Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear.
To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value = 4.73×10−11, OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.23–4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value = 8.29×10−6, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.52–3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value = 3.59×10−8, OR = 3.76, 95% CI = 2.29–6.18).
We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease. A number of genetic loci that increase lupus susceptibility have been established. This study examines if these genetic loci also contribute to the clinical heterogeneity in lupus.
Materials and methods
4001 European-derived, 1547 Hispanic, 1590 African-American and 1191 Asian lupus patients were genotyped for 16 confirmed lupus susceptibility loci. Ancestry informative markers were genotyped to calculate and adjust for admixture. The association between the risk allele in each locus was determined and compared in patients with and without the various clinical manifestations included in the ACR criteria.
Renal disorder was significantly correlated with the lupus risk allele in ITGAM (p=5.0×10−6, OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35) and in TNFSF4 (p=0.0013, OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.25). Other significant findings include the association between risk alleles in FCGR2A and malar rash (p=0.0031, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.33), ITGAM and discoid rash (p=0.0020, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.33), STAT4 and protection from oral ulcers (p=0.0027, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) and IL21 and haematological disorder (p=0.0027, OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). All these associations are significant with a false discovery rate of <0.05 and pass the significance threshold using Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
Significant associations were found between lupus clinical manifestations and the FCGR2A, ITGAM, STAT4, TNSF4 and IL21 genes. The findings suggest that genetic profiling might be a useful tool to predict disease manifestations in lupus patients in the future.
We recently identified a novel non-synonymous variant, rs1143679, at exon 3 of the ITGAM gene associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in European-Americans (EAs) and African-Americans. Using genome-wide association approach, three other studies also independently reported an association between SLE susceptibility and ITGAM or ITGAM-ITGAX region. The primary objectives of this study are to assess whether single or multiple causal variants from the same gene or any nearby gene(s) are involved in SLE susceptibility and to confirm a robust ITGAM association across nine independent data sets (n = 8211). First, we confirmed our previously reported association of rs1143679 (risk allele ‘A’) with SLE in EAs (P = 1.0 × 10−8) and Hispanic-Americans (P = 2.9 × 10−5). Secondly, using a comprehensive imputation-based association test, we found that ITGAM is one of the major non-human leukocyte antigen susceptibility genes for SLE, and the strongest association for EA is the same coding variant rs1143679 (log10Bayes factor=20, P = 6.17 × 10−24). Thirdly, we determined the robustness of rs1143679 association with SLE across three additional case–control samples, including UK (P = 6.2 × 10−8), Colombian (P = 3.6 × 10−7), Mexican (P = 0.002), as well as two independent sets of trios from UK (PTDT = 1.4 × 10−5) and Mexico (PTDT = 0.015). A meta-analysis combing all independent data sets greatly reinforces the association (Pmeta = 7.1 × 10−50, odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.69–1.98, n = 10 046). However, this ITGAM association was not observed in the Korean or Japanese samples, in which rs1143679 is monomorphic for the non-risk allele (G). Taken together along with our earlier findings, these results demonstrate that the coding variant, rs1143679, best explains the ITGAM-SLE association, especially in European- and African-derived populations, but not in Asian populations.
ITGAM was recently found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in populations of not only European ancestry, but also in Hispanic- and African-Americans, Mexicans and Colombians. The risk alleles in the gene, however, were found to be monomorphic in two Asian populations examined: Japanese and Korean. In this study, using a collection of 910 SLE patients and 2360 controls from Chinese living in Hong Kong, analyzed by both genome-wide association and direct sequencing, we confirmed the association of the same risk alleles in ITGAM with the disease. These findings were further replicated in the Thai population with 278 patients and 383 ethnicity- and geography-matched controls. Subphenotype stratification analyses showed significantly more involvement of the gene in patients with renal nephritis and neurological disorders. Although our results support a pivotal role by rs1143679 (R77H) in disease association, our data also suggests an additional contribution from rs1143683, another non-synonymous polymorphism in this gene (A858V). Therefore, despite the low-allele frequencies of the risk alleles of the gene in our two Asian populations, ITGAM was confirmed to be a risk factor related to disease susceptibility and probably severe manifestations of SLE.
