In recent years, clinician and dentist's esthetic demand in dentistry have increased rapidly, driven by an enhanced awareness of beauty and esthetics. The ultimate goal in modern restorative dentistry is to achieve “white” and “pink” esthetics in esthetically important zones. “White esthetics” is the natural dentition or the restoration of dental hard tissues with suitable materials. “Pink esthetics” refers to the surrounding soft-tissues, which includes the interdental papilla and gingiva that can enhance or diminish the esthetic result. Reconstruction of the lost interdental papilla is one of the most challenging and least predictable problems. Restoration and maintenance of these tissues with adequate surgical and prosthetic techniques are a real challenge in modern esthetic dentistry. Treatment of marginal tissue recession, excessive gingival display, deficient ridges, ridge collapse, and esthetic defects around teeth and implants are some of the esthetic problems associated with the interdental papilla that have to be corrected in todays scenario which has been discussed in this review.
Black triangle disease; interdental papilla; pink esthetics; white esthetics
Soft tissue recessions frequently cause esthetic disharmony and dissatisfaction. Compared with soft tissue coverage around a tooth, the coverage of an implant site is obviously unpredictable. Particularly in the cases of thin mucosa, a significant greater amount of recession takes place compared to thick mucosa. To overcome this problem, this case report demonstrates a two-step mucosal dehiscence coverage technique for an endosseous implant.
A 33-year-old female visited us with the chief complaint of dissatisfaction with the esthetics of an exposed implant in the maxillary left cental incisor region. A partial-thickness pouch was constructed around the dehiscence. A subepithelial connective tissue graft was positioned in the apical site of the implant and covered by a mucosal flap with normal tension. At 12 months after surgery, the recipient site was partially covered by keratinized mucosa. However, the buccal interdental papilla between implant on maxillary left central incisor region and adjacent lateral incisor was concave in shape. To resolve the mucosal recession after the first graft, a second graft was performed with the same technique.
An esthetically satisfactory result was achieved and the marginal soft tissue level was stable 9 months after the second graft.
The second graft was able to resolve the mucosal recession after first graft. This two-step approach has the potential to improve the certainty of esthetic results.
Case report; Dental Esthetics; Mouth mucosa; Oral surgical procedures
There is no consensus regarding the relationship between the width of keratinized mucosa and the health of peri-implant tissues, but clinicians prefer to provide enough keratinized mucosa around dental implants for long-term implant maintenance. An apically positioned flap during second stage implant surgery is the chosen method of widening the keratinized zone in simple procedures. However, the routine suture techniques used with this method tend to apply tension over the provisional abutments and decrease pre-existing keratinized mucosa. To overcome this shortcoming, a pre-fabricated implant-retained stent was designed to apply vertical pressure on the labial flap and stabilize it in a bucco-apical direction to create a wide keratinized mucous zone.
During second stage implant surgery, an apically displaced, partial thickness flap with a lingualized incision was retracted. A pre-fabricated stent was clipped over the abutments after connecting to the provisional abutment. Vertical pressure was applied to displace the labial flap. No suture was required and the stent was removed after 10 days.
A clinically relevant amount of keratinized mucosa was achieved around the dental implants. Buccally displaced keratinized mucosa was firmly attached to the underlying periosteum. A slight shrinkage of the keratinized zone was noted after the healing period in one patient, but no discomfort during oral hygiene was reported. Clinically healthy gingiva with enough keratinized mucosa was achieved in both patients.
The proposed technique is a simple and time-effective technique for preserving and providing keratinized tissue around dental implants
Dental esthetics; Dental implants; Gingiva
The aim of the work.
Interimplant papilla reconstruction is difficult because the biologic width around an implant is apical to the implant-abutment connection and because the biologic width creates subcrestally. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the reconstruction of the interimplant papilla can be achieved by the use of an innovative surgical technique combined with scalloped implants, in the most severe surgical conditions, i.e. in variably reabsorbed ridges with flat anatomy.
Materials and method.
Nine surgical sites, in eight consecutive patients, were treated with at least two adjacent scalloped implants and fixed prosthesis. 23 scalloped implants were placed using this new surgical technique on bone and soft tissue structures. One flat platform implant was also placed between two other scalloped implants. A total of 15 interimplant papillae were examined.
