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1.  International Institute for Collaborative Cell Biology and Biochemistry—History and Memoirs from an International Network for Biological Sciences 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2013;12(3):339-344.
Memoirs by the 2012 recipient of the Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education from the American Society for Cell Biology about the establishment of the International Institute for Collaborative Cell Biology and Biochemistry, which wants to inspire a new era of international scientific cooperation by exposing scientists to diverse learning experiences.
I was invited to write this essay on the occasion of my selection as the recipient of the 2012 Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education from the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). Receiving this award is an enormous honor. When I read the email announcement for the first time, it was more than a surprise to me, it was unbelievable. I joined ASCB in 1996, when I presented a poster and received a travel award. Since then, I have attended almost every ASCB meeting. I will try to use this essay to share with readers one of the best experiences in my life. Because this is an essay, I take the liberty of mixing some of my thoughts with data in a way that it not usual in scientific writing. I hope that this sacrifice of the format will achieve the goal of conveying what I have learned over the past 20 yr, during which time a group of colleagues and friends created a nexus of knowledge and wisdom. We have worked together to build a network capable of sharing and inspiring science all over the world.
doi:10.1187/cbe.13-06-0108
PMCID: PMC3763000  PMID: 24006381
2.  The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial 
Background
Ethnic minority (EM) medical students and doctors underperform academically, but little evidence exists on how to ameliorate the problem. Psychologists Cohen et al. recently demonstrated that a written self-affirmation intervention substantially improved EM adolescents' school grades several months later. Cohen et al.'s methods were replicated in the different setting of UK undergraduate medical education.
Methods
All 348 Year 3 white (W) and EM students at one UK medical school were randomly allocated to an intervention condition (writing about one's own values) or a control condition (writing about another's values), via their tutor group. Students and assessors were blind to the existence of the study. Group comparisons on post-intervention written and OSCE (clinical) assessment scores adjusted for baseline written assessment scores were made using two-way analysis of covariance. All assessment scores were transformed to z-scores (mean = 0 standard deviation = 1) for ease of comparison. Comparisons between types of words used in essays were calculated using t-tests. The study was covered by University Ethics Committee guidelines.
Results
Groups were statistically identical at baseline on demographic and psychological factors, and analysis was by intention to treat [intervention group EM n = 95, W n = 79; control group EM n = 77; W n = 84]. As predicted, there was a significant ethnicity by intervention interaction [F(4,334) = 5.74; p = 0.017] on the written assessment. Unexpectedly, this was due to decreased scores in the W intervention group [mean difference = 0.283; (95% CI = 0.093 to 0.474] not improved EM intervention group scores [mean difference = -0.060 (95% CI = -0.268 to 0.148)]. On the OSCE, both W and EM intervention groups outperformed controls [mean difference = 0.261; (95%CI = -0.047 to -0.476; p = 0.013)]. The intervention group used more optimistic words (p < 0.001) and more "I" and "self" pronouns in their essays (p < 0.001), whereas the control group used more "other" pronouns (p < 0.001) and more negations (p < 0.001).
Discussion
Cohen et al.'s finding that a brief self-affirmation task narrowed the ethnic academic achievement gap was replicated on the written assessment but against expectations, this was due to reduced performance in the W group. On the OSCE, the intervention improved performance in both W and EM groups. In the intervention condition, participants tended to write about themselves and used more optimistic words than in the control group, indicating the task was completed as requested. The study shows that minimal interventions can have substantial educational outcomes several months later, which has implications for the multitude of seemingly trivial changes in teaching that are made on an everyday basis, whose consequences are never formally assessed.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-35
PMCID: PMC2717066  PMID: 19552810
3.  Diversifying the Biological Sciences: Past Efforts and Future Challenges 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2010;21(22):3767-3769.
I am honored to receive the E. E. Just Award for 2010. In my invited essay, I have opted to discuss the state of diversity in the biological sciences with some recommendations for moving forward toward a more positive and inclusive academy. The need to develop cohorts of minority scientists as support groups and to serve as role models within our institutions is stressed, along with the need to ensure that minority scientists are truly included in all aspects of the academy. It is imperative that we increase our efforts to prepare for the unique challenges that we will face as the United States approaches a “majority minority” population in the next 50 years.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E10-05-0414
PMCID: PMC2982122  PMID: 21079004
4.  A passion for the science of the human genome 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(21):4154-4156.
The complete sequencing of the human genome introduced a new knowledge base for decoding information structured in DNA sequence variation. My research is predicated on the supposition that the genome is the most sophisticated knowledge system known, as evidenced by the exquisite information it encodes on biochemical pathways and molecular processes underlying the biology of health and disease. Also, as a living legacy of human origins, migrations, adaptations, and identity, the genome communicates through the complexity of sequence variation expressed in population diversity. As a biomedical research scientist and academician, a question I am often asked is: “How is it that a black woman like you went to the University of Michigan for a PhD in Human Genetics?” As the ASCB 2012 E. E. Just Lecturer, I am honored and privileged to respond to this question in this essay on the science of the human genome and my career perspectives.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-05-0342
PMCID: PMC3484090  PMID: 23112225
5.  Cohen’s Conservatism and Human Enhancement 
The Journal of Ethics  2013;17:331-354.
