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1.  CYBA Gene Polymorphisms and Adverse Outcomes in Acute Kidney Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study 
Nephron Extra  2011;1(1):112-123.
Background
NADPH oxidase is an important enzyme involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species in acute kidney injury (AKI). Its key subunit, p22phox, is encoded by the highly polymorphic CYBA gene.
Methods
We examined the associations of CYBA gene polymorphisms across the CYBA locus (rs8854, rs3794624, rs4673, rs4782390, and rs1049255) with dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in 256 hospitalized adults with AKI. Dominant and haplotype multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusted for sex, race, age, and severity of illness.
Results
The baseline characteristics of the patients were not different among genotype groups with the exception of a lower prevalence of sepsis and shock in the CYBA rs8854 A-allele group; a higher prevalence of shock in the CYBA rs4782390 T-allele group, and a higher APACHE II score in the CYBA rs1049255 G-allele group. The CYBA rs8854 A-allele had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.18–0.96) for the outcome of dialysis requirement or in-hospital death. The CYBA rs4673 T-allele and rs1049255 G-allele had unadjusted ORs of 1.69 (95% CI 1.03–2.79) and 1.66 (95% CI 1.01–2.73) for the composite outcome, respectively, which became non-significant after multivariable adjustment. The remaining 2 polymorphisms were not associated with the outcomes of interest. Finally, the presence of the CYBA A-A-G-G haplotype (generated from rs4782390, rs4673, rs3794624, and rs8854, all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) was associated with an elevated OR of 1.81 (95% CI 1.07–3.08) for dialysis requirement or in-hospital death, which was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (OR 1.80; 95% CI 0.99–3.29).
Conclusion
This study identifies several polymorphisms spanning the entire CYBA gene locus and a common haplotype as risk markers for dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in patients with AKI. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings.
doi:10.1159/000333017
PMCID: PMC3290849  PMID: 22470385
Acute kidney injury; CYBA; Gene polymorphisms; Haplotype; Isoprostane; NADPH oxidase; Nitrotyrosine; NOX; p22phox
2.  Association of genetic variants in the promoter region of genes encoding p22phox (CYBA) and glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:129.
Background
Oxidative stress is recognized as a major pathogenic factor of cellular damage caused by hyperglycemia. NOX/NADPH oxidases generate reactive oxygen species and NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 isoforms are expressed in kidney and require association with subunit p22phox (encoded by the CYBA gene). Increased expression of p22phox was described in animal models of diabetic nephropathy. In the opposite direction, glutathione is one of the main endogenous antioxidants whose plasmatic concentrations were reported to be reduced in diabetes patients. The aim of the present investigation was to test whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the generation of NADPH-dependent O2•- (-675 T → A in CYBA, unregistered) and in glutathione metabolism (-129 C → T in GCLC [rs17883901] and -65 T → C in GPX3 [rs8177412]) confer susceptibility to renal disease in type 1 diabetes patients.
Methods
401 patients were sorted into two groups according to the presence (n = 104) or absence (n = 196) of overt diabetic nephropathy or according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation: ≥ 60 mL (n = 265) or < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 136) and were genotyped.
Results
No differences were found in the frequency of genotypes between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The frequency of GFR < 60 mL/min was significantly lower in the group of patients carrying CYBA genotypes T/A+A/A (18.7%) than in the group carrying the T/T genotype (35.3%) (P = 0.0143) and the frequency of GFR < 60 mL/min was significantly higher in the group of patients carrying GCLC genotypes C/T+T/T (47.1%) than in the group carrying the C/C genotype (31.1%) (p = 0.0082). Logistic regression analysis identified the presence of at least one A allele of the CYBA SNP as an independent protection factor against decreased GFR (OR = 0.38, CI95% 0.14-0.88, p = 0.0354) and the presence of at least one T allele of the GCLC rs17883901 SNP as an independent risk factor for decreased GFR (OR = 2.40, CI95% 1.27-4.56, p = 0.0068).
Conclusions
The functional SNPs CYBA -675 T → A and GCLC rs17883901, probably associated with cellular redox imbalances, modulate the risk for renal disease in the studied population of type 1 diabetes patients and require validation in additional cohorts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-12-129
PMCID: PMC3206419  PMID: 21962117
3.  Independent and combined influence of AGTR1 variants and aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in hypertensives 
Blood pressure  2009;18(4):204-212.
