CD133 is one of the most important stem cell markers in solid cancers. Some recent reports have described a possible relationship between CD133 and hypoxia-inducing factor-1-alpha (HIF-1α). The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical role of CD133 expression in gastric cancer and to investigate the correlation between CD133 expression and HIF-1α expression.
We studied 189 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy at Kurume University Hospital. CD133 and HIF-1α expression was examined using immunohistochemical staining. Fifty-six cases were CD133 positive, and they were divided into two expression types: luminal expression of the gland and cytoplasmic expression. We investigated the relationship among CD133 expression types, clinicopathological variables, prognosis, and HIF-1α expression.
When comparing clinicopathological variables, expression of CD133 in the cytoplasm was related to metastasis and tumor progression. However, this relationship was not observed with luminal expression of the gland type. The survival rate in patients with cytoplasmic CD133 expression was significantly worse than that in the CD133-negative group. This relationship was observed in the survival rate of the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the curative resection group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the expression of CD133 in the cytoplasm was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Regarding the correlation between CD133 expression and HIF-1α expression, the HIF-1α positive rate was lower in patients with CD133 luminal expression of the gland type and higher in patients with cytoplasmic expression of CD133.
Gastric cancer cells with CD133 expression in the cytoplasm were cells with high potential for malignancy, and this phenotype was associated with cancer progression, chemotherapy resistance, recurrence, and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic expression of CD133 may be a useful prognostic marker in gastric cancer. Significant correlation was observed between HIF-1α expression and the immunohistochemical staining pattern of CD133.
Gastric cancer; CD133; Prognosis; HIF-1α
To investigate the correlation between CD133-positive gastric cancer and clinicopathological features and its impact on survival.
A search in the Medline and Chinese CNKI (up to 1 Dec 2011) was performed using the following keywords gastric cancer, CD133, AC133, prominin-1 etc. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching reference lists, abstracts and proceedings from meetings. Outcomes included overall survival and various clinicopathological features.
A total of 773 gastric cancer patients from 7 studies were included. The median rate of CD133 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was 44.8% (15.2%–57.4%) from 5 studies, and that by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was 91.3% (66.7%–100%) from 4 studies. The accumulative 5-year overall survival rates of CD133-positive and CD133-negative patients were 21.4% and 55.7%, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that CD133-positive patients had a significant worse 5-year overall survival compared to the negative ones (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14–0.29, P<0.00001). With respect to clinicopathological features, CD133 overexpression by IHC method was closely correlated with tumor size, N stage, lymphatic/vascular infiltration, as well as TNM stage.
CD133-positive gastric cancer patients had worse prognosis, and was associated with common clinicopathological poor prognostic factors.
CD133 is known to be a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. However, recent studies have revealed that CD133 is not restricted to CSC but to be expressed not only in human normal tissues but also in some cancers and could serve as a prognostic factor for the patients. Nevertheless, the expression of CD133 in human cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is rare and our study is to detect the expression and explore the potential functions of CD133 in human CC.
Fifty-nine cases, comprised of 5 normal liver tissues and 54 consecutive CC specimens (21 well-differentiated, 12 moderately-differentiated and 21 poorly-differentiated), were included in the study. Immunohistochemical stainning with CD133 protein was carried out, and statistical analyses were performed.
CD133 was found to express in all 5 normal livers and 40 out of 54 (74%) CC tissues with different subcellular localization. In the well, moderately and poorly differentiated cases, the numbers of CD133 positive cases were 19 (19 of 21, 90%), 10 (10 of 12, 83%) and 11 (11 of 21, 52%) respectively. Further statistical analyses indicated that the expression and different subcellular localization of CD133 were significantly correlated with the differentiation status of tumors (P = 0.004, P = 0.009). Among 23 patients followed up for survival, the median survival was 4 months for fourteen CD133 negative patients but 14 months for nine CD133 positive ones. In univariate survival analysis, CD133 negative expression correlated with poor prognosis while CD133 positive expression predicted a favorable outcome of CC patients (P = 0.001).
Our study demonstrates that CD133 expression correlates with the differentiation of CC and indicates that CD133 is a potential indicator for differentiation and prognosis of human CC.
