Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT). There remains some debate as to the clinical benefit and associated morbidity. Our objective was to report our experience with PC-RPLND in NSGCT.
We have reviewed the clinical, pathologic and surgical parameters associated with PC-RPLND in a single institution. Between 1994 and 2008, three surgeons operated 73 patients with residual masses after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for a metastatic testicular cancer. Patients needed to have normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers, no prior surgical attempts to resect retroperitoneal masses and resectable retroperitoneal tumor mass at surgery to be included in this analysis
Mean age was 30.4 years old. Fifty-three percent had mixed germ cell tumors. The mean size of retroperitoneal metastasis was 6.3 and 4.0 cm, before and post-chemotherapy, respectively. In 56% of patients, the surgeon was able to perform a nerve sparing procedure. The overall complication rate was 27.4% and no patient died due to surgical complications. The pathologic review showed presence of fibrosis/necrosis, teratoma and viable tumor (non-teratoma) in 27 (37.0%), 30 (41.1%) and 16 (21.9%) patients, respectively. The subgroups presenting fibrosis and large tumors were more likely to have a surgical complication and had less nerve sparing procedures.
PC-RPLND is a relatively safe procedure. The presence of fibrosis and large residual masses are associated with surgical complications and non-nerve-sparing procedure.
The management of the residual mass in the retroperitoneum following induction chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer has evolved over the past three decades. A multidisciplinary approach involving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) has increased long-term survival rates above 80%. Advances into the appropriate patient selection and timing of surgery have lowered morbidity while improving oncologic outcomes. However, areas of controversy still exist within the field. Management of the small residual mass, predictors of the histology of the residual mass, the extent of PC-RPLND, the role of PC-RPLND in the setting of elevated serum tumor markers, and the role of positron-emission tomography are all topics of ongoing research and debate. We will discuss these issues and review the current guidelines for the management of the residual postchemotherapy retroperitoneal mass in this review.
testes; neoplasm; residual; seminoma; neoplasm; germ cell; retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; post-chemotherapy
Clinical stage I testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs) are highly curable. Following orchidectomy a risk-adapted approach using active surveillance (AS), nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (nsRPLND) and primary chemotherapy is recommended by the current guidelines. Clinical stage I is defined as negative or declining tumour markers to their half-life following orchidectomy and negative imaging studies of the chest, abdomen and retroperitoneum. Active surveillance can be performed in low-risk and in high-risk NSGCTs with an anticipated relapse rate of about 15% and 50%. The majority of patients will relapse with good and intermediate prognosis tumours which have to be treated with three to four cycles chemotherapy. About 25–30% of these patients will have to undergo postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) for residual masses. Primary chemotherapy with one or two cycles of cisplatin (Platinol), etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) is a therapeutic option for high-risk clinical stage I NSGCT associated with a recurrence rate of only 2–3% and a minimal acute and long-term toxicity rate. nsRPLND, if performed properly, will cure about 85% of all high-risk patients with clinical stage I NSGCT without the need for chemotherapy. PC-RPLND forms an integral part of the multimodality treatment in patients with advanced testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). According to current guidelines and recommendations, PC-RPLND in advanced seminomas with residual tumours is only indicated if a positron emission tomography (PET) scan performed 6–8 weeks after chemotherapy is positive. In nonseminomatous TGCT, PC-RPLND is indicated for all residual radiographic lesions with negative or plateauing markers. Loss of antegrade ejaculation represents the most common long-term complication which can be prevented by a nerve-sparing or modified template resection. The relapse rate after PC-RPLND is around 12%, however it increases significantly to about 45% in cases with redo RPLND and late relapses. Patients with increasing markers should undergo salvage chemotherapy. Only select patients with elevated markers who are thought to be chemorefractory might undergo desperation PC-RPLND if all radiographically visible lesions are completely resectable. PC-RPLND requires a complex surgical approach and should be performed in experienced, tertiary referral centres only.
testicular cancer; germ cell tumour; retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy; postchemotherapy RPLND
Recent studies have demonstrated that pathological analysis of retroperitoneal residual masses of patients with testicular germ cell tumors revealed findings of necrotic debris or fibrosis in up to 50% of patients. We aimed at pursuing a clinical and pathological review of patients undergoing post chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in order to identify variables that may help predict necrosis in the retroperitoneum.
