Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM) version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients.
KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4) patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed.
All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α <0.7: quality of social interaction (0.23), work status (0.28), and cognitive function (0.60). All disease specific scales were reproducible. Results from discriminant validity showed that the study questionnaire could discriminate between patients’ subgroups. As for concept validity, the correlation between all domains of the questionnaire with overall health ratewas significant for all domains except for the work status, sexual function, emotional wellbeing, and role emotional. Furthermore, the correlation between the disease specific domains and the two composite summaries of SF-36 (physical and mental composite summaries) was significant for all domains except for sexual function with mental composite summary. Construct validity was indicated by the observation that the majority of the domains of the kidney disease targeted scale of KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance.
The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.
Chronic kidney disease; Egypt; Health-related quality of life; KDQOL-SFTM 1.3; Questionnaire validation
Hemodialysis patients undergo frequent and long visits to the clinic to receive adequate dialysis treatment, medical guidance, and support. This may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although HRQOL is a very important management aspect in hemodialysis patients, there is a paucity of information on the differences in HRQOL between centers. We set out to assess the differences in HRQOL of hemodialysis patients between dialysis centers and explore which modifiable center characteristics could explain possible differences.
This cross-sectional study evaluated 570 hemodialysis patients from 24 Dutch dialysis centers. HRQOL was measured with the Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF).
After adjustment for differences in case-mix, three HRQOL domains differed between dialysis centers: the physical composite score (PCS, P = 0.01), quality of social interaction (P = 0.04), and dialysis staff encouragement (P = 0.001). These center differences had a range of 11–21 points on a scale of 0–100, depending on the domain. Two center characteristics showed a clinical relevant relation with patients’ HRQOL: dieticians’ fulltime-equivalent and the type of dialysis center.
This study showed that clinical relevant differences exist between dialysis centers in multiple HRQOL domains. This is especially remarkable as hemodialysis is a highly standardized therapy.
Quality of life; Center differences; Hemodialysis; Dialysis staff encouragement
In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore.
From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity.
Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education, confirming convergent and divergent validity.
The psychometric properties of the KDQOL-SF™ resulting from this first-time administration of the instrument support the validity and reliability of the KDQOL-SF™ as a measure of quality of life of haemodialysis patients in Singapore. It is, however, necessary to determine the test-retest reliability of the KDQOL-SF™ among the haemodialysis population of Singapore.
The introduction of erythropoietin (Epo) in clinical practice, more than two decades ago, altered completely the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The successful correction of anemia of CKD has resulted in reduction of associated morbidity and improvement of functionality, exercise tolerance, cognitive function and overall quality of life. Moreover, significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has occurred. Recently, large randomized clinical studies suggested that administration of Epo targeting at complete anemia correction is accompanied by significant increase of morbidity and mortality, compared to partial anemia correction. This observation has led to thorough investigation of the mechanisms of Epo actions and the possible contribution of other parameters including iron availability, comorbidities and resistance or hyporesponsiveness to Epo. In this context, it has been proposed that high doses of Epo are likely to exert toxic effects and pleiotropic systemic actions. Recognition of the extra-hematopoietic biologic actions of erythropoietin is a result of the better understanding of its interaction with Epo receptors in several tissues and organ systems, during fetal development as well as in the adult organism. More specifically, antiapoptotic, anti- inflammatory, angiogenetic and cytoprotective effects have been revealed in the kidneys, cardiovascular system, brain and retina. Until future studies are able to clarify the multiple beneficial or unfavorable effects of Epo, it is advisable to remain prudent in its administration, yet optimistic about its possible contribution in a number of pathologic conditions.
erythropoietin; anemia correction; cardiovascular; hyporesponsiveness; extra-hematopoietic actions; renoprotection; review
Studies have demonstrated that perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients receiving hemodialysis is significantly impaired. Since HRQOL outcome data are often used to compare groups to determine health care effectiveness it is imperative that measures of HRQOL are valid. However, valid HRQOL comparisons between groups can only be made if instrument invariance is demonstrated. The Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF) is a widely used HRQOL measure for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) however, it has not been validated in the Veteran population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the KDQOL-SF across Veterans and non-Veterans with CKD.