CD133; Cholangiocarcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Differentiation; Prognosis
Although CD133 has been shown to be a marker for cancer stem cells in various tumours, its expression in pancreatic cancer has not yet been clinically reported. In this study, we investigated the relationship between CD133 expression and clinicopathological factors in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic head carcinoma specimens from 80 patients who underwent surgical resection were immunohistochemically assessed for CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, CXCR4, CD34, Ki-67, and cytokeratin (CK) expressions. Sixty percentage (48/80) of specimens were CD133-positive, with less than 15% cells per specimen expressing the marker. CD133-positive cells were found at the peripheral site of adenocarcinoma glandular structures and were negative for CK. There was a significant correlation between CD133 expression and clinicopathological factors, including histological type, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis (P=0.0215, 0.0023, and 0.0024, respectively). Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was also significantly correlated with CD133 expression (P=0.0002). Consequently, the 5-year survival rate of CD133-positive patients was significantly lower than that of CD133-negative patients (P=0.0002) and multivariate analysis revealed that CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.0103). These results suggest that CD133 expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and prognosis.
pancreatic cancer; cancer stem cell; CD133; lymph node metastasis; VEGF-C; predicting factor
Presently, CD133 is one of the hottest markers to characterize cancer stem cells and KAI1/CD82 is reported as an important marker for the metastasis and prognosis of many cancers. The purpose of our study is to explore the relationship between cancer stem cells (CSCs) marked by CD133 and KAI1/CD82 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 in 83 archival surgical specimens of human LSCC and 83 cases of normal laryngeal tissues.
In LSCC, positive rates of 49.4% and 41.0% were obtained for CD133 and KAI1/CD82, respectively. The expression of CD133 in LSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues (P < 0.001), and the expression of CD133 was positively associated with pTNM stage (P = 0.005), pathological grade (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The reduced expression of KAI1/CD82 was present in LSCC tissues. The positive rate of KAI1/CD82 expression was negatively correlated with pTNM stage (P = 0.014), pathological grade (P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). A correlation analysis showed that there was a negative relationship between the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 protein in LSCC tissues (P < 0.001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the expression of CD133 was negatively correlated with overall survival (OS) (log-rank = 40.949, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (log-rank = 39.307, P < 0.001) time of LSCC. The expression of KAI1/CD82 was positively correlated with OS (log-rank = 40.279, P < 0.001) and DFS (log-rank = 39.271, P < 0.001) time of LSCC. Cox regression analysis: the expression of CD133 and KAI1/CD82, and pTNM stages were independent prognostic factors of LSCC (P < 0.05).
Thus the detection of CD133 and KAI1/CD82 proteins may be used as a potential indicator of LSCC prognosis.
Background. Significances of CD133 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) patients were investigated. Methods. Correlations of CD133 mRNA expression in PBMCs on clinicopathological parameters or CD133 protein expression were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve according to bright scale value (BSV) of CD133 mRNA was used to group patients for prognosis analysis. Results. BSV of preoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs in GC was significantly higher than that in volunteers or in GU. Invasive depth or metastatic lymph node number for higher BSV of preoperative CD133 mRNA and invasive depth or lymphatic vessel invasion for higher BSV of postoperative CD133 mRNA in the PBMCs were identified. Patients with CD133+ expression in primary lesion had a significantly higher expression of preoperative CD133 mRNA in the PBMCs. The expression of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs related positively to CD133 mRNA expression in primary lesion. Patients with higher expression of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA shared significantly shorter survival compared with that in lower expression group. Conclusion. Higher levels of preoperative or postoperative CD133 mRNA in PBMCs of GC correlated positively to the lymphatic metastasis and the BSV of CD133 mRNA in primary lesion, indicating the poorer survival.
To investigate on expressions and clinical significances of CD133 protein and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The specimens of NSCLC from 305 Chinese patients with follow-up were analyzed for CD133 protein expression and VM by immunohistochemical and histochemical staining.
In NSCLC, positive rates of 48.9% and 35.7% were obtained for CD133 and VM, respectively. The VM and expression of CD133 were significantly higher in carcinoma than in normal. There were a positive relationship between the VM and expression of CD133 and the tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (all P<0.05). The overall mean survival time of the patients with CD133 and VM positive expression was lower than that of patients with negative expression. Microvessel density (MVD) was positive corresponded with the grade, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (all P<0.05). The overall mean survival time of the patients with MVD≥22’s group was shorter than that of patients with MVD<22’s group. Pathological-tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage, positive expression of CD133 and VM, postoperative therapy and MVD were independent prognostic factors of NSCLC (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry revealed an important intratumoral heterogeneity in all four CD133 expression profiles.
VM, MVD and expression of CD133 are related to differentiation, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and prognosis. It is suggested that CD133, VM and MVD should be considered as a potential marker for the prognosis.
