Oxidative stress is recognized as a major pathogenic factor of cellular damage caused by hyperglycemia. NOX/NADPH oxidases generate reactive oxygen species and NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 isoforms are expressed in kidney and require association with subunit p22phox (encoded by the CYBA gene). Increased expression of p22phox was described in animal models of diabetic nephropathy. In the opposite direction, glutathione is one of the main endogenous antioxidants whose plasmatic concentrations were reported to be reduced in diabetes patients. The aim of the present investigation was to test whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the generation of NADPH-dependent O2•- (-675 T → A in CYBA, unregistered) and in glutathione metabolism (-129 C → T in GCLC [rs17883901] and -65 T → C in GPX3 [rs8177412]) confer susceptibility to renal disease in type 1 diabetes patients.
401 patients were sorted into two groups according to the presence (n = 104) or absence (n = 196) of overt diabetic nephropathy or according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation: ≥ 60 mL (n = 265) or < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 136) and were genotyped.
No differences were found in the frequency of genotypes between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The frequency of GFR < 60 mL/min was significantly lower in the group of patients carrying CYBA genotypes T/A+A/A (18.7%) than in the group carrying the T/T genotype (35.3%) (P = 0.0143) and the frequency of GFR < 60 mL/min was significantly higher in the group of patients carrying GCLC genotypes C/T+T/T (47.1%) than in the group carrying the C/C genotype (31.1%) (p = 0.0082). Logistic regression analysis identified the presence of at least one A allele of the CYBA SNP as an independent protection factor against decreased GFR (OR = 0.38, CI95% 0.14-0.88, p = 0.0354) and the presence of at least one T allele of the GCLC rs17883901 SNP as an independent risk factor for decreased GFR (OR = 2.40, CI95% 1.27-4.56, p = 0.0068).
The functional SNPs CYBA -675 T → A and GCLC rs17883901, probably associated with cellular redox imbalances, modulate the risk for renal disease in the studied population of type 1 diabetes patients and require validation in additional cohorts.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training (AEXT) on dipping status in pre-hypertensive and stage-1 hypertensive individuals. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether AEXT alters oxidative stress and endothelial biomarkers correlated to dipping status.
Twenty-three subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at baseline and after 6 months of AEXT. AEXT consisted of training at 70% VO2max 3 days/week for 6 months. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides, urinary and plasma nitric oxide end-products, superoxide dismutase and 8-iso-PGF2α were measured before and after AEXT. Statistically, ANOVA and linear regression were used.
Before and after AEXT, there were no significant differences between dippers and non-dippers in any of the biomarkers except for total cholesterol following AEXT. In a sub-analysis following AEXT, 14 subjects retained their original dipping status, five subjects changed from dippers to non-dippers and four subjects changed from non-dippers to dippers. Significant differences existed between these groups in changes in total and LDL-cholesterol, ox-LDL, 8-iso-PGF2α and % Dip.
Changes in cholesterol levels but not oxidative stress or endothelial biomarkers were related to changes in BP variables following AEXT in dippers and non-dippers.
Aerobic exercise; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; dipper; non-dipper; hypertension; oxidative stress
Angiotensin II (AngII), via the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R), contributes to oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise training (AEXT) reduces the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, presumably by reducing the grade of oxidative stress. We investigated the independent and combined influence of the AGTR1 A1166C and −825 T/A polymorphisms on oxidative stress and plasma AngII responses to AEXT in pre- and stage 1 hypertensives. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α significantly increased with AEXT (p=0.002); however, there were no significant changes in superoxide dismutase activity or AngII levels. There was a significant difference in the change in AngII levels with AEXT between A1166C genotype groups (p=0.04) resulting in a significant interactive effect of the A1166C polymorphism and AEXT on the change in AngII (p<0.05). Only the TT genotype group of the −825 T/A polymorphism had a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.02). Risk allele analysis revealed a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.04) and a significant increase in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p=0.01) with AEXT in individuals with two risk alleles only. Our findings suggest that variation in the AGTR1 gene is associated with differential changes in plasma AngII but not oxidative stress.
AGTR1; angiotensin II; exercise; isoprostanes; oxidative stress
Background: specific polymorphisms of genes regulating intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress are related to atherogenesis. Some studies have identified a relationship between progression of atherosclerosis and C242T mutation in CYBA gene coding for p22phox, a subunit of the NADH/NADPH oxidase system.