We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent PC-RPLND at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo and Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo between January 2005 and September 2011. Clinical and pathological data were obtained and consisted basically of: measures of retroperitoneal masses, histology of the orchiectomy specimen, serum tumor marker and retroperitoneal nodal size before and after chemotherapy.
We gathered a total of 32 patients with a mean age of 29.7; pathological analysis in our series demonstrated that 15 (47%) had necrosis in residual retroperitoneal masses, 15 had teratoma (47%) and 2 (6.4%) had viable germ cell tumors (GCT). The mean size of the retroperitoneal mass was 4.94 cm in our sample, without a difference between the groups (P = 0.176). From all studied variables, relative changes in retroperitoneal lymph node size (P = 0.04), the absence of teratoma in the orchiectomy specimen (P = 0.03) and the presence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular analysis after orchiectomy (P = 0.03) were statistically significant predictors of the presence of necrosis. A reduction level of 35% was therefore suggested to be the best cutoff for predicting the absence of tumor in the retroperitoneum with a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 82.4%.
Even though retroperitoneal lymph node dissection remains the gold standard for patients with residual masses, those without teratoma in the primary tumor and a shrinkage of 35% or more in retroperitoneal mass have a considerably smaller chance of having viable GCT or teratoma in the retroperitoneum and a surveillance program could be considered.
Testicular cancer; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Necrosis; Teratoma
A follow-up study of pulmonary function in two groups of patients with testicular cancer was performed 6-12 years after treatment. Both groups, 47 patients in each, had undergone retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). Patients with pathological stage (ps) II had also received bleomycin (median 270 mg) and cisplatin (median 540 mg) in three or four courses which included vinblastine or etoposide. Patients in ps I and II were similar with respect to age, general health, observation period, inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) and maximal arterial oxygen pressure (pO2) at RPLND, but four (8.2%) with psII disease developed densities on chest X-ray during chemotherapy. At the long-term follow-up the groups were similar with respect to physical exercise, smoking pattern, present drug treatment and history of cardiopulmonary disease. In both groups forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were within normal limits, and no difference was found between the groups. The combined data for both groups showed that smoking was highly associated with impairment in TLCO (P = 0.005), and smoking frequency was negatively correlated to TLCO (P = 0.002). We conclude that 3-4 courses with bleomycin, cisplatin and etoposide/vinblastine in testicular cancer patients do not lead to long-term impairment of pulmonary function.
Open retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been traditionally used for
the management of patients with nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCTs).
Over the last decade, laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
(LRPLND) has gained popularity in several highly specialized centers.
We retrospectively reviewed the English-language literature with regard to
LRPLND. The perioperative and oncologic outcomes for patients with low stage
NSGCTs who underwent LRPLND are summarized in this review with particular
emphasis on contemporary studies.
Initially only used for staging, LRPLND has evolved to a therapeutic
procedure capable of replicating the templates used for open RPLND.
Perioperative outcomes including operative time, conversion rates and
complications improve with surgeon experience and are acceptable at high
volume centers. Oncologic outcomes are promising, but require longer term
follow-up and the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in many studies
limits comparison to that of the open technique.
LRPLND has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe at large volume
institutions with experienced laparoscopic surgeons. LRPLND was originally
performed as a staging procedure in patients with NSGCTs but has evolved
into a therapeutic operation with early reports demonstrating short hospital
stays and minimal morbidity. Further studies in larger cohorts of patients
with longer term follow up are required to define the exact role of
testicular cancer; laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
Patients with clinical stage I testicular germ cell tumors have been managed with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). The use of surveillance-only strategies at referral centers has yielded survival outcomes comparable to those achieved with adjuvant therapy. We evaluated compliance with follow-up protocols developed at referral centers within the community.
We identified patients with stage I testis cancer within a large private insurance claims database and calculated compliance of follow-up test use with guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Surveillance was widely used in the community. Compliance with surveillance and postadjuvant therapy follow-up testing was poor and degraded with increasing time from diagnosis. Nearly 30% of all surveillance patients received no abdominal imaging, chest imaging, or tumor marker tests within the first year of diagnosis. Patients who elected RPLND were most compliant with recommended follow-up testing within the first year. Recurrence rates were consistent with previously reported literature, despite poor compliance.