RASSF2 has recently been identified as a potential tumor suppressor that serves as a Ras effector in various types of human cancers. However, there have been few reports detailing this in gastric cancer. Samples of gastric adenocarcinoma from 276 Chinese patients with follow-up were analyzed for RASSF2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RASSF2 was expressed in up to 31.2% (86/276) of this group of gastric carcinoma. The expression of RASSF2 was significantly lower in carcinomas than in normal mucosas (P<0.05). RASSF2 corresponded positively with patient age, histological differentiation, depth of tumor invasion, regional lymph node and distant metastasis, and TNM stage (all P<0.05). Further multivariate analysis revealed that patient gender, depth of tumor invasion, distant metastasis, TNM stage and the expression of RASSF2 were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric cancer. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed that the overall mean survival time of the patients with RASSF2-negative expression was shorter than that of patients with positive expression (χ2=156.874, P<0.0001). Moreover, RASSF2-negative expression had a much more significant effect on the survival of those patients with early stage tumors (χ2=127.167, P<0.0001), highlighted by a >50.9% reduction in 3-year survival compared to that of patients with RASSF2-positive expression. In late stages, the difference was also significant (χ2=6.246, P=0.019), with a 35.5% reduction in 3-year survival. It is suggested that RASSF2 plays an important role in the evolution of gastric adenocarcinoma and should be considered as a potential marker for its prognosis.
RASSF2; gastric cancer; metastasis; prognosis
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aberrant expression of microRNA (miR)-133b and miR-206 can be used as potential prognostic markers of human osteosarcoma. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-133b and miR-206 in 100 pairs of osteosarcoma tissues and matched noncancerous bone tissues, and serum samples from 100 patients with osteosarcoma as well as in serum samples from 100 healthy controls. As a result, expression levels of miR-133b and miR-206 were both significantly decreased in osteosarcoma tissues and patients’ sera (both P<0.001). Then, the downregulation of miR-133b and miR-206 both more frequently occurred in osteosarcoma patients with high tumor grade (both P=0.01), positive metastasis (both P<0.001) and recurrence (both P<0.001). Moreover, the patients with low miR-133b expression and low miR-206 expression both had shorter overall survival (OS, both P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS, both P<0.001) than those with high expressions. Of note, the OS and DFS of patients with combined low expression of miR-133b and miR-206 (miR-133b-low/miR-206-low) were the shortest (both P<0.001). Furthermore, low miR-133b expression, low miR-206 expression and conjoined expression of miR-133b/miR-206 were all independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS of osteosarcoma patients. Collectively, the aberrant expression of miR-133b and miR-206 may be implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of osteosarcoma. More interestingly, detection of serum miR-133b and miR-206 expression could be further developed as novel, non-invasive and efficient markers for prognosis in patients with osteosarcomas.
Osteosarcoma; microRNA-133b; microRNA-206; clinicopathological features; overall survival; disease-free survival
Gastric carcinogenesis has been well documented in the step-wise histopathological model, known as Correa pathway. Several biomarkers including CD44, Musashi-1 and CD133 have been reported as putative stem cell (PSC) markers.
We investigated expression of PSC markers CD44, Musashi-1 and CD133 in relation to gastric carcinogenesis and prognosis and chemoresponse. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed in gastric cancer (GC) clinical specimens representing different steps of the Correa pathway. Gastric cancer samples taken before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and capecitabine (DCX) were also evaluated for PSC marker expression.
We showed that the expression of three PSC markers was significantly elevated in GC relative to normal gastric mucosa (P<0.001 for each marker). Precancerous lesions, including intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, demonstrated increased expression of CD44 and Musashi-1. CD133 was predominantly expressed along the border between intramucosal carcinoma and connective tissue at later stages. High CD44 and CD133 expression showed prognostic value for worse patient survival (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively). A small number of tumours with high expression of CD44 and CD133 showed pathological response to DCX-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
CD44 and Musashi-1 are frequently expressed in both premalignant gastric lesions and invasive GC, whereas CD133 expression is restricted mainly to neoplastic tissues.
CD44; CD133; Musashi-1; Correa pathway; gastric cancer
To study on expressions and clinical significances of CD133 protein and CD133 mRNA in primary lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC).
Expressions of CD133 protein by immunostaining (99 cases) and CD133 mRNA by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (31 cases) were detected in primary lesion and in noncancerous gastric mucosa tissue (NCGT). Correlations of CD133 protein expression with clinicopathological parameters and post-operative survival were analyzed. Relations of CD133 mRNA level with Ki-67 labeling index (LI), and lymphatic metastasis were assessed too.
Brown particles indicating CD133 protein positivity occurred in some parts of tumor cells and epithelium. Expressive percentage of CD133 protein positivity was significantly higher in subgroups with >5 cm diameter (P = 0.041), later TNM stage (P = 0.044), severer lymph node metastasis (P = 0.017), occurrences of lymphatic invasion (P = 0.000) and vascular invasion (P = 0.000) respectively. Severer invasion depth (P = 0.011), lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.043) and later TNM stage (P = 0.049) were the independent risk factors for CD133 protein expression. Average brightness scale value (BSV) of CD133 mRNA was significantly higher in subgroups with >5 cm diameter (P = 0.041), lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.004) and in lower Ki-67 LI (P = 0.02). Relative analysis revealed that BSV of CD133 mRNA related positively to metastatic lymphatic nodes ratio (P = 0.008) and metastatic lymph node number (P = 0.009), but negatively to Ki-67 LI (P = 0.009). Survival of positive subgroup of CD 133 protein was significantly poorer (P = 0.047). Lymph node metastasis occurrence (P = 0.042), later TNM stage (P = 0.046) and CD 133 protein positive expression (P = 0.046) were respectively the independent risk factors to survival.