Data for this study were from two large prospective observational studies of patients receiving hemodialysis: 1) Veteran End-Stage Renal Disease Study (VETERAN) (N = 314) and 2) Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) (N = 3,300). Health-related quality of life was measured with the KDQOL-SF, which consists of the SF-36 and the Kidney Disease Component Summary (KDCS). Single-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the hypothesized measurement model for responses to the subscales of the KDCS and SF-36 instruments when analyzed together; and given acceptable goodness-of-fit in each group, multigroup CFA was used to compare the structure of this factor model in the two samples. Pattern of factor loadings (configural invariance), the magnitude of factor loadings (metric invariance), and the magnitude of item intercepts (scalar invariance) were assessed as well as the degree to which factors have the same variances, covariances, and means across groups (structural invariance).
CFA demonstrated that the hypothesized two-factor model (KDCS and SF-36) fit the data of both the Veteran and DOPPS samples well, supporting configural invariance. Multigroup CFA results concerning metric and scalar invariance suggested partial strict invariance for the SF-36, but only weak invariance for the KDCS. Structural invariance was not supported.
Results suggest that Veterans may interpret the KDQOL-SF differently than non-Veterans. Further evaluation of measurement invariance of the KDQOL-SF between Veterans and non-Veterans is needed using large, randomly selected samples before comparisons between these two groups using the KDQOL-SF can be done reliably.
Anemia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with a lower quality of life and a higher risk of adverse outcomes including cardiovascular disease and death. Anemia management in CKD patients currently revolves around the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and supplemental iron. However, many patients do not respond adequately and/or require high doses of these medications. Furthermore, recent clinical trials have shown that targeting higher hemoglobin levels with conventional therapies leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly when higher doses of ESAs are used, and in patients who are poorly responsive to therapy. One explanation for the poor response to conventional therapies in some patients is that these treatments do not fully address the underlying cause of the anemia. In many CKD patients, like patients with other chronic inflammatory diseases, poor absorption of dietary iron and inability to utilize the body's iron stores contributes to the anemia. Recent research suggests that these abnormalities in iron balance may be caused by elevated levels of the key iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. This article reviews the pathogenesis of anemia in CKD, the role and regulation of hepcidin in systemic iron homeostasis and the anemia of CKD, and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings.
Anemia; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; inflammation; hepcidin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality; however, there are limited data to comprehensively assess quality of care in this area.
To assess quality of care for CKD according to patient risk and identify correlates of improved care delivery.
Fifteen health centers within a multi-site group practice in eastern Massachusetts.
166 primary care physicians caring for 11,774 patients with stages 3 or 4 CKD defined as two estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between 15 and 60.
Two measures of kidney disease monitoring, five measures of cardiovascular disease management, four measures of metabolic bone disease and anemia management, and one measure of drug safety were extracted from the electronic health record. Primary care recognition of CKD was assessed as a problem list diagnosis, and nephrology co-management was assessed as at least one visit with a nephrologist in the prior 12 months.
Overall, 46% of patients were high risk for death based on the presence of diabetes, proteinuria, or an eGFR <45. Seventy percent of patients lacked annual urine protein testing, 46% had a blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg and 25% were not receiving appropriate angiotensin blockade. Appropriate screening for anemia was common (76%), while screening rates for metabolic bone disease were low. Use of potentially harmful drugs was common (26%). Primary care physician recognition and nephrology co-management were both associated with improved quality of care, though rates of both were low (24% and 10%, respectively).
Significant deficiencies in the quality of CKD care exist. Opportunities for improvement include increasing physician recognition of CKD and improving collaborative care with nephrology.
chronic kidney disease; primary care; quality of care; performance measurement
Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Cognitive Function (KDQOL-CF) scale in comparison to an extensive neuropsychological battery, building on a prior assessment of this potential cognitive screen.
Setting & Participants
Maintenance hemodialysis patients at 6 Boston area dialysis units were administered an extensive neurocognitive battery and the KDQOL-CF at the beginning of a hemodialysis session.
KDQOL-CF score, depression symptom burden, and demographic and clinical characteristics.
Neurocognitive performance classified into executive function and memory domains, determined using principal components analysis.