Angiotensin II (AngII), via the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R), contributes to oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise training (AEXT) reduces the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, presumably by reducing the grade of oxidative stress. We investigated the independent and combined influence of the AGTR1 A1166C and −825 T/A polymorphisms on oxidative stress and plasma AngII responses to AEXT in pre- and stage 1 hypertensives. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α significantly increased with AEXT (p=0.002); however, there were no significant changes in superoxide dismutase activity or AngII levels. There was a significant difference in the change in AngII levels with AEXT between A1166C genotype groups (p=0.04) resulting in a significant interactive effect of the A1166C polymorphism and AEXT on the change in AngII (p<0.05). Only the TT genotype group of the −825 T/A polymorphism had a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.02). Risk allele analysis revealed a significant reduction in plasma AngII (p=0.04) and a significant increase in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p=0.01) with AEXT in individuals with two risk alleles only. Our findings suggest that variation in the AGTR1 gene is associated with differential changes in plasma AngII but not oxidative stress.
doi:10.1080/08037050903118706
PMCID: PMC2922402  PMID: 19593696
AGTR1; angiotensin II; exercise; isoprostanes; oxidative stress
4.  The relationship of oxidative stress and cholesterol with dipping status before and after aerobic exercise training 
Blood pressure  2009;18(4):171-179.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training (AEXT) on dipping status in pre-hypertensive and stage-1 hypertensive individuals. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether AEXT alters oxidative stress and endothelial biomarkers correlated to dipping status.
Methods
Twenty-three subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at baseline and after 6 months of AEXT. AEXT consisted of training at 70% VO2max 3 days/week for 6 months. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides, urinary and plasma nitric oxide end-products, superoxide dismutase and 8-iso-PGF2α were measured before and after AEXT. Statistically, ANOVA and linear regression were used.
Results
Before and after AEXT, there were no significant differences between dippers and non-dippers in any of the biomarkers except for total cholesterol following AEXT. In a sub-analysis following AEXT, 14 subjects retained their original dipping status, five subjects changed from dippers to non-dippers and four subjects changed from non-dippers to dippers. Significant differences existed between these groups in changes in total and LDL-cholesterol, ox-LDL, 8-iso-PGF2α and % Dip.
Conclusions
Changes in cholesterol levels but not oxidative stress or endothelial biomarkers were related to changes in BP variables following AEXT in dippers and non-dippers.
doi:10.1080/08037050903047160
PMCID: PMC2922419  PMID: 19544106
Aerobic exercise; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; dipper; non-dipper; hypertension; oxidative stress
5.  NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking 
Toxicological Research  2014;30(3):149-157.
Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat smoking-induced CVD.
doi:10.5487/TR.2014.30.3.149
PMCID: PMC4206741  PMID: 25343008
Smoking; Cigarette; NADPH oxidase; Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress; Cardiovascular disease
6.  Patients with microvascular obstruction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention show a gp91phox (NOX2) mediated persistent oxidative stress after reperfusion 
Background:
Persistent oxidative stress may play a key role in microvascular obstruction (MVO). We aimed at assessing the role of platelet gp91phox (NOX2), the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase in MVO.
Methods:
We enrolled 40 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h from symptoms onset, either with angiographic MVO (n=20) or good angiographic myocardial reperfusion (MR) (n=20). Angiographic MVO was defined as a final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow ≤2 or TIMI flow of 3 with myocardial blush grade <2. NOX2 and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) levels, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) or by an enzyme immunoassays, respectively, were measured on admission, at 24 h and pre-discharge.
Results:
NOX2 levels increased from baseline to pre-discharge in patients with angiographic MVO (20.25 (15–24.75) pg/ml vs 25.50 (17–29.25) pg/ml, p=0.02), but not in MR patients (p=0.45), with a significant interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.04). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α showed a trend to increase from baseline to pre-discharge in angiographic MVO patients (295 (183.50–389.25) pmol/l vs 322 (206–370) pmol/l, p=0.06), but not in patients with MR (p=0.56), with a trend for interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.09).
Conclusion:
Patients with MVO, but not those with myocardial reperfusion, have a sustained increase of NOX2 and 8-iso-PGF2α. Therapies targeting NOX2 or high dosage antioxidants should be tested for MVO prevention and treatment.
doi:10.1177/2048872613504698
PMCID: PMC3821834  PMID: 24338297
ST-elevation myocardial infarction; primary percutaneous coronary intervention; microvascular obstruction; oxidative stress
7.  Relation between Development of Cardiovascular Disease and the C242T CYBA Polymorphism of the NADPH Oxidase in ESRD Patients 
Disease markers  2010;29(2):89-93.
Background: The development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients is considered to be associated with oxidative stress. NAD(P)H oxidase has attracted attention as mechanisms of generating oxidative stress. We investigated the relation between the genotype of the C242T CYBA polymorphism of the NADPH oxidase and the development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
Methods: A total of 289 ESRD patients were recruited and allocated to one of the two groups: patients without cardiovascular disease (group N; n=192) and patients developing cardiovascular disease (group D; n=97). The C242T CYBA polymorphism was determined by RFLP-PCR methods.
