a random sample of South Asians nationwide over a 3-month time period. South Asian households were identified by surnames that were used to search white pages in telephone directories, Department of Motor Vehicle records, and voter registries. Questions regarding Pap smear receipt were taken from the 1999 National Health Interview Survey. Sociodemographic information and measures of acculturation were obtained.
A nationwide nonprobability sample of South Asian women.
Cross-sectional observational study.
The overall response rate was 42%. In this sample, South Asians belonged to a high socioeconomic strata (SES), with 45% having a household income of >$80,000 and 42% having a master's degree. Three quarters of the respondents (73%) reported having a Pap smear in the last 3 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, South Asian women had greater odds of having had a Pap smear if they were married (P < .001), more educated (P = .004), had a usual source of care (P = .002), and were more acculturated (P = .004).
Despite the high SES of South Asian women, their rates of Pap smear receipt were lower than national recommendations. Marital status, socioeconomic status, and acculturation are all associated with Pap smear receipt. South Asian communities should be targeted for outreach to promote Pap smear utilization.
PMCID: PMC1494856  PMID: 12795737
Pap smear; cervical cancer screening; South Asians; utilization
19.  Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study 
Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC). Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme.
Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively.
69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4). As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8%) with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3%) in non-pregnant.
Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the CC screening programme. The contribution of the antepartum Pap smear to "over-screening" exists but its effect is modest in countries where women on average become pregnant after the start of recommended age of screening.
PMCID: PMC1790705  PMID: 17244348
20.  Cervical Cancer Screening in the Urgent Care Setting 
To determine the feasibility of cervical cancer screening in an urgent care clinic.
Prospective randomized trial.
Public teaching hospital.
Women presenting to the urgent care clinic whose evaluation necessitated a pelvic examination were eligible for participation. Women who had a hysterectomy, had a documented Pap test at our institution in the past year, did not speak English or Spanish, or had significant vaginal bleeding were excluded. Women presenting to the gynecology clinic for a scheduled Pap test were used as a comparison group for rates of follow-up, Pap smear adequacy, and Pap smear abnormalities.
Women randomized to the intervention group had a Pap test performed as part of their pelvic examination, while women in the usual care group were encouraged to schedule an appointment in the gynecology clinic at a later date. The women in the two groups completed identical questionnaires regarding cervical cancer risk factors and demographic information.
Ninety-four (84.7%) of 111 women in the intervention group received a Pap test, as compared with 25 (29%) of 86 in the usual care group (P < .01). However, only 5 (24%) of 21 women with abnormal Pap smears in the intervention group received follow-up compared with 6 (60%) of 10 women seen during the same time period in the gynecology clinic for self-referred, routine annual examinations (P = .11). Pap smears obtained in the urgent care clinic were similar to those in the gynecology clinic with regard to abnormality rate (22.3% vs 20%; P = .75, respectively) and specimen adequacy (67% vs 72%; P = .54, respectively).
Urgent care clinic visits can be used as opportunities to perform Pap test screening in women who are unlikely to adhere to cervical cancer screening recommendations. However, to accrue the full potential benefit from this intervention, an improved process to ensure patient follow-up must be developed.
PMCID: PMC1495471  PMID: 10886473
cervical cancer screening; urgent care clinic; Pap smears
21.  Health insurance and cervical cancer screening among older women in Latin American and Caribbean cities 
Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use for cervical cancer screening and to estimate its association with type of health care insurance.
Methods A cross-sectional study using data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE). The sample includes 6357 women aged 60 and older from seven cities. The outcome was reporting a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening during the previous 2 years. Main independent variable was health care insurance. Covariates were demographic or socioeconomic variables, medical conditions and functional status.
Results Prevalence of Pap smear use across the seven cities ranged from 21% in Bridgetown to 45% in Mexico City. In a multivariate analysis of the combined sample, without Havana that has universal health care insurance, women with public insurance (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.71) or with no insurance (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.34) were less likely to have a Pap smear compared with women with private insurance. Also, women with no insurance were less likely to have a Pap smear (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30–0.54) compared with women with any health insurance.
Conclusions In general, the prevalence of Pap smear use was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the United States. Overall, lack of health insurance or having public health insurance determined lower odds for having a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening.
PMCID: PMC4110445  PMID: 18511488
Older women; cancer screening; Latin America and Caribbean; health insurance; Pap smear
22.  Determinants of sexual habits in Italian females. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1992;68(6):394-398.
