The 16S rRNA methyltransferase Sgm from “Micromonospora zionensis” confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics by specific modification of the 30S ribosomal A site. Sgm is a member of the FmrO family, distant relatives of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA subfamily of methyltransferase enzymes. Using amino acid conservation across the FmrO family, seven putative key amino acids were selected for mutation to assess their role in forming the SAM cofactor binding pocket or in methyl group transfer. Each mutated residue was found to be essential for Sgm function, as no modified protein could effectively support bacterial growth in liquid media containing gentamicin or methylate 30S subunits in vitro. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, Sgm was found to bind SAM with a KD (binding constant) of 17.6 μM, and comparable values were obtained for one functional mutant (N179A) and four proteins modified at amino acids predicted to be involved in catalysis in methyl group transfer. In contrast, none of the G135, D156, or D182 Sgm mutants bound the cofactor, confirming their role in creating the SAM binding pocket. These results represent the first functional characterization of any FmrO methyltransferase and may provide a basis for a further structure-function analysis of these aminoglycoside resistance determinants.
The sisomicin-gentamicin resistance methylase gene (sgm) from Micromonospora zionensis (the producer of antibiotic G-52 [6-N-methyl-sisomicin]) encodes an enzyme that modifies 16S rRNA and thereby confers resistance to 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides. Here, we report that this gene is regulated on the translational level. The Escherichia coli lacZ gene and operon fusion system was used, and it was shown that an extra copy of the sgm gene decreases the activity of the fusion protein. These results suggested that expression of the sgm gene is regulated by the translational autorepression because of binding of the methylase to its own mRNA. It was shown by computer analysis that the same hexanucleotide (CCGCCC) is present 14 bp before the ribosome-binding site and in the C-1400 region of 16S rRNA, i.e., the region in which most of the aminoglycosides act. A deletion that removes the hexanucleotide before the gene fusion is not prone to negative autoregulation. This mode of regulation of the sgm gene ensures that enough methylase molecules protect the cell from the action of its own antibiotic. On the other hand, if all of the ribosomes are modified, Sgm methylase binds to its own mRNA in an autorepressive manner.
The 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase enzymes that modify nucleosides in the drug binding site to provide self-resistance in aminoglycoside-producing micro-organisms have been proposed to comprise two distinct groups of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA enzymes, namely the Kgm and Kam families. Here, the nucleoside methylation sites for three Kgm family methyltransferases, Sgm from Micromonospora zionensis, GrmA from Micromonospora echinospora and Krm from Frankia sp. Ccl3, were experimentally determined as G1405 by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. These results significantly extend the list of securely characterized G1405 modifying enzymes and experimentally validate their grouping into a single enzyme family. Heterologous expression of the KamB methyltransferase from Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius experimentally confirmed the requirement for an additional 60 amino acids on the deduced KamB N-terminus to produce an active methyltransferase acting at A1408, as previously suggested by an in silico analysis. Finally, the modifications at G1405 and A1408, were shown to confer partially overlapping but distinct resistance profiles in Escherichia coli. Collectively, these data provide a more secure and systematic basis for classification of new aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferases from producers and pathogenic bacteria on the basis of their sequences and resistance profiles.
The sisomicin-gentamicin resistance methylase (sgm) gene was isolated from Micromonospora zionensis and cloned in Streptomyces lividans. The sgm gene was expressed in Micromonospora melanosporea, where its own promoter was active, and also in Escherichia coli under the control of the lacZ promoter. The complete nucleotide sequence of 1,122 bp and a transcription start point were determined. The sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 274 amino acids. The methylation of 30S ribosomal subunits by Sgm methylase accounts adequately for all known resistance characteristics of M. zionensis, but expression of high-level resistance to hygromycin B is background dependent. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the predicted Sgm protein with the deduced amino acid sequences for the 16S rRNA methylases showed extensive similarity of Grm and significant similarity to KgmB but not to KamB methylase.