Many autoimmune diseases (ADs) share similar underlying pathology and have a tendency to cluster within families, supporting the involvement of shared susceptibility genes. To date, most of the genetic variants associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility also show association with others ADs. ITGAM and its associated ‘predisposing’ variant (rs1143679, Arg77His), predicted to alter the tertiary structures of the ligand-binding domain of ITGAM, may play a key role for SLE pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine whether the ITGAM variant is also associated with other ADs. We evaluated case-control association between rs1143679 and ADs (N=18,457) including primary Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, celiac disease, and type-1 diabetes. We also performed meta-analyses using our data in addition to available published data. Although the risk allele ‘A’ is relatively more frequent among cases for each disease, it was not significantly associated with any other ADs tested in this study. However, the meta-analysis for systemic sclerosis was associated with rs1143679 (pmeta=0.008). In summary, this study explored the role of ITGAM in general autoimmunity in seven non-lupus ADs, and only found association for systemic sclerosis when our results were combined with published results. Thus ITGAM may not be a general autoimmunity gene but this variant may be specifically associated with SLE and systemic sclerosis.
ITGAM; autoimmune diseases; genetic susceptibility
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a chronic autoimmune disease for which the aetiology includes genetic and environmental factors. ITGAM, integrin αΜ (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit) encoding a ligand for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) proteins, is an established SLE susceptibility locus. This study aimed to evaluate the independent and joint effects of genetic variations in the genes that encode ITGAM and ICAM.
The authors examined several markers in the ICAM1–ICAM4–ICAM5 locus on chromosome 19p13 and the single ITGAM polymorphism (rs1143679) using a large-scale case–control study of 17 481 unrelated participants from four ancestry populations. The single marker association and gene–gene interaction were analysed for each ancestry, and a meta-analysis across the four ancestries was performed.
The A-allele of ICAM1–ICAM4–ICAM5 rs3093030, associated with elevated plasma levels of soluble ICAM1, and the A-allele of ITGAM rs1143679 showed the strongest association with increased SLE susceptibility in each of the ancestry populations and the trans-ancestry meta-analysis (ORmeta=1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.22; p=4.88×10−10 and ORmeta=1.67, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.79; p=3.32×10−46, respectively). The effect of the ICAM single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was independent of the effect of the ITGAM SNP rs1143679, and carriers of both ICAM rs3093030-AA and ITGAM rs1143679-AA had an OR of 4.08 compared with those with no risk allele in either SNP (95% CI 2.09 to 7.98; p=3.91×10−5).
These findings are the first to suggest that an ICAM–integrin-mediated pathway contributes to susceptibility to SLE.
To determine the clinical manifestations and disease damage associated with discoid rash in a large multiethnic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort.
SLE patients (per ACR criteria), age ≥ 16 years, disease duration ≤ 10 years at enrollment, and defined ethnicity (African American, Hispanic or Caucasian), from a longitudinal cohort were studied. Socioeconomic-demographic features, clinical manifestations and disease damage [as per the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI)] were determined. The association of DLE with clinical manifestations and disease damage was examined using multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 2,228 SLE patients were studied. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age at diagnosis was 34.3 (12.8) years and the mean (SD) disease duration was 7.9 (6.0) years; 91.8% were women. Discoid lupus was observed in 393 (17.6%) of patients with SLE. In the multivariable analysis, patients with discoid lupus were more likely to be smokers and of African-American ethnicity, and to have malar rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, leukopenia and vasculitis. DLE patients were less likely to be of Hispanic (from Texas) ethnicity, and to have arthritis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and antinuclear, anti-dsDNA and anti-phospholipid antibodies. Patients with DLE had more damage accrual, particularly chronic seizures, scarring alopecia, scarring of the skin, and skin ulcers.