Higher expressive level of CD133 mRNA is associated to lower Ki-67 LI and severer lymphatic metastasis. Therefore, the expressive level of CD133 mRNA can play an appropriate role to reflect the status of lymph node metastasis and proliferation of GC. CD133 protein expression is closely related with larger tumor, later TNM stage, lymphtic metastasis and survival of GC.
The interactions between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote tumor progression, maintain the CSCs population, and reduce therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the coexpression of CSCs and TAMs and its clinical significance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Ninety-six patients with PDAC were included in this study. Tissue microarrays were constructed for immunostaining of the CSCs markers CD44 and CD133 and the TAMs marker CD204. Correlations between the expression of CSCs and TAMs markers and clinicopathologic characteristics or disease progression were analyzed.
Expression levels of CD44/CD133 and CD204 were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < .0001). The variables associated with survival were high coexpression of CD44/CD133 (P = .000), high expression of CD204 (P = .011), and tumor grade (P = .014). There was a positive correlation between CD44/CD133 and CD204 expression (r = 0.294; P = .004). Survival analysis indicated that high coexpression of CD44/CD133 and CD204 was associated significantly with shorter overall survival (P = .000) and disease-free survival (P = .003). Multivariate analysis revealed that high CD44/CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, whereas high CD204 expression was an independent predictor for both overall and disease-free survival.
Coexpression of CD44/CD133 and CD204 is a useful survival prediction marker for patients with PDAC. Cancer 2014;120:2766–2777. © The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
The clinical significance of pancreatic cancer stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages is explored in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The results clearly demonstrate that coexpression of 2 cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD133) and a tumor-associated macrophage marker (CD204) is a useful prognostic factor for predicting the survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after surgery.
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; cancer stem cells; tumor-associated macrophages; tissue microarrays; CD44; CD133; CD204
CD133 was recently reported to be a cancer stem cell marker and a prognostic marker for several tumors. However, few studies have investigated CD133 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, we examined whether CD133 could serve as a prognostic marker of ESCC and investigated the correlation between CD133 expression and the clinicopathological findings of ESCC patients and several markers.
We studied 86 ESCC patients who underwent curative surgery without neoadjuvant treatment at Tohoku University Hospital (Sendai, Japan) between January 2000 and December 2005. We analyzed tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining for CD133, p53, p16, p27, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
Pathological tumor depth and tumor stage were significantly more advanced among CD133-negative patients than among CD133-positive patients. A log-rank test showed that CD133 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P = 0.049). However, multivariate analysis showed that it was not significantly correlated (P = 0.078). Moreover, CD133 was significantly positively correlated with p27 immunoreactivity (P = 0.0013) and tended to be positively correlated with p16 immunoreactivity (P = 0.057). In addition, p16 immunoreactivity was correlated with smoking history (P = 0.018), pathological lymph node status (P = 0.033), and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.018).
This study indicated that CD133 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of prognosis in ESCC patients. In addition, CD133 may play a role in the regulation of tumor cell cycle through p27 and p16 in ESCC. At present, it thus remains controversial whether CD133 expression is a valid prognostic marker for ESCC. To elucidate this relationship, further investigations are required.
AC133; Esophagus; Prominin-1; p16; p27; Stem cell marker
CD133 is one of the most representative cancer stem cell markers. This study evaluated the potential prognostic value of CD133 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). Tumors from 177 patients were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression, and their associations with disease recurrence were analyzed. Also, the potential prognostic value of combining CD133 expression with proliferating activity measured by immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and vessel involvement was evaluated. CD133 high expressers showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than CD133 low expressers: 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate 77.2% vs. 95.1% (p=0.004), adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) 4.37, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.30-14.71 (p=0.017). CD133 high expressers having strong proliferating activity and/or with vessel invasion showed a higher risk of recurrence: 5-year DFS rate 66.5% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers vs. 93.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 8.39, 95% CI 2.65-26.54 (p<0.001): 5-year DFS rate 51.0% in CD133 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 92.9% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 4.50, 95% CI 1.51-13.34 (p=0.007): 5-year DFS rate 53.9% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 91.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 9.32, 95% CI 3.42-25.39 (p<0.001). In conclusion, the level of CD133 expression is an independent prognostic marker and its combination with proliferating activity and/or vessel invasion could have excellent prognostic value to predict postoperative recurrence in patients with stage I lung ADC.