Arm/Rmt methyltransferases have emerged recently in pathogenic bacteria as enzymes that confer high-level resistance to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides through methylation of the G1405 residue in the 16S rRNA (like ArmA and RmtA to -E). In prokaryotes, nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification, and they are introduced posttranscriptionally by a variety of site-specific housekeeping enzymes to optimize ribosomal function. Here we show that while the aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase RmtC methylates G1405, it impedes methylation of the housekeeping methyltransferase RsmF at position C1407, a nucleotide that, like G1405, forms part of the aminoglycoside binding pocket of the 16S rRNA. To understand the origin and consequences of this phenomenon, we constructed a series of in-frame knockout and knock-in mutants of Escherichia coli, corresponding to the genotypes rsmF+, ΔrsmF, rsmF+
rmtC+, and ΔrsmF rmtC+. When analyzed for the antimicrobial resistance pattern, the ΔrsmF bacteria had a decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides, including 4,6- and 4,5-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides, showing that the housekeeping methylation at C1407 is involved in intrinsic aminoglycoside susceptibility in E. coli. Competition experiments between the isogenic E. coli strains showed that, contrary to expectation, acquisition of rmtC does not entail a fitness cost for the bacterium. Finally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allowed us to determine that RmtC methylates the G1405 residue not only in presence but also in the absence of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Thus, the coupling between housekeeping and acquired methyltransferases subverts the methylation architecture of the 16S rRNA but elicits Arm/Rmt methyltransferases to be selected and retained, posing an important threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides worldwide.
The aminoglycoside resistance genes sgm from Micromonospora zionensis and kgmB from Streptomyces tenebrarius were cloned into a yeast expression vector to test whether the encoded prokaryotic methylases can modify the 18S rRNA A-site and thus confer resistance to G-418. Despite the detectable presence of mRNAs in yeast cells, neither G-418-resistant yeast transformants nor positive western blot signals were obtained. Neither methylase was capable of methylating 40S subunits despite very high conservation of the antibiotic rRNA binding sites. However, the results provide novel insight into the action of Sgm by showing that it methylates the same site as KgmB, i.e. G1405 in 16S rRNA.
Aminoglycoside resistance; 16S rRNA methylases; Site of action; G1405; Expression in yeast
NpmA, a methyltransferase that confers resistance to aminoglycosides was identified in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. It belongs to the kanamycin–apramycin methyltransferase (Kam) family and specifically methylates the 16S rRNA at the N1 position of A1408. We determined the structures of apo-NpmA and its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.4, 2.7 and 1.68 Å, respectively. We generated a number of NpmA variants with alanine substitutions and studied their ability to bind the cofactor, to methylate A1408 in the 30S subunit, and to confer resistance to kanamycin in vivo. Residues D30, W107 and W197 were found to be essential. We have also analyzed the interactions between NpmA and the 30S subunit by footprinting experiments and computational docking. Helices 24, 42 and 44 were found to be the main NpmA-binding site. Both experimental and theoretical analyses suggest that NpmA flips out the target nucleotide A1408 to carry out the methylation. NpmA is plasmid-encoded and can be transferred between pathogenic bacteria; therefore it poses a threat to the successful use of aminoglycosides in clinical practice. The results presented here will assist in the development of specific NpmA inhibitors that could restore the potential of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Open reading frame 1 of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a Potexvirus in the alphavirus-like superfamily, encodes a 155-kDa replicase responsible for the formation of the 5′ cap structure and replication of the viral RNA genome. The N-terminal domain of the viral replicase functions as an mRNA capping enzyme, which exhibits both GTP methyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent guanylyltransferase activities. We mutated each of the four conserved amino acids among the capping enzymes of members within alphavirus-like superfamily and a dozen of other residues to gain insight into the structure-function relationship of the viral enzyme. The mutant enzymes were purified and subsequently characterized. H68A, the mutant enzyme bearing a substitution at the conserved histidine residue, has an ∼10-fold increase in GTP methyltransferase activity but completely loses the ability to form the covalent m7GMP-enzyme intermediate. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the production of m7GTP by the GTP methyltransferase activity of H68A. Furthermore, the produced m7GTP sustained the formation of the m7GMP-enzyme intermediate for the wild-type enzyme in the presence of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), suggesting that the previously observed AdoMet-dependent guanylation of the enzyme using GTP results from reactions of GTP methylation and subsequently guanylation of the enzyme using m7GTP. Mutations occurred at the other three conserved residues (D122, R125, and Y213), and H66 resulted in abolition of activities for both GTP methylation and formation of the covalent m7GMP-enzyme intermediate. Mutations of amino acids such as K121, C234, D310, W312, R316, K344, W406, and K409 decreased both activities by various degrees, and the extents of mutational effects follow similar trends. The affinity to AdoMet of the various BaMV capping enzymes, except H68A, was found in good correlations with not only the magnitude of GTP methyltransferase activity but also the capability of forming the m7GMP-enzyme intermediate. Taken together with the AdoHcy dependence of guanylation of the enzyme using m7GTP, a basic working mechanism, with the contents of critical roles played by the binding of AdoMet/AdoHcy, of the BaMV capping enzyme is proposed and discussed.