Results: The frequency of the C242T CT+TT genotype was significantly lower in group D than in group N (9.1 vs. 20.2%). In multiple Logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure, smoking history and this gene polymorphism were shown to be independent variables for the development of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
Conclusions: These results suggest that assessment of the C242T CYBA polymorphism of the NADPH oxidase may be useful in identifying the risk for developing cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2010-0730
PMCID: PMC3835383  PMID: 21045268
NAD(P)H Oxidase; gene polymorphism; cardiovascular disease
8.  The −930A>G polymorphism of the CYBA gene is associated with premature coronary artery disease. A case–control study and gene–risk factors interactions 
Molecular Biology Reports  2014;41(5):3287-3294.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). NADPH oxidases are the main source of ROS in the vasculature. p22phox is a critical component of vascular NADPH oxidases and is encoded by the CYBA (cytochrome b245 alpha) gene. The −930A>G CYBA polymorphism (rs9932581:A>G) modulates the activity of the CYBA promoter, and influences CYBA transcriptional activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze a possible association between the −930A>G polymorphism and CAD and to search for gene–traditional risk factors interactions. 480 subjects were studied: 240 patients with premature CAD, 240 age and sex matched blood donors. The −930A>G polymorphism was genotyped using the TaqMan® Pre-designed SNP Genotyping Assay (Applied Biosystems). The −930G allele carrier state was a risk factor for CAD (OR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.21–3.44, P = 0.007). A synergistic effect of the −930G allele with overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and cigarette smoking was found. The estimated CAD risk for BMI ≥ 25 and the −930G allele interaction was about 160 % greater than that predicted by assuming additivity of the effects, and about 40 % greater for interaction of cigarette smoking and the −930G allele. Overweight/obesity was a risk factor for CAD only in the −930G allele carriers (P < 10−10) but not in the AA homozygotes (P = 1.00). In conclusion the −930A>G CYBA polymorphism is associated with CAD in the Polish population. The −930G allele carriers are particularly at risk of consequences of obesity and tobacco smoke exposure.
doi:10.1007/s11033-014-3191-9
PMCID: PMC4013450  PMID: 24477591
CYBA; Polymorphism; NADPH oxidase; CAD; Atherosclerosis
9.  Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives 
Journal of Aging Research  2011;2011:302802.
Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α) and thromboxane (11-dTXB2) were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (P = .04) following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (r = .49, P < .05) between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.
doi:10.4061/2011/302802
PMCID: PMC3100569  PMID: 21629748
10.  Relationship Between Platelet and Urinary 8‐Iso‐PGF2α Levels in Subjects With Different Degrees of NOX2 Regulation 
Background
Urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α, a marker of oxidative stress, is influenced by the activation of NOX2. It is unclear if platelets 8‐iso‐PGF2α contribute to urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α.
Methods and Results
In a cross‐sectional study, platelet, urinary, and serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α were determined in subjects with downregulation (X‐linked chronic granulomatous disease [X‐CGD], n=25) and upregulation (type II diabetic patients [T2D], n=121) of NOX2 and 153 controls matched for sex and age. In diabetic patients (n=18), the above variables were repeated before and after 7 days treatment with 100 mg/day aspirin or 100 mg/day aspirin plus 40 mg/day atorvastatin. In vitro study was performed to see the contribution of blood cells to serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α. Compared with controls, X‐CGD patients had lower platelet, serum, and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α values; conversely, diabetic patients had higher values of 8‐iso‐PGF2α compared with controls. Urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α significantly correlated with both platelet and serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α in the 2 cohorts. A parallel increase of platelet, serum, and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α by aspirin and a parallel decrease by aspirin plus atorvastatin were detected in the interventional study. In vitro study demonstrated that platelets contribute to 37% of serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α and that only 13% of it is of extravascular origin.
Conclusions
The study suggests that NOX2 contributes to the formation of 8‐iso‐PGF2α in both platelets and urine. The direct correlation between platelet and urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α suggests that, at least partly, urinary 8‐iso‐PGF2α reflects platelet 8‐iso‐PGF2α production. Analysis of serum 8‐iso‐PGF2α may represent a novel tool to investigate the production of 8‐iso‐PGF2α by blood cells including platelets.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01250340.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000198
PMCID: PMC3698784  PMID: 23770972
8‐iso‐PGF2α; NOX2; oxidative stress; platelets
11.  The C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA) is associated with higher left ventricular mass in Brazilian hypertensive patients 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:114.
Background
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the physiopathogenesis of hypertensive end-organ damage. This study investigated the impact of the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA) on left ventricular structure in Brazilian hypertensive subjects.
