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1.  Prognostic value of CD133 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas 
CD133 is one of the most representative cancer stem cell markers. This study evaluated the potential prognostic value of CD133 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). Tumors from 177 patients were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression, and their associations with disease recurrence were analyzed. Also, the potential prognostic value of combining CD133 expression with proliferating activity measured by immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and vessel involvement was evaluated. CD133 high expressers showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than CD133 low expressers: 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate 77.2% vs. 95.1% (p=0.004), adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) 4.37, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.30-14.71 (p=0.017). CD133 high expressers having strong proliferating activity and/or with vessel invasion showed a higher risk of recurrence: 5-year DFS rate 66.5% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers vs. 93.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 8.39, 95% CI 2.65-26.54 (p<0.001): 5-year DFS rate 51.0% in CD133 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 92.9% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 4.50, 95% CI 1.51-13.34 (p=0.007): 5-year DFS rate 53.9% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 91.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 9.32, 95% CI 3.42-25.39 (p<0.001). In conclusion, the level of CD133 expression is an independent prognostic marker and its combination with proliferating activity and/or vessel invasion could have excellent prognostic value to predict postoperative recurrence in patients with stage I lung ADC.
PMCID: PMC3016102  PMID: 21228926
Lungadenocarcinoma; cancer stem cell; CD133; stage I; prognosis
2.  Preliminary Study on the Expression and the Clinical Significance of CD133 in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma 
ISRN Gastroenterology  2014;2014:245329.
Background. Significances of CD133 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) patients were investigated. Methods. Correlations of CD133 mRNA expression in PBMCs on clinicopathological parameters or CD133 protein expression were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve according to bright scale value (BSV) of CD133 mRNA was used to group patients for prognosis analysis. Results. BSV of preoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs in GC was significantly higher than that in volunteers or in GU. Invasive depth or metastatic lymph node number for higher BSV of preoperative CD133 mRNA and invasive depth or lymphatic vessel invasion for higher BSV of postoperative CD133 mRNA in the PBMCs were identified. Patients with CD133+ expression in primary lesion had a significantly higher expression of preoperative CD133 mRNA in the PBMCs. The expression of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs related positively to CD133 mRNA expression in primary lesion. Patients with higher expression of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA shared significantly shorter survival compared with that in lower expression group. Conclusion. Higher levels of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs of GC correlated positively to the lymphatic metastasis and the BSV of CD133 mRNA in primary lesion, indicating the poorer survival.
doi:10.1155/2014/245329
PMCID: PMC3932643  PMID: 24653835
3.  Expression of CD133 in the cytoplasm is associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis in gastric cancer 
Gastric Cancer  2013;17:97-106.
Background
CD133 is one of the most important stem cell markers in solid cancers. Some recent reports have described a possible relationship between CD133 and hypoxia-inducing factor-1-alpha (HIF-1α). The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical role of CD133 expression in gastric cancer and to investigate the correlation between CD133 expression and HIF-1α expression.
Methods
We studied 189 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy at Kurume University Hospital. CD133 and HIF-1α expression was examined using immunohistochemical staining. Fifty-six cases were CD133 positive, and they were divided into two expression types: luminal expression of the gland and cytoplasmic expression. We investigated the relationship among CD133 expression types, clinicopathological variables, prognosis, and HIF-1α expression.
Results
When comparing clinicopathological variables, expression of CD133 in the cytoplasm was related to metastasis and tumor progression. However, this relationship was not observed with luminal expression of the gland type. The survival rate in patients with cytoplasmic CD133 expression was significantly worse than that in the CD133-negative group. This relationship was observed in the survival rate of the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the curative resection group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the expression of CD133 in the cytoplasm was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Regarding the correlation between CD133 expression and HIF-1α expression, the HIF-1α positive rate was lower in patients with CD133 luminal expression of the gland type and higher in patients with cytoplasmic expression of CD133.
Conclusion
Gastric cancer cells with CD133 expression in the cytoplasm were cells with high potential for malignancy, and this phenotype was associated with cancer progression, chemotherapy resistance, recurrence, and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic expression of CD133 may be a useful prognostic marker in gastric cancer. Significant correlation was observed between HIF-1α expression and the immunohistochemical staining pattern of CD133.
doi:10.1007/s10120-013-0255-9
PMCID: PMC3889295  PMID: 23558457
Gastric cancer; CD133; Prognosis; HIF-1α
4.  CD133 expression is correlated with lymph node metastasis and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in pancreatic cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(8):1389-1397.
