Currently, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing (PIHT) in health facilities is one of the strategies to advance HIV testing and related services. However, many HIV infected clients are missing the opportunities. This study intends to identify predictors of refusal of PIHT among clients visiting adult outpatient departments (OPDs) in Jimma town.
An unmatched case control study was conducted among 296 clients: 149 cases refusing HIV testing and 147 controls accepting HIV testing. The study recruited clients from OPDs of four public health facilities between March 6 and April 8, 2011 using consecutive sampling. The study instrument was adapted mainly considering health belief model (HBM). Jimma University ethical committee reviewed the study protocol. Data were collected by face-to-face interview and analyzed using SPSS Statistics (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY) software, version 16.0. Data were subjected to factor and reliability analysis. For prediction analysis, the study used logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). To see the effects among HBM constructs, the study used standardized beta (β) coefficients at P < 0.05.
The study findings showed adjusted protective effects on refusal of PIHT for residence outside study town [adjusted OR (AOR) (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.22–0.79)] and higher scores of perceived benefit of early testing [AOR (95% CI)] = 0.86 (0.69–0.99)], self efficacy to live with HIV [AOR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.66–0.93)], nondisclosure agreement [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.58–0.93)], perceived explicitness of opt-out right during initiation [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.56–0.98)] and clients’ perceptions of selective initiation of HIV suspected [AOR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.41–0.73)]. On the other hand, report of recent testing [AOR (95% CI) = 3.82 (1.71–8.55)] and perceived unpreparedness for testing [AOR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.57–2.21)] aggravated refusal of PIHT. Exposure to cues to testing significantly reduced perceived barriers [β (P) = −0.05 (0.037)].
Clients’ perceived barriers: feeling of unpreparedness for testing strongly aggravated refusal of test. Enhanced self-efficacy to live with HIV and presence of cues to HIV testing would reduce unpreparedness and protect from refusing PIHT.
HIV testing; provider-initiated; acceptance
Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is one of the major health problems in Ethiopia. The national TB and HIV control guideline in Ethiopia recommends provider initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) as a routine care for TB patients. However, the impact of this approach on the treatment seeking of TB patients has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed knowledge of TB and HIV, and perception about PITC among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia.
In a health facilities based cross-sectional study, a total of 415 study participants were interviewed about knowledge of TB and HIV as well as the impact of HIV testing on their treatment seeking behavior using a semi-structured questionnaires.
Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the association of distance > 10 km from health facility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.97, P=0.042] with low knowledge of TB. Distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06 -0.23, P < 0.001) was also associated with low knowledge of HIV testing. Delay in treatment seeking was associated with female participants (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05-0.25, <0.001), single marital status (AOR =0.001, 95% CI: 0.00 - 0.01, P< 0.001) and distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.75, P=0.002). Most of the study participants (70%) believed that there is no association between TB and HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, two thirds (66.5%) of the participants thought that HIV testing has importance for TB patients. However, the majority (81.6%) of the study participants in the age category less than 21 years believed that fear of PITC could cause delay in treatment seeking.
The study showed the association of low knowledge of the study participants about TB and HIV testing with distance > 10 km from health facility. Study participants in the age category less than 21 years thought that fear of PITC could cause treatment delay of TB patients. Hence, emphasis should be given to improve knowledge of TB and HIV among residents far away from health facility, and attention also needs to be given to improve the perception of individuals in the age group less than 21 years about PITC in the present study area.
The acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB) is low in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of acceptance of HIV testing among patients with TB in North Ethiopia.
A case control study was conducted in eight randomly selected health facilities in North Ethiopia from February 5 to March 11, 2009. A total of 282 participants (188 controls and 94 cases) were included in the study. Cases were TB patients who refused to be tested for HIV. We used quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. For the quantitative survey, cases and controls were interviewed by trained nurses using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 nurse counselors and 15 TB patients. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 16.0 statistical software.
The uptake of HIV testing among TB patients in the study health facilities was 70.6%. The rate of TB/HIV co-infection in those who were tested was 36.2%. From the source population, a total of 282 participants were included in the study. TB patients who had formal education [OR = 2.35, (95%CI: 1.33, 4.13)], high awareness about the benefits of HIV counseling and testing [OR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.77, 5.50)], and a low stigmatized attitude [OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 1.79, 5.59)] were more likely to accept HIV testing. The qualitative study also revealed that low awareness and stigma were the major reasons for non-acceptance of HIV testing.