In this cohort of SLE patients, discoid lupus was associated with several clinical features including serious manifestations such as vasculitis and chronic seizures.
discoid rash; systemic lupus erythematosus; disease damage
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient.
To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression.
A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele.
Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus.
Tumid lupus erythematosus is a rare variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus that is characterized clinically by smooth, nonscarring, pink to violaceous papules or plaques without evidence of surface change. Histopathologic features include superficial and deep lymphocytic infiltration in a perivascular and periadnexal distribution, with dermal interstitial mucin deposition and focal or absent dermoepidermal junction involvement. These clinical and histopathologic features can be challenging to differentiate from other cutaneous diseases. This is particularly true because patients with tumid lupus erythematosus usually do not have other manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus or cutaneous lupus erythematosus. We present two cases of tumid lupus erythematosus, one associated with concomitant systemic lupus erythematosus and the other occurring concurrently with discoid lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, we demonstrate the rare occurrence of a patient with tumid LE occurring below the waist at a photoprotected site.
tumid lupus erythematosus; systemic lupus erythematosus; discoid lupus erythematosus; chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Accumulating evidence shows that shared autoimmunity is critical for the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) belongs to the connective tissue disorders, and recent data have highlighted strong associations with autoimmunity genes shared with other autoimmune diseases. To determine whether novel risk loci associated with systemic lupus erythematosus or multiple sclerosis may confer susceptibility to SSc, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from ITGAM, ITGAX, and CD58 for associations.
SNP harboring associations with autoimmune diseases, ITGAM rs9937837, ITGAX rs11574637, and CD58 rs12044852, were genotyped in 2 independent cohorts of European Caucasian ancestry: 1031 SSc patients and 1014 controls from France and 1038 SSc patients and 691 controls from the USA, providing a combined study population of 3774 individuals. ITGAM rs1143679 was additionally genotyped in the French cohort.
The 4 polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 2 control populations, and allelic frequencies were similar to those expected in European Caucasian populations. Allelic and genotypic frequencies for these 3 SNP were found to be statistically similar in SSc patients and controls. Subphenotype analyses for subgroups having diffuse cutaneous subtype disease, specific autoantibodies, or fibrosing alveolitis did not reveal any difference between SSc patients and controls.
These results obtained through 2 large cohorts of SSc patients of European Caucasian ancestry do not support the implication of ITGAM, ITGAX, and CD58 genes in the genetic susceptibility of SSc, although they were recently identified as autoimmune disease risk genes.
SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS; SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS; AUTOIMMUNITY SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM; ITGAM; ITGAX; CD58
Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has traditionally been considered a disease of women, men may also be affected. Thirty of 261 patients (12%) with SLE seen in this hospital were men. Arthritis was less common as a first symptom in the men, although this group of patients had discoid lesions and serositis more often than the women. During the follow up a lower incidence of arthritis and malar rash and a higher incidence of other skin complications including discoid lesions and subcutaneous lupus erythematosus was found in the men. The incidence of nephropathy, neurological disease, thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, and serositis, was similar in the two groups. No significant immunological differences were found between men and women. These features indicate that several gender associated clinical differences may be present in patients with SLE.
The rs1143679 variant of ITGAM, encoding the R77H variant of CD11b (part of complement receptor 3; CR3), is among the strongest genetic susceptibility effects in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors aimed to demonstrate R77H function in ex-vivo human cells.
Monocytes/monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers homozygous for either wild type (WT) or 77H CD11b were studied. The genotype-specific expression of CD11b, and CD11b activation using conformation-specific antibodies were measured. Genotype-specific differences in iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, adhesion to a range of ligands and the secretion of cytokines following CR3 ligation were studied. The functionality of R77H was confirmed by replicating findings in COS7 cells expressing variant-specific CD11b.