Univariate and multivariable linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, and end-stage renal disease cause were used to evaluate the association between KDQOL-CF score and cognitive performance, and test metrics were determined for a KDQOL-CF cutoff score of 60 or less from a maximum score of 100.
For 168 prevalent hemodialysis patients, KDQOL-CF score was 76 ± 19 and 40 (24%) had scores of 60 or less, consistent with self-identified worse cognitive performance. There was no significant correlation between KDQOL-CF score and either memory (P = 0.2 and P = 0.3) or executive function (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4) in univariate and multivariable models, respectively. There was a strong correlation between higher KDQOL-CF score and fewer depression symptoms (P <0.001). Sensitivity of the KDQOL-CF was poor (range, 0.28–0.36), with modest specificity (range, 0.77–0.81) for identifying worse executive function and memory.
Cross-sectional study, modest population size, and abbreviated gold-standard cognitive battery.
The KDQOL-CF is a poor determinant of neurocognitive performance in hemodialysis patients, with limited sensitivity. To assess cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients, better screening tests are essential.
Dialysis; dementia; cognitive impairment; screening; depression; quality of life
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious threat to African-American public health. In this population CKD progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at quadruple the rate in Caucasians. Factors fueling progression to ESRD include diabetes and hypertension, which show high prevalences and accelerated renal damage in African- Americans, as well as possible nutritional, socioeconomic, and genetic factors. Anemia, a common and deleterious complication of CKD, is more prevalent and severe in African-American than Caucasian patients at each stage of the disease. Proactive management of diabetes, hypertension, anemia, and other complications throughout the course of CKD can prevent or delay disease progression and alleviate the burden of ESRD for the African-American community. Currently, African-Americans with CKD are less likely than Caucasian patients to receive anemia treatment before and after the onset of dialysis. Although African-Americans often require higher doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, this may result from late treatment initiation, lower hemoglobin levels, or the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes and inflammation, although racial differences in response cannot be excluded. This review explores racial-specific challenges and potential solutions in renal anemia management to improve outcomes in African-American patients.
Anemia management; Diabetes mellitus; Hypertension; Chronic kidney disease; Dialysis
Intravenous (IV) iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678) of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer), patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status), and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients.
A lack of awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) often results in delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment.
The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic management and outcome of nondialysis CKD patients.
Three hundred ninety-seven patients (54.9% males aged 67.5 ± 14.6 years) were retrospectively screened at the Nephrology Department, GB Grassi Hospital, Rome, Italy. After a baseline visit, patient data were collected every 6 months for a total of 24 months. Clinical characteristics were measured at baseline, then the following outcomes were measured every 6 months: staging of CKD, presence of concomitant diseases, treatment and adherence to Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for anemia management.
Three hundred sixty-eight (92.7%) patients attended at least one visit and 92 (23.2%) patients attended all four visits. Patients were mainly referred to a nephrologist for chronic renal failure (61.7%) or hypertension (42.8%). At baseline, 79.6% of patients had previous hospitalization and 79.1% were receiving antihypertensive medication. Serum creatinine and/or glomerular filtration rate was examined in >90% of patients, whereas parathyroid hormone was rarely examined (5.5%). Vitamin D supplementation was received by 6.5% of patients. The majority of patients were staged at 3 or 4 CKD (32% and 23.9%, respectively) and did not significantly change over time. The use of antithrombotic, antilipidemic and erythropoietin medication increased over the four surveys. The majority of patients (86.8%) achieved hemoglobin K/DOQI target levels.
These findings demonstrate a current lack of attention of CKD and related disorders (mineral metabolism, electrolyte balance, and anemia) at the level of the general practitioner (GP) and non-nephrology specialist, which can result in both delayed referral and inadequate treatment. By increasing both awareness of CKD and the coordinated relationship between GPs and nephrologists, patient clinical and therapeutic outcome may be improved.
chronic kidney disease; metabolic bone disorders; predialysis; renal failure
Anemia in chronic kidney disease is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored the relationship between anemia and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients to understand this mechanism.
Cross-sectional analysis was performed on 30 adult ND-CKD patients for markers of inflammation and endothelial activation using a multiplexed immunoassay. Data were analyzed according to the anemic status defined by the modified World Health Organization criteria.