“Knowledge and attitude” factors were the major barriers for HIV testing. Tailored training should be given to TB patients and the community concerning the benefits of HIV testing. During counseling sessions, health workers should focus on barriers of uptake of HIV testing such as stigma and discrimination.
Although the benefits of identifying and treating asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals are firmly established, health care providers often miss opportunities to offer HIV-testing.
To evaluate whether a multi-component intervention increases the rate of HIV diagnostic testing.
Pre- to post-quasi-experiment in 5 Veterans Health Administration facilities. Two facilities received the intervention; the other three facilities were controls. The intervention included a real-time electronic clinical reminder that encourages HIV testing, and feedback reports and a provider activation program.
Persons receiving health care between August 2004 and September 2006 who were at risk but had not been previously tested for HIV infection
Pre- to post-changes in the rates of HIV testing at the intervention and control facilities
At the two intervention sites, the adjusted rate of testing increased from 4.8% to 10.8% and from 5.5% to 12.8% (both comparisons, p < .001). In addition, there were 15 new diagnoses of HIV in the pre-intervention year (0.46% of all tests) versus 30 new diagnoses in the post-intervention year (0.45% of all tests). No changes were observed at the control facilities.
Use of clinical reminders and provider feedback, activation, and social marketing increased the frequency of HIV testing and the number of new HIV diagnoses. These findings support a multimodal approach toward achieving the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s goal of having every American know their HIV status as a matter of routine clinical practice.
diagnosis; HIV testing; quality improvement
The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services.
Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility.
Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers.
Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.
HIV counseling and testing is an important intervention in the prevention, control and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Counseling and testing can be an entry point for prevention, care and support. Knowledge of the quality of services and motivations for testing by individuals is important for effective understanding of the testing environment.
A cross sectional explorative study of clients accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and counselors was conducted in 6 government health centers in Blantyre City, Malawi. We aimed to assess the availability of critical clinic supplies and identify the motivations of clients seeking counseling and testing services. We also aimed to identify the health professional cadres that were providing VCT in Blantyre city.
102 VCT clients and 26 VCT counselors were interviewed. Among the VCT clients, 74% were <=29 years, 58.8% were females and only 7% reported no formal education. 42.2% were single, 45.1% married, 8.8% widowed and 3.9% divorced or separated. The primary reasons for seeking HIV counseling and testing were: recent knowledge about HIV (31.4%), current illness (22.5%), self-assessment of own behavior as risky (15.5%), suspecting sexual partner's infidelity (13.7%) and seeking HIV confirmatory test (9.8%) and other reasons (6.9%). Of the 26 VCT counselors, 14 were lay volunteers, 7 health surveillance assistants and 5 nurses. All except one had been trained specifically for HIV counseling and testing. All 6 facilities were conducting rapid HIV testing with same day test results provided to clients. Most of the supplies were considered adequate for testing.
HIV counseling and testing facilities were available in Blantyre city in all the six public health facilities assessed. The majority of counseling and testing clients were motivated by perceptions of being at risk of HIV infection. In a country with 12% of individuals 15 to 49 years infected, there is need to encourage testing among population groups that may not perceive themselves to be at risk of infection.
To provide evidence of large numbers of missed opportunities for early HIV diagnosis we designed a retrospective cohort study linking surveillance data from the South Carolina HIV/AIDS Reporting System to a statewide all payer health care database. We determined visits and diagnoses occurring before the date of the first positive HIV test and medical encounters were categorized to distinguish visits that were likely versus unlikely to have prompted an HIV test. Of the 4117 HIV-positive individuals newly diagnosed between 2001 and 2005, 3021 (73.4%) visited a South Carolina health care facility one or more times prior to testing HIV positive. Of these 3021, 1311 (43.4%) were late testers, and 1425 (47.2%) were early testers. Females were less likely than males to be late testers (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–0.68), blacks were more likely than whites to be late testers (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10–1.71), and persons 50 years of age and older more likely to be late testers (OR 7.16, 95% CI 3.84–13.37). A total of 78.8% of the 13,448 health care visits for both late and early testers were for health care diagnoses unlikely to prompt an HIV test. These findings underscore the need for more routine HIV testing of adults and adolescents visiting health care facilities in order to facilitate early diagnosis.
Approaches to HIV counselling and testing (HCT) within low-resource high HIV prevalence settings have shifted over the years from primarily client-initiated approaches to provider initiated. As part of an ongoing programme science research agenda, we examine the relative costs of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) services compared with voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services in the same health facilities in two low-resource settings: Kenya and Swaziland.
Annual financial and economic costs and output measures were collected retrospectively from 28 health facilities. Total annual costs and average costs per client counselled and tested (C&T), and HIV-positive clients identified, were estimated.
VCT remains the predominant mode of HCT service delivery across both countries. However, unit cost per client C&T and per person testing HIV positive is lower for PITC than VCT across all facility types in Kenya, but the picture is mixed in Swaziland. Average cost per client C&T ranged from US$4.81 to US$6.11 in Kenya, US$6.92 to US$13.51 in Swaziland for PITC, and from US$5.05 to US$16.05 and US$8.68 to US$19.32 for VCT in Kenya and Swaziland, respectively.
In the context of significant policy interest in optimising scarce HIV resources, this study demonstrates that there may be potential for substantial gains in efficiency in the provision of HCT services in both Kenya and Swaziland. However, considerations of how to deliver services efficiently need to be informed by local contextual factors, such as prevalence, service demand and availability of human resources.
Programme science; efficiency; health service integration; HTC; sub-Saharan Africa
The United Nations is committed to achieving universal access to HIV care, treatment, and prevention. Although the gateway to HIV care and secondary prevention is knowledge of serostatus, use of voluntary counseling and testing in resource-limited settings with the highest burden of HIV/AIDS has been limited. Based on evidence of increased patient uptake and the opportunity to avoid missed HIV testing opportunities in health care facilities, in 2007 the World Health Organization recommended provider-initiated HIV testing as a standard part of medical care in settings of generalized HIV epidemics. While provider-initiated testing has shown promise, optimal implementation strategies which ensure broad coverage, while preserving human rights, remain an active area of research. We review the benefits of knowledge of HIV serostatus and evidence from multiple countries surrounding the successes and pitfalls of provider-initiated testing in health care and home-based settings.
HIV; routine HIV testing; resource-limited settings; review
Arguably one of the most marginalized populations in our society, prisoners bear a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV. In addition, groups known to be at an inordinately higher risk of HIV, including minorities, the addicted, the mentally ill and the impoverished are overrepresented among incarcerated populations. This concentration of HIV among groups that have been historically difficult to reach, with limited intersections with healthcare, provides an opportunity for testing, diagnosis, treatment, linkage to care and prevention. Providing HIV care within correctional facilities poses unique challenges. Barriers to confidentiality, access to medication and prior records, and lack of comprehensive discharge planning can serve as obstacles to providing optimal care. This article discusses the public health implications and importance of providing HIV care to prisoners, and also discusses the practicalities of working within an environment that poses particular barriers to care.
addiction; AIDS; corrections; HIV; incarceration; jail; marginalized populations; opiate agonist treatment; prison; prisoners
Ethiopia has had mechanisms for TB/HIV collaborative activities since 2002. However, no published account has defined the role of these collaborative efforts in strengthening linkages between HIV and TB management units at the point-of-care level. Our objective was to assess the extent of linkages between the two programs at the patient management level at Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Between January and December 2008, the registers of 241 TB patients were reviewed to determine the HIV testing rate, the treatment charts of 238 randomly selected patients were reviewed for providers' compliance with evaluation criteria, and exit interviews were conducted with 309 TB/HIV co-infected clients to validate providers' compliance.
From register review, it was determined that the HIV testing acceptance rate was 95%, and that 70% of patients received post-test counseling. A review of the patient chart revealed that of 51 patients with a complaint of cough, duration for cough was recorded in 35 (68.6%) cases and cough > 2 weeks was recorded in 25 (49.0%) cases. Seventy two percent (18 of 25) were linked for sputum microscopy. Linkage to cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment was 81%, but only 47% of eligible patients were linked to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Correct diagnosis was accomplished at a rate of 100% for smear positive pulmonary TB, 23% for smear negative pulmonary TB and 88% for extra pulmonary TB patients. Both chart review and exit interviews indicated that history of TB contact and cough > 2 weeks predicted TB disease.
The rates of HIV testing and linkage to cotrimoxazole prophylactic therapy were high. Improvement is needed in the areas of recording patient information, screening HIV positives for TB, initiation of IPT, referral, linkages, and TB diagnostic capacity.