100% of papilla reconstruction at first prosthesis insertion. 13.3% failed to maintain interimplant papillae after 6 months and 20% after 12 months. Also, papilla reconstruction was maintained for 12 months in the mesial and distal embrasure spaces of the flat platform implant.
The combination of the use of adjacent scalloped implants with this surgical approach, even in reabsorbed ridges with flat anatomy, may reform inter-implant bone peaks as support for the papillae.
inter-implant papilla reconstruction/regeneration; scalloped implants; implant design; esthetics; dental papilla
Most of the focus in the early dental implant literature is on the bone to titanium interface because a successful Osseo integrated implant requires direct bone contact to the implant surface. The importance of soft tissue in the ability of dental implants to restore function and esthetics has often been underestimated. This paper reviews the pertinent literature on soft tissue healing and management in partially edentulous dental implant patients. Patients seek treatment to replace missing teeth and to improve comfort, function and/or esthetics. Healing around dental implants is affected by the patient’s health, soft and hard tissue contours, and the use and care of the prosthesis, surgical augmentation and placement, and the design of the definitive prosthesis. Several surgical and non-surgical procedures have been proposed to treat the soft tissue deformities in the interproximal areas. This review also discusses the interdental papilla and various approaches to preserve and restore the same. Most of the research was based on scientifically legitimate sources of information obtained from primary literature, other appropriate technical references and searching using various online resources.
Implants; Soft tissue; Surgical management; Non-surgical management
The anterior region is a challenge for most clinicians to achieve optimal esthetics with dental implants. The provisional crown is a key factor in the success of obtaining pink esthetics around restorations with single implants, by soft tissue and inter-proximal papilla shaping. Provisional abutments bring additional costs and make the treatment more expensive. Since one of the aims of the clinician is to reduce costs and find more economic ways to raise patient satisfaction, this paper describes a practical method for chair-side fabrication of non-occlusal loaded provisional crowns used by the authors for several years successfully.
Twenty two patients (9 males, 13 females; mean age, 36,72 years) with one missing anterior tooth were treated by using the presented method. Metal definitive abutments instead of provisional abutments were used and provisional crowns were fabricated on the definitive abutments for all of the patients. The marginal fit was finished on a laboratory analogue and temporarily cemented to the abutments. The marginal adaptation of the crowns was evaluated radiographically.
The patients were all satisfied with the final appearance and no complications occurred until the implants were loaded with permanent restorations.
The use of the definitive abutments for provisional crowns instead of provisional abutments reduces the costs and the same results can be obtained.
Dental abutments; Dental implants; Dental marginal adaptation; Dental prosthesis
Dental implants though a successful treatment modality there exists controversies regarding the relationship between the adequacy of the keratinized gingiva (KG) and peri-implant health. The presence of an adequate amount of peri-implant KG reduces gingival inflammation and hence soft-tissue augmentation should be frequently considered. Among the various periodontal plastic surgical procedures, the apically displaced flap increases the width of keratinized tissue with reduced patient morbidity. The current study aims at evaluating the esthetic improvement in KG around dental implants applying apically positioned flap (APF) technique.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 10 endosseous dental implants were placed in eight systemically healthy patients. APF surgery was performed at the implant site on the buccal aspect either at the time of implant placement (one stage surgical protocol) or during the implant recovery stage (two stage surgical protocols) for increasing the width of KG and reviewed until 12 weeks post-operatively. The width of KG was evaluated at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks after surgery. Paired t-test was performed to evaluate the changes in the width of KG at baseline and at 12 weeks post-operatively. In addition, soft-tissue esthetic outcome was assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS).
The mean width of KG at baseline was 1.47 mm and 12 weeks post-operatively was 5.42 mm. The gain in KG from baseline was 3.95 mm with the P value of 0.000, which was highly statistically significant. The assessment of esthetic outcome using VAS gave an average score of 7.1 indicating good esthetics.
The technique of APF yielded a significant improvement in keratinized tissue, which is both functionally and esthetically acceptable.