Seventeen patients were classified as anemic. Baseline characteristics by anemic status were similar except that anemic patients were older (p = 0.006), had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; p = 0.01) and higher prevalence of CVD (p = 0.02). Compared to non-anemic patients, log-transformed values of fibrinogen (p = 0.012); von Willebrand factor (vWF, p = 0.008), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, p = 0.025) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.043) were elevated in anemic patients. Serum ferritin (p = 0.93) and serum albumin (p = 0.06) were not different. Age and eGFR-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that anemic patients had increased odds for a composite of higher median values of fibrinogen, vWF and VCAM-1 (p = 0.01, odds ratio 8.1, 95% CI 1.08–111.0).
We report the association of anemia with elevated markers of endothelial activation in ND-CKD patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Anemia; Chronic kidney disease; Endothelial markers; Fibrinogen; Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; Von Willebrand factor
To determine the extent to which chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with HRQOL among incident dialysis patients.
United States Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS), Wave 2
2590 adult participants in DMMS Wave 2 for whom quality of life and laboratory data were available
We stratified patients according to their serum concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and compared HRQOL as a function of these indicators in analyses adjusted for demographic, clinical, and other laboratory variables.
Main Outcome Measures
Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores and the Symptom score of the KDQOL.
Both high and low serum phosphorus concentrations were associated with lower PCS (−1.25 to −1.48 points compared to the reference category), as was low PTH (−1.49 points). Low serum phosphorus was associated with more severe symptoms of kidney disease (−3.88 points) but there were no associations between high phosphorus or either extreme of PTH and the Symptom score. Serum calcium concentration and the calcium × phosphorus product were unassociated with PCS or Symptom scores. There were no associations among phosphorus, calcium, or PTH and MCS. Analyses simultaneously controlling for serum phosphorus, calcium, and PTH showed similar results.
High and low serum phosphorus and low PTH are associated with slightly poorer self-reported physical functioning. Clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether and to what extent improvement in health status may occur with correction of selected disorders of mineral metabolism.
end-stage renal disease (ESRD); chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD); quality of life; health status
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of the poor long-term survival of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia complicating CKD not only impairs patients’ quality of life, but is also an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The availability of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has greatly changed the management of anemia in CKD patients. Besides improving hemoglobin levels, rHuEPO therapy has been demonstrated to significantly improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Epoetin beta, together with epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa, is one of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents now available on the market. Different studies have shown that epoetin beta once-weekly administration to hemodialysis patients is as effective as three-times-weekly administration in maintaining hemoglobin levels at equivalent weekly doses. This raises the possibility of reducing the frequency of administration of rHuEPO therapy, thus increasing the alternatives available for tailoring anemia therapy to patients needs, and at the same time reducing nursing times and treatment costs. This is expected to potentially enhance patient compliance, thus helping more patients achieve their target hemoglobin levels.
anemia; chronic kidney disease; epoetin beta; cardiovascular disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to a higher stroke risk. Anemia is a common consequence of CKD, and is also a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine if anemia and CKD are independent risk factors for mortality after stroke.
This historic cohort study was based on a stroke registry and included patients treated for a first clinical stroke in the stroke unit of one academic hospital over a three-year period. Mortality predictors comprised demographic characteristics, CKD, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), anemia and other stroke risk factors. GFR was estimated by means of the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Renal function was assessed according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI)-CKD classification in five groups. A value of hemoglobin < 120 g/L in women and < 130 g/L in men on admission defined anemia. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox models were used to describe and analyze one-year survival.
Among 890 adult stroke patients, the mean (Standard Deviation) calculated GFR was 64.3 (17.8) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 17% had anemia. Eighty-two (10%) patients died during the first year after discharge. Among those, 50 (61%) had K/DOQI CKD stages 3 to 5 and 32 (39%) stages 1 or 2 (p < 0.001). Anemia was associated with an increased risk of death one year after discharge (p < 0.001). After adjustment for other factors, a higher hemoglobin level was independently associated with decreased mortality one year after discharge [hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.98 (0.97-1.00)].