A high-throughput, competitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay has been developed for the detection of methyltransferase activity. The assay was designed to detect S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), a product of all S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-utilizing methyltransferase reactions. We employed commercially available anti-AdoHcy antibody and fluorescein–AdoHcy conjugate tracer to measure AdoHcy generated as a result of methyltransferase activity. AdoHcy competes with tracer in the antibody/tracer complex. The release of tracer results in a decrease in fluorescence polarization. Under optimized conditions, AdoHcy and AdoMet titrations demonstrated that the antibody had more than a 150-fold preference for binding AdoHcy relative to AdoMet. Mock methyltransferase reactions using both AdoHcy and AdoMet indicated that the assay tolerated 1 to 3 μM AdoMet. The limit of detection was approximately 5 nM (0.15 pmol) AdoHcy in the presence of 3 μM AdoMet. To validate the assay’s ability to quantitate methyltransferase activity, the methyltransferase catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and a known selective inhibitor of COMT activity were used in proof-of-principle experiments. A time- and enzyme concentration-dependent decrease in fluorescence polarization was observed in the COMT assay that was developed. The IC50 value obtained using a selective COMT inhibitor was consistent with previously published data. Thus, this sensitive and homogeneous assay is amenable for screening compounds for inhibitors of methyltransferase activity.
Fluorescence polarization; Methyltransferase; S-Adenosylhomocysteine; S-Adenosylmethionine; Catechol-O-methyltransferase
High-level resistance to a broad spectrum of aminoglycoside antibiotics can arise through either N7-methyl guanosine 1405 (m7G1405) or N1-methyl adenosine 1408 (m1A1408) modifications at the drug binding site in the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit decoding center. Two distinct families of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases that incorporate these modifications were first identified in aminoglycoside-producing bacteria but were more recently identified in both human and animal pathogens. These resistance determinants thus pose a new threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides as antibiotics, demanding urgent characterization of their structures and activities. Here, we describe approaches to cloning, heterologous expression in E. coli, and purification of two A1408 rRNA methyltransferases: KamB from the aminoglycoside-producer Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius and NpmA identified in a clinical isolate of pathogenic E. coli ARS3. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays and in vitro analysis of KamB and NpmA using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) binding by isothermal titration calorimetry and 30S subunit methylation assays showed both enzymes were soluble, folded and active. Finally, crystals of each enzyme complexed with SAM were obtained, including selenomethionine-derived KamB, that will facilitate high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analyses of these important bacterial antibiotic-resistance determinants.
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation is central to the regulation of many biological processes: more than 50 AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases methylate a broad spectrum of cellular compounds including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Common to all AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase reactions is the release of the strong product inhibitor S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy), as a by-product of the reaction. S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase is the only eukaryotic enzyme capable of reversible AdoHcy hydrolysis to adenosine and homocysteine and, thus, relief from AdoHcy inhibition. Impaired S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase activity in humans results in AdoHcy accumulation and severe pathological consequences. Hyperhomocysteinemia, which is characterized by elevated levels of homocysteine in blood, also exhibits a similar phenotype of AdoHcy accumulation due to the reversal of the direction of the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase reaction. Inhibition of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase is also linked to antiviral effects. In this review the advantages of yeast as an experimental system to understand pathologies associated with AdoHcy accumulation will be discussed.
► AdoHcy is a potent product inhibitor of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. ► AdoHcy accumulates in hyperhomocysteinemia. ► Yeast is an advantageous system to understand AdoHcy toxicity. ► Lipid metabolism is deregulated in response to AdoHcy accumulation.