Although CD133 has been shown to be a marker for cancer stem cells in various tumours, its expression in pancreatic cancer has not yet been clinically reported. In this study, we investigated the relationship between CD133 expression and clinicopathological factors in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic head carcinoma specimens from 80 patients who underwent surgical resection were immunohistochemically assessed for CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, CXCR4, CD34, Ki-67, and cytokeratin (CK) expressions. Sixty percentage (48/80) of specimens were CD133-positive, with less than 15% cells per specimen expressing the marker. CD133-positive cells were found at the peripheral site of adenocarcinoma glandular structures and were negative for CK. There was a significant correlation between CD133 expression and clinicopathological factors, including histological type, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis (P=0.0215, 0.0023, and 0.0024, respectively). Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was also significantly correlated with CD133 expression (P=0.0002). Consequently, the 5-year survival rate of CD133-positive patients was significantly lower than that of CD133-negative patients (P=0.0002) and multivariate analysis revealed that CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.0103). These results suggest that CD133 expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and prognosis.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604307
PMCID: PMC2361715  PMID: 18349830
pancreatic cancer; cancer stem cell; CD133; lymph node metastasis; VEGF-C; predicting factor
5.  Aberrant expression of CD133 in non-small cell lung cancer and its relationship to vasculogenic mimicry 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:535.
Background
To investigate on expressions and clinical significances of CD133 protein and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods
The specimens of NSCLC from 305 Chinese patients with follow-up were analyzed for CD133 protein expression and VM by immunohistochemical and histochemical staining.
Results
In NSCLC, positive rates of 48.9% and 35.7% were obtained for CD133 and VM, respectively. The VM and expression of CD133 were significantly higher in carcinoma than in normal. There were a positive relationship between the VM and expression of CD133 and the tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (all P<0.05). The overall mean survival time of the patients with CD133 and VM positive expression was lower than that of patients with negative expression. Microvessel density (MVD) was positive corresponded with the grade, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (all P<0.05). The overall mean survival time of the patients with MVD≥22’s group was shorter than that of patients with MVD<22’s group. Pathological-tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage, positive expression of CD133 and VM, postoperative therapy and MVD were independent prognostic factors of NSCLC (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry revealed an important intratumoral heterogeneity in all four CD133 expression profiles.
Conclusions
VM, MVD and expression of CD133 are related to differentiation, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and prognosis. It is suggested that CD133, VM and MVD should be considered as a potential marker for the prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-535
PMCID: PMC3518202  PMID: 23170850
6.  Expressions and clinical significances of CD133 protein and CD133 mRNA in primary lesion of gastric adenocacinoma 
Background
To study on expressions and clinical significances of CD133 protein and CD133 mRNA in primary lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC).
Methods
Expressions of CD133 protein by immunostaining (99 cases) and CD133 mRNA by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (31 cases) were detected in primary lesion and in noncancerous gastric mucosa tissue (NCGT). Correlations of CD133 protein expression with clinicopathological parameters and post-operative survival were analyzed. Relations of CD133 mRNA level with Ki-67 labeling index (LI), and lymphatic metastasis were assessed too.
Results
Brown particles indicating CD133 protein positivity occurred in some parts of tumor cells and epithelium. Expressive percentage of CD133 protein positivity was significantly higher in subgroups with >5 cm diameter (P = 0.041), later TNM stage (P = 0.044), severer lymph node metastasis (P = 0.017), occurrences of lymphatic invasion (P = 0.000) and vascular invasion (P = 0.000) respectively. Severer invasion depth (P = 0.011), lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.043) and later TNM stage (P = 0.049) were the independent risk factors for CD133 protein expression. Average brightness scale value (BSV) of CD133 mRNA was significantly higher in subgroups with >5 cm diameter (P = 0.041), lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.004) and in lower Ki-67 LI (P = 0.02). Relative analysis revealed that BSV of CD133 mRNA related positively to metastatic lymphatic nodes ratio (P = 0.008) and metastatic lymph node number (P = 0.009), but negatively to Ki-67 LI (P = 0.009). Survival of positive subgroup of CD 133 protein was significantly poorer (P = 0.047). Lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.042), later TNM stage (P = 0.046) and CD 133 protein positive expression (P = 0.046) were respectively the independent risk factors to survival.