Lungadenocarcinoma; cancer stem cell; CD133; stage I; prognosis
Background: To evaluate the prognostic implication of cancer stem cell markers in pancreac ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the expression of CD133 and nestin were investigated in a series of PDAC patients in relation to the survival rate. Methods: This series included 42 cases of PDAC patients and evaluated the stem cell markers CD133 and nestin expression detected by immunohistochemistry. The presence of immunopositive tumor cells considering intensity and area was evaluated and interpreted in comparison to the patients’ clinicopathological and survival data. Results: Twenty eight cases (66.7%) showed high CD133 expression. The CD133 expression was mainly identified in the apical border of the tumor cell, but aberrant expression in the cytoplasmic or perinuclear location was also noted. High nestin expression in tumor cells were found in only 2 cases, but high nestin expression along perinuerial or stromal region was found in 15 cases (35.7%). There was no correlation between CD133, nestin expression and gemcitabine resistance. Statistically significant difference was found in patient survival in N stage (p=0.007), and CD133 expression (p= 0.014) in univariate analysis. Nestin expression wan not statistically significant, but it was helpful to identify the perineurial invasion. In Cox-regression hazard model stratified by age and sex for multivariable analysis, AJCC stage and CD133 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions: CD133 expression is upregulated in PDAC that is related to poor prognosis, and treatment targeted the CD133 positive cancer/cancer stem cells might be a promising therapeutic strategy for this patients.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; cancer stem cell; CD133; nestin; prognosis
AIM: To analyze the differences and relevance of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and survivin, and to explore the correlation and significance of their expression in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions.
METHODS: The PV9000 immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of YAP and survivin in 98 cases of normal gastric mucosa, 58 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 32 dysplasia and 98 gastric carcinoma.
RESULTS: The positive rates of YAP in dysplasia (37.5%) and gastric carcinoma (48.0%) were significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (13.3%), P < 0.01. The positive rates of survivin in IM (53.4%), dysplasia (59.4%) and gastric carcinoma (65.3%) were significantly higher than in normal gastric mucosa (11.2%), P < 0.01. Survivin expression gradually increased from 41.7% in well differentiated adenocarcinoma through 58.3% in moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma to 75.6% in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with significant Rank correlation, rk = 0.279, P < 0.01. The positive rate of survivin in gastric carcinoma of diffused type (74.6%) was significantly higher than that in intestinal type (51.3%), P < 0.05. In gastric carcinoma with lymph node metastasis (76.9%), the positive rate of survivin was significantly higher than that in the group without lymph node metastasis (41.2%), P < 0.01. In 98 cases of gastric carcinoma, the expression of YAP and of survivin were positively correlated, rk = 0.246, P < 0.01.
CONCLUSION: YAP may play an important role as a carcinogenic factor and may induce survivin expression. Detecting both markers together may help in early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma.
Apoptosis; Cell proliferation; Gastric cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Neoplastic processes; Survivin protein; Yes-associated protein
AIM: To investigate the expression of distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2) in gastric adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
METHODS: Gastric adenocarcinoma tissues were obtained from gastrectomy specimens of 129 patients from the Department of Surgery and Pathology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Sixty cases of normal gastric tissues were collected from gastrectomy specimens of adjacent gastric cancer margins greater than 5 cm. Patient diagnosis was established pathologically, and no patient had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery. All tissue specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to investigate the expression of DLX2 in 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 60 adjacent normal tissues. The immunostaining reaction was semiquantitatively evaluated based on the proportion of positive cells and the median staining intensity in normal gastric epithelial cells or tumor cells. All patients had follow-up records for more than 5 years. Correlations of DLX2 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software.
RESULTS: The positive expression of DLX2 was detected in 68 (52.7%) cases of 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 14 (23.3%) cases of 60 adjacent normal tissues. The difference in DLX2 expression between gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.391, P < 0.001). Moreover, high expression of DLX2 was detected in 48 (37.2%) cases of 129 human gastric cancer tissues, but not in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DLX2 correlated with the size of tumor (P = 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.008), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023) and tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.020), but was not correlated with age, gender, histological differentiation and distant metastasis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that survival time of patients with high DLX2 expression was significantly shorter than that with low DLX2 expression. However, the multivariate analysis showed that invasion depth (P < 0.001), lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, but DLX2 expression, tumor location and tumor size were not.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increased expression of DLX2 may correlate with the advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma, and it may contribute to tumor development.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Distal-less homeobox 2; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis; Prognosis
AIM: To elucidate high mobility group-box 3 (HMGB3) protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, its potential prognostic relevance, and possible mechanism of action.