Methods
We cross-sectionally evaluated 561 patients from 2 independent centers [Campinas (n = 441) and Vitória (n = 120)] by clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of metabolic and echocardiography parameters as well as p22-phox C242T polymorphism genotyping. In addition, NADPH-oxidase activity was quantified in peripheral mononuclear cells from a subgroup of Campinas sample.
Results
Genotype frequencies in both samples were consistent with the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Subjects with the T allele presented higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 than those carrying the CC genotype in Campinas (76.8 ± 1.6 vs 70.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.009), and in Vitória (45.6 ± 1.9 vs 39.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.023) samples. These results were confirmed by stepwise regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, metabolic variables and use of anti-hypertensive medications. In addition, increased NADPH-oxidase activity was detected in peripheral mononuclear cells from T allele carriers compared with CC genotype carriers (p = 0.03).
Conclusions
The T allele of the p22-phox C242T polymorphism is associated with higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 and increased NADPH-oxidase activity in Brazilian hypertensive patients. These data suggest that genetic variation within NADPH-oxidase components may modulate left ventricular remodeling in subjects with systemic hypertension.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-12-114
PMCID: PMC3182137  PMID: 21884584
p22-phox; left ventricle; hypertension; polymorphism; NADPH-oxidase
12.  Increased Oxidative Stress in Healthy Children Following an Exercise Program: A Pilot Study 
Exercise can induce oxidative stress or an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and cellular antioxidant defenses.
Objective
We investigated the effect of a real-life exercise program on systemic oxidative stress measured by urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), a noninvasive index of lipid peroxidation, in a well-characterized pediatric group.
Methods
Healthy but primarily sedentary, 8- to 10-year-old children (n = 6, mean age 8.8 ± 0.9 years) of equally distributed healthy weight, overweight, and obese categories, participated in a 5-week exercise program (track and field summer camp, 2 hours/day, 1–2 days/week).
Results
By using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), we found a significant (p = .028) increase in group mean urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentration from 8.163 ± 6.919 ng/mg creatinine pre-exercise program to 32.320 ± 16.970 ng/mg creatinine post-exercise program. The increase was also measured at each individual level. We found preliminary evidence that pre- and post-exercise program urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations selectively correlated with children’s cardiometabolic characteristics and mood.
Conclusion
Our results warrant further exploration of the relationships between pre/post-exercise oxidative stress marker 8-iso-PGF2α and cardiometabolic characteristics, exercise habits, eating habits, and mood to determine whether increased post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy children is part of their normal adaptation to exercise or mediator of oxidative injury.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181dea44f
PMCID: PMC3014577  PMID: 20495476
oxidative stress; free radicals; lipid peroxidation; mood; LC/ESI/MS/MS
13.  Urinary Levels of 8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α and 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanine as Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(9):614-617.
Background and Objectives
The objective of this study was to determine if urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) could be used as markers of the oxidative stress in significant coronary artery disease (CAD).
Subjects and Methods
We conducted a case-control study in 104 subjects assessed by coronary angiography with the following diagnoses: 35 consecutive cases of significant CAD and 69 cases of non-CAD with stable angina. We compared the urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF 2α and 8-OHdG, as measured by immunoassay between the 2 groups.
Results
History of hypertension was significantly higher and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly lower in the CAD group compared with those in the non-CAD group. Median levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in the CAD group compared with the non-CAD group (9.2 vs. 6.0 ng/mg, p=0.001). There were no significant differences in 8-OHdG values between the 2 groups. The odds ratio of 8-iso-PGF2α for CAD in the highest tertile compared with that in the lowest tertile was 7.39 (95% confidence interval; 1.71-31.91). There was no significant difference in median values of 8-iso-PGF2α between single- and multi-vessel CAD.
Conclusion
Urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α was independently associated with significant CAD in this case-control study.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.9.614
PMCID: PMC3467445  PMID: 23091506
Oxidative stress; Coronary artery disease
14.  Smoking Dose Modifies the Association between C242T Polymorphism and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e31926.