Conclusion
Higher expressive level of CD133 mRNA is associated to lower Ki-67 LI and severer lymphatic metastasis. Therefore, the expressive level of CD133 mRNA can play an appropriate role to reflect the status of lymph node metastasis and proliferation of GC. CD133 protein expression is closely related with larger tumor, later TNM stage, lymphtic metastasis and survival of GC.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-29-141
PMCID: PMC2987897  PMID: 21054902
7.  Clinicopathological significance of LRP16 protein in 336 gastric carcinoma patients 
AIM: To investigate the expression of leukemia related protein 16 (LRP16), and the possible relationship between LRP16 expression and clinicopathological indices in 336 gastric carcinoma patients.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LRP16 expression in 336 cases of paraffin-embedded gastric carcinoma tissues and 60 cases of distal normal mucosa. The relationships between LRP16 expression and patients’ age, tumor size, histological grade, clinical stage, metastatic status and prognosis were analysed.
RESULTS: The expression of LRP16 was 58.6% (197/336) in gastric carcinoma and 31.7% (19/60) in distal normal gastric mucosa. The expression of LRP16 in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues (χ2 = 14.929, P = 0.001). LRP16 protein expression was found in 44.1% (63/143) carcinomas at stage I and II, and 69.4% (134/193) carcinomas at stage III and IV (χ2 = 21.804, P = 0.001), and in 56.9% (182/320) of cancers without metastasis but 93.8% (15/16) of those with metastasis (χ2 = 8.543, P = 0.003). The expression of LRP16 was correlated with tumor size, infiltrative depth, clinical stage, lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). Follow-up data showed that there was a significant difference in median survival time between cancer patients with expression of LRP16 (27.0 mo) and those without (48.0 mo, Log rank =31.644, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The expression of LRP16 may be associated with invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4833
PMCID: PMC2761564  PMID: 19824120
Gastric neoplasms; Immunohistochemistry; Leukemia related protein 16; Prognosis
8.  Clinicopathological significance of cancer stem cells marked by CD133 and KAI1/CD82 expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma 
Background
Presently, CD133 is one of the hottest markers to characterize cancer stem cells and KAI1/CD82 is reported as an important marker for the metastasis and prognosis of many cancers. The purpose of our study is to explore the relationship between cancer stem cells (CSCs) marked by CD133 and KAI1/CD82 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
Methods
Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 in 83 archival surgical specimens of human LSCC and 83 cases of normal laryngeal tissues.
Results
In LSCC, positive rates of 49.4% and 41.0% were obtained for CD133 and KAI1/CD82, respectively. The expression of CD133 in LSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues (P < 0.001), and the expression of CD133 was positively associated with pTNM stage (P = 0.005), pathological grade (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The reduced expression of KAI1/CD82 was present in LSCC tissues. The positive rate of KAI1/CD82 expression was negatively correlated with pTNM stage (P = 0.014), pathological grade (P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). A correlation analysis showed that there was a negative relationship between the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 protein in LSCC tissues (P < 0.001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the expression of CD133 was negatively correlated with overall survival (OS) (log-rank = 40.949, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (log-rank = 39.307, P < 0.001) time of LSCC. The expression of KAI1/CD82 was positively correlated with OS (log-rank = 40.279, P < 0.001) and DFS (log-rank = 39.271, P < 0.001) time of LSCC. Cox regression analysis: the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82, and pTNM stages were independent prognostic factors of LSCC (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Thus the detection of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 proteins may be used as a potential indicator of LSCC prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-118
PMCID: PMC4012248  PMID: 24758564
9.  Prognostic Value of Cancer Stem Cell Marker CD133 Expression in Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59154.
Objective
To investigate the correlation between CD133-positive gastric cancer and clinicopathological features and its impact on survival.
Methods
A search in the Medline and Chinese CNKI (up to 1 Dec 2011) was performed using the following keywords gastric cancer, CD133, AC133, prominin-1 etc. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching reference lists, abstracts and proceedings from meetings. Outcomes included overall survival and various clinicopathological features.
Results
A total of 773 gastric cancer patients from 7 studies were included. The median rate of CD133 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was 44.8% (15.2%–57.4%) from 5 studies, and that by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was 91.3% (66.7%–100%) from 4 studies. The accumulative 5-year overall survival rates of CD133-positive and CD133-negative patients were 21.4% and 55.7%, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that CD133-positive patients had a significant worse 5-year overall survival compared to the negative ones (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14–0.29, P<0.00001). With respect to clinicopathological features, CD133 overexpression by IHC method was closely correlated with tumor size, N stage, lymphatic/vascular infiltration, as well as TNM stage.