METHODS: Ninety-two patients with gastric adenocarcinomas surgically removed entered the study. HMGB3 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry through a tissue microarray procedure. The clinicopathologic characteristics of all patients were recorded, and regular follow-up was made for all patients. The inter-relationship of HMGB3 expression with histological and clinical factors was analyzed using nonparametric tests. Survival analysis was carried out by Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) and multivariate Cox (Forward LR) analyses between the group with overexpression of HMGB3 and the group with low or no HMGB3 expression to determine the prognosis value of HMGB3 expression on overall survival. Further, HMGB3 expression was knocked down by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in the human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 to observe its influence on cell biological characteristics. The MTT method was utilized to detect gastric cancer cell proliferation changes, and cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Among 92 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas surgically removed in this study, high HMGB3 protein expression was detected in the gastric adenocarcinoma tissues vs peritumoral tissues (P < 0.001). Further correlation analysis with patients’ clinical and histology variables revealed that HMGB3 overexpression was obviously associated with extensive wall penetration (P = 0.005), a positive nodal status (P = 0.004), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between HMGB3 overexpression and the age and gender of the patient, tumor localization or histologic grade. Statistical Kaplan-Meier survival analysis disclosed significant differences in overall survival between the HMGB3 overexpression group and the HMGB3 no or low expression group (P = 0.006). The expected overall survival time was 31.00 ± 3.773 mo (95%CI = 23.605-38.395) for patients with HMGB3 overexpression and 49.074 ± 3.648 mo (95%CI = 41.925-57.311) for patients with HMGB3 no and low-level expression. Additionally, older age (P = 0.040), extensive wall penetration (P = 0.008), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.005), and advanced TNM tumor stage (P = 0.007) showed negative correlation with overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that HMGB3 overexpression was an independent variable with respect to age, gender, histologic grade, extent of wall penetration, lymph nodal metastasis, and TNM stage for patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinomas with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.791, 95%CI = 1.233-6.319, P = 0.019). In the gene function study, after HMGB3 was knocked down in the gastric cell line BGC823 by shRNA, the cell proliferation rate was reduced at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Compared to BGC823 shRNA-negative control (NC) cells, the cell proliferation rate in cells that had HMGB3 shRNA transfected was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Finally, cell cycle analysis by FACS showed that BGC823 cells that had HMGB3 knocked down were blocked in G1/G0 phase. The percentage of cells in G1/G0 phase in BGC823 cells with shRNA-NC and with shRNA-HMGB3 was 46.84% ± 1.7%, and 73.03% ± 3.51% respectively (P = 0.001), whereas G2/M cells percentage decreased from 26.51% ± 0.83% to 17.8% ± 2.26%.
CONCLUSION: HMGB3 is likely to be a useful prognostic marker involved in gastric cancer disease onset and progression by regulating the cell cycle.
High mobility group-box 3; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Prognosis; Cell proliferation; Cell cycle
Aims: To study the expression of nuclear β catenin in patients with colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma, and colorectal polyps to elucidate its role in carcinogenesis, and its potential for prognosis and diagnosis.
Methods: The expression of nuclear β catenin was studied by immunohistochemistry using paraffin wax embedded specimens. Sixty specimens each of colorectal carcinoma, colorectal adenoma, colorectal polyp, and normal colorectal specimens were analysed. The potential for prognosis was assessed by correlating nuclear β catenin expression in 60 and 75 patients with colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis and survival, respectively. The diagnostic capacity was explored by comparing nuclear β catenin expression in 60 patients with colorectal cancer with other cytokeratin 20 (CK20) positive adenocarcinomas, namely: 30 colonic mucinous adenocarcinomas, 30 gastric adenocarcinomas, 27 pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and 12 ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas.
Results: Nuclear β catenin expression was highly associated with progression of colorectal tissue from normal epithelial tissue, polyps, adenomas, to carcinomas (r = 0.875; p < 0.0001). Nineteen patients with colorectal adenoma who subsequently developed colorectal carcinoma had higher nuclear β catenin expression than those with colorectal adenomas alone (p < 0.0001). Moreover, those patients with colorectal cancer and high nuclear β catenin expression had a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 16.99; p < 0.005) and shorter overall survival (p < 0.0001). Finally, nuclear β catenin expression in colorectal adenocarcinomas was significantly higher than in other CK20 positive adenocarcinomas.
Conclusions: Nuclear β catenin expression is a potential prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer, and together with CK20, it could be used to identify colorectal carcinoma in the Hong Kong population.
colorectal cancer; β catenin; nuclear translocation; cytokeratin 20; adenocarcinomas
Objectives: Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis of a wide range of solid tumors due to increased malignancy, increased likelihood of metastasis and treatment resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α-inducible proteins in gastric cancer and their impact on prognosis. Materials and Methods: The expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9, and iNOS proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 193 gastric adenocarcinomas (GAs) and 20 normal gastric mucosa. Results: HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS were expressed in 52.3%, 43.0%, 57.0%, and 43.0% of GAs, respectively, which are higher than the normal counterparts except for CA-9. HIF-1α expression was positively correlated with the expression of GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS. GLUT-1 expression was higher in the intestinal type (p = 0.012); however, iNOS expression was higher in the less-differentiated type and the diffuse type (p = 0.006, p = 0.032, respectively). The expression of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively), while the expression of GLUT-1 and iNOS was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and advanced stage (p = 0.044, p = 0.004; p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively). Overall survival was shorter in patients with GLUT-1 expression than in those without GLUT-1 expression, which was statistically significant by univariate analysis (p = 0.042). On multivariate analysis, however, stage was determined as the only independent prognostic marker (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that overexpression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and iNOS may play an important role in gastric cancer progression. GLUT-1 is a potential candidate for predicting patient survival.