Surveillance is a widely accepted strategy in clinical stage I testicular cancer treatment in the community. However, follow-up care recommendations developed at referral centers are not being adhered to in the community. Although recurrence rates are similar to those of reported literature, the clinical impact of noncompliance on recurrence severity and mortality are not known. Further prospective work needs to be done to evaluate this apparent quality of care problem in the community.
Objectives. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) outcomes for testis cancer originate mostly from single-center series. We characterized population-based utilization, costs, and outcomes and assessed whether higher volume affects outcomes. Methods and Materials. Using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001–2008, we identified 993 RPLND and used propensity score methods to assess utilization, costs, and inpatient outcomes based on hospital surgical volume. Results. 51.6% of RPLND were performed at hospitals where there were two or fewer cases per year. RPLND was more commonly performed at large urban teaching hospitals, where men were younger, more likely to be white and earning incomes exceeding the 50th percentile (all P ≤ .05). Higher hospital volumes were associated with fewer complications and more routine home discharges (all P ≤ .047). However, higher volume hospitals had more transfusions (P = .004) and incurred $1,435 more in median costs (P < .001). Limitations include inability to adjust for tumor characteristics and absence of outpatient outcomes. Conclusions. Sociodemographic differences exist between high versus low volume RPLND hospitals. Although higher volume hospitals had more transfusions and higher costs, perhaps due to more complex cases, they experienced fewer complications. However, most RPLND are performed at hospitals where there were two or fewer cases per year.
We report on laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in a morbidly obese patient to discuss the associated technical steps for satisfactory completion of staging lymphadenectomy.
A laparoscopic RPLND was performed using a modified template on the left side. Initially, 4 ports were placed with the patient in the supine position. Three were placed 3 cm to the left of midline and one in the anterior axillary line, at the level of the umbilicus. During the operation, successful bowel retraction necessitated placement of 2 additional ports in the anterior axillary line (just above the pelvis and off the tip of the 12th rib). Using these 6 trocar sites, the dissection was completed, and 44 lymph nodes were obtained.
Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was accomplished in an extremely obese patient with acceptable morbidity by using prudent modification of standard techniques.
If access and port placement limitations are overcome, the benefits of laparoscopy in the obese are clear. This report serves as a signpost that laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testes cancer can also be accomplished using modification of standard techniques.
Laparoscopy; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Testes cancer
Thirty-eight patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs) underwent multiple surgical interventions (two in 33 patients, three in four patients, four in one patient) after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All patients had normal serum tumour markers but persistent radiographic masses. The larger mass was routinely resected first. Fifteen patients (39%) had dissimilar histological findings at sequential surgical procedures, 12 of whom demonstrated less favourable pathological features during the first operation and three at the second. Patients who underwent both retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and lung resection showed less favourable histological features in the retroperitoneum in nine cases and in the lung in three cases. Eight of 16 patients (50%) without mature teratoma in their primary tumours showed complete necrosis/fibrosis at all surgical interventions, whereas all patients whose primary tumour was classified as malignant teratoma intermediate demonstrated mature teratoma at least at one anatomical site. As histology of post-chemotherapy residual masses cannot be extrapolated from one anatomical site to another, patients usually are properly managed by excision of all residual masses. In particular, in patients with necrosis/fibrosis at lung resection omission of RPLND is not advised.
Malignant transformation describes the phenomenon in which a somatic component of a germ cell teratoma undergoes malignant differentiation. A variety of different types of sarcoma and carcinoma, all non-germ cell, have been described as a result of malignant transformation.
A 33-year-old man presented with a left testicular mass and elevated tumour markers. Staging investigations revealed retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with obstruction of the left ureter and distant metastases. Histopathology from the left radical orchiectomy showed a mixed germ cell tumour (Stage III, poor prognosis). The ureter was stented and four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin chemotherapy administered. After initial remission, the patient recurred four years later with a large retroperitoneal mass involving the renal vessels and the left ureter. Left retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with en-bloc resection of the left kidney was performed.
Histopathology revealed a germ cell tumour metastasis consisting mainly of mature teratoma. Additionally, within the teratoma a papillary renal cell carcinoma was found. The diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry showing positivity for AMACR, CD10 and focal expression of RCC and CK7. There was no radiological or histo-pathological evidence of a primary renal cell cancer.