Conclusion
CD133-positive gastric cancer patients had worse prognosis, and was associated with common clinicopathological poor prognostic factors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059154
PMCID: PMC3606413  PMID: 23533603
10.  Significance and relationship between Yes-associated protein and survivin expression in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions 
AIM: To analyze the differences and relevance of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and survivin, and to explore the correlation and significance of their expression in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions.
METHODS: The PV9000 immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of YAP and survivin in 98 cases of normal gastric mucosa, 58 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 32 dysplasia and 98 gastric carcinoma.
RESULTS: The positive rates of YAP in dysplasia (37.5%) and gastric carcinoma (48.0%) were significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (13.3%), P < 0.01. The positive rates of survivin in IM (53.4%), dysplasia (59.4%) and gastric carcinoma (65.3%) were significantly higher than in normal gastric mucosa (11.2%), P < 0.01. Survivin expression gradually increased from 41.7% in well differentiated adenocarcinoma through 58.3% in moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma to 75.6% in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with significant Rank correlation, rk = 0.279, P < 0.01. The positive rate of survivin in gastric carcinoma of diffused type (74.6%) was significantly higher than that in intestinal type (51.3%), P < 0.05. In gastric carcinoma with lymph node metastasis (76.9%), the positive rate of survivin was significantly higher than that in the group without lymph node metastasis (41.2%), P < 0.01. In 98 cases of gastric carcinoma, the expression of YAP and of survivin were positively correlated, rk = 0.246, P < 0.01.
CONCLUSION: YAP may play an important role as a carcinogenic factor and may induce survivin expression. Detecting both markers together may help in early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4055
PMCID: PMC2731958  PMID: 19705503
Apoptosis; Cell proliferation; Gastric cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Neoplastic processes; Survivin protein; Yes-associated protein
11.  Hepatocyte expressions in hepatocellular carcinomas, gastrointestinal neoplasms, and non-neoplastic gastrointestinal mucosa: its role as a diagnostic marker. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(6):842-848.
We performed immunohistochemical staining against Hepatocyte (Hep) and CD10 antibodies in 75 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 50 cholangiocarcinomas, 49 colorectal adenocarcinomas, and 308 gastric adenocarcinomas by tissue array method. We also evaluated the various non-neoplastic adult tissues and fetal digestive organs. Hep was expressed in 80% of HCCs, and HCCs without Hep expression were more likely to have a higher Edmondson & Steiner grade than HCCs with Hep expression (p=0.004). In non-HCCs, 16% of cholangiocarcinomas, 8.2% of colorectal carcinomas, and 44.2% of gastric carcinomas expressed Hep. Gastric carcinomas with Hep expression were significantly associated with early gastric carcinomas (p<0.001). In non-neoplastic tissues, Hep was found expressed in normal hepatocytes, small intestinal mucosa, and intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Fetal hepatocytes expressed Hep after 19 weeks of gestation. CD10 was detected in 46.7% (35/75) of HCCs, and canalicular staining pattern was predominant in HCCs. In conclusion, the expression of Hep and CD10 may help to distinguish HCCs from non-HCCs.
PMCID: PMC3055133  PMID: 14676441
12.  Loss of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor contributes to gastric cancer progression 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;100(2):352-359.