Design: we investigated whether the C242T nucleotide transition is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population of 494 Caucasian Italians undergoing coronary angiography to diagnose the cause of chest pain.
Results: the frequency of the T mutant allele that we found in 276 patients with angiographically documented CAD was significantly higher compared to what we observed in 218 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Controls) (respectively: 0.400 and 0.332, p < 0.01). The prevalence of the T allele was even stronger when we compared: 1) early onset (age ≤55) vs late onset (age ≥65) single-vessel CAD patients (respectively: 0.75 and 0.48, p < 0.05), and 2) the subgroup of CAD patients with at least one ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel vs those with no ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel (respectively: 0.425 and 0.365, p < 0.05).
Conclusions: these results support the increased risk of developing early CAD and of having rapid progression of coronary stenosis in subjects carrying the C242T nucleotide transition among the Italian population.
Oxidative stress; cardiovascular; gene; variant; NAD(P)H oxidase
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the physiopathogenesis of hypertensive end-organ damage. This study investigated the impact of the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA) on left ventricular structure in Brazilian hypertensive subjects.
We cross-sectionally evaluated 561 patients from 2 independent centers [Campinas (n = 441) and Vitória (n = 120)] by clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of metabolic and echocardiography parameters as well as p22-phox C242T polymorphism genotyping. In addition, NADPH-oxidase activity was quantified in peripheral mononuclear cells from a subgroup of Campinas sample.
Genotype frequencies in both samples were consistent with the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Subjects with the T allele presented higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 than those carrying the CC genotype in Campinas (76.8 ± 1.6 vs 70.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.009), and in Vitória (45.6 ± 1.9 vs 39.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.023) samples. These results were confirmed by stepwise regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, metabolic variables and use of anti-hypertensive medications. In addition, increased NADPH-oxidase activity was detected in peripheral mononuclear cells from T allele carriers compared with CC genotype carriers (p = 0.03).
The T allele of the p22-phox C242T polymorphism is associated with higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 and increased NADPH-oxidase activity in Brazilian hypertensive patients. These data suggest that genetic variation within NADPH-oxidase components may modulate left ventricular remodeling in subjects with systemic hypertension.
p22-phox; left ventricle; hypertension; polymorphism; NADPH-oxidase
Background: The development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients is considered to be associated with oxidative stress. NAD(P)H oxidase has attracted attention as mechanisms of generating oxidative stress. We investigated the relation between the genotype of the C242T CYBA polymorphism of the NADPH oxidase and the development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
Methods: A total of 289 ESRD patients were recruited and allocated to one of the two groups: patients without cardiovascular disease (group N; n=192) and patients developing cardiovascular disease (group D; n=97). The C242T CYBA polymorphism was determined by RFLP-PCR methods.
Results: The frequency of the C242T CT+TT genotype was significantly lower in group D than in group N (9.1 vs. 20.2%). In multiple Logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure, smoking history and this gene polymorphism were shown to be independent variables for the development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
Conclusions: These results suggest that assessment of the C242T CYBA polymorphism of the NADPH oxidase may be useful in identifying the risk for developing cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
NAD(P)H Oxidase; gene polymorphism; cardiovascular disease
Persistent oxidative stress may play a key role in microvascular obstruction (MVO). We aimed at assessing the role of platelet gp91phox (NOX2), the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase in MVO.
We enrolled 40 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h from symptoms onset, either with angiographic MVO (n=20) or good angiographic myocardial reperfusion (MR) (n=20). Angiographic MVO was defined as a final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow ≤2 or TIMI flow of 3 with myocardial blush grade <2. NOX2 and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) levels, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) or by an enzyme immunoassays, respectively, were measured on admission, at 24 h and pre-discharge.
NOX2 levels increased from baseline to pre-discharge in patients with angiographic MVO (20.25 (15–24.75) pg/ml vs 25.50 (17–29.25) pg/ml, p=0.02), but not in MR patients (p=0.45), with a significant interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.04). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α showed a trend to increase from baseline to pre-discharge in angiographic MVO patients (295 (183.50–389.25) pmol/l vs 322 (206–370) pmol/l, p=0.06), but not in patients with MR (p=0.56), with a trend for interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.09).