No genotype-specific difference in CD11b expression or in the expression of CD11b activation epitopes was observed. A 31% reduction was observed in the phagocytosis of iC3b opsonised sheep erythrocytes (sRBCiC3b) by 77H cells (p=0.003) and reduced adhesion to a range of ligands: notably a 24% reduction in adhesion to iC3b (p=0.014). In transfected COS7 cells, a 42% reduction was observed in phagocytosis by CD11b (77H)-expressing cells (p=0.004). A significant inhibition was seen in the release of Toll-like receptor 7/8-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from WT monocytes when CR3 was pre-engaged using sRBCiC3b, but no inhibition in 77H monocytes resulting in a significant difference between genotypes (interleukin (IL)-1β p=0.030; IL-6 p=0.029; tumour necrosis factor alpha p=0.027).
The R77H variant impairs a broad range of CR3 effector functions in human monocytes. This study discusses how perturbation of this pathway may predispose to SLE.
To determine whether genetic substructure in European-derived populations is associated with specific manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including mucocutaneous phenotypes, autoantibody production, and renal disease.
SLE patients of European descent (n=1754) from 8 case collections were genotyped for over 1,400 ancestry informative markers that define a north/south gradient of European substructure. Based on these genetic markers, we used the STRUCTURE program to characterize each SLE patient in terms of percent northern (vs. southern) European ancestry. Non-parametric methods, including tests of trend, were used to identify associations between northern European ancestry and specific SLE manifestations.
In multivariate analyses, increasing levels of northern European ancestry were significantly associated with photosensitivity (ptrend=0.0021, OR for highest quartile of northern European ancestry compared to lowest quartile 1.64, 95% CI 1.13–2.35) and discoid rash (ptrend=0.014, ORhigh-low 1.93, 95% CI 0.98–3.83). In contrast, northern European ancestry was protective for anticardiolipin (ptrend=1.6 × 10−4, ORhigh-low 0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.69) and anti-dsDNA (ptrend=0.017, ORhigh-low 0.67, 95% CI 0.46–0.96) autoantibody production.
This study demonstrates that specific SLE manifestations vary according to northern vs. southern European ancestry. Thus, genetic ancestry may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity and variation in disease outcomes among SLE patients of European descent. Moreover, these results suggest that genetic studies of SLE subphenotypes will need to carefully address issues of population substructure due to genetic ancestry.
Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus, comprising atrioventricular conduction defects and cardiomyopathy, occur in fetuses exposed to anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, and carry substantial mortality. There is strong evidence of a genetic contribution to the risk. This study was undertaken to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with cardiac neonatal lupus.
Children of European ancestry with cardiac neonatal lupus (n = 116) were genotyped using the Illumina 370K SNP platform and merged with 3,351 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for association with cardiac neonatal lupus were determined.
The 17 most significant associations with cardiac neonatal lupus were found in the HLA region. The region near the MICB gene showed the strongest variant (rs3099844; Pdom = 4.52 × 10−10, OR 3.34 [95% CI 2.29–4.89]), followed by a missense variant within C6orf10 (rs7775397; Pdom = 1.35 × 10−9, OR 3.30), which lies between NOTCH4 and BTNL2, and several SNPs near the tumor necrosis factor α gene, including rs2857595 (Padd = 1.96 × 10−9, OR 2.37), rs2230365 (Padd = 1.00 × 10−3, OR 0.46), and rs3128982 (Padd = 6.40 × 10−6, OR 1.86). Outside the HLA region, an association was detected at 21q22, upstream of the transcription regulator ets-related isoform 1 (rs743446; P = 5.45 × 10−6, OR 2.40). HLA notwithstanding, no individual locus previously implicated in autoimmune diseases achieved genome-wide significance.
These results suggest that variation near genes related to inflammatory and apoptotic responses may promote cardiac injury initiated by passively acquired autoantibodies.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a primary pathogenic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and high IFN-α levels may be associated with particular clinical manifestations. The prevalence of individual clinical and serologic features differs significantly by ancestry. We used multivariate and network analyses to detect associations between clinical and serologic disease manifestations and serum IFN-α activity in a large diverse SLE cohort.