In an intriguing essay, G. A. Cohen has defended a conservative bias in favour of existing value. In this paper, we consider whether Cohen’s conservatism raises a new challenge to the use of human enhancement technologies. We develop some of Cohen’s suggestive remarks into a new line of argument against human enhancement that, we believe, is in several ways superior to existing objections. However, we shall argue that on closer inspection, Cohen’s conservatism fails to offer grounds for a strong sweeping objection to enhancement, and may even offer positive support for forms of enhancement that preserve valuable features of human beings. Nevertheless, we concede that Cohen’s arguments may suggest some plausible and important constraints on the modality of legitimate and desirable enhancements.
doi:10.1007/s10892-013-9151-0
PMCID: PMC3967878  PMID: 24683311
G. A. Cohen; Conservatism; Enhancement; Value
6.  Real-time Space-time Integration in GIScience and Geography 
Space-time integration has long been the topic of study and speculation in geography. However, in recent years an entirely new form of space-time integration has become possible in GIS and GIScience: real-time space-time integration and interaction. While real-time spatiotemporal data is now being generated almost ubiquitously, and its applications in research and commerce are widespread and rapidly accelerating, the ability to continuously create and interact with fused space-time data in geography and GIScience is a recent phenomenon, made possible by the invention and development of real-time interactive (RTI) GPS/GIS technology and functionality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This innovation has since functioned as a core change agent in geography, cartography, GIScience and many related fields, profoundly realigning traditional relationships and structures, expanding research horizons, and transforming the ways geographic data is now collected, mapped, modeled, and used, both in geography and in science and society more broadly. Real-time space-time interactive functionality remains today the underlying process generating the current explosion of fused spatiotemporal data, new geographic research initiatives, and myriad geospatial applications in governments, businesses, and society. This essay addresses briefly the development of these real-time space-time functions and capabilities; their impact on geography, cartography, and GIScience; and some implications for how discovery and change can occur in geography and GIScience, and how we might foster continued innovation in these fields.
doi:10.1080/00045608.2013.792172
PMCID: PMC3935343  PMID: 24587490
GIScience; GPS/GIS; Real-time Space-time; Spatiotemporal; Philosophy of Science; Geographic Management Systems
7.  Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School 
A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; P<0.0001) and for grade point average (10.66; P=0.0014). The analysis of regular admission data revealed the following F values: 28.81 (P<0.0001) for grade point average, 27.47 (P<0.0001) for college scholastic ability test, 10.67 (P=0.0012) for the essay, and 216.74 (P<0.0001) for the mathematics/science type of essay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.
doi:10.3352/jeehp.2008.5.4
PMCID: PMC2631198  PMID: 19224001
College Scholastic Ability Test; Entrance Examination; Essay; General Point Average; Mathematics/Science; Medical School
12.  Claude Bernard on the action of curare 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1999;319(7210):622.
PMCID: PMC1116492  PMID: 10473481
13.  Michael C. Bernard 
British Medical Journal  1881;1(1062):752.
PMCID: PMC2263603
14.  Inspector-General John Bernard 
British Medical Journal  1891;2(1595):219.
PMCID: PMC2273348
15.  George Bernard Hoffmeister 
British Medical Journal  1891;1(1581):885.
PMCID: PMC2272948
16.  BERNARD LÉVÊQUE 
Injury Prevention  1998;4(4):301.
PMCID: PMC1730413
17.  The subthalamic nucleus and Jules Bernard Luys (1828-97) 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.6.783
PMCID: PMC1737643  PMID: 11723202
18.  Claude Bernard (1813-78). 
Images
PMCID: PMC486571  PMID: 8890769
20.  The literature of medical ethics: Bernard Häring 
Journal of Medical Ethics  1977;3(2):85-92.
To the general reader and watcher of television programmes medical ethics may appear to be something new. This is not so, for hundreds of articles and many books have appeared over the last 10 years or so to discuss and analyse the problems arising from the practice of medicine. In this study of two larger works - Medical Ethics and Manipulation - both by Bernard Häring, a Roman Catholic theologian - Father Brendan Soane analyses these in some detail and sets their ideas in the context of what has already been written on the major issues of medical ethics and what is likely to be foremost in discussion in the near future. Many readers of this Journal already have the particular background of knowledge to see the problems in medicine which are in fact ethical but the general reader may require help and enlightenment and this is now provided for a special field within the field.
PMCID: PMC1154560  PMID: 874983
21.  Incidence, management, and outcome of post-traumatic syringomyelia. In memory of Mr Bernard Williams. 
OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of clinically diagnosable post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). METHODS--A population of 815 consecutive patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries was studied between January 1990 and December 1992. RESULTS--Reviews of all records, full clinical evaluation, and thorough neurological examination of all patients disclosed 28 patients in whom PTS was confirmed radiologically (3.43%). The incidence of the presenting symptoms, including bladder dysfunction, is described. The level and density of cord lesion was correlated with incidence and it was found that posttraumatic syringomyelia was twice as common in patients with complete injuries than in patients with incomplete injuries. The highest incidence was found in patients with complete dorsal and complete dorsolumbar injuries. The interval between injury and diagnosis ranged from six months to 34 years (mean 8.6 years). This interval was shortest in patients with complete dorsal and incomplete cervical and dorsolumbar cord injuries. CONCLUSIONS--Reduction of the size of the syrinx seen on postoperative MRI correlated well with a satisfactory clinical outcome in 85% of patients.
PMCID: PMC1073792  PMID: 8708641
23.  Mr. J. Bernard Lamb 
British Medical Journal  1931;2(3696):874.
PMCID: PMC2315384  PMID: 20776493
24.  Mr. Bernard Roth 
British Medical Journal  1915;1(2832):662.
PMCID: PMC2302091
25.  Dr. Thomas Bernard Stedman 
British Medical Journal  1921;2(3170):542.
PMCID: PMC2339628

Results 1-25 (78875)