Patients with MVO, but not those with myocardial reperfusion, have a sustained increase of NOX2 and 8-iso-PGF2α. Therapies targeting NOX2 or high dosage antioxidants should be tested for MVO prevention and treatment.
ST-elevation myocardial infarction; primary percutaneous coronary intervention; microvascular obstruction; oxidative stress
NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and NOX2 oxidases are the major sources of ROS in the artery wall in conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and ageing, and so they are important contributors to the oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation that underlies arterial remodelling and atherogenesis. In this Review, we advance the concept that compared to the use of conventional antioxidants, inhibiting NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases is a superior approach for combating oxidative stress. We briefly describe some common and emerging putative NADPH oxidase inhibitors. In addition, we highlight the crucial role of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit, p47phox, in the activity of vascular NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases, and suggest how a better understanding of its specific molecular interactions may enable the development of novel isoform-selective drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases.
NADPH oxidase is an important enzyme involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species in acute kidney injury (AKI). Its key subunit, p22phox, is encoded by the highly polymorphic CYBA gene.
We examined the associations of CYBA gene polymorphisms across the CYBA locus (rs8854, rs3794624, rs4673, rs4782390, and rs1049255) with dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in 256 hospitalized adults with AKI. Dominant and haplotype multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusted for sex, race, age, and severity of illness.
The baseline characteristics of the patients were not different among genotype groups with the exception of a lower prevalence of sepsis and shock in the CYBA rs8854 A-allele group; a higher prevalence of shock in the CYBA rs4782390 T-allele group, and a higher APACHE II score in the CYBA rs1049255 G-allele group. The CYBA rs8854 A-allele had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.18–0.96) for the outcome of dialysis requirement or in-hospital death. The CYBA rs4673 T-allele and rs1049255 G-allele had unadjusted ORs of 1.69 (95% CI 1.03–2.79) and 1.66 (95% CI 1.01–2.73) for the composite outcome, respectively, which became non-significant after multivariable adjustment. The remaining 2 polymorphisms were not associated with the outcomes of interest. Finally, the presence of the CYBA A-A-G-G haplotype (generated from rs4782390, rs4673, rs3794624, and rs8854, all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) was associated with an elevated OR of 1.81 (95% CI 1.07–3.08) for dialysis requirement or in-hospital death, which was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (OR 1.80; 95% CI 0.99–3.29).
This study identifies several polymorphisms spanning the entire CYBA gene locus and a common haplotype as risk markers for dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in patients with AKI. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings.
Acute kidney injury; CYBA; Gene polymorphisms; Haplotype; Isoprostane; NADPH oxidase; Nitrotyrosine; NOX; p22phox
Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α) and thromboxane (11-dTXB2) were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (P = .04) following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (r = .49, P < .05) between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.
The C242T polymorphism of the CYBA gene that encodes p22phox, a component of NADPH oxidase, has been found to modulate superoxide production. Oxidase is a major source of the superoxide anion that contributes to individual components of metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationship of the C242T polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population, taking account of consumed cigarette amounts.
In 870 participants, we collected biomarkers related to metabolic syndrome and detailed history of smoking and genotyped the C242T polymorphisms. After adjustment for covariates, the CT/TT genotypes were associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.0008). The odds of having metabolic syndrome in the CT/TT participants were 0.439 (95%CI: 0.265, 0.726), while for CC participants the odds were 1.110 (95%CI: 0.904, 1.362). There was significant (P = 0.014) interaction between the C242T polymorphism and smoking status in relation to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. For smokers who smoke no less than 25 pack-years, those with CT/TT genotypes had lower risk of metabolic syndrome as compared with CC polymorphism carriers (P = 0.015). In the multiple regression analysis, the CT/TT genotypes were significantly associated with lower serum concentration of triglycerides both in all subjects and smokers; furthermore, the CT/TT genotypes were also related to smaller waist circumference in smokers.
Our study suggests that the C242T gene polymorphism is indeed related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking dose might modify this association.