Both CKD and anemia are frequent among stroke patients and are potential risk factors for decreased one-year survival. The inclusion of patients with a first-ever clinical stroke only and the determination of anemia based on one single measure, on admission, constitute limitations to the external validity. We should investigate if an early detection and management of both CKD and anemia could improve survival in stroke patients.
Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffer from fatigue caused by anemia, but that anemia can be reversed. Successful treatment can be measured as a decrease in fatigue and an increase in energy or vitality, particularly on the vitality (VT) subscale of the SF-36. Changes in VT scores are most commonly interpreted in terms of minimally important differences or standardized effect sizes, but neither a minimally important difference nor a standardized effect size provides information about how patients’ activities are affected. Therefore, we analyzed the association between differences in VT scores and a variable that is meaningful to patients and to society the frequency of going out.
Questionnaire survey. Analyses of differences among participants at bseline, and analyses of differences within participants over time.
Setting and Participants
CKD patients who were not on dialysis and were involved in a study of anti-anemia therapy.
Frequency of going out.
VT scores and the frequency of going out.
At baseline, higher VT scores and younger age were associated with going out more often, while sex and the presence of diabetic nephropathy were not associated with the frequency of going out. Greater changes in VT scores over time were associated with greater changes in the frequency of going out, in univariate and multivariate analyses.
At baseline, VT was associated with the frequency of going out. Increases in VT were also associated with increases in the frequency of going out. These results show how VT scores can be linked to daily activities that are important to individual patients and to society.
To determine the impact of the quality of pre-dialysis nephrological care on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at dialysis onset, which has not been well evaluated.
All adults who began a dialysis treatment in the administrative region of Lorraine (France) in 2005 or 2006, were enrolled in this prospective observational study.
HRQoL was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life V36 questionnaire, which enables calculation of two generic (physical and mental) and three specific dimensions (Symptoms/problems, Effects and Burden of kidney disease). The specific dimensions were scored from 0 to 100 (worst to best possible functioning). Pre-dialysis nephrological care was measured using three indicators: quality of therapeutic practices (evaluated across five main aspects: hypertension/proteinuria, anemia, bone disease, metabolic acidosis and dyslipidemia), time since referral to a nephrologist and number of nephrology consultations in the year preceding dialysis treatment.
Two thousand and eighty-three (67.4%) patients were referred to a nephrologist more than 1 month before dialysis initiation and completed the HRQoL questionnaire. Quality of therapeutic practices was significantly associated with the Mental component. Time since referral to a nephrologist was associated with Symptoms/problems and the Effects of kidney disease dimensions, but no relationship was found between the number of nephrology consultations and HRQoL.
HRQoL at dialysis onset is significantly influenced by the quality of pre-dialysis nephrological care. Therefore, disease management should be emphasized.
To compare quality-of-care indicators for management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes among the James Bay Cree of Northern Quebec with those among residents of Montreal, Que.
A cross-sectional survey using medical records from patients seen between 2002 and 2008.
Predialysis clinics of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal.
Thirty Cree and 51 nonaboriginal patients older than 18 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus and estimated glomerular filtration rates of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Main outcome measures
Rates of anemia, iron deficiency, obesity, and renoprotective medication use among aboriginal and nonaboriginal patients.
Overall, the Cree patients were younger (59 vs 68 years of age, P < .0035) and weighed more (101 vs 77 kg, P < .001). The 2 groups were prescribed medication to control blood pressure, lipids, and phosphate levels at similar rates, but the Cree patients were more likely to receive renoprotective agents (87% vs 65%, P = .04). Despite similar rates of erythropoietin supplementation, the Cree patients were at greater risk of anemia, with an adjusted risk ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.01 to 7.87).
Cree patients with CKD were younger, weighed more, and were more likely to receive renoprotective agents. With the exception of the management of anemia, quality of CKD care was similar between the 2 groups. Anemia education for family physicians and continuous monitoring of quality indicators must be implemented in northern Quebec.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 16% of the adult population and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. People at highest risk from progressive CKD are defined by a sustained decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or the presence of significant albuminuria/proteinuria and/or more advanced CKD. Accurate mapping of the bio-clinical determinants of this group will enable improved risk stratification and direct the development of better targeted management for people with CKD.
The Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study is a prospective, observational cohort study, patients with CKD 4 and 5 or CKD 3 and either accelerated progression and/or proteinuria who are managed in secondary care are eligible to participate. Participants undergo a detailed bio-clinical assessment that includes measures of vascular health, periodontal health, quality of life and socio-economic status, clinical assessment and collection of samples for biomarker analysis. The assessments take place at baseline, and at six, 18, 36, 60 and 120 months; the outcomes of interest include cardiovascular events, progression to end stage kidney disease and death.
The determinants of progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully understood though there are a number of proposed risk factors for progression (both traditional and novel). This study will provide a detailed bio-clinical phenotype of patients with high-risk chronic kidney disease (high risk of both progression and cardiovascular events) and will repeatedly assess them over a prolonged follow up period. Recruitment commenced in Autumn 2010 and will provide many outputs that will add to the evidence base for progressive chronic kidney disease.
CKD progression; Observational cohort study; Inflammation; Arterial stiffness; Periodontitis
Little is known about the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sleep quality, mood, and alertness. In this report, we assessed these symptoms among patients with advanced CKD (stages 4–5) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and compared them to healthy controls without known kidney disease.
Patients were recruited from local dialysis units, outpatient nephrology clinics and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute. Healthy control subjects matched for age, gender and race were drawn from an archival database. Daily symptoms of sleep quality, mood, and alertness were assessed by visual analogue scales of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form-36 instrument.
Sixty-nine dialysis patients and 23patients with advanced CKD demonstrated worse scores in sleep quality, mood, and alertness (p < 0.001) than controls. In adjusted analyses, European-American race, dialysis dependency, younger age, and physical performance SF-36 components were significantly associated with poor sleep quality, mood and alertness (p < 0.05). The dialysis population demonstrated higher day-to-day variability in scores than either the advanced CKD patients or the controls.
Advanced CKD and dialysis dependency are associated with impaired and highly variable sleep quality, mood, and alertness.
Mood; Sleep quality; Alertness; Chronic kidney disease; End-stage renal disease; Pittsburgh Sleep Diary; SF-36
Anemia in chronic kidney disease is a prevalent and expensive problem in the United States, and it is well documented that anemia worsens as glomerular filtration rates decline. The complications of severe anemia in this patient population contribute significantly to their overall morbidity with increased cardiovascular complications, decreased quality of life, and increased dependence on transfusions to maintain adequate hemoglobin levels. Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) have revolutionized the treatment of anemia in this population, but there has been a great deal of controversy surrounding the quest for the ideal hemoglobin target. In addition, there are economic and practice management implications where anemia treatment is concerned, with ongoing refinement of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-bundled payments. One of the newest additions to the arsenal used to fight anemia in end-stage renal disease patients is peginesatide (Omontys), a synthetic, PEGylated, peptide-based ESA that acts by stimulating the erythropoietin receptor. The role of peginesatide in the future treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease remains uncertain, with new safety concerns being brought to attention as it emerges on the market, prompting a national recall.
anemia; chronic kidney disease; peginesatide
Non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependent Stage 5 CKD (CKD5) are associated with a significant physical and psychosocial burden. Little is known, however, about the impact of stressful life events on CKD and CKD5 patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stressful life events in CKD and CKD5 patients and identify the factors correlated with high levels of event-related distress.
This cross-sectional study’s sample consisted of 181 patients (91 with non-dialysis-dependent CKD Stages 4 and 5, 90 with CKD5) who filled out the Impact of Event Scale (IES), which measures subjective distress related to stressful life events. Other measures included scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI).
One hundred and three subjects reported stressors on the IES. Almost half the stressors (49.5%) related to personal health; the rest fell into other categories. There were significant differences between the no stressor, low event-related distress and high event-related distress groups in age (P < 0.001), PHQ-9 score (P < 0.001) and DSI score (P = 0.002). After adjustment, PHQ-9 score was associated with high event-related distress [odds ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.32], as was DSI score (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.07) in a separate model.