Background
The C242T polymorphism of the CYBA gene that encodes p22phox, a component of NADPH oxidase, has been found to modulate superoxide production. Oxidase is a major source of the superoxide anion that contributes to individual components of metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationship of the C242T polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population, taking account of consumed cigarette amounts.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In 870 participants, we collected biomarkers related to metabolic syndrome and detailed history of smoking and genotyped the C242T polymorphisms. After adjustment for covariates, the CT/TT genotypes were associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.0008). The odds of having metabolic syndrome in the CT/TT participants were 0.439 (95%CI: 0.265, 0.726), while for CC participants the odds were 1.110 (95%CI: 0.904, 1.362). There was significant (P = 0.014) interaction between the C242T polymorphism and smoking status in relation to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. For smokers who smoke no less than 25 pack-years, those with CT/TT genotypes had lower risk of metabolic syndrome as compared with CC polymorphism carriers (P = 0.015). In the multiple regression analysis, the CT/TT genotypes were significantly associated with lower serum concentration of triglycerides both in all subjects and smokers; furthermore, the CT/TT genotypes were also related to smaller waist circumference in smokers.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that the C242T gene polymorphism is indeed related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking dose might modify this association.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031926
PMCID: PMC3291574  PMID: 22396743
15.  Oxidative stress mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment 
Background
Several studies suggest an increase of oxidative stress and a reduction of endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). We assessed the association between OSAS, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Further aim was to evaluate the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction.
Methods
We studied 138 consecutive patients with heavy snoring and possible OSAS. Patients underwent unattended overnight home polysomnography. Ten patients with severe OSAS were revaluated after 6 months of nCPAP therapy. To assess oxidative stress in vivo, we measured urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp). Serum levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were also determined. Flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (FMD) was measured to asses endothelial function.
Results
Patients with severe OSAS had higher urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p<0.001) and serum NOX2 and lower NOx. A negative association was observed between FMD and OSA severity. Apnea/hypopnea index was significantly correlated with the indices of central obesity and with urinary 8-isoprostanes (r=0.298, p<0.001). The metabolic syndrome (t=-4.63, p<0.001) and urinary 8-isoprostanes (t=-2.02, p<0.05) were the only independent predictors of FMD. After 6-months nCPAP treatment, a significant decrease of serum NOX2, (p<0.005) and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p<0.01) was observed, while serum NOx showed only a minor increase. A statistically significant increase of FMD was observed (from 3.6% to 7.0%).
Conclusions
The results of our study indicate that patients with OSAS and cardiometabolic comorbidities have increased oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction that are partially reversed by nCPAP treatment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-12-36
PMCID: PMC3414800  PMID: 22824065
16.  NOX2-generated oxidative stress is associated with severity of ultrasound liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14:81.
Background
Chronic oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, so far, few studies reported increased circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver and no study has been performed with newer markers of systemic oxidative stress. The aim was to assess the relationship between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and serum soluble NOX2-derived peptide and the severity of liver steatosis in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver.
Methods
The study was performed in 264 consecutive patients referred for suspected metabolic disease. Steatosis was defined according to Hamaguchi ultrasonographic criteria. Oxidative stress was assessed by urinary 8-iso- prostaglandin F2α and serum soluble NOX2-derived peptide levels.
Results
Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver had higher (p < 0.001) mean values of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and of serum soluble NOX2-derived peptide, alanine aminotransferase, Cytokeratin-18 and homeostasis model of insulin resistance and lower values of serum adiponectin as compared to those without. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and of its clinical features was significantly higher in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Same findings were also observed after the exclusion of obese subjects, or subjects with diabetes or with metabolic syndrome and in those not taking statin medication. In addition, the levels of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α were independent predictors of non-alcoholic fatty liver and a strong association of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and of serum soluble NOX2-derived peptide with the severity of steatosis at ultrasound was also observed.
Conclusions
We demonstrated increased markers of oxidative stress in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and serum soluble NOX2-derived peptide levels were independent from obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and increased with the severity of liver steatosis at ultrasound.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-81
PMCID: PMC4014405  PMID: 24758604
Oxidative stress; Non-alcoholic fatty liver; 8-iso-PGF2α; sNOX2-dp; Metabolic syndrome
17.  C242T Polymorphism in CYBA Gene (p22phox) and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Population of Caucasian Italians 
Disease Markers  2006;22(3):167-173.
Background: specific polymorphisms of genes regulating intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress are related to atherogenesis. Some studies have identified a relationship between progression of atherosclerosis and C242T mutation in CYBA gene coding for p22phox, a subunit of the NADH/NADPH oxidase system.
Design: we investigated whether the C242T nucleotide transition is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population of 494 Caucasian Italians undergoing coronary angiography to diagnose the cause of chest pain.
Results: the frequency of the T mutant allele that we found in 276 patients with angiographically documented CAD was significantly higher compared to what we observed in 218 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Controls) (respectively: 0.400 and 0.332, p < 0.01). The prevalence of the T allele was even stronger when we compared: 1) early onset (age ≤55) vs late onset (age ≥65) single-vessel CAD patients (respectively: 0.75 and 0.48, p < 0.05), and 2) the subgroup of CAD patients with at least one ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel vs those with no ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel (respectively: 0.425 and 0.365, p < 0.05).