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Several Nox isoforms are expressed in the vessel wall, among which Nox2 is especially abundant in the endothelium. Endothelial Nox2 levels rise during hypertension but little is known about the cell-specific role of endothelial Nox2 in vivo. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of Nox2 (Tg) and studied the effects on endothelial function and blood pressure. Tg had an about twofold increase in endothelial Nox2 levels which was accompanied by an increase in p22phox levels but no change in levels of other Nox isoforms or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Basal NADPH oxidase activity, endothelial function and blood pressure were unaltered in Tg compared to wild-type littermates. Angiotensin II caused a greater increase in ROS production in Tg compared to wild-type aorta and attenuated acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation. Both low and high dose chronic angiotensin II infusion increased telemetric ambulatory blood pressure more in Tg compared to wild-type, but with different patterns of BP change and aortic remodeling depending upon the dose of angiotensin II dose. These results indicate that an increase in endothelial Nox2 levels contributes to angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and hypertension.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-011-0179-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Endothelium; Vascular tone; NADPH oxidase; Hypertension; Reactive oxygen species
Accumulating evidence indicates that aldosterone plays a critical role in the mediation of oxidative stress and vascular damage. NADPH oxidase has been recognized as a major source of oxidative stress in vasculature. However, the relation between NADPH oxidase in aldosterone-mediated oxidative stress in endothelial cells remains to be ascertained. The present study aimed to investigate the relevant role of NADPH oxidase in aldosterone induced oxidative stress and the functional consequence of this effect on endothelial function. Additionally, we attempted to examine the potential role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist; spironolactone (spiro) in this scenario. Human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) were incubated with aldosterone (100 nmol/L, 24 h) in the absence and presence of Spiro (1 µmol/L). The results showed that aldosterone significantly increased the protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, p47phox and p22phox) and that spiro markedly inhibited these changes. Functionally, this was associated with an elevation in NADPH oxidase activity and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) as a biochemical marker of oxidative stress. However, pre-incubation with spiro inhibited these consequences. Moreover, MR protein expression was upregulated by aldosterone whereas this effect was suppressed by Spiro. While aldosterone effectively inhibited endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) protein expression, pretreatment with spiro markedly restored it to its normal level. In conclusion, the results achieved suggest that aldosterone may play a critical role in NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress resulting in reduced eNOS expression in human endothelial cells. Spiro effectively reversed these consequences, suggesting its potential vasculoprotective effect in endothelial dysfunction.
Aldosterone; Spironolactone; Oxidative stress; NADPH oxidase; Endothelium
It has been suggested that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress play an important role in ethanol-induced damage to both the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). The mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neuronal ROS, however, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in ethanol-induced ROS generation. We demonstrated that ethanol activated NOX and inhibition of NOX reduced ethanol-promoted ROS generation. Ethanol significantly increased the expression of p47phox and p67phox, the essential subunits for NOX activation in cultured neuronal cells and the cerebral cortex of infant mice. Ethanol caused serine phosphorylation and membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox, which were prerequisites for NOX assembly and activation. Knocking down p47phox with the small interfering RNA was sufficient to attenuate ethanol-induced ROS production and ameliorate ethanol-mediated oxidative damage, which is indicated by a decrease in protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Ethanol activated cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) and overexpression of a dominant negative (DN) Cdc42 abrogate ethanol-induced NOX activation and ROS generation. These results suggest that Cdc42-dependent NOX activation mediates ethanol-induced oxidative damages to neurons.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) facilitates the response of prostate cancer (PC) to radiation. Androgens have been shown to induce elevated basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC, leading to adaptation to radiation-induced cytotoxic oxidative stress. Here, we show that androgens increase the expression of p22phox and gp91phox subunits of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and ROS production by NOX2 and NOX4 in PC. Pre-radiation treatment of 22Rv1 human PC cells with NOX inhibitors sensitize the cells to radiation similarly to ADT, suggesting that their future usage may spare the need for adjuvant ADT in PC patients undergoing radiation.
androgens; testosterone; oxidative stress; NADPH oxidase; NOX; radiation
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the NADPH oxidases contribute to hypertension via mechanisms that remain undefined. ROS produced in the central nervous system have been proposed to promote sympathetic outflow, inflammation and hypertension, but the contribution of the NADPH oxidases to these processes in chronic hypertension is uncertain. We therefore sought to identify how NADPH oxidases in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain regulate blood pressure and vascular inflammation during sustained hypertension. We produced mice with loxP sites flanking the coding region of the NADPH oxidase docking subunit p22phox. SFO-targeted injections of an adenovirus encoding cre-recombinase (AdCre) markedly diminished p22phox, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNA in the SFO as compared to a control adenovirus (AdRFP) injection. Increased superoxide production in the SFO by chronic angiotensin II infusion (490 ng/kg/min × 2 weeks), was blunted in AdCre-treated mice as detected by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Deletion of p22phox in the SFO eliminated the hypertensive response observed at two weeks of angiotensin II infusion compared to AdRFP-treated mice (mean arterial pressures = 97±15 vs. 154±6 mmHg respectively, p = 0.0001). Angiotensin II-infusion also promoted marked vascular inflammation, as characterized by accumulation of activated T cells and other leukocytes, and this was prevented by deletion of the SFO p22phox. These experiments definitively identify the NADPH oxidases in the SFO as a critical determinant of the blood pressure and vascular inflammatory responses to chronic angiotensin II, and further support a role of ROS in central nervous system signaling in hypertension.