Gastric cancer; hypoxia; HIF-1α; GLUT-1; CA-9; iNOS
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. The fact that a single miRNA can regulate hundreds of genes places miRNAs at critical hubs of signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression profile in gastric adenocarcinomas and compared it to esophageal adenocarcinomas to better identify a unique miRNA signature of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Methods and Results
The miRNA expression profile was obtained using Agilent and Exiqon microarray platforms on primary gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples. The cross comparison of results identified 17 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated miRNAs that overlapped in both platforms. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed for independent validation of a representative set of 8 miRNAs in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas as compared to normal gastric mucosa or esophageal mucosa, respectively. The de-regulation of miR-146b-5p, -375, -148a, -31, and -451 was significantly associated with gastric adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, de-regulation of miR-21 (up-regulation) and miR-133b (down-regulation) was detectable in both gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Interestingly, miR-200a was significantly down-regulated in gastric adenocarcinoma (p=0.04) but up-regulated in esophageal adenocarcinoma samples (p=0.001). In addition, the expression level of miR-146b-5p displayed a strong correlation with the tumor staging of gastric cancer.
Gastric adenocarcinoma displays a unique miRNA signature that distinguishes it from esophageal adenocarcinoma. This specific signature could reflect differences in the etiology and/or molecular signaling in these two closely related cancers. Our findings suggest important miRNA candidates that can be investigated for their molecular functions and possible diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic role in gastric adenocarcinoma.
miRNA; esophageal adenocarcinoma; gastric adenocarcinoma; microarray; prognosis
AIM: To study the molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) and the role of TFF1 in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric carcinoma and its molecular biological mechanism underlying gastric mucosa protection.
METHODS: The molecular forms of TFF1 in normal gastric mucosa were observed by Western blot. The expression of TFF1 in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) was also assayed by immunohistochemical method. The average positive AO was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software.
RESULTS: Three patterns of TFF1 were found in normal gastric mucosa: monomer, dimmer, and TFF1 compound whose molecular weight is about 21 kDa. The concentration of TFF1 compound was the highest among these three patterns. TFF1 was expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum, especially around the nuclei. The closer the TFF1 to the lumen, the higher the expression of TFF1. The expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue of gastric carcinoma (0.51 ± 0.07) was higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (0.44 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was positively related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma was, the weaker the expression of TFF1. No TFF1 was expressed in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in moderately-well differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.45 ± 0.07) was a little lower than that in normal mucosa (P > 0.05). The expression of TFF1 in gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia (0.57 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001). No TFF1 was expressed in intestinalized gastric mucosa. There was no statistically significant difference between the expressions of TFF1 in gastric mucosa around the intestinalized tissue (0.45 ± 0.07) and normal gastric mucosa (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: TFF1 is expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum. Its main pattern is TFF1 compound, which may have a greater biological activity than monomer and dimer. The expression of TFF1 in peripheral mucosa of gastric ulcer is higher than that in mucosa 5 cm beyond the ulcer, indicating that TFF1 plays an important part in protection and restitution of gastric mucosa. The expression of TFF1 is increased in peripheral tissues of gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia, but is decreased in cancer tissues, implying that TFF1 may be related to suppression and differentiation of carcinoma. The weaker expression of TFF1 in poorly-differentiated carcinoma may be related to the destruction of glands and cells in cancer tissues and the decrease in secretion of TFF1.
Trefoil factor 1; Gastric mucosa protection; Carcinoma suppression
AIM: To investigate M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) expression in gastric cancers and evaluate its potential as a prognostic biomarker and an anticancer target.
METHODS: All tissue samples were derived from gastric cancer patients underwent curative gastrectomy as a primary treatment. Clinical and pathological information were obtained from the medical records. Gene expression microarray data from 60 cancer and 19 non-cancer gastric tissues were analyzed to evaluate the expression level of PKM2 mRNA. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 368 gastric cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure PKM2 expression and PKM2 positivity of cancer was determined by proportion of PKM2-positive tumor cells and staining intensity. Association between PKM2 expression and the clinicopathological factors was evaluated and the correlation between PKM2 and cancer prognosis was evaluated.