To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation into a papillary renal cell carcinoma has not been reported in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy. This histological diagnosis might have implications for potential future therapies. In the case of disease recurrence, renal cell cancer as origin of the recurrent tumour has to be excluded because renal cell carcinoma metastases would not respond well to the classical germ cell tumour chemotherapy regimens.
Retroperitoneal teratoma; Malignant transformation; Germ cell tumour metastasis; Renal cell cancer
Late relapse of a testicular cancer is an uncommon occurrence. We report a case of late relapse of a testicular tumour combined with a renal cancer and their successful removal with retroperitoneoscopy. The 36-year-old patient underwent left orchiectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and chemotherapy, because of mixed tumor including teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. 18 years after the successful primary therapy elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level had been confirmed, then MRI and PET-CT scans demonstrated a 30 mm left renal mass and 22 mm retroperitoneal lymph node above the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. We performed retroperitoneoscopic lymph node dissection and left renal tumour resection in the same session. The histology revealed embryonal carcinoma for the retroperitoneal lymph node and renal cell carcinoma for the left renal mass. We can conclude that late followup of patients with testicular tumour is important. Retroperitoneoscopy is feasible approach for the removal of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and resection of renal tumor.
The intention was to explore the relationship between fertility and testicular cancer, including the possibly treatment-induced changes over time in the post-diagnostic fertility. Data are from the Norwegian Cancer Registry, The Norwegian Population Register and the Population Censuses. By estimating Poisson regression models, birth rates among testicular cancer patients were compared with those of other men who had the same age, parity and duration since previous birth. Poisson regression models were also estimated to check whether men's parity has an effect on the cancer incidence. Fertility rates among testicular cancer patients born after 1935 and treated before 1991 decreased by roughly 30% when compared with the normal population. The introduction of cisplatin chemotherapy and of nerve-sparing RPLND in the 1980s seems to have enabled more patients with non-seminoma to father a child after treatment, or at least shortened the time to conception. Moreover, the risk of being diagnosed with seminoma is reduced with increasing parity. This suggests that the relatively low fertility after diagnosis may be partly due to the continuing inherent influence of a sub- or infecundity that also had a bearing on the development of the disease. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
fecundity; incidence; infecundity; infertility; parity; treatment
Salvage chemotherapy has been used by some oncology centres for patients with residual malignant or immature elements in retroperitoneal lymph node dissections removed for metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. However, surveillance of these patients shows that many are cured by surgery alone. 118 retroperitoneal lymph node dissections for metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were reviewed and the morphology seen within them was quantified. 28 of these had immature or malignant elements and had been treated by surveillance before administration of further chemotherapy. The proliferation rate in these cases was assessed by immunochemistry. The proliferation index and the amount of embryonal carcinoma (EC) were both predictors of recurrence and therefore the need for further chemotherapy. Patients with greater than 25% of EC had an 84% chance of relapse and those with a Ki-67 index of greater than 50% had a 71% chance of relapse. The two tests had a positive predictive value of 83% and 71%, respectively. Patients with such a high risk of recurrence could be considered for post-operative adjuvant therapy at this point whilst others would be suitable for a watchful waiting approach. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
embryonal carcinoma; Ki-67; lymph node
Late relapse (LR) of germ cell tumor (GCT) is a well recognized entity associated with poor survival. We report on our experience with LR and determine predictors of survival.
Patients and Methods
From 1990 to 2004, 75 patients were managed for LR of GCT at our institution. Clinical and pathologic parameters were reviewed. Estimates of cancer-specific survival were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess potential predictors of outcome.
The median time to LR was 6.9 years (range, 2.1 to 37.7 years). Overall, 56 patients (75%) had LR in the retroperitoneum, including 25 (93%) of 27 patients initially managed without retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 60% (95% CI, 46% to 71%). Patients who underwent complete surgical resection at time of LR (n = 45) had a 5-year CSS of 79% versus 36% for patients without complete resection (n = 30; P < .0001). The 5-year CSS for chemotherapy-naive patients was significantly greater than patients with a prior history of chemotherapy as part of their initial management (5-year CSS, 93% v 49%, respectively). In multivariable analysis of pretreatment parameters available at the time of LR, the presence of symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.9) and multifocal disease (HR = 3.0) were associated with an inferior CSS.