NADPH oxidase; blood pressure; inflammation; vasculature; central nervous system
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in sleep apnea (SA), induces increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation and deficits in hippocampal learning and memory. Similar to IH, high fat-refined carbohydrate diet (HFD), a frequent occurrence in patients with SA, can also induce similar oxidative stress and cognitive deficits under normoxic conditions, suggesting that excessive NADPH oxidase activity may underlie central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction in both conditions. The effect of HFD and IH during the light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze as well as on markers of oxidative stress was assessed in male mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox-/Y) and wild-type littermates fed HFD. On a standard place training task, gp91phox_/Y displayed normal learning, and was protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to HFD and IH as compared to controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox_/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox_/Y mice, had significantly elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampal lysates following IH-HFD exposures. The cognitive deficits of obesity and westernized diets and those of sleep disorders that are characterized by IH during sleep are both mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity.
Intermittent hypoxia; NADPH oxidase; high fat diet; sleep apnea; oxidative stress; cognitive impairment
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Although overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested to play a major role in its carcinogenicity, the mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced ROS production remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX), one of the major sources of cellular ROS, in Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. We found that short-term exposure to Cr(VI) (2μM) resulted in a rapid increase in ROS generation in Beas-2B cells, and concomitantly increased NOX activity and expression of NOX members (NOX1–3 and NOX5) and subunits (p22phox, p47phox, p40phox, and p67phox). Cr(VI) also induced phosphorylation of p47phox and membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox, further confirming NOX activation. Knockdown of p47phox with a short hairpin RNA attenuated the ROS production induced by Cr(VI). Chronic exposure (up to 3 months) to low doses of Cr(VI) (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5μM) also promoted ROS generation and the expression of NOX subunits, such as p47phox and p67phox, but inhibited the expression of main antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Chronic Cr(VI) exposure resulted in transformation of Beas-2B cells, increasing cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth in soft agar, and forming aggressive tumors in nude mice. Stable knockdown of p47phox or overexpression of SOD1, SOD2, or catalase (CAT) eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Our results suggest that NOX plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced ROS generation and carcinogenesis.
hexavalent chromium; NADPH oxidase; ROS generation; carcinogenesis
Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox−/−, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox−/− mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox−/− mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox−/− mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox−/− mice groups.
Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of muscle damage in dystrophic (mdx) mice. In this study we have investigated the role of NADPH oxidase as a source of the oxidative stress in these mice. The NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox, p67phox and rac 1 were increased 2–3 fold in tibilais anterior muscles from mdx mice compared to wild type. Importantly, this increase occurred in 19 day old mice, before the onset of muscle necrosis and inflammation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an important source of oxidative stress in mdx muscle. In muscles from 9 week old mdx mice, gp91phox and p67phox were increased 3–4 fold and NADPH oxidase superoxide production was 2 times greater than wild type. In single fibers from mdx muscle NADPH oxidase subunits were all located on or near the sarcolemma, except for p67phox,which was expressed in the cytosol. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase significantly reduced the intracellular Ca2+ rise following stretched contractions in mdx single fibers, and also attenuated the loss of muscle force. These results suggest that NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species in dystrophic muscle and its enhanced activity has a stimulatory effect on stretch-induced Ca2+ entry, a key mechanism for muscle damage and functional impairment.