RESULTS: PKM2 mRNA levels were increased more than 2-fold in primary gastric cancers compared to adjacent normal tissues from the same patients (log transformed expression level: 7.6 ± 0.65 vs 6.3 ± 0.51, P < 0.001). Moreover, differentiated type cancers had significantly higher PKM2 mRNA compared to undifferentiated type cancers (log transformed expression level: 7.8 ± 0.70 vs 6.7 ± 0.71, P < 0.001). PKM2 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of primary cancer cells and detected in 144 of 368 (39.1%) human gastric cancer cases. PKM2 expression was not related with stage (P = 0.811), but strongly correlated with gastric cancer differentiation (P < 0.001). Differentiated type cancers expressed more PKM2 protein than did the undifferentiated ones. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma showed 63.6% PKM2-positive cells; in contrast, signet-ring cell cancers showed only 17.7% PKM2-positive cells. Importantly, PKM2 expression was correlated with shorter overall survival (P < 0.05) independent of stage only in signet-ring cell cancers.
CONCLUSION: PKM2 expression might be an adverse prognostic factor for signet-ring cell carcinomas. Its function and potential as a prognostic marker should be further verified in gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase; Biomarker; Signet ring cell carcinoma; Prognosis
Gastric cancer (GC) presents various histological features, though the mechanism underlying its diversity is seldom elucidated. It is mainly classified into well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por), signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig), mucinous adenocarcinoma (muc), and papillary adenocarcinoma (pap). By screening, we found cathepsin E (CTSE) expresses universally in sig-type, occasionally in por-type, and rarely in tub1/tub2-type GC cell lines. In surgically-resected specimens, CTSE was immunostained in 50/51 sig-type (98.0%), 3/10 tub1-type (30.0%), 7/18 tub2-type (38.9%), 15/26 por-type (57.7%), 4/10 pap-type (40.0%), and 0/3 muc-type (0.0%) GC. In endoscopically-resected specimens, 6/7 sig-type (85.7%), 7/52 tub1-type (13.7%), 5/12 tub2-type (41.7%), 2/7 pap-type (28.6%) GC and 0/6 adenoma (0.0%) expressed CTSE. For non-malignant tissues, CTSE is universally expressed in normal fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach, but hardly in other digestive organs. In the precancerous intestinal metaplasia of stomach, CTSE is mostly observed in mixed gastric-and-intestinal type and deficient in solely-intestinal type. CTSE expression is positively correlated with gastric marker MUC5AC (p<0.0001) and negatively correlated with intestinal marker MUC2 (p = 0.0019). For sig-type GC, in both tumors and background mucosa, expression of MUC5AC and CTSE is high whereas that of MUC2 is low, indicating that sig-type GC reflects the features of background mucosa. For gastric adenoma and tub1/tub2-type GC, more undifferentiated tumors tend to show higher expression of CTSE with MUC5AC and lower expression of MUC2 in tumors, but they tend to present lower expression of CTSE, MUC5AC and MUC2 in background mucosa. These suggest that more malignant gastric adenocarcinoma with stronger gastric and weaker intestinal properties tend to arise from background mucosa with decreased both gastric and intestinal features. In conclusion, CTSE is a marker of both gastric differentiation and signet-ring cell carcinoma, which should shed light on the mechanism of gastric tumorigenesis.
AIM: To evaluate the relation of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) expression with clinicopathological features of gastric adenocarcinoma, and also its effect on prognosis with an emphasis on the differences between intestinal and diffuse types.
METHODS: From 2000 to 2006, 100 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, who had undergone total or subtotal gastrectomy without any prior treatment, were studied. Haematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining was used for histological evaluation, including the type (Lauren’s classification) and grading of the tumor. The expression of CD44 in the gastric adenocarcinoma mucosa and the adjacent mucosa were determined by immunohistochemistry. The survival analysis was obtained using the Kaplan-Meier test.
RESULTS: Of 100 patients, 74 (74%) patients were male. The tumors were categorized as intestinal type (78%) or diffuse type (22%). Sixty-five percent of patients were CD44-positive. CD44 expression was not detected in normal gastric mucosa. Rather, CD44 was more commonly expressed in the intestinal subtype (P = 0.002). A significant relation was seen between the grade of tumor and the expression of CD44 (P = 0.014). The survival analysis showed a poor prognosis of patients with CD44-positive tumors (P = 0.008); and this was more prominent in the intestinal (P = 0.001) rather than diffuse type.
CONCLUSION: Cell adhesion molecule CD44 is highly expressed in gastric adenocarcinoma. CD44 expression is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with the intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma. CD44 can, therefore, be utilized as a prognostic marker for this group of patients.
Gastric cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Cluster of differentiation 44; Cell adhesion molecules; Survival rate