Loss of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has previously been observed in gastric cancer. The role of CAR in gastric cancer pathobiology, however, is unclear. We therefore analysed CAR in 196 R0-resected gastric adenocarcinomas and non-cancerous gastric mucosa samples using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor was found at the surface and foveolar epithelium of all non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples (n=175), whereas only 56% of gastric cancer specimens showed CAR positivity (P<0.0001). Loss of CAR correlated significantly with decreased differentiation, increased infiltrative depths, presence of distant metastases, and was also associated with reduced carcinoma-specific survival. To clarify whether CAR impacts the tumorbiologic properties of gastric cancer, we subsequently determined the role of CAR in proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines by application of specific CAR siRNA or ectopic expression of a human full-length CAR cDNA. These experiments showed that RNAi-mediated CAR knock down resulted in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines, whereas enforced ectopic CAR expression led to opposite effects. We conclude that the association of reduced presence of CAR in more severe disease states, together with our findings in gastric cancer cell lines, suggests that CAR functionally contributes to gastric cancer pathogenesis, showing features of a tumour suppressor.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604876
PMCID: PMC2634721  PMID: 19142187
coxsackie adenovirus receptor; gastric cancer; prognosis; migration; invasion
13.  CD133 expression predicts lung metastasis and poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients: A clinical and experimental study 
Identifying prognostic factors for osteosarcoma (OS) aids in the selection of patients who require more aggressive management. CD133 has been found to be a prognostic factor of certain tumor types. However, the association between CD133 expression and the prognosis of OS remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the association of CD133 expression in OS with clinical factors and overall survival, and further investigated its potential role in metastasis in vitro. We found CD133 expression in 65.7% (46/70) of OS samples using immunohistochemistry, and it was positively correlated with lung metastasis analyzed by Chi-square test (P=0.002) and shorter overall survival time using the Kaplan-Meier method compared by log-rank test (P=0.000). Multivariate analysis showed that CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor of patients with OS. To test for direct participation of CD133, we separated CD133+ and CD133− cells in the MG63 cell line using magnetic-activated cell sorting and found that CD133+ cells were more active in migration by scratch wound-healing assay and invasion by Matrigel invasion assay compared with CD133− cells. Elevated mRNA expression of the stemness gene octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) and NANOG, and the metastasis-related receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) were also found in CD133+ cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Thus, expression of CD133 was correlated with lung metastasis and poor prognosis in OS patients. CD133+ cells may be a type of cancer stem cell with high expression of self-renewal capacity and metastasis-related genes.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.603
PMCID: PMC3503795  PMID: 23181114
osteosarcoma; CD133; prognosis; lung metastasis
14.  Tissue factor expression in the metaplasia–adenoma–carcinoma sequence of gastric cancer in a European population 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;107(7):1125-1130.
Background:
Tissue factor (TF), which has a role in normal tissue haemostasis, was reported to be aberrantly expressed, associated with higher microvascular density and a poor prognosis in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma in the Japanese population. This is the first study to look at the relationship of TF and the metaplasia–adenoma–carcinoma sequence (MACS) of gastric cancer in a European population.
Methods:
The expression of TF was examined immunohistochemically in 191 gastric tissue samples: (13: normal; 18: intestinal metaplasia; 160: gastric adenocarcinoma) from the European population.
Results:
TF was not expressed in normal gastric mucosal cells. A strong intensity of staining was found in intestinal metaplasia cells but in 2 of 18 samples. TF expression increased with advancing stage of gastric cancer (P<0.0001, Jonckheere's test for ordered medians). Stage 3–4 gastric cancers preferentially expressed TF (34%, P=0.04). In comparison with the Japanese study, TF was not expressed at a higher level in intestinal vs diffuse-type gastric cancers and expression had ‘no prognostic' significance.
Conclusion:
TF may be involved in tumour progression along the MACS of gastric cancer in the European population and is shown to start in precancerous lesions. However, clinical features may differ due to differences in biological features in the two populations, as reflected by differences in TF expression profile.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.363
PMCID: PMC3461158  PMID: 22929889
tissue factor; gastric adenocarcinoma; metaplasia–adenoma–carcinoma sequence
15.  Measurement of circulating levels of VEGF-A, -C, and -D and their receptors, VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinoma 
AIM: To analyze the serum levels and prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -A, -C, and -D, and their receptors, VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinomas.
METHODS: The serum levels of VEGF family members were measured in 76 control subjects and 76 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These measurements were correlated with clinco-pathological features and survival rates.
RESULTS: The serum levels of VEGF-A and its receptor, VEGFR-1, were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer than in healthy donors (t = 2.3, P = 0.02 and t = 4.2, P < 0.0001, respectively). In contrast, the serum levels of VEGF-D were significantly higher in control subjects than in patients (t = 2.9, P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in serum levels of VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 between patients and controls. VEGF-C was associated with advanced tumor stage and presence of metastasis. VEGFR-1 was associated with metastasis, advanced overall stage, tumor differentiation and survival. VEGFR-2 levels were associated with poor tumor differentiation. There was no significant prognostic value for any of the VEGF family members or their receptors except for VEGFR-1 where high levels were associated with a poor overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels vary significantly in the same cohort of patients with variable clinico-pathological features and prognostic values. The simultaneous measurement of VEGF receptors levels in sera may overcome the limitations of a single biomarker assay.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3879
PMCID: PMC2721446  PMID: 18609713
Gastric cancer; Serum; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Oman
16.  Cytoplasmic expression of LGR5 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma 
Background: CD133 has been identified as a cancer stem cell marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Although leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a marker of intestinal stem cells, has been shown to be on a higher level of the stem cell hierarchy than CD133, the expression and function of LGR5 in pancreatic cancer tissue remains unclear. This study investigated tissue expression of LGR5 and CD133 in resected pancreatic cancer tissue.