The data suggest that meticulous control of the retroperitoneum is critical to prevent LR in the retroperitoneum. In multivariable analysis, patients with a symptomatic presentation and those with multifocal disease have a significantly decreased survival. Survival is greatly improved if complete surgical excision of disease is attained.
Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix.
We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
In the North Trent Cancer Network (NTCN) patients requiring retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for metastatic testicular cancer have been treated by vascular service since 1990. This paper reviews our experience and considers the case for involvement of vascular surgeons in the management of these tumours.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients referred by the NTCN to the vascular service for retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy between 1990 and 2009 were identified through a germ cell database. Data were supplemented by a review of case notes to record histology, intraoperative and postoperative details.
A total of 64 patients were referred to the vascular service for retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, with a median age of 29 years (16–63 years) and a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Ten patients died: eight from tumour recurrence, one from septicaemia during chemotherapy and one by suicide. Of the 54 who survived, 7 were alive with residual masses and 47 patients were disease-free at the last follow-up. Sixteen patients required vascular procedures: four had aortic repair (fascia), three had aortic replacement (spiral graft), four had inferior vena cava resection, two had iliac artery replacement and two had iliac vein resection.
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection often involves mobilisation and/or the resection/replacement of major vessels. We recommend that a vascular surgeon should be a part of testicular germ cell multidisciplinary team.
Testicular cancer; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Post-chemotherapy; Germ cell tumours
Advanced stage nonseminomatous testis cancer is commonly treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection. Patients with retroperitoneal residual masses >1cm following induction chemotherapy with normalized tumor markers should undergo a post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Post chemotherapy retroperitoneal residual mass less than 1 cm with normal markers may be considered as complete response, although the possibility of residual teratoma and viable germ cell tumor are not definitively ruled out. Excellent long term disease free survival following surveillance may justify this option as the treatment of choice in this cohort of patients.
chemotherapy; residual mass; testis cancer
A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens. DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours. DNA topoisomerase IIα is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment. The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and IIα were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression. There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types. Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive. Strong topoisomerase IIα expression was found in embryonal carcinoma. There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and IIα expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase IIα after chemotherapy (P=0.02). Topoisomerase I expression appears to increase in those cases with residual teratoma, mature, but is largely unchanged in those cases remaining as embryonal carcinoma. These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 21, 624–629. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600472 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
topoisomerase; germ cell tumour; testis; embryonal carcinoma; seminoma; Ki-67
Resection of a residual retroperitoneal tumor mass (RRRTM) is standard procedure after combination chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSTGCT).
At the University Medical Center Groningen, 79 consecutive patients with disseminated NSTGCT were treated with cisplatin combination chemotherapy between 2005 and 2007. Laparoscopic RRRTM was performed for patients with RRTM located less than 5 cm ventrally or laterally from the aorta or the vena cava. The 29 patients who fulfilled the criteria had a median age of 25 years (range, 16–59 years). The stages of disease before chemotherapy treatment according to the Royal Marsden classification were 2A (n = 6, 21%), 2B (n = 14, 48%), 2C (n = 3, 10%), and 4 with a lymph node status of N2 (n = 6, 21%).
The median duration of laparoscopy was 198 min (range, 122–325 min). The median diameter of the RRTM was 21 mm (range, 11–47 mm). Laparoscopic resection was successful for 25 patients (86%). Conversion was necessary for three patients (10%): two due to bleeding and one because of obesity. One nonplanned hand-assisted procedure (3%) also had to be performed. Histologic examination of the specimens showed fibrosis or necrosis in 12 patients (41%), mature teratoma in 16 patients (55%), and viable tumor in 1 patient (3%). The median hospital stay was 1 day (range, 1–6 days). During a median follow-up period of 47 months (29–70 months), one patient experienced an early relapse (1 month after the end of treatment) (4%).
For properly selected patients, laparoscopic resection of RRTM is an improvement in the combined treatment of disseminated NSTGCT and associated with a short hospital stay, minimal morbidity, rapid recovery, and a neat cosmetic result. Long-term data to prove oncologic efficacy are awaited.