Conclusions: these results support the increased risk of developing early CAD and of having rapid progression of coronary stenosis in subjects carrying the C242T nucleotide transition among the Italian population.
doi:10.1155/2006/458587
PMCID: PMC3851654  PMID: 16788250
Oxidative stress; cardiovascular; gene; variant; NAD(P)H oxidase
18.  Racial differences in the responses to shear stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells 
Background:
African American ethnicity is an independent risk factor for exaggerated oxidative stress, which is related to inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported that in vitro oxidative stress and inflammation levels differ between African American and Caucasian human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), African American HUVECs having higher levels of both. However, it remains to be shown whether the cells would respond differently to external stimuli.
Methods:
We used a cone and plate viscometer to apply laminar shear stress (LSS) as an aerobic exercise mimetic to compare the responses by race. HUVECs were exposed to static conditions (no LSS), low LSS (5 dyne/cm2), and moderate LSS (20 dyne/cm2).
Results:
It was found that African American HUVECs had higher levels of oxidative stress under static conditions, and when LSS was applied protein expression levels (NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4 and p47phox subunits, eNOS, SOD2, and catalase) and biomarkers (NO, SOD, and total antioxidant capacity) were modulated to similar levels between race.
Conclusion:
African American HUVECs may be more responsive to LSS stimulus indicating that aerobic exercise prescriptions may be valuable for this population since the potential exists for large in vivo improvements in oxidative stress levels along the endothelial layer in response to increased shear flow.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S22435
PMCID: PMC3141915  PMID: 21796257
shear stress; African American; NADPH oxidase; HUVECs; oxidative stress
19.  The effect of combining rosuvastatin with sartans of different peroxisome proliferator receptor-γ activating capacity on plasma 8-isoprostane prostaglandin F2a levels 
Introduction
Oxidative stress is associated with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Plasma 8-isoprostane prostaglandin F2a (8-iso-PGF2a) levels are a reliable marker of oxidative stress.
Material and methods
Patients (n = 151) with hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose were randomly allocated to rosuvastatin (10 mg/day) plus telmisartan 80 mg/day (RT group, n = 52) or irbesartan 300 mg/day (RI group, n = 48) or olmesartan 20 mg/day (RO group, n = 51). After 6 months of treatment, changes in plasma 8-iso-PGF2a levels were blindly evaluated.
Results
A decrease of 8-iso-PGF2a levels vs baseline was observed only in the RT group (–8.6%; p = 0.02). A trend for decrease vs. baseline was observed in the RI (–5.7%; p = 0.40) and RO (–3.7%; p = 0.60) groups. Changes of 8-iso-PGF2a levels between groups were not significantly different (p = 0.70).
Conclusions
The combination of rosuvastatin with sartans of different peroxisome proliferator receptor-γ activating capacity was associated with a decrease in levels of plasma 8-iso-PGF2a. This decrease reached significance only in the telmisartan group.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.33357
PMCID: PMC3598137  PMID: 23515108
rosuvastatin; telmisartan; olmesartan; irbesartan; oxidative stress
20.  Serum Cytokeratin-18 Is Associated with NOX2-Generated Oxidative Stress in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver 
Background & Aims. Hepatocyte apoptosis may play a role in progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver and oxidative stress seems one of the key mechanisms responsible for liver damage. The aim was to determine the association of oxidative stress with cytokeratin-18 M30 fragment levels, a marker of hepatocyte apoptosis. Methods. Steatosis severity was defined according to Hamaguchi's echographic criteria in 209 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver. Serum cytokeratin-18, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, soluble NOX2-derived peptide, and adiponectin were measured. Results. Serum cytokeratin-18 progressively increased with steatosis severity (from 169.5 (129.3/183.8) to 176 (140/190) and 180 (169.5/192.5) μIU/mL in mild, moderate, and severe steatosis, respectively; P < 0.01). After stratification by cytokeratin-18 tertiles, a significant progression of body mass index, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, soluble NOX2-derived peptide, and of the prevalence of diabetes and severe steatosis was found, while HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin progressively decreased. A positive correlation between cytokeratin-18 and body mass index, HOMA-IR, Hamaguchi's score, urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, and soluble NOX2-derived peptide and a negative correlation between cytokeratin-18 and HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin were found. Body mass index, adiponectin, and soluble NOX2-derived peptide were independent predictors of serum cytokeratin-18 levels (adjusted R2 = 0.36). Conclusion. We support an association between oxidative stress and severity of liver damage in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver.