1089 SLE patients were studied (387 African-American, 186 Hispanic-American, and 516 European-American). Presence or absence of ACR clinical criteria for SLE, autoantibodies, and serum IFN-α activity data were analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Iterative multivariate logistic regression was performed in each background separately to establish the network of associations between variables that were independently significant following Bonferroni correction.
In all ancestral backgrounds, high IFN-α activity was associated with anti-Ro and anti-dsDNA antibodies (p-values 4.6×10−18 and 2.9 × 10−16 respectively). Younger age, non-European ancestry, and anti-RNP were also independently associated with increased serum IFN-α activity (p≤6.7×10−4). We found 14 unique associations between variables in network analysis, and only 7 of these associations were shared by more than one ancestral background. Associations between clinical criteria were different in different ancestral backgrounds, while autoantibody-IFN-α relationships were similar across backgrounds. IFN-α activity and autoantibodies were not associated with ACR clinical features in multivariate models.
Serum IFN-α activity was strongly and consistently associated with autoantibodies, and not independently associated with clinical features in SLE. IFN-α may be more relevant to humoral tolerance and initial pathogenesis than later clinical disease manifestations.
systemic lupus erythematosus; interferon alpha; autoantibodies; ancestry
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question.
European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication.
There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci.
Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component.
Methods: Genotyping of Fcγ receptors IIa H/R131, IIIa F/V158, and IIIb NA1/NA2 was performed in 302 patients with SLE and 311 healthy blood donor controls. The distribution of Fcγ receptor IIa, IIIa, and IIIb genotypes in patients and controls was analysed. Frequencies of three Fcγ receptor polymorphisms were also compared between lupus patients with and without different clinical manifestations and autoantibodies.
Results: No significant skewing in the distribution of Fcγ RIIa H/R131, Fcγ RIIIa F/V158, and Fcγ RIIIb NA1/NA2 was found between patients and controls in Taiwan. The following clinical associations were found: Fcγ RIIIb NA1/NA1 protected against neuropsychiatric lupus (p = 0.028) but conferred susceptibility to discoid rash (p<0.005); increased Fcγ RIIIa V/V158 was associated with infections (p = 0.039); increased Fcγ RIIa H/H131 was associated with earlier onset of lupus (p = 0.01).
Conclusion: Fcγ receptor IIa, IIIa, and IIIb polymorphisms may be responsible for the development of distinct manifestations of lupus patients in Taiwan, but there is no significantly skewed distribution in the susceptibility to lupus as a whole.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects minorities, such as Hispanic-Americans. Prevalence of SLE is 3–5 times higher in Hispanic Americans (HA) than European derived populations, and have more active disease at the time of diagnosis, with more serious organ system involvement. HA is an admixed population, it is possible that there is an effect of admixture on the relative risk of disease. This admixture can create substantial increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in both magnitude and range, which can provide a unique opportunity for admixture mapping. Main objectives of this study are to (a) estimate hidden population structure in HA individuals; (b) estimate individual ancestry proportions and its impact on SLE risk; (c) assess impact of admixture on ITGAM association, a recently identified SLE susceptibility gene; and (d) estimate power of admixture mapping in HA. Our dataset contained 1,125 individuals, of whom 884 (657 SLE cases and 227 controls) were self classified as HA. Using 107 unlinked ancestry informative markers (AIMs) we estimated hidden population structure and individual ancestry in HA. Out of 5,671 possible pair-wise LD, 54% were statistically significant, indicating recent population admixture. The best fitted model for HA was a four population model with average ancestry of European (48%), American-Indian (40%), African (8%) and a fourth population (4%) with unknown ancestry. We also identified significant higher risk associated with American-Indian ancestry (OR=4.84, P=0.0001, 95%CI=2.14—10.95) on overall SLE. We showed that ITGAM is associated as a risk factor for SLE (OR= 2.06, P=8.74×10−5, 95%CI=1.44–2.97). This association is not affected by population substructure or admixture. We have demonstrated that HA have great potential and are an 3 appropriate population for admixture mapping. As expected, the case-only design is more powerful than case-control design, for any given admixture proportion or ancestry risk ratio.