AdoMet; AdoHcy; Homocysteine; S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase
Methyltransferases use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as methyl group donor, forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) and methylated substrates, including DNA and proteins. AdoHcy inhibits most methyltransferases. Accumulation of intracellular AdoHcy secondary to Hcy elevation elicits global DNA hypomethylation. We aimed at determining the extent at which protein arginine methylation status is affected by accumulation of intracellular AdoHcy. AdoHcy accumulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was induced by inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase by adenosine-2,3-dialdehyde (AdOx). As a measure of protein arginine methylation status, the levels of monomethylarginine (MMA) and asymmetric and symmetric dimethylated arginine residues (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) in cell protein hydrolysates were measured by HPLC. A 10% decrease was observed at a 2.5-fold increase of intracellular AdoHcy. Western blotting revealed that the translational levels of the main enzymes catalyzing protein arginine methylation, protein arginine methyl transferases (PRMTs) 1 and 5, were not affected by AdoHcy accumulation. Global DNA methylation status was evaluated by measuring 5-methylcytosine and total cytosine concentrations in DNA hydrolysates by LC-MS/MS. DNA methylation decreased by 10% only when intracellular AdoHcy concentration accumulated to 6-fold of its basal value. In conclusion, our results indicate that protein arginine methylation is more sensitive to AdoHcy accumulation than DNA methylation, pinpointing a possible new player in methylation-related pathology.
The methyltransferase enzyme (MTase), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet) to viral RNA, and generates S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy) as a by-product, is essential for the life cycle of many significant human pathogen flaviviruses. Here we investigated inhibition of the flavivirus MTase by several AdoHcy-derivatives. Unexpectedly we found that AdoHcy itself barely inhibits the flavivirus MTase activities, even at high concentrations. AdoHcy was also shown to not inhibit virus growth in cell-culture. Binding studies confirmed that AdoHcy has a much lower binding affinity for the MTase than either the AdoMet co-factor, or the natural AdoMet analog inhibitor sinefungin (SIN). While AdoMet is a positively charged molecule, SIN is similar to AdoHcy in being uncharged, and only has an additional amine group that can make extra electrostatic contacts with the MTase. Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Sovation Area analysis on AdoHcy and SIN binding to the MTase suggests that the stronger binding of SIN may not be directly due to interactions of this amine group, but due to distributed differences in SIN binding resulting from its presence. The results suggest that better MTase inhibitors could be designed by using SIN as a scaffold rather than AdoHcy.
O-linked methylation of sugar substituents is a common modification in the biosynthesis of many natural products, and is catalyzed by multiple families of S-adenosyl-L-methioine (SAM or AdoMet) dependent methyltransferases. Mycinamicins, potent antibiotics from Micromonospora griseorubida, can be methylated at two positions on a 6-deoxyallose substituent. The first methylation is catalyzed by MycE, a SAM- and metal-dependent methyltransferase. Crystal structures were determined for MycE bound to the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH or AdoHcy) and magnesium, both with and without the natural substrate, mycinamicin VI. This represents the first structure of a natural product sugar methyltransferase in complex with its natural substrate. MycE is a tetramer of a two-domain polypeptide, comprising a C-terminal catalytic methyltransferase domain and an N-terminal auxiliary domain, which is important for quaternary assembly and for substrate binding. The symmetric MycE tetramer has a novel methyltransferase organization in which each of the four active sites is formed at the junction of three monomers within the tetramer. The active site structure supports a mechanism in which a conserved histidine acts as a general base, and the metal ion helps to position the methyl acceptor, and to stabilize a hydroxylate intermediate. A conserved tyrosine is suggested to support activity through interactions with the transferred methyl group from the SAM methyl donor. The structure of the free enzyme reveals a dramatic order-disorder transition in the active site relative to the SAH complexes, suggesting a mechanism for product/substrate exchange through concerted movement of five loops and the polypeptide C-terminus.
The enzyme protein carboxyl methyltransferase type II has been recently shown to play a crucial role in the repair of damaged proteins. S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is the methyl donor of the reaction, and its demethylated product, S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), is the natural inhibitor of this reaction, as well as of most AdoMet-dependent methylations. We examined erythrocyte membrane protein methyl esterification in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative treatment or hemodialyzed to detect possible alterations of the methylation pattern, in a condition where a state of disrupted red blood cell function is present. We observed a significant reduction in membrane protein methyl esterification in both groups, compared to control. The decrease was particularly evident for cytoskeletal component ankyrin, which is known to be involved in membrane stability and integrity. Moreover, we observed a severalfold rise in AdoHcy levels, while AdoMet concentration was comparable to that detected in the control, resulting in a lower [AdoMet]/[AdoHcy] ratio (P < 0.001). Our findings show an impairment of this posttranslational modification of proteins, associated with high AdoHcy intracellular concentration in CRF. The data are consistent with the notion that, in CRF, structural damages accumulate in erythrocyte membrane proteins, and are not adequately repaired.