Nonseminomatous; Testicular germ cell tumor; Residual retroperitoneal tumor mass
Management of clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell tumor includes surveillance, primary chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Stratifying clinical stage I disease to high-and low-risk groups for harboring micrometastic retroperitoneal disease (pathologic stage B) is based on pathologic characteristics of the primary tumor. The presence of embryonal dominant histology and lymphovascular invasion (high-risk group) predicts for a 50% incidence of retroperitoneal disease. Low-risk group, the absence of either factor, predicts a 20% chance of retroperitoneal disease. Irrespective of risk classification, all treatment modalities have equal survival rates of 99% to 100%, and differ only in their unique short and long-term modalities. The mode of treatment in clinical stage I disease should remain patient driven and is guided by the perceived morbidities of each therapy.
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; stage 1; testis cancer
To develop a more appropriate therapeutic strategy for treatment of nonpulmonary visceral metastatic testicular seminoma based on the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, we reviewed the medical records of patients with nonpulmonary visceral metastatic testicular seminoma who were treated over a 20-year period. Only 15 (2.2%) of the 686 cases of testicular seminoma were nonpulmonary visceral metastatic seminoma. The median age of patients was 38 years (range, 22-53 years). Ten (67%) of the patients had an initial diagnosis of supradiaphragmatic or visceral metastatic disease. In addition to nonpulmonary visceral metastasis, all patients had lymph node metastasis as well, the majority of which involved the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The median and mean progression-free survival durations after chemotherapy for advanced disease were 19 months and 63.7 months, respectively. Six patients (40%) survived, five relapsed after radiation therapy and four died of chemorefractory disease not dependent on the specific regimen. Although the number of cases reviewed in this study was small, we conclude that the choice of chemotherapeutic regimen among the current treatments for nonpulmonary visceral metastatic seminoma of testis primary does not present a different outcome. Therefore, multimodality therapies using new strategies or new agents are well indicated.
Most malignant testicular neoplasms are of germ cell origin. They are divided into five basic types: seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratocarcinomas, adult teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Clinically they may present as an enlarging testicular mass, or with symptoms resulting from metastases or hormonal secretions. The treatment of choice for patients with seminomas is orchiectomy, followed by radiation therapy. This combination results in an 80 to 100 percent five-year survival rate in patients with nonmetastatic or locally metastatic disease. The treatment of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors is more controversial. An aggressive approach, however, with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in an overall 78 percent survival rate. Several placental and fetal proteins are secreted by these tumors. Two of these, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein, have been shown to be useful for the diagnosis of these neoplasms, for following the disease activity during therapy and for detection of recurrences.
Persistent lymphatic drainage following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular tumor is an uncommon complication.
We describe a 21-year old man of Caucasian origin who had metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis, and underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephrectomy and partial inferior vena cava excision for a residual mass. The patient subsequently developed persistent lymphatic drainage causing foot drop that eventually responded to conservative medical and surgical measures.
This postoperative condition usually responds well to conservative measures but has the potential for serious morbidity if it is not managed appropriately.
The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence of late relapse in patients with malignant germ cell tumour (MGCT) in a population-based series, with emphasis on the mode of detection, survival, and the relevance of histological findings. The clinical records from a population-based cohort of patients with seminoma (n=1123) or non-seminoma (n=826) were evaluated for late relapses. Twenty-five patients developed a late relapse. The cumulative 10-year incidence rate was 1.3%. All 10 seminoma patients, but only eight of 15 non-seminoma patients relapsed with vital malignant tumour (P=0.02). Teratoma or necrosis was found in seven of nine primarily chemotherapy-treated non-seminoma patients with normal tumour markers at late relapse. Six of nine patients operated with limited retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as part of the primary treatment had relapsed retroperitoneally outside the original operation field. The 10-year cause-specific survival was 68% in all patients, 50% in patients relapsing with vital malignant tumour and 100% in those with teratoma/ necrosis before or after salvage chemotherapy. The 10-year incidence rate of late relapses of 1.3% might reflect the true incidence rate in a population-based cohort of MGCT patients, with cure in at least half of them.
late relapse; late recurrence; testicular cancer; extragonadal germ cell cancer; EGGCT; seminoma; non-seminoma; retroperitoneal lymph node dissection