Dental esthetics; dental implants; flap; gingiva
Periodontal diseases result in damage and destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the bone and periodontal ligament. In some cases, there is loss of gingival coverage of the teeth in esthetic regions, with gingival recession and loss of interdental papilla. The surgical treatment in such situations is costly, requires prolonged healing time, and the results are often unpredictable; this makes it an unpopular choice. The reconstruction of these areas with prosthesis like gingival veneer can be useful to correct the deformities remaining after the control of periodontal diseases, especially in the maxillary anterior region. Dental practitioners can provide comfortable and accurately fitting gingival veneers, that are very stable and esthetically restore the interdental papilla and gingival recession defects. This method is an innovative treatment option for dealing with esthetic challenges and long-term dental health.
Acrylic resins; gingival veneer; periodontal attachment loss; resective osseous surgery
Extensive defects of the ear require satisfactory cosmetic reconstruction to enable the patient to achieve full social integration. Although surgical procedures are the gold standard for reconstruction of the ear, in some cases they cannot be performed because of extended scars, threatening tumor, or congenital tissue abnormalities. Prosthetic reconstruction of the auricle is an established and reliable alternative technique to autologous surgical reconstructions. Since studies performed by Brånemark, osseointegrated implants have been widely used to provide a reliable and stable anchorage for a prosthesis (prosthesis anchored to bone). To allow good osseointegration of the titanium screw implants, two stages are necessary. After careful preparation for the surgical procedure (local and general examination, computed tomography scan, skin preparation), screws are implanted into bone, which are then covered by a skin flap. During the second stage, the skin is incised, and penetrating fixtures are attached to the screw implants, which allow fixation of the prosthesis. This procedure is reliable and reproducible, with good to excellent results and stability over time.
Prosthesis; ear; osseointegration; plastic surgery
The emergence profile concept of an implant restoration is one of the most important factors for the esthetics and health of peri-implant soft tissue. This paper reports on two cases of gingival recontouring by the fabrication of a provisional implant restoration to produce an optimal emergence profile of a definitive implant restoration.
After the second surgery, a preliminary impression was taken to make a soft tissue working cast. A provisional crown was fabricated on the model. The soft tissue around the implant fixture on the model was trimmed with a laboratory scalpel to produce the scalloped gingival form. Light curing composite resin was added to fill the space between the provisional crown base and trimmed gingiva. After 4 to 6 weeks, the final impression was taken to make a definitive implant restoration, where the soft tissue and tooth form were in harmony with the adjacent tooth.
At the first insertion of the provisional restoration, gum bleaching revealed gingival pressure. Four to six weeks after placing the provisional restoration, the gum reformed with harmony between the peri-implant gingiva and adjacent dentition.
Gingival recontouring with a provisional implant restoration is a non-surgical and non-procedure-sensitive method. The implant restoration with the optimal emergence profile is expected to provide superior esthetic and functional results.
Dental implants; Dental restoration repair; Gingiva
The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate marginal bony changes in relation to different vertical positions of dental implants.
Two hundred implants placed in 107 patients were examined. The implants were classified by the vertical positions of the fixture-abutment connection (microgap): 'bone level,' 'above bone level,' or 'below bone level.' Marginal bone levels were examined in the radiographs taken immediately after fixture insertion, immediately after second-stage surgery, 6 months after prosthesis insertion, and 1 year after prosthesis insertion. Radiographic evaluation was carried out by measuring the distance between the microgap and the most coronal bone-to-implant contact (BIC).
Immediately after fixture insertion, the distance between the microgap and most coronal BIC was 0.06 ± 0.68 mm; at second surgery, 0.43 ± 0.83 mm; 6 months after loading, 1.36 ± 0.56 mm; and 1 year after loading, 1.53 ± 0.51 mm (mean ± SD). All bony changes were statistically significant but the difference between the second surgery and the 6-month loading was greater than between other periods. In the 'below bone level' group, the marginal bony change between fixture insertion and 1 year after loading was about 2.25 mm, and in the 'bone level' group, 1.47 mm, and in 'above bone level' group, 0.89 mm. Therefore, the marginal bony change was smaller than other groups in the 'above bone level' group and larger than other groups in the 'below bone level' group.