SLE; Association; Hispanics; Admixture mapping; Hispanic-American; Population structure
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with diverse clinical manifestations characterized by the development of pathogenic autoantibodies manifesting in inflammation of target organs such as the kidneys, skin and joints. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in the UBE2L3 region that are associated with SLE in subjects of European and Asian ancestry. UBE2L3 encodes an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBCH7, involved in cell proliferation and immune function. In this study, we sought to further characterize the genetic association in the region of UBE2L3 and use molecular methods to determine the functional effect of the risk haplotype. We identified significant associations between variants in the region of UBE2L3 and SLE in individuals of European and Asian ancestry that exceeded a Bonferroni corrected threshold (P < 1 × 10−4). A single risk haplotype was observed in all associated populations. Individuals harboring the risk haplotype display a significant increase in both UBE2L3 mRNA expression (P = 0.0004) and UBCH7 protein expression (P = 0.0068). The results suggest that variants carried on the SLE associated UBE2L3 risk haplotype influence autoimmunity by modulating UBCH7 expression.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; UBE2L3; Multi Ethnic Association Study; UBCH7 Expression
Objective: To ascertain the possible involvement of functional interleukin 10 (IL10) and tumour necrosis α (TNFα) cytokine promoter polymorphisms on the susceptibility to discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus (DLE, SLE), and their associations with immunological features.
Methods: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL10 (–1082, –819, and –592) and TNFα (–308) genes were determined using allele specific probes in 248 lupus patients and 343 matched controls. To assess functional significance of genotypes, basal mRNA cytokine levels were quantified in 106 genotyped healthy controls by real time RT-PCR. Specific autoantibodies and cutaneous manifestations were analysed in SLE patients and associated with functional genotypes.
Results: After analysing the distribution of IL10 and TNFα transcript levels according to promoter genotypes in healthy individuals, patients and controls were classified into functional single and combined genotypes according to the expected high or low constitutive cytokine production. High TNFα genotypes (–308AA or AG) were associated with SLE independently of IL10 alleles, whereas the risk of developing DLE and the prevalence of discoid lesion in SLE were higher in the high IL10/low TNFα producer group (–1082GG/–308GG). Cytokine interaction also influences the appearance of autoantibodies. Antibodies against Sm are prevalent among low producer patients for both cytokines, a genotype not associated with lupus incidence, whereas low IL10/high TNFα patients have the highest frequency of antibodies to SSa and SSb.
Conclusions: IL10/TNFα interaction influences susceptibility to DLE and the appearance of specific autoantibodies in SLE patients, whereas high TNFα producer genotypes represent a significant risk factor for SLE.
Several confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for lupus have been described. To date, no clear evidence for genetic epistasis is established in lupus. We test for gene-gene interactions in a number of known lupus susceptibility loci.
Eighteen SNPs tagging independent and confirmed lupus susceptibility loci were genotyped in a set of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 normal healthy controls of European descent. Epistasis was tested using a 2-step approach utilizing both parametric and non-parametric methods. The false discovery rate (FDR) method was used to correct for multiple testing.
We detected and confirmed gene-gene interactions between the HLA region and CTLA4, IRF5, and ITGAM, and between PDCD1 and IL21 in lupus patients. The most significant interaction detected by parametric analysis was between rs3131379 in the HLA region and rs231775 in CTLA4 (Interaction odds ratio=1.19, z-score= 3.95, P= 7.8×10−5 (FDR≤0.05), PMDR= 5.9×10−45). Importantly, our data suggest that in lupus patients the presence of the HLA lupus-risk alleles in rs1270942 and rs3131379 increases the odds of also carrying the lupus-risk allele in IRF5 (rs2070197) by 17% and 16%, respectively (P= 0.0028 and 0.0047).