DNA methylation is linked to homocysteine metabolism through the generation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The ratio of AdoMet/AdoHcy is often considered an indicator of tissue methylation capacity. The goal of this study is to determine the relationship of tissue AdoMet and AdoHcy concentrations to allele-specific methylation and expression of genomically imprinted H19/Igf2. Expression of H19/Igf2 is regulated by a differentially methylated domain (DMD), with H19 paternally imprinted and Igf2 maternally imprinted. F1 hybrid C57BL/6J x Castaneous/EiJ (Cast) mice with (+/−), and without (+/+), heterozygous disruption of cystathionine-β-synthase (Cbs) were fed a control diet or a diet (called HH) to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and changes in tissue AdoMet and AdoHcy. F1 Cast x Cbs+/− mice fed the HH diet had significantly higher plasma total homocysteine concentrations, higher liver AdoHcy, and lower AdoMet/AdoHcy ratios and this was accompanied by lower liver maternal H19 DMD allele methylation, lower liver Igf2 mRNA levels, and loss of Igf2 maternal imprinting. In contrast, we found no significant differences in AdoMet and AdoHcy in brain between the diet groups but F1 Cast x Cbs+/− mice fed the HH diet had higher maternal H19 DMD methylation and lower H19 mRNA levels in brain. A significant negative relationship between AdoHcy and maternal H19 DMD allele methylation was found in liver but not in brain. These findings suggest the relationship of AdoMet and AdoHcy to gene-specific DNA methylation is tissue-specific and that changes in DNA methylation can occur without changes in AdoMet and AdoHcy.
homocysteine; genomic imprinting; DNA methylation; gene expression; H19; Igf2; tissue-specific; allele-specific
Methylation is one of the most common biochemical reactions involved in cellular and metabolic functions and is catalysed by the action of methyltransferases. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that confers resistance through methylation, and as yet, there is no report on the structure of methyltransferases from this bacterium. Here, we report the crystal structure of an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase, BT_2972 and its complex with AdoMet and AdoHcy for B. thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 strain along with isothermal titration calorimetric assessment of the binding affinities. Comparison of the apo and complexed BT_2972 structures reveals a significant conformational change between open and closed forms of the active site that presumably regulates the association with cofactors and may aid interaction with substrate. Together, our analysis suggests that BT_2972 is a small molecule methyltransferase and might catalyze two O-methylation reaction steps involved in the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway.
N2-Methylguanine 966 is located in the loop of Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA helix 31, forming a part of the P-site tRNA-binding pocket. We found yhhF to be a gene encoding for m2G966 specific 16 S rRNA methyltransferase. Disruption of the yhhF gene by kanamycin resistance marker leads to a loss of modification at G966. The modification could be rescued by expression of recombinant protein from the plasmid carrying the yhhF gene. Moreover, purified m2G966 methyltransferase, in the presence of S-adenosylomethionine (AdoMet), is able to methylate 30 S ribosomal subunits that were purified from yhhF knock-out strain in vitro. The methylation is specific for G966 base of the 16 S rRNA. The m2G966 methyltransferase was crystallized, and its structure has been determined and refined to 2.05 Å. The structure closely resembles RsmC rRNA methyltransferase, specific for m2G1207 of the 16 S rRNA. Structural comparisons and analysis of the enzyme active site suggest modes for binding AdoMet and rRNA to m2G966 methyltransferase. Based on the experimental data and current nomenclature the protein expressed from the yhhF gene was renamed to RsmD. A model for interaction of RsmD with ribosome has been proposed.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain the drugs of choice for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, particularly for respiratory complications in cystic-fibrosis patients. Previous studies on other bacteria have shown that aminoglycosides have their primary target within the decoding region of 16S rRNA helix 44 with a secondary target in 23S rRNA helix 69. Here, we have mapped P. aeruginosa rRNAs using MALDI mass spectrometry and reverse transcriptase primer extension to identify nucleotide modifications that could influence aminoglycoside interactions. Helices 44 and 45 contain indigenous (housekeeping) modifications at m4Cm1402, m3U1498, m2G1516, m62A1518, and m62A1519; helix 69 is modified at m3Ψ1915, with m5U1939 and m5C1962 modification in adjacent sequences. All modifications were close to stoichiometric, with the exception of m3Ψ1915, where about 80% of rRNA molecules were methylated. The modification status of a virulent clinical strain expressing the acquired methyltransferase RmtD was altered in two important respects: RmtD stoichiometrically modified m7G1405 conferring high resistance to the aminoglycoside tobramycin and, in doing so, impeded one of the methylation reactions at C1402. Mapping the nucleotide methylations in P. aeruginosa rRNAs is an essential step toward understanding the architecture of the aminoglycoside binding sites and the rational design of improved drugs against this bacterial pathogen.