Methods: LGR5 and CD133 expression was immunohistochemically examined in 9 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent resection.
Results: LGR5 was expressed in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells in 4 of 9 cases. CD133 was not detected in cancerous tissue. In non-neoplastic tissue, LGR5 was expressed in the basolateral membrane of a subset of endocrine cells. Conversely, CD133 was expressed in the apical membrane of small duct cells. Co-localization of LGR5 and CD133 was not found in either neoplastic or non-neoplastic tissue. LGR5 expression in pancreatic cancer cells showed no statistically significant correlation with survival after surgery.
Conclusion: We have demonstrated that LGR5 is expressed in the cytoplasm of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, and the basolateral membrane of a subset of endocrine cells of the human pancreas. Further investigation is required to clarify any prognostic significance of LGR5 expression.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00269
PMCID: PMC3783903  PMID: 24133453
LGR5; CD133; cancer stem cell; endocrine cell
17.  The prognostic significance of the accumulation of p53 tumour-suppressor gene protein in gastric adenocarcinoma. 
British Journal of Cancer  1994;69(5):943-946.
We have studied the expression of p53 in 206 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas. A standard immunohistochemical technique employing the CM-1 anti-p53 polyclonal antibody was applied to the routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded material from these tumours; overexpression of p53 was defined as positive nuclear staining: 46% (94/206) of gastric carcinomas expressed high levels of p53. There was no significant correlation between p53 positivity and the tumour grade, growth pattern, the Lauren type or lymph node metastases. Correlation with disease stage was only marginally significant (P = 0.05). Life table analysis revealed a highly significant association between p53 expression and survival (P = 0.0062), the odds ratio of death being 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.69). The overall 5-year survival of patients with p53-positive tumours was 3% compared with 16% for those with p53-negative tumours (median survival time being 5.6 and 11.4 months respectively). These data suggest that overexpression of the p53 oncoprotein is an independent marker of shortened survival in gastric cancer patients.
Images
PMCID: PMC1968903  PMID: 8180028
18.  Hypoxia-associated markers in gastric carcinogenesis and HIF-2α in gastric and gastro-oesophageal cancer prognosis 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(5):965-973.
The study investigated hypoxia-associated markers (HIF-2α, Epo, Epo-R, Glut-1 and VEGF) along with Ki-67 in a gastric carcinogenesis model, and the prognostic significance of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α in surgically treated gastro-oesophageal cancer. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of normal mucosa (n=20), Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis (n=24), intestinal metaplasia (n=24), dysplasia (n=12) and intestinal (n=19) and diffuse (n=21) adenocarcinoma. Relationships between HIF-2α expression and prognosis were assessed in resection specimens from 177 patients with gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Expression of all markers increased with progression along the gastric carcinogenesis sequence (P=0.0001). Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α was expressed in 63% of 177 resection specimens and at a high level in 44%. The median overall survival in patients with HIF-2α-expressing tumours was 22 (95% CI 18−26) months, whereas those with HIF-2α-negative tumours had a median survival of 37 (95% CI 29−44) months (P=0.015). Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α had no independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis. In view of the lack of independent prognostic significance, HIF-2α has no role as a routine prognostic indicator. However, the high expression of HIF-2α suggests that it may be of value as a potential therapeutic target.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604210
PMCID: PMC2266847  PMID: 18283323
gastric cancer; gastro-oesophageal junction tumours; HIF-2α; hypoxia; carcinogenesis
19.  The significance of LRPPRC overexpression in gastric cancer 
LRPPRC is a multifunctional protein involved in mitochondrial gene expression and function, cell cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. We analyzed LRPPRC gene expression in 253 paired cases of gastric cancer and noncancerous regions and six gastric cancer cell lines to demonstrate the importance of LRPPRC expression for the prediction of prognosis of gastric cancer. Our results showed that LRPPRC expression in gastric cancer tissues is significantly higher than that in paired control tissue (P < 0.001). Patients with higher LRPPRC expression showed a poorer overall survival rate than those with lower LRPPRC expression (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lymph node metastasis (N), distant metastasis (M), TNM stage, and LRPPRC expression were independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer (P = 0.004, 0.002, 0.017, 0.004 respectively).Moreover, Western blotting showed that LRPPRC expression was increased in SGC7901, BGC823, MKN45, and XGC9811cells. The in vitro proliferation assay showed that LRPPRC expression is inversely associated with gastric cancer cells growth. Our results indicated that LRPPRC could be used as a predictive marker for patient prognosis of gastric cancer and may be a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer in future.