Our results demonstrated that marginal bony changes occur during the early phase of healing after implant placement. These changes are dependent on the vertical positions of implants.
Alveolar bone loss; Dental implants
The objective of this case report is to describe a surgical and prosthetic technique to create a lost papilla following orthodontic space opening (Atherton´s patch) through implant supported rehabilitation.
A switching platform implant was used to replace a left maxillary canine in a unitary interdental edentulous ridge with Atherton´s patch in the distal area of the upper lateral left incisor. The radiographic study revealed correct level of the interproximal bone of the adjacent teeth. A mucoperiosteal flap with crest incision and sulcular extension to the adjacent teeth was made. Special attention was paid to correct position of the implant and the distance (≥ 1.5 mm) between the platform and the roots of the adjacent teeth. A submerged technique was used. Tissue modeling through provisional crown was performed in order to create an ideal emergence profile with total papilla fill recorded at the Atherton´s patch area. Final screw retained CAD-CAM zirconia structure was place. Final follow up was performed 2 years after provisional crown placement, and total fill of both papilla, including at Atherton´s patch area, was recorded.
Key words:Atherton´s patch, papilla, switching platform, implant and orthodontics, esthetic score.
Oral rehabilitation for a patient with severe loss of alveolar bone and soft tissue resulting from severe periodontitis presents a challenge to clinicians. Replacing loosening natural teeth with fixed prostheses supported by dental implants often requires either gingival surgery or bone grafting. The outcome of the bone grafting is sometimes unpredictable and requires longer healing time and/ or multiple surgeries. The presence of periodontal inflammation and periapical lesions often delay the placement of bone grafts as well as dental implants. Here we present a clinical case of a patient undergone full mouth reconstruction with implant-supported fixed prostheses. We demonstrated that early placement of implants (three weeks after extractions) with minimal bone grafting may be an alternative to conventional bone grafting followed by implant placement. We believe that primary stability during implant placement may contribute to our success. In addition, composite resin gingival material may be indicated in cases of large fixed implant prostheses as an alternative to pink porcelain.
Dental implants; Full mouth rehabiliation; Full mouth reconstruction; Periodontitis; Early implant placement.
Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft) to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.
case report; connective tissue; dental implants; allograft; coronally positioned flap
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of
interproximal papillae reconstruction around early loaded single implant
using subepithelial connective tissue graft in maxillary anterior
Material and Methods
Ten systemically healthy patients (mean age = 29.3 [SD 7.9] years) in need of
dental implants in maxillary anterior region were included in the study.
Interproximal papillae reconstruction around single implant using
subepithelial connective tissue graft was applied. The donor palatal tissue
was harvested by a "trap door approach". Subepithelial connective tissue
graft was inserted in the pouch created on mesial and distal site of
implant. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded around the each
implant, including papillary height and papillary gingival contour, at
baseline, 3 and 6 months after operation.
The mesial papilla height was increased by 1.9 (SD 0.87) mm, P = 0.005 at 3
month and maintained at 1.5 (SD 0.97) mm, P = 0.007 at 6 months. The distal
papilla height was increased by 2 (SD 0.66) mm, P = 0.004 at 3 month and
maintained at 1.2 (SD 0.78) mm, P = 0.010 at 6 months. Assessment of papilla
contour index showed 90% aesthetic success both for mesial and distal
papilla at 6 months.
It can be concluded that subepithelial connective tissue graft may be used to
successfully augment the gingival papillae adjacent to single tooth implant
dental papilla; single-tooth dental implant; early dental implant loading; tissue grafts; tissue transplants.
Several parameters have been described for determining the success or failure of dental implants. The surface properties of transgingival implant components have had a great impact on the long-term success of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to compare the tendency of two periodontal pathogens to adhere to and colonize zirconia abutments and titanium alloys both in hard surfaces and soft tissues.
Twelve patients participated in this study. Three months after implant placement, the abutments were connected. Five weeks following the abutment connections, the abutments were removed, probing depth measurements were recorded, and gingival biopsies were performed. The abutments and gingival biopsies taken from the buccal gingiva were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the DNA copy numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and total bacteria. The surface free energy of the abutments was calculated using the sessile water drop method before replacement. Data analyses used the Mann Whitney U-test, and P-values below 0.05 find statistical significance.
The present study showed no statistically significant differences between the DNA copy numbers of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and total bacteria for both the titanium and zirconia abutments and the biopsies taken from their buccal gingiva. The differences between the free surface energy of the abutments had no influence on the microbiological findings.
Zirconia surfaces have comparable properties to titanium alloy surfaces and may be suitable and safe materials for the long-term success of dental implants.
Bacterial adhesion; Dental abutments
To evaluate the papilla alterations around single-implant restorations in the anterior maxillae after crown attachment and to study the influence of soft tissue thickness on the papilla fill alteration. According to the inclusion criteria, 32 patients subjected to implant-supported single-tooth restorations in anterior maxillae were included. The patients were assigned to two groups according to the mucosal thickness: (i) group 1, 1.5 mm≤mucosal thickness≤3 mm; and (ii) group 2, 3 mm
esthetic outcome; papilla fill index; single-implant restoration; soft tissue thickness
The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery.
Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival shape and radiographs were taken to evaluate implant placement. Using a master cast, the gingival height was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. In the radiograph, the alveolar bone level was measured at the mesial and distal side of both implants at baseline and 12 weeks.
The exposed bone was covered with gingiva at both 4 and 12 weeks. Loss of alveolar bone around implants was found in all areas. The alveolar bone level in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in the non-exposed area.
This study showed that the alveolar bone level and gingival height around 2 adjacent implants in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in unexposed bone area.
Alveolar bone loss; Dental implants; Dental papilla
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Implant drivers are getting popular in clinical dentistry. Unlike to implant systems with external hex connection, implant drivers directly engage the implant/abutment interface. The deformation of the implant/abutment interface can be introduced while placing an implant with its implant driver in clinical situations.
This study evaluated the change of rotational freedom between an implant and its abutment after application of different insertion torques.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Three kinds of internal connection implants were utilized for the current study (4.5 × 12 mm Xive, 4.3 × 11.5 mm Inplant Magicgrip, 4.3 × 12 mm Implantium MF). An EstheticBase, a 2-piece top, a Dual abutment was used for its corresponding implant system. The rotational freedom between an implant and its abutment were measured before and after applying 45, 100 Ncm insertion torque. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Under 45 Ncm insertion torque, the rotational freedom between an implant and its abutment was significantly increased in Xive (P = .003). However, no significant change was noted in Inplant Magicgrip and Implantium MF. Under 100 Ncm torque, both in Xive (P = .0005) and Implatium MF (P = .03) resulted in significantly increased rotational freedom between the implant and its abutment.
The design of the implant/implant driver interface effectively prevented the deformation of implant/abutment interface. Little change was noted in the rotational freedom between an implant and its abutment, even though the insertion torque was far beyond clinical application.
The implant/abutment joint of internally connecting implants were quite stable under insertion torque in clinical situation.
Rotational freedom; Internal connection; Insertion torque; Implant driver
Dental implants are now considered as a predictable treatment modality for the oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients. Recently emphasis has changed towards achieving a predictable esthetic success. Creating aesthetically successful implant-supported restoration in the anterior region of oral cavity depends on the presence of interimplant papilla when multiple implants are used. The present paper reports a case of interimplant papilla reconstruction in esthetic zone of maxilla during one stage early loading multiple implant procedure using demineralized freeze dried bone allograft block fixed by titanium screw.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Unlike screw-retention type, fixture-abutment retention in Locking taper connection depends on frictional force so it has possibility of abutment to sink.
In this study, Bicon® Implant System, one of the conical internal connection implant system, was used with applying loading force to the abutments connected to the fixture. Then the amount of sinking was measured.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
10 Bicon® implant fixtures were used. First, the abutment was connected to the fixture with finger force. Then it was tapped with a mallet for 3 times and loads of 20 kg corresponding to masticatory force using loading application instrument were applied successively. The abutment state, slightly connected to the fixture without pressure was considered as a reference length, and every new abutment length was measured after each load's step was added. The amount of abutment sinking (mm) was gained by subtracting the length of abutment-fixture under each loading condition from reference length.