We provide evidence for gene-gene epistasis in systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings support a role for genetic interaction contributing to the complexity of lupus heritability.
This study was undertaken to analyze the histopathological findings of oral discoid lupus erythematosus with conventional light microscopy for early diagnosis of the oral lesions that would aid in prompt treatment.
To find out the predominant age, sex, site and clinical features of oral discoid lupus erythematosus. To study the histopathological features of oral discoid lupus erythematosus. To study the alterations of basement membrane changes of oral discoid lupus erythematosus.
Materials and Methods:
Our study consisted 21 cases of diagnosed DLE with oral lesions. A detailed clinical proforma was used for thorough clinical examination and light microscopy was used for histopathological study of the incisional biopsy specimens.
Statistical Analysis Used:
The lesions were diagnosed on the histopathological criteria given by Gisslen et al. and was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test.
In the present study 9.52% patients had only oral lesions, while 90.47% patients had oral lesions along with skin lesions with the most common site of oral involvement being labial mucosa (76.19%), vermillion border (71.42%) and buccal mucosa (42.85%). On clinical examination, white spots were present in 28.6%, ulcers in 19% and central erythema in 52.4% lesions. Histopathologically, atrophy was observed in 66.66% cases, acanthosis in 66.66% and acanthosis alternating with atrophy in 33.33% cases along with the basement membrane appearing thin and homogenous in 66.7% and partially destroyed in 81% cases with Periodic Acid Schiff stain.
Thus, from this study it was found that a diagnosis of oral discoid lupus erythematosus was based on the combination of clinical and histopathological findings. Thus the dentist may be in an important position to establish the diagnosis with the aid of clinical and histopathological findings before the cutaneous lesions become apparent.
Discoid lupus erythematosus; hyperkeratotic surface; periodic acid schiff stain; photosensitivity
A clinical and laboratory survey of systemic lupus erythematosus was conducted in 33 Arab patients in the UAE. Arthropathy (91%) followed by renal involvement (54%) and haematological disorders (45.5%) were the major clinical manifestations. Discoid rash (3%) was the least common. Apart from headaches, other neuropsychiatric symptoms were uncommon or not encountered. A number of distinctive clinical subsets of lupus was also observed. An unusually high prevalence of dsDNA antibodies was detected in the study (97%), compared with a prevalence of 89.5% of ANF. There was a relative paucity of anti-Ro (18.5%), La (7.5%) and RNP (11%) antibodies, but a high rate of anti-Sm(33%). The occurrence of the latter in patients with central nervous system and renal disease was insignificant. C3-Hypocomplementaemia occurred in 38.5% of the patients and a positive VDRL and Coomb's test in 9% and 24%, respectively. This study provides additional information on the characterization of systemic lupus erythematosus in various populations.
Propylthiouracil and methimazole are frequently used in the management of hyperthyroidism. Two patients in whom adverse immunologic effects other than isolated agranulocytosis developed during treatment with propylthiouracil are described. A review of the literature revealed 53 similar cases over a 35-year period. Rash, fever, arthralgias and granulocytopenia were the most common manifestations. Vasculitis, particularly with cutaneous manifestations, occurs and may be fatal. The clinical evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism is involved. A number of different autoantibodies were reported, but antinuclear antibodies were infrequent, and none of the cases met the criteria for a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, the reactions do not represent a true drug-induced lupus syndrome. Current hypotheses and experimental data regarding the cause of the reactions are reviewed. No specific clinical subgroup at high risk can be identified, and manifestations may occur at any dosage and at any time during therapy. Cross-reactivity between the two antithyroid drugs can be expected. Except for minor symptoms (e.g., mild arthralgias or transient rash), such reactions are an indication for withdrawal of the drug and the use of alternative methods to control the hyperthyroidism. In rare cases of severe vasculitis a short course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy may be helpful.