doi:10.1007/s12032-013-0818-y
PMCID: PMC3899470  PMID: 24375316
LRPPRC; LRP130; Gastric cancer; Expression; Prognosis
20.  Expression of the stem cell markers CD133 and nestin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and clinical relevance 
Background: To evaluate the prognostic implication of cancer stem cell markers in pancreac ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the expression of CD133 and nestin were investigated in a series of PDAC patients in relation to the survival rate. Methods: This series included 42 cases of PDAC patients and evaluated the stem cell markers CD133 and nestin expression detected by immunohistochemistry. The presence of immunopositive tumor cells considering intensity and area was evaluated and interpreted in comparison to the patients’ clinicopathological and survival data. Results: Twenty eight cases (66.7%) showed high CD133 expression. The CD133 expression was mainly identified in the apical border of the tumor cell, but aberrant expression in the cytoplasmic or perinuclear location was also noted. High nestin expression in tumor cells were found in only 2 cases, but high nestin expression along perinuerial or stromal region was found in 15 cases (35.7%). There was no correlation between CD133, nestin expression and gemcitabine resistance. Statistically significant difference was found in patient survival in N stage (p=0.007), and CD133 expression (p= 0.014) in univariate analysis. Nestin expression wan not statistically significant, but it was helpful to identify the perineurial invasion. In Cox-regression hazard model stratified by age and sex for multivariable analysis, AJCC stage and CD133 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions: CD133 expression is upregulated in PDAC that is related to poor prognosis, and treatment targeted the CD133 positive cancer/cancer stem cells might be a promising therapeutic strategy for this patients.
PMCID: PMC3466976  PMID: 23071857
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; cancer stem cell; CD133; nestin; prognosis
21.  Ectopic expression of RASSF2 and its prognostic role for gastric adenocarcinoma patients 
RASSF2 has recently been identified as a potential tumor suppressor that serves as a Ras effector in various types of human cancers. However, there have been few reports detailing this in gastric cancer. Samples of gastric adenocarcinoma from 276 Chinese patients with follow-up were analyzed for RASSF2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RASSF2 was expressed in up to 31.2% (86/276) of this group of gastric carcinoma. The expression of RASSF2 was significantly lower in carcinomas than in normal mucosas (P<0.05). RASSF2 corresponded positively with patient age, histological differentiation, depth of tumor invasion, regional lymph node and distant metastasis, and TNM stage (all P<0.05). Further multivariate analysis revealed that patient gender, depth of tumor invasion, distant metastasis, TNM stage and the expression of RASSF2 were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric cancer. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed that the overall mean survival time of the patients with RASSF2-negative expression was shorter than that of patients with positive expression (χ2=156.874, P<0.0001). Moreover, RASSF2-negative expression had a much more significant effect on the survival of those patients with early stage tumors (χ2=127.167, P<0.0001), highlighted by a >50.9% reduction in 3-year survival compared to that of patients with RASSF2-positive expression. In late stages, the difference was also significant (χ2=6.246, P=0.019), with a 35.5% reduction in 3-year survival. It is suggested that RASSF2 plays an important role in the evolution of gastric adenocarcinoma and should be considered as a potential marker for its prognosis.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.440
PMCID: PMC3438690  PMID: 22969901
RASSF2; gastric cancer; metastasis; prognosis
22.  Relationship between EGFR expression, copy number and mutation in lung adenocarcinomas 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:376.
Background
This study was designed to investigate EGFR protein expression, EGFR copy number and EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, to explore the relationship of the three markers.
Methods
EGFR status was analyzed in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma samples from 133 Chinese patients by three methods: protein expression (n = 133) by standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC), gene copy number (n = 133) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mutation analysis using the Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) (n = 133).
Results
The results showed that 68.4% of the samples were positive by IHC, 42.1% were positive by FISH, and 63.9% contained activating kinase domain mutations. EGFR mutations were more frequent in non-smoking patients (p = 0.008), and EGFR mutations were associated with EGFR FISH positivity (p < 0.0001). When using 10% positivity and 2+ as cutoffs, EGFR protein expression was significantly correlated with EGFR FISH positivity (p = 0.012) and EGFR mutations (p = 0.008) after Bonferroni correction.