It was evident, that the amount of abutment sinking in Bicon® Implant System increased as loads were added. When loads of 20 kg were applied more than 5 - 7 times, sinking stopped at 0.45 ± 0.09 mm.
Even though locking taper connection type implant shows good adaption to occlusal force, it has potential for abutment sinking as loads are given. When locking taper connection type implant is used, satisfactory loads are recommended for precise abutment location.
locking taper connection; abutment sinking; masticatory force; Bicon® Implant System
Immediate implantation presents challenges regarding site healing, osseointegration, and obtaining complete soft-tissue coverage of the extraction socket, especially in the posterior area. This last issue is addressed herein using the double-membrane (collagen membrane+high-density polytetrafluoroethylene [dPTFE] membrane) technique in two clinical cases of posterior immediate implant placement.
An implant was placed immediately after atraumatically extracting the maxillary posterior tooth. The gap between the coronal portion of the fixture and the adjacent bony walls was filled with allograft material. In addition, a collagen membrane (lower) and dPTFE membrane (upper) were placed in a layer-by-layer manner to enable the closure of the extraction socket without a primary flap closure, thus facilitating the preservation of keratinized mucosa. The upper dPTFE membrane was left exposed for 4 weeks, after which the membrane was gently removed using forceps without flap elevation.
There was considerable plaque deposition on the outer surface of the dPTFE membrane but not on the inner surface. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy of the removed membrane revealed only a small amount of bacteria on the inner surface of the membrane. The peri-implant tissue was favorable both clinically and radiographically after a conventional dental-implant healing period.
Secondary closure of the extraction socket and immediate guided bone regeneration using the double-membrane technique may produce a good clinical outcome after immediate placement of a dental implant in the posterior area.
Bone regeneration; Dental implantation; Tooth socket
Aim of this report is to present a new surgical technique for the BAHA® system implant and to discuss the operational techniques and complications related to this type of surgery. The common technique for the positioning of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA®, Cochlear Limited, Englewood, CO, USA) titanium implant into the temporal bone is based on the use of either a free or a pedunculated skin flap. Reported complications of this type of surgery include skin flap necrosis with healing by second intention, infection of the flap, skin growth over the abutment, failure of osseointegration and implant extrusion. In order to reduce the incidence of these problems, different types of surgery have already been presented over the years. Herewith, a new technique is proposed for implanting a BAHA® screw in the temporal bone, that is simple, rapid to perform, and does not require the use of a flap. This technique appears to offer two main advantages: i) the speeding up of the procedure; ii) the low risk of complications, such as infection and necrosis, within the skin surrounding the implant.
Hearing loss; Osseointegrated implants; BAHA®; Surgery
A partial edentulous area was restored with a tooth to implant fixed partial denture and a rigid connection between the two elements. Maintenance recalls were performed over a 19-year period of observation on a yearly basis.
The following parameters were collected during each examination over the entire period of observation: PD around the implant and natural tooth abutment, gingival index, modified gingival index, plaque index, modified plaque index, occlusal assessment, marginal bone loss. Radiographic assessment of peri-implant bone remodeling was performed in a retrospective way. The following reference points were assessed on each image: fixture-abutment junction, threads, first contact of the crestal bone with the implant on both mesial and distal side. This made possible, with the known values for implant diameter and length, to make linear measurements of remaining peri-implant bone measured from the mesial and distal marginal bone levels and the fixture-abutment junction. The amount of bone change over the baseline to a 19 years follow-up observation time was calculated for both the implant and the natural tooth.
Clinical parameters showed healthy values over the entire period of observation with slight isolated positive bleeding on probing. Bone remodeling values were constant over the entire period with slight higher values around the tooth. Peri-apical radiographs did not show any intrusion of the tooth.
The present case report showed the complete functionality and stability of a tooth to implant rigidly connected FPD over a period of 19 years.
dental implants; natural tooth; rigid connection; follow-up
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