Oxidative stress (OS) induced by acute exercise is reduced by chronic exercise. Ozone (O3) exposure produces OS. The aim of this study was to determine if aerobic exercise (AE) reduced OS produced by O3. A pilot experiment was performed with male Wistar rats submitted to AE (trained to swim 90 min/day). Adaptation to exercise was demonstrated three weeks after training by means of changes in reduced nitrates (NOx) in plasma. Therefore, two-week training was chosen for the following experiments. Six of twelve trained rats were exposed to O3 (0.5 ppm, 4 h/day, one hour before exercise). Two groups of sedentary animals (n = 6 each) were used as controls, one of which was exposed to O3. At the end of the experiments NOx, 8-isoprostane (8-IP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and carbonyls (CBs) were measured in plasma. CBs did not change in any group. O3-induced OS was manifested by reduced NOx and SOD activity, as well as increased 8-IP and MDA. Exercise significantly blocked O3 effects although SOD was also decreased by exercise (a greater drop occurring in the O3 group). It is concluded that AE protects against OS produced by O3 and the effect is independent of SOD.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as renal H2O2 production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H2O2 production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22phox in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22phox and the increases in renal H2O2 levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H2O2.
aging; oxidative stress; kidney; hydrogen peroxide; NADPH oxidase; antioxidant enzymes; Wistar Kyoto rat
Hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus results in the priming of neutrophils leading to oxidative stress that is, in part, responsible for diabetic complications. p47phox, a NADPH oxidase cytosolic subunit, is a key protein in the assembly of the NADPH oxidase leading to superoxide generation. Little is known about the priming mechanism of oxidative pathways in neutrophils of people with diabetes. In this study, the kinetics of p47phox activation was investigated by comparing neutrophils from diabetic and healthy subjects, and the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced changes was studied by using neutrophil-like HL-60 cells as a model. In resting neutrophils from diabetic subjects, p47phox prematurely translocates to the cell membrane and preassembles with p22phox, a NADPH oxidase membrane subunit. This premature p47phox translocation and preassembly with p22phox were also observed in HL-60 cells cultured with high glucose (HG; 25 mM) and with the specific ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), S100B. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK, was the primary signaling pathway, as evidenced by PD98059 suppressing the translocation of p47phox in HL-60 cells incubated with HG and S100B. HL-60 cells cultured in HG and S100B exhibited a 1.8-fold increase in fMLP-induced superoxide generation compared with those cultured in normal glucose (5.5 mM). These data suggest that HG and increased AGE prime neutrophils and increase oxidative stress inducing the translocation of p47phox to the cell membrane and preassembly with p22phox by stimulating a RAGE-ERK1/2 pathway.
inflammation; signal transduction; cell activation
Background and Objectives
The objective of this study was to determine if urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) could be used as markers of the oxidative stress in significant coronary artery disease (CAD).
Subjects and Methods
We conducted a case-control study in 104 subjects assessed by coronary angiography with the following diagnoses: 35 consecutive cases of significant CAD and 69 cases of non-CAD with stable angina. We compared the urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF 2α and 8-OHdG, as measured by immunoassay between the 2 groups.
History of hypertension was significantly higher and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly lower in the CAD group compared with those in the non-CAD group. Median levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in the CAD group compared with the non-CAD group (9.2 vs. 6.0 ng/mg, p=0.001). There were no significant differences in 8-OHdG values between the 2 groups. The odds ratio of 8-iso-PGF2α for CAD in the highest tertile compared with that in the lowest tertile was 7.39 (95% confidence interval; 1.71-31.91). There was no significant difference in median values of 8-iso-PGF2α between single- and multi-vessel CAD.
Urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α was independently associated with significant CAD in this case-control study.
Oxidative stress; Coronary artery disease
In rodents, exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is associated with neurobehavioral impairments, increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cortex, as well as increased oxidant stress and inflammation. Excessive NADPH oxidase activity may play a role in IH-induced CNS dysfunction.
Methods and Findings
The effect of IH during light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze and well as markers of oxidative stress was assessed in mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox_/Y) and wild-type littermates. On a standard place training task, gp91phox_/Y displayed normal learning, and were protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to IH as compared to room air (RA) controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox_/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox_/Y mice had significantly elevated levels of NADPH oxidase expression and activity, as well as MDA and 8-OHDG in cortical and hippocampal lysates following IH exposures.
The oxidative stress responses and neurobehavioral impairments induced by IH during sleep are mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity, and thus pharmacological agents targeting NADPH oxidase may provide a therapeutic strategy in sleep-disordered breathing.