Conclusion
EGFR protein expression, EGFR copy number and EGFR mutations were closely related to each other. Standard methods and interpretation criteria need to be established.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-376
PMCID: PMC2913962  PMID: 20637128
23.  Growth hormone receptor expression in human primary gastric adenocarcinoma 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2012;26(5):307-314.
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma. We investigated 48 specimens of primary gastric adenocarcinoma and their corresponding normal gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of GHR. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that GHR was expressed in human primary gastric adenocarcinoma (36/48, 75.0%) and appeared to be upregulated, compared to the normal mucosa (28/48, 58.3%, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between GHR expression and tumor stage (P < 0.001) and tumor differentiation (P < 0.001). The average positive rate of ki-67 in GHR-positive tumors was 16.06%, while the positive rate in GHR-negative tumors was 6.17% (P < 0.01). The average apoptosis index (AI) of GHR-positive tumors was 3.36%, which was significantly lower than that (7.33%) of GHR-negative tumors. In addition, 27 of 48 cases of tumors had GHR mRNA expression, while only 17 of all 48 cases of normal mucosa did so. Our results indicate that the frequency of GHR was significantly higher in primary gastric adenocarcinoma than that in normal gastric mucosa. GHR expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation and tumor grade. This finding supported a possible role of growth hormone in primary gastric adenocarcinoma pathophysiology.
doi:10.7555/JBR.26.20110133
PMCID: PMC3613727  PMID: 23554765
growth hormone receptor; primary gastric cancer; proliferative index; apoptosis index
24.  Significance of CD133 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Background
CD133 was recently reported to be a cancer stem cell marker and a prognostic marker for several tumors. However, few studies have investigated CD133 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, we examined whether CD133 could serve as a prognostic marker of ESCC and investigated the correlation between CD133 expression and the clinicopathological findings of ESCC patients and several markers.
Methods
We studied 86 ESCC patients who underwent curative surgery without neoadjuvant treatment at Tohoku University Hospital (Sendai, Japan) between January 2000 and December 2005. We analyzed tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining for CD133, p53, p16, p27, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
Results
Pathological tumor depth and tumor stage were significantly more advanced among CD133-negative patients than among CD133-positive patients. A log-rank test showed that CD133 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P = 0.049). However, multivariate analysis showed that it was not significantly correlated (P = 0.078). Moreover, CD133 was significantly positively correlated with p27 immunoreactivity (P = 0.0013) and tended to be positively correlated with p16 immunoreactivity (P = 0.057). In addition, p16 immunoreactivity was correlated with smoking history (P = 0.018), pathological lymph node status (P = 0.033), and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.018).
Conclusions
This study indicated that CD133 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of prognosis in ESCC patients. In addition, CD133 may play a role in the regulation of tumor cell cycle through p27 and p16 in ESCC. At present, it thus remains controversial whether CD133 expression is a valid prognostic marker for ESCC. To elucidate this relationship, further investigations are required.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-51
PMCID: PMC3599647  PMID: 23448401
AC133; Esophagus; Prominin-1; p16; p27; Stem cell marker
25.  Sequential expression of putative stem cell markers in gastric carcinogenesis 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;105(5):658-665.
Background:
Gastric carcinogenesis has been well documented in the step-wise histopathological model, known as Correa pathway. Several biomarkers including CD44, Musashi-1 and CD133 have been reported as putative stem cell (PSC) markers.
Methods:
We investigated expression of PSC markers CD44, Musashi-1 and CD133 in relation to gastric carcinogenesis and prognosis and chemoresponse. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed in gastric cancer (GC) clinical specimens representing different steps of the Correa pathway. Gastric cancer samples taken before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and capecitabine (DCX) were also evaluated for PSC marker expression.
Results:
We showed that the expression of three PSC markers was significantly elevated in GC relative to normal gastric mucosa (P<0.001 for each marker). Precancerous lesions, including intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, demonstrated increased expression of CD44 and Musashi-1. CD133 was predominantly expressed along the border between intramucosal carcinoma and connective tissue at later stages. High CD44 and CD133 expression showed prognostic value for worse patient survival (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively). A small number of tumours with high expression of CD44 and CD133 showed pathological response to DCX-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Conclusion:
CD44 and Musashi-1 are frequently expressed in both premalignant gastric lesions and invasive GC, whereas CD133 expression is restricted mainly to neoplastic tissues.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.287
PMCID: PMC3188930  PMID: 21829201
CD44; CD133; Musashi-1; Correa pathway; gastric cancer

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