Event-related distress is common in CKD and CKD5 patients. High event-related distress is associated with worse depressive symptoms and greater somatic and emotional symptom burden, even with adjustments for age and gender. The renal practitioner may need to address patients’ event-related distress in order to provide optimal care.
chronic kidney disease; depression; distress; end-stage renal disease; quality of life; symptoms
To compare the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to healthy children; to evaluate the association between CKD severity and HRQOL; to identity demographic, socioeconomic and health-status variables associated with impairment in HRQOL in children with mild to moderate CKD.
Patients and Methods
This is a cross-sectional assessment of HRQOL in children aged 2-16 with mild to moderate CKD using the Varni PedsQL™. Overall HRQOL and PedsQL domain means for parents and youth were compared to previously published norms using independent sample t-tests. Study participants were categorized according to kidney disease stage (measured by iohexol based glomerular filtration rate, iGFR) and group differences in HRQOL were evaluated using ANOVA and Cuzick trend tests. The association between hypothesized predictors of HRQOL and PedsQL scores was evaluated with linear and logistic regression analyses.
The study sample was comprised of 402 participants (Mean age =11 yrs, 60% male, 70% Caucasian, 40% anemic, median iGFR=42.5 ml/min/1.73m2, median CKD duration= 7 yrs). Youth with CKD had significantly lower physical, school, emotional and social domain scores than healthy youth (p<.001). IGFR was not associated with HRQOL. Longer disease duration and older age was associated with higher PedsQL scores in the domains of physical, emotional and social functioning (p<.05). Older age was associated with lower school functioning domain scores (p<.05). Maternal education ≥16 years was associated with higher PedsQL scores in the domains of physical, school, and social functioning (p<.05). Short stature was associated with lower scores in the physical functioning domain (p<.05).
Children with mild to moderate CKD, in comparison to healthy children, report poorer overall HRQOL as well as poorer physical, school, emotional and social functioning. Early intervention to improve linear growth and to address school functioning difficulties is recommended.
HRQOL; kidney disease; QOL; short-stature
Poorly controlled hypertension is independently associated with mortality, cardiovascular risk and disease progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the UK, CKD stage 3 is principally managed in primary care, including blood pressure (BP) management. Controlling BP is key to improving outcomes in CKD. This study aimed to investigate associations of BP control in people with CKD stage 3.
1,741 patients with CKD 3 recruited from 32 general practices for the Renal Risk in Derby Study underwent medical history, clinical assessment and biochemistry testing. BP control was assessed by three standards: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of people achieving and not achieving BP control. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with BP control.
The prevalence of hypertension was 88%. Among people with hypertension, 829/1426 (58.1%) achieved NICE BP targets, 512/1426 (35.9%) KDOQI targets and 859/1426 (60.2%) KDIGO targets. Smaller proportions of people with diabetes and/or albuminuria achieved hypertension targets. 615/1426 (43.1%) were only taking one antihypertensive agent. On multivariable analysis, BP control (NICE and KDIGO) was negatively associated with age (NICE odds ratio (OR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.17-0.43) 70–79 compared to <60), diabetes (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.25-0.43)), and albuminuria (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.42-0.74)). For the KDOQI target, there was also association with males (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.60-0.96)) but not diabetes (target not diabetes specific). Older people were less likely to achieve systolic targets (NICE target OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.09,0.32) p < 0.001) and more likely to achieve diastolic targets (OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.11,4.96) p < 0.001) for people >80 compared to < 60).
Suboptimal BP control was common in CKD patients with hypertension in this study, particularly those at highest risk of adverse outcomes due to diabetes and or albuminuria. This study suggests there is scope for improving BP control in people with CKD by using more antihypertensive agents in combination while considering issues of adherence and potential side effects.
Chronic kidney disease; Hypertension; Blood pressure control; Albuminuria; Diabetes; Primary care
Anemia is an underrecognized but characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Since their inception nearly two decades ago, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have revolutionized the care of patients with renal anemia, and their use has been associated with improved quality of life and reduced hospitalizations, inpatient costs, and mortality. Hemoglobin targets ≥13 g/dL have been linked with adverse events in recent randomized trials, raising concerns over the proper hemoglobin range for ESA treatment. This review appraises observational and randomized studies of the outcomes of erythropoietic treatment and offers recommendations for managing renal anemia in the primary care setting.