OBJECTIVE--To identify characteristics of women reporting multiple sexual partners and early age at first intercourse in Italy. METHOD--Information on 1139 control women (median age 54 years) interviewed as part of a case-control study of cervical neoplasia conducted in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy were analysed using stratified analysis and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS--Overall, 81% of the study sample reported no more than one sexual partner, 10% two and 9% three or more. The proportion reporting multiple sexual partners tended to be higher among younger and more educated women (4% vs 19% of women with respectively less than 7 and 12 or more years of education reported three or more partners). Ever smokers reported a higher number of sexual partners than never smokers. The proportion of nulliparae reporting three or more sexual partners was higher than that of parous women. These findings were confirmed after taking into account in a multivariate analysis the role of potential confounding factors. Furthermore similar findings emerged from an analysis restricted to women aged 40 years or less. Always considering number of sexual partners, no relationship emerged with marital status, spontaneous or induced abortions, lifetime number of reported Pap smears and contraceptive habits. With reference to age at first intercourse, 25% of the study population reported their first intercourse at age 18 or before, 34% between 19 and 22 years, and 41% at age 23 or later. Younger women (that is, more recent cohorts) more frequently reported earlier age at first intercourse and the proportion of never married women reporting early intercourse was higher (51% vs 22% of never married vs married women). No relationship emerged between education, smoking habits, parity, history of spontaneous or induced abortions, number of Pap smears, contraceptive habits, and age at first intercourse. CONCLUSION--This study documents conservative sexual habits in Northern Italian females (at least on the basis of self reporting) but indicates that any educational compaigns towards safe sex should be focused towards younger women, particularly smokers, unmarried and nulliparae.
PMCID: PMC1194978  PMID: 1487262
23.  Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda 
Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital.
In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques), attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening.
Response rate was 92% (285). Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear.
Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.
PMCID: PMC1413529  PMID: 16509979
24.  Complementary Procedures in Cervical Cancer Screening in Low Resource Settings 
To evaluate the efficacy of pap smear, HPV DNA testing and colposcopy and to determine the approach for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.
Eight hundred non pregnant married women above 30 years of age were studied and subjected to pap smear examination. Hysterectomised women were excluded from the study. Selected patients were followed by HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II method, colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV), Negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy and kappa value (k) were calculated for each screening test.
Out of eight hundred women with mean age 36.5 ± 5.94 years undergoing pap smear, ASCUS was found in 66(8.25%), ASC-H in 2(0.25%), LSIL in 48(6%), HSIL in 8(1%), inflammatory in 540(67.5%). Out of 260 women who underwent HPV DNA testing, 120 (46.15%) had abnormal cytology and/or positive HPV DNA test (Group I, n = 120) and 140(53.8%) had dual negative results (Group II, n = 140) HPV DNA test was found positive in 64 women (53.3%) in Group I. Sensitivity and specificity of pap smear was 69.2 and 63.72% while for HPV DNA testing was 92.3 and 84% respectively. PPV and NPV of pap smear, HPV DNA testing and colposcopy was 18, 40, 76.4% and 94.7, 98.9, 100% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of pap smear (k = 0.14), HPV DNA test (k = 0.70) and colposcopy (k = 0.81) was 64.29, 84.9, and 96.8% respectively. Combining pap smear & HPV DNA testing (k = 0.25) increased the sensitivity and NPV to 100%.
Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of HPV DNA test is more than that of pap smear and the test is not influenced by inflammatory conditions of vagina. In low resource settings, women with ASCUS and LSIL on cervical cytology should be subjected to HPV DNA test and only if found positive should be referred for colposcopy thereby reducing colposcopy referrals. Women with HSIL should be directly subjected to colposcopy guided biopsy. Using this approach, most of the preinvasive cervical lesion will be detected but few cases will still be missed among inflammatory smears, if HPV DNA testing is not supplemented.
PMCID: PMC3295876  PMID: 22851828
HPV testing; Pap smear; Cervical cancer
25.  Cervical cytological changes in HIV-infected patients attending care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 
Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan countries mostly affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, females being more vulnerable than males. HIV infected women appear to have a higher rate of persistent infection by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) strongly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical carcinoma. Furthermore, although HIV infection and cervical cancer are major public health problems, the frequency and HIV/HPV association of cervical cancer and HSIL is not well documented in Tanzania, thus limiting the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
A prospective unmatched, case-control study of HIV-seropositive, ≥ 18 years of age and consenting non-pregnant patients attending the care and treatment center (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hoospital (MNH) as cases was done between 2005 and 2006. HIV seronegative, non-pregnant and consenting women recruited from the Cervical Cancer Screening unit (CCSU) at ORCI were used as controls while those who did not consent to study participation and/or individuals under < 18 years were excluded. Pap smears were collected for routine cytodiagnosis and P53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cervical lesions were classified according to the Modified Bethesda System.
A total of 170 participants from the two centers were recruited including 50 HIV-seronegative controls were from the CCSU. Ages ranged from 20-66 years (mean 40.5 years) for cases and 20-69 years (mean 41.6 years) for controls. The age group 36-45 years was the most affected by HIV (39.2%, n = 47). Cervicitis, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and carcinoma constituted 28.3% (n = 34), 38.3% (n = 46) and 5.8% (n = 7) respectively among cases, and 28% (n = 14), 34% (n = 17) and 2% (n = 1) for controls, although this was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.61). IHC showed that p53 was not detectable in HPV + Pap smears and cell blocks indicating possible degradation.
The frequency of SIL and carcinoma appeared to be higher among HIV-infected women on HAART compared to seronegative controls and as expected increased with age. HIV seropositive patients appeared to present earlier with SIL compared to those HIV seronegative suggesting a role of HIV in altering the natural history of HPV infection and cervical lesions. The absence of p53 immunoreactivity in HPV + lesions is indicative of the ability of HPV E6 proteins to interact with the tumor suppressor gene and pave way for viral-induced oncogenesis in the studied Tanzanian women.
PMCID: PMC3298791  PMID: 22335893

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