Few studies have examined associations between access to health care and childhood vaccine coverage in remote communities that lack motorised transport. This study assessed whether travel time to health facilities was associated with childhood vaccine coverage in a remote area of Ethiopia.
This was a cross-sectional study using data from 775 children aged 12–59 months who participated in a household survey between January –July 2010 in Dabat district, north-western Ethiopia. 208 households were randomly selected from each kebele. All children in a household were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 12–59 months at the time of data collection. Travel time to vaccine providers was collected using a geographical information system (GIS). The primary outcome was the percentage of children in the study population who were vaccinated with the third infant Pentavalent vaccine ([Diphtheria, Tetanus,-Pertussis Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b] Penta3) in the five years before the survey. We also assessed effects on BCG, Penta1, Penta2 and Measles vaccines. Analysis was conducted using Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation and the Wald test.
Missing vaccination data ranged from 4.6% (36/775) for BCG to 16.4% (127/775) for Penta3 vaccine. In children with complete vaccination records, BCG vaccine had the highest coverage (97.3% [719/739]), Penta3 coverage was (92.9% [602/648]) and Measles vaccine had the lowest coverage (81.7% [564/690]). Children living ≥60mins from a health post were significantly less likely (adjRR = 0.85 [0.79-0.92] p value < =0.001) to receive Penta3 vaccine compared to children living <30mins from a health post. This effect was not modified by household wealth (p value = 0.240). Travel time also had a highly significant association with BCG (adjRR = 0.95 [0.93-0.98] p value =0.002) and Measles (adjRR = 0.88 [0.79-0.97] p value =0.027) vaccine coverage.
Travel time to vaccine providers in health posts appeared to be a barrier to the delivery of infant vaccines in this remote Ethiopian community. New vaccine delivery strategies are needed for the hardest to reach children in the African region.
Partner counseling and referral services (PCRS) provide a unique opportunity to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by notifying sex and drug-injection partners of HIV-infected individuals of their exposure to HIV. We incorporated rapid HIV testing into PCRS to reduce barriers associated with conventional HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infection within this high-risk population.
From April 2004 through June 2006, HIV-infected people (index clients) were interviewed, and their partners were notified of their potential exposure to HIV and offered rapid HIV testing at six sites in the United States. The numbers of index clients participating and the numbers of partners interviewed and tested were compared by site. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed.
A total of 2,678 index clients were identified, of whom 779 (29%) provided partner locating information. A total of 1,048 partners were elicited, of whom 463 (44%) were both interviewed and tested for HIV. Thirty-seven partners (8%) were newly diagnosed with HIV. The number of index clients interviewed to identify one partner with newly diagnosed HIV infection ranged from 10 to 137 at the participating sites.
PCRS provides testing and prevention services to people at high risk for HIV infection. Incorporating rapid HIV testing into PCRS and identifying previously undiagnosed infections likely confer individual and public health benefits. Further evaluation is needed to determine the best methods of identifying partners with previously unrecognized HIV infection.
Detection of maternal HIV infection early in pregnancy is critical for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most efforts have focused on VCT as the primary means of encouraging people to become aware of their HIV status. However, its uptake is low in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling provides a critical opportunity to diagnose HIV infection, to begin chronic care, and to prevent mother to child transmission. However, little is known about its acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women in the country and particularly in the present study area.
Health institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2010. A total of 400 pregnant women were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique and multiple logistic regression analysis was employed using SPSS version 16.
A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 330 (82.5%) of them accepted provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling to be tested for HIV and 70(17.5%) of them refused. Acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling was positively associated with greater number of antenatal care visits [Adj. OR (95%CI)=2.64(1.17, 5.95)], residing in the urban areas[Adj. OR (95%CI)=2.85(1.10, 7.41)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI)=4.30(1.72, 10.73)], positive partners reaction for HIV positive result [Adj. OR (95%CI)=8.19(3.57, 18.80)] and having knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV[Adj. OR (95%CI)=3.27(1.34, 7.94)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age and education level.
Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care was relatively high among pregnant women in Gondar town. Couple counseling and HIV testing should be strengthened to promote provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among male partners and to reduce HIV related violence of women from their partner and access to and consistent use of antenatal care should be improved to increase the uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling service.
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of missed opportunities for addressing reproductive and mental health needs during patients’ visits to primary healthcare facilities.
We selected a random sample of participants from 14 of the 49 clinics in Cape Town’s public health sector using stratified, cluster random sampling (n = 2618). Participants were screened to identify those at risk for unsafe sexual behaviour and a mental disorder (specifically substance use, depression, anxiety, and suicide). Information pertaining to whether or not respondents were asked about these issues during clinic visits during the previous year was elicited. The rates and correlates of missed opportunities for providing reproductive and mental health interventions were calculated.
The criteria of a strict definition of a missed opportunity for reproductive or mental health care information were fulfilled by 25% of the sample, while 46% met criteria for a looser definition. After adjusting for the effects of other variables in the model, men and Coloured respondents were more likely to have satisfied the definition of a missed opportunity for an intervention, while having completed high school and having children increased the likelihood of receiving an intervention.
Consultations with primary healthcare providers in which these issues are not discussed may represent missed opportunities. Persons presenting for routine care can be counselled, screened and, if required, treated. Interventions are needed at the patient, provider, and community levels to increase the opportunities to provide reproductive and mental health care to patients during routine visits.
missed opportunities; primary care; South Africa
Late diagnosis is an important cause of HIV-related morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs in the UK and undiagnosed infection limits efforts to reduce transmission. National guidelines provide recommendations to increase HIV testing in all healthcare settings. We evaluated progress towards these recommendations by comparing missed opportunities for HIV testing and late diagnosis in two six year cohorts from North East Scotland.
We reviewed diagnostic pathways of all patients newly diagnosed with HIV referred to infectious diseases and genito-urinary medicine services between 1995 and 2000 (n = 48) and 2004 to 2009 (n = 117). Missed presentations (failure to diagnose ≤ 1 month of a clinical or non-clinical indicator for testing), late diagnosis (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3), and time to diagnosis (months from first presentation to diagnosis) were compared between cohorts using χ2 and log-rank tests. Determinants of missed presentation were explored by multivariate logistic regression. Breslow-Day tests assessed change in diagnostic performance by patient subgroup.
There were significant decreases in missed presentations (33% to 17%; P = 0.02) and time to diagnosis (mean 17 months to 4 months; P = 0.005) but not in late diagnosis (56% vs. 60%; P = 0.57) between earlier and later cohorts. In the later cohort patients were significantly more likely to have acquired HIV abroad and presented with early HIV disease, and testing was more likely to be indicated by transmission risk or contact with GUM services than by clinical presentation. Missed presentation remained significantly less likely in the later cohort (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.72; P = 0.008) after adjustment for age, transmission risks and number of clinical indicators. Reductions in missed presentation were greater in patients < 40 years, of non-UK origin, living in least deprived neighbourhoods and with early disease at presentation (P < 0.05). 27% of missed presentations occurred in primary care and 46% in general secondary care.
While early diagnosis has improved in epidemiological risk groups, clinical indications for HIV testing continue to be missed, particularly in patients who are older, of UK origin and from more deprived communities. Increasing testing in non-specialist services is a priority.
HIV; Cohort studies; Delayed diagnosis; Adult
A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government.
This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis.
Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2].
The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise the clinical care procedures at each facility (Phase 2). 6) To determine principle cost drivers including staff, overhead and laboratory costs (Phase 2).
This novel mixed methods protocol will permit transparent presentation of subsequent dataset results publication, and offers a substantive model of protocol design to measure and integrate key activities and outcomes that underpin a public health approach to disease management in a low-income setting.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a very important mode of HIV transmission for children. Well-functioning and accessible health facility and knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV are a prerequisite for a successful mother to child transmission prevention of HIV. However, the determinant factors of pregnant mothers’ knowledge towards mother to child transmission of HIV and its prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area.
Cross-sectional health institution based study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2011. A total of 400 pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and multiple logistic regression analysis was used.
A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 354 (88.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV and 334(83.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV is preventable. Having knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with attending antenatal care visits in hospitals [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 4.49 (1.003, 20.06)], residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.46 (1.19, 5.09)] and having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.85 (1.96, 24.01)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age. Knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with accessibility of health facility [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.16 (1.03, 4.57)], having perceived risk of HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.61 (1.32, 5.17)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.86 (1.41, 5.82)], having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.15 (1.75, 21.66)] and residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 3.62 (1.73, 7.59)] but negatively associated with increased maternal age.
Most of the study participants in this study knew that HIV could be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby. There should be well functioning and accessible health facilities with Prevention of mother to child transmission service in the country especially in the rural areas.
Although adoption and utilization of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is a cost effective public health intervention, it is inconsistently offered or referred out for by outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT) programs where at-risk racial/ethnic and sexual minorities receive services.