doi:10.1155/2014/784985
PMCID: PMC3941779  PMID: 24678423
21.  Effects Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 on obesity index and biochemical variable in response to a aerobic exercise training 
The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether or not the FABP2 gene polymorphism modulated obesity indices, hemodynamic factor, blood lipid factor, and insulin resistance markers through 12-week aerobic exercise training in abdominal obesity group of Korean mid-life women. A total of 243 abdominally obese subjects of Korean mid-life women voluntarily participated in aerobic exercise training program for 12 weeks. Polymerase Chain Reaction with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used to assess the FABP2 genotype of the participants (117 of AA homozygotes, 100 of AT heterozygotes, 26 of TT homozygotes). Prior to the participation of the exercise training program, baseline obesity indices, hemodynamic factor, blood lipid factor, and insulin resistance markers were measured. All the measurements were replicated following the 12-week aerobic exercise training program, and then the following results were found. After 12-week aerobic exercise training program, wild type (Ala54Ala) and mutant type (Ala54Thr+Thr54Thr) significantly decreased weight (P > .001), BMI (P > .001), %bf (P > .001), waist circumference (P > .001), WHR (P > .001), muscle mass (wild type p < .022; mutant type P > .001), RHR (P > .001), viseceral adipose area (wild type p < .005; mutant type P > .001), subcutaneous area (P > .001), insulin (wild type p < .005; mutant type P > .001) and significantly increased VO2max (P > .001). And wild type significantly decresed NEFA (P > .05), glucose (P > .05), OGTT 120min glucose (P > .05) and significantly increased HDLC (p > .005). Mutant type significantly decreased SBP (P > .001), DBP (P > .01), TC (P > .01), LPL (P > .05), LDL (P > .001), HOMA index (P > .01). The result of the present study represents that regular aerobic exercise training may beneficially prevent obesity index, blood pressure, blood lipids and insulin resistance markers independent of FABP Ala54Thr wild type and mutant type.
doi:10.5717/jenb.2013.17.4.209
PMCID: PMC4241911  PMID: 25566432
Fatty acid binding protein 2 gene; aerobic exercise; obesity index; biochemical variable; polymorphism; middle-aged women
22.  A case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis identifies an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF4 gene, supporting a role for the NADPH-oxidase complex in autoimmunity 
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a heritability of 60%. Genetic contributions to RA are made by multiple genes, but only a few gene associations have yet been confirmed. By studying animal models, reduced capacity of the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) complex, caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in one of its components (the NCF1 gene), has been found to increase severity of arthritis. To our knowledge, however, no studies investigating the potential role played by reduced reactive oxygen species production in human RA have yet been reported. In order to examine the role played by the NOX complex in RA, we investigated the association of 51 SNPs in five genes of the NOX complex (CYBB, CYBA, NCF4, NCF2, and RAC2) in a Swedish case-control cohort consisting of 1,842 RA cases and 1,038 control individuals. Several SNPs were found to be mildly associated in men in NCF4 (rs729749, P = 0.001), NCF2 (rs789181, P = 0.02) and RAC2 (rs1476002, P = 0.05). No associations were detected in CYBA or CYBB. By stratifying for autoantibody status, we identified a strong association for rs729749 (in NCF4) in autoantibody negative disease, with the strongest association detected in rheumatoid factor negative men (CT genotype versus CC genotype: odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.6; P = 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association identified between RA and the NOX complex, and it supports previous findings from animal models of the importance of reactive oxygen species production capacity to the development of arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar2299
PMCID: PMC2212587  PMID: 17897462
23.  Effect of Exercise on Serum Sex Hormones in Men: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial 
Purpose
The effect of exercise on androgens in middle-aged to older men is poorly understood, and it could have implications for several aspects of health. This analysis was conducted to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on serum sex hormones in middle-aged to older men.
Methods
One hundred two sedentary men, ages 40–75 yr, were randomly assigned to a 12-month exercise intervention or a control group (no change in activity). The combined facility- and home-based exercise program consisted of moderate/vigorous-intensity aerobic activity for 60 min·d−1, 6 d·wk−1. Serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3α-androstanediol glucuronide (3α-Diol-G), estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 months.
Results
Exercisers trained a mean of 370 min·wk−1 (102% of goal), with only two dropouts. Cardiopulmonary fitness (V̇O2max) increased 10.8% in exercisers and decreased by 1.8% in controls (P < 0.001). DHT increased 14.5% in exercisers versus 1.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.6% above baseline in exercisers versus a 3.1% decrease in controls (P = 0.03). SHBG increased 14.3% in exercisers versus 5.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.9% above baseline in exercisers versus 4.0% in controls (P = 0.13). There were significant trends toward increasing DHT and SHBG, with greater increases in V̇O2max at 3 and 12 months in exercisers. No statistically significant differences were observed for testosterone, free testosterone, 3α-Diol-G, estradiol, or free estradiol in exercisers versus controls.