pseudomonas; rRNA modifications; methyltransferases; aminoglycosides; RmtD
The target cytosines of (cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferases in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA show increased rates of C-->T transition mutations compared to non-target cytosines. These mutations are induced either by the spontaneous deamination of 5-mC-->T generating inefficiently repaired G:T rather than G:U mismatches, or by the enzyme-induced C-->U deamination which occurs under conditions of reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). We tested whether various inhibitors of (cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferases analogous to AdoMet and AdoHcy would affect the rate of enzyme-induced deamination of the target cytosine by M.HpaII and M.SssI. Interestingly, we found two compounds, sinefungin and 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine, that increased the rate of deamination 10(3)-fold in the presence and 10(4)-fold in the absence of AdoMet and AdoHcy. We have therefore identified the first mutagenic compounds specific for the target sites of (cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferases. A number of analogs of AdoMet and AdoHcy have been considered as possible antiviral, anticancer, antifungal and antiparasitic agents. Our findings show that chemotherapeutic agents with affinities to the cofactor binding pocket of (cytosine-5)-DNA methyltransferase should be tested for their potential mutagenic effects.
Bcg I and Bcg I-like restriction endonucleases cleave double stranded DNA specifically on both sides of their asymmetric recognition sequences which are interrupted by several ambiguous base pairs. Their heterosubunit structure, bifunctionality and stimulation by AdoMet make them different from other classified restriction enzymes. Here we report on a new Bcg I-like restriction endonuclease, Bpl I from Bacillus pumilus , which in contrast to all other Bcg I-like enzymes, recognizes a symmetric interrupted sequence, and which, like Bcg I, cleaves double stranded DNA upstream and downstream of its recognition sequence (8/13)GAGN5CTC(13/8). Like Bcg I, Bpl I is a bifunctional enzyme revealing both DNA cleavage and methyltransferase activities. There are two polypeptides in the homogeneous preparation of Bpl I with molecular masses of approximately 74 and 37 kDa. The sizes of the Bpl I subunits are close to those of Bcg I, but the proportion 1:1 in the final preparation is different from that of 2:1 in Bcg I. Low activity observed with Mg2+increases >100-fold in the presence of AdoMet. Even with AdoMet though, specific cleavage is incomplete. S -adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) or sinefungin can replace AdoMet in the cleavage reaction. AdoHcy activated Bpl I yields complete cleavage of DNA.
We have isolated a multiple-aminoglycoside-resistant Escherichia coli strain, strain ARS3, and have been the first to identify a novel plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferase, NpmA. This new enzyme shared a relatively low level of identity (30%) to the chromosomally encoded 16S rRNA methyltransferase (KamA) of Streptomyces tenjimariensis, an actinomycete aminoglycoside producer. The introduction of a recombinant plasmid carrying npmA could confer on E. coli consistent resistance to both 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines, such as amikacin and gentamicin, and 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines, including neomycin and ribostamycin. The histidine-tagged NpmA elucidated methyltransferase activity against 30S ribosomal subunits but not against 50S subunits and the naked 16S rRNA molecule in vitro. We further confirmed that NpmA is an adenine N-1 methyltransferase specific for the A1408 position at the A site of 16S rRNA. Drug footprinting data indicated that binding of aminoglycosides to the target site was apparently interrupted by methylation at the A1408 position. These observations demonstrate that NpmA is a novel plasmid-mediated 16S rRNA methyltransferase that provides a panaminoglycoside-resistant nature through interference with the binding of aminoglycosides toward the A site of 16S rRNA through N-1 methylation at position A1408.