We explored the organizational adoption and client utilization of STI testing using a nationally representative sample of OSAT facilities in the U.S. in 2005 (N=566). Data missing at random was imputed and the resulting database was analyzed using multivariate Tobit and logistic regressions.
The analyses suggest that private non-profit facilities, which are the largest providers of OSAT treatment are less likely than public facilities to offer STI testing or to report adequate client utilization rates. Higher utilization was instead associated with professionally accredited facilities, and with facilities whose majority of clients were Latino/a, reported a history of treatment, stayed in treatment longer, or received case management.
While OSAT facilities are poised to be primary intervention points for diagnosis and treatment of STIs, only a segment of these facilities provide this preventive practice or manage to refer clients out. As such, U.S. health care policy should ensure the adoption and comprehensive utilization, particularly among high risk clients, of this cost-effective prevention strategy in OSAT admission protocols.
Sexually transmitted infections; adoption; utilization; high risk populations; outpatient substance abuse treatment and regulation
Coverage assessment of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) service is useful to measures the health system effort or performance of health service delivery function and to influence decisions. The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities of Jimma Zone.
Health institution based cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study on health facilities that provide voluntary Counseling and testing services.
The over all HIV/AIDS service package indicators availability coverage were 45.5% across the zone. The over all coverage for target population were 1.3%. The primary health care centers served only 18% of total registered Voluntary Counseling and Testing service users. Out of total positive serostatus clients, only 5% received condom. The coverage for post result counseling was 98.7% for all tested clients. Seventy-four (1.3%) of clients who were tested for HIV did not returned to know their results.
This study demonstrated that effective coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing service was very low based on the providers view and records available. Thus we recommended that the services has to be strengthened, supervised and monitored to have a better achievement and improving the coverage status in addition to scaling up the services in the Zone.
Effective coverage; availability; utilization; quality; VCT services
Increased availability and accessibility of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved the length and quality of life amongst people living with HIV/AIDS. This has changed the landscape for care from episodic to long-term care that requires more monitoring of adherence. This has led to increased demand on human resources, a major problem for most ART programs. This paper presents experiences and perspectives of providers in ART facilities, exploring the organizational factors affecting their capacity to monitor adherence to ARVs.
From an earlier survey to test adherence indicators and rank facilities as good, medium or poor adherence performances, six facilities were randomly selected, two from each rank. Observations on facility set-up, provider-patient interactions and key informant interviews were carried out. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats identified by health workers as facilitators or barriers to their capacity to monitor adherence to ARVs were explored during group discussions.
Findings show that the performance levels of the facilities were characterized by four different organizational ART programs operating in Uganda, with apparent lack of integration and coordination at the facilities. Of the six facilities studied, the two high adherence performing facilities were Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) programs, while facilities with dual organizational programs (Governmental/NGO) performed poorly. Working conditions, record keeping and the duality of programs underscored the providers’ capacity to monitor adherence. Overall 70% of the observed provider-patient interactions were conducted in environments that ensured privacy of the patient. The mean performance for record keeping was 79% and 50% in the high and low performing facilities respectively. Providers often found it difficult to monitor adherence due to the conflicting demands from the different organizational ART programs.
Organizational duality at facilities is a major factor in poor adherence monitoring. The different ART programs in Uganda need to be coordinated and integrated into a single well resourced program to improve ART services and adherence monitoring. The focus on long-term care of patients on ART requires that the limitations to providers’ capacity for monitoring adherence become central during the planning and implementation of ART programs.
HIV/AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; providers; adherence monitoring; Uganda.
South Africa endorses the global policy shift from primarily client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) to routine/provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC). The reason for this policy shift has been to facilitate uptake of HIV testing amongst at-risk populations in high-prevalence settings. Despite ostensible implementation of routine/PITC, uptake amongst tuberculosis (TB) patients in this country remains a challenge. This study presents the reasons that non-tested TB patients offered for their refusal of HIV testing and reflects on all TB patients' suggestions as to how this situation may be alleviated.
In February-March 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 600 TB patients across 61 primary health care facilities in four sub-districts in the Free State. Patient selection was done proportionally to the numbers registered at each facility in 2007. Data were subjected to bivariate tests and content analysis of open-ended questions.
Almost one-third (32.5%) of the respondents reported that they had not undertaken HIV testing, with the most often offered explanation being that they were 'undecided' (37.0%). Other self-reported reasons for non-uptake included: fear (e.g. of testing HIV-positive, 19.0%); perception of being at low risk of HIV infection (13.4%); desire first to deal with TB 'on its own' (12.5%); and because HIV testing had not been offered to them (12.0%). Many patients expressed the need for support and motivation not only from health care workers (33.3%), but also from their significant others (56.6%). Patients further expressed a need for (increased) dissemination of TB-HIV information by health care workers (46.1%).
Patients did not undergo HIV testing for various patient-/individual-related reasons. Non-uptake of HIV testing was also due to health system limitations such as the non-offer of HIV testing. Other measures may be necessary to supplement routine/provider-initiation of HIV testing. From the TB patient's perspective, there is a need for (improved) dissemination of information on the TB-HIV link. Patients also require (repeated) motivation and support to undergo HIV testing, the onus for which rests not only on the public health authority and health care workers, but also on other people in the patients' social support networks.
Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software.
A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship.
HIV discordant couples’ relationship is filled with controversies of maintaining relationship versus fear of getting infected. The findings of this study have suggested the need to view discordant couple’s actions as a process of maintaining their relationship in the context of eminent risks. Further study should be done among HIV discordant couples to assess the fitness of the current model in different setups and population. In addition, a study could begin to test the hypotheses proposed in this study.
In high tuberculosis (TB) burden, resource-poor countries, sputum smear microscopy remains the mainstay of diagnosis. The low sensitivity of this test means that patients with smear-negative but culture-positive TB pass undetected through the health care system. Such clinical episodes are missed opportunities for diagnosis and interruption of transmission, which might be averted through the application of more sensitive diagnostic tests.
To estimate the proportion of incident TB cases that might have been detected earlier than the actual date of diagnosis if a test more sensitive than smear microscopy had been used at an earlier presentation episode.
Retrospective cohort study in urban Peru, investigating health care facility interactions for symptoms suggestive of TB prior to TB diagnosis through patient interviews and a review of clinical records.
Of 212 participants enrolled, 58% had one or more clinical interactions prior to their diagnostic episode. Of those with a prior episode, the median number of episodes was three. The median delay to diagnosis from first presentation was 26 days.
There are clear missed opportunities for earlier TB diagnosis, delaying treatment initiation and continued spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community. The implementation of sensitive diagnostic tests appropriate to resource-poor settings should be given high priority.
tuberculosis; diagnosis; smear microscopy
In primary health care, provider-patient interaction is fundamental platform and critically affects service delivery. Nevertheless, it is often ignored in medical research and practice and it is infrequently subjected to scientific inquiry, particularly in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with health care provider interactions and its influencing factors among out-patients at health centers in West Shoa, Central Ethiopia.
A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on 768 out-patients of six health centers in West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia. The total sample size was allocated to each of the six health centers based on patient flow during the ten days prior to the start of data collection. Pre-tested instruments were used for data collection and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Factor score was computed for the items identified to represent the satisfaction scale by varimax rotation method. Using this regression factor score, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed and the effect of independent variables on the regression factor score was quantified.
Seventy three percent of the respondents perceived that provider's empathy was good and 35% complained that providers were not technically competent enough. In addition, 82% of the respondents rated non-verbal communication by the providers to be good, very good or excellent on a five-point ordinal scale. Regardless of the process, only 34.1% of the patients implied that the consultations made a difference in understanding their illness and coping with it. Generally speaking, 62.6% of the patients reported that they have been satisfied with their visit. Perceived empathy, perceived technical competency, non-verbal communication, patient enablement, being told the name of once illness, type and frequency of visit, knowing the providers and educational status were main independent predictors of patient satisfaction in this study. Furthermore, very good empathy (Beta = -4.323), fair non-verbal communication (Beta = -0.188), fewer expectations met (Beta = -0.169) and disagreement to technical competency (Beta = -0.156) had greater negative influence on patient satisfaction. On the other hand, excellent non-verbal communication (Beta = 0.114) and being told the name of once illness (0.109) had pronounced positive influence on patient satisfaction.
The present study showed that interpersonal processes including perceived empathy, perceived technical competency, non-verbal communication and patient enablement significantly influence patient satisfaction. Therefore, health care providers should work towards improving the communication skill of their professionals along with having technically competent workers which could possibly affect the perception of the patient about all of the variables identified as independent predictors of patient satisfaction in this study.