Conclusions
A yearlong, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program increased DHT and SHBG, but it had no effect on other androgens in middle-aged to older men.
doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31815bbba9
PMCID: PMC3040039  PMID: 18202581
AEROBIC EXERCISE; ANDROGENS; HUMAN MALES; ADIPOSITY
24.  Effects of a Supervised Home-Based Aerobic and Progressive Resistance Training Regimen in Women Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus 
Archives of internal medicine  2006;166(11):1225-1231.
Background
Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increasingly demonstrate abnormalities in fat distribution and metabolism; however, the effects of a home-based exercise regimen in this group have not been investigated.
Methods
We conducted a 16-week randomized intervention study of a supervised home-based progressive resistance training and aerobic exercise program in 40 HIV-infected women with increased waist-hip ratio and self-reported fat redistribution. Cross-sectional muscle area and muscle attenuation were measured by computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by calculated maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and strength by 1-repetition maximum.
Results
Cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇O2max) was markedly lower at baseline (median [95% confidence interval], 15.4 [8.3–25.2] mL · kg−1 · min−1) than reported values for healthy female subjects (26–35 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Subjects randomized to exercise had significant improvement in mean ± SEM V̇O2max (1.5 ± 0.8 vs −2.5 ± 1.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1; P<.001) and endurance (1.0±0.3 vs −0.6±0.3 minute; P<.001). Strength increased at the knee extensors, pectoralis, knee flexors, shoulder abductors, ankle plantar flexors, and elbow flexors (all P<.001). Total muscle area (6±1 vs 2±1 cm2; P=.02) and attenuation (2±1 vs −1±1 Hounsfield unit; P=.03) increased in the exercise group. No significant difference was seen in lipid levels, blood pressure, or abdominal visceral fat between the groups, but subjects randomized to exercise reported improved energy and appearance.
Conclusions
A 16-week, supervised, home-based exercise regimen improved measures of physical fitness in HIV-infected women. The effects on strength were most significant, but improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance, and body composition were also seen.
Trial Registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00111332.
doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1225
PMCID: PMC3205443  PMID: 16772251
25.  Unique role of NADPH oxidase 5 in oxidative stress in human renal proximal tubule cells 
Redox Biology  2014;2:570-579.
NADPH oxidases are the major sources of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular, neural, and kidney cells. The NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) gene is present in humans but not rodents. Because Nox isoforms in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that NOX5 is differentially expressed in RPT cells from normotensive (NT) and hypertensive subjects (HT). We found that NOX5 mRNA, total NOX5 protein, and apical membrane NOX5 protein were 4.2±0.7-fold, 5.2±0.7-fold, and 2.8±0.5-fold greater in HT than NT. Basal total NADPH oxidase activity was 4.5±0.2-fold and basal NOX5 activity in NOX5 immunoprecipitates was 6.2±0.2-fold greater in HT than NT (P=<0.001, n=6–14/group). Ionomycin increased total NOX and NOX5 activities in RPT cells from HT (P<0.01, n=4, ANOVA), effects that were abrogated by pre-treatment of the RPT cells with diphenylene-iodonium or superoxide dismutase. Silencing NOX5 using NOX5-siRNA decreased NADPH oxidase activity (−45.1±3.2% vs. mock-siRNA, n=6–8) in HT. D1-like receptor stimulation decreased NADPH oxidase activity to a greater extent in NT (−32.5±1.8%) than HT (−14.8±1.8). In contrast to the marked increase in expression and activity of NOX5 in HT, NOX1 mRNA and protein were minimally increased in HT, relative to NT; total NOX2 and NOX4 proteins were not different between HT and NT, while the increase in apical RPT cell membrane NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 proteins in HT, relative to NT, was much less than those observed with NOX5. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that NOX5 is expressed in human RPT cells and to greater extent than the other Nox isoforms in HT than NT. We suggest that the increased expression of NOX5, which may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress in RPT cells in human essential hypertension, is caused, in part, by a defective renal dopaminergic system.
Graphical abstract
The schematic diagram shows that total cellular and apical membrane NOX5 proteins are greater than the other NOX proteins (NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4) in human renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from hypertensive subjects. The increase in NOX5 expression is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production in these RPT cells. We suggest that the increased expression of NOX5, which is, in part, due to increased transcription, may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress in RPT cells in human essential hypertension.
Highlights
•Basal levels of NOX5 mRNA and NOX5 protein in RPT cells were greater in HT than NT.•Basal level of NOX5 protein in apical membrane of RPT cells was greater in HT than NT.•NOX5-dependent oxidase activity, intra and extracellular ROS, and total membrane NADPH oxidase activity in RPT cells were greater in HT than NT.•D1-like receptor inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity is impaired in RPT cells from HT.
doi:10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.020
PMCID: PMC3969603  PMID: 24688893
NOX5; ROS; Oxidative stress; Dopamine receptor

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