Three structures of a putative RNA 5-methyluridine methyltransferase from T. thermophilus, including its complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, are presented. The structures reveal the mode of cofactor binding, architecture of the putative active site, and the presence of a deep cleft adjacent to the active site that may bind RNA.
The Thermus thermophilus hypothetical protein TTHA1280 belongs to a family of predicted S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) dependent RNA methyltransferases (MTases) present in many bacterial and archaeal species. Inspection of amino-acid sequence motifs common to class I Rossmann-fold-like MTases suggested a specific role as an RNA 5-methyluridine MTase. Selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled and native versions of the protein were expressed, purified and crystallized. Two crystal forms of the SeMet-labelled apoprotein were obtained: SeMet-ApoI and SeMet-ApoII. Cocrystallization of the native protein with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) yielded a third crystal form, Native-AdoHcy. The SeMet-ApoI structure was solved by the multiple anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.55 Å resolution. The SeMet-ApoII and Native-AdoHcy structures were solved by molecular replacement and refined at 1.80 and 2.60 Å, respectively. TTHA1280 formed a homodimer in the crystals and in solution. Each subunit folds into a three-domain structure composed of a small N-terminal PUA domain, a central α/β-domain and a C-terminal Rossmann-fold-like MTase domain. The three domains form an overall clamp-like shape, with the putative active site facing a deep cleft. The architecture of the active site is consistent with specific recognition of uridine and catalysis of methyl transfer to the 5-carbon position. The cleft is suitable in size and charge distribution for binding single-stranded RNA.
PUA domain; RNA-modification enzyme; 5-methyluridine methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine
The ‘radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)’ enzyme Cfr methylates adenosine 2503 of the 23S rRNA in the peptidyltransferase centre (P-site) of the bacterial ribosome. This modification protects host bacteria, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), from numerous antibiotics, including agents (e.g. linezolid, retapamulin) that were developed to treat such organisms. Cfr contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster that binds two separate molecules of AdoMet during the reaction cycle. These are used sequentially to first methylate a cysteine residue, Cys338; and subsequently generate an oxidative radical intermediate that facilitates methyl transfer to the unreactive C8 (and/or C2) carbon centres of adenosine 2503. How the Cfr active site, with its single [4Fe-4S] cluster, catalyses these two distinct activities that each utilise AdoMet as a substrate remains to be established. Here, we use absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of AdoMet with the [4Fe-4S] clusters of wild-type Cfr and a Cys338 Ala mutant, which is unable to accept a methyl group. Cfr binds AdoMet with high (∼ 10 µM) affinity notwithstanding the absence of the RNA cosubstrate. In wild-type Cfr, where Cys338 is methylated, AdoMet binding leads to rapid oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster and production of 5'-deoxyadenosine (DOA). In contrast, while Cys338 Ala Cfr binds AdoMet with equivalent affinity, oxidation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is not observed. Our results indicate that the presence of a methyl group on Cfr Cys338 is a key determinant of the activity of the enzyme towards AdoMet, thus enabling a single active site to support two distinct modes of AdoMet cleavage.
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the 5-position of cytosine residues and thereby silence transcription of regulated genes. DNMTs are important epigenetic targets. However, isolated DNMTs are weak catalysts and are difficult to assay. We report an ultrasensitive luciferase-linked continuous assay that converts the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine product of DNA methylation to a quantifiable luminescent signal. Results with this assay are compared with the commonly used DNA labeling from [methyl-3H]AdoMet. A 5′-methylthioadenosine-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase is used to hydrolyze AdoHcy to adenine. Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase converts adenine to AMP and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase converts AMP to ATP. Firefly luciferase gives a stable luminescent signal that results from continuous AMP recycling to ATP. This assay exhibits a broad dynamic range (0.1–1000 pmol of AdoHcy). The rapid response time permits continuous assays of DNA methylation detected by light output. The assay is suitable for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries with DNMT activity. The kinetic properties of human and bacterial CpG methyltransferases are characterized using this assay. Human catalytic domain DNMT3b activation by DNMT3L is shown to involve two distinct kinetic states that alter kcat but not Km for AdoMet. The assay is shown to be robust in the presence of high concentrations of the pyrimidine analogues 5-azacytidine and 5-azacytosine.
DNA methyltransferase; DNMT; CpG islands; luciferase; epigenetics; S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine