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1.  Vancomycin and daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration distribution and occurrence of heteroresistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates in Turkey 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:583.
Background
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates, the prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and the relationship between hVISA and vancomycin MIC values.
Methods
A total of 175 MRSA blood isolates were collected from seven university hospitals in Turkey. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and by standard Etest method. BMD test was performed according to CLSI guidelines and Etest was performed according to the instructions of the manufacturer. All isolates were screened for the presence of the hVISA by using macro Etest (MET) and population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) methods.
Results
The vancomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 1, 2, and 0.5-2 μg/ml, respectively, by both of BMD and Etest. The daptomycin MIC50, MIC90 and MIC ranges were 0.5, 1 and 0.125 -1 μg/ml by BMD and 0.25, 0.5 and 0.06-1 μg/ml by Etest, respectively. The vancomycin MIC for 40.6% (71/175) of the MRSA isolates tested was >1 μg/ml by BMD. No vancomycin and daptomycin resistance was found among MRSA isolates. Percent agreement of Etest MICs with BMD MICs within ±1 doubling dilution was 100% and 73.1% for vancomycin and daptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of hVISA among MRSA blood isolates was 13.7% (24/175) by PAP-AUC method. MET identified only 14 of the hVISA strains (sensitivity, 58.3%), and there were 12 strains identified as hVISA that were not subsequently confirmed by PAP-AUC (specificity, 92.1%).
Conclusions
Agreement between BMD and Etest MICs is high both for vancomycin and daptomycin. Daptomycin was found to be highly active against MRSA isolates including hVISA. A considerable number of isolates are determined as hVISA among blood isolates. As it is impractical to use the reference method (PAP-AUC) for large numbers of isolates, laboratory methods for rapid and accurate identification of hVISA need to be developed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-583
PMCID: PMC3866574  PMID: 24325260
Vancomycin; Daptomycin; MIC; Heteroresistance; MRSA; Blood isolates
2.  Activity of Telavancin against Staphylococci and Enterococci Determined by MIC and Resistance Selection Studies▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4217-4224.
This study used CLSI broth microdilution to test the activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents against 67 methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Twenty-six vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains were among the isolates tested; all strains were susceptible to telavancin at ≤1 μg/ml, whereas 12/26 (46%) of these isolates were nonsusceptible to daptomycin at the same concentration. All strains were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, while resistance was found to all other drugs tested. Telavancin demonstrated potent activity against all vancomycin-susceptible isolates as well as against heterogeneously VISA and VISA resistance phenotypes. In multistep resistance selection studies, telavancin yielded one stable mutant after 43 days in one MRSA strain out of the 10 MRSA strains tested with the MIC rising eightfold from 0.25 μg/ml (parent) to 2 μg/ml. MICs for this clone did not increase further when passages were continued for the maximum 50 days. In contrast, daptomycin selected stable resistant clones (MIC increase of >4×) after 14 to 35 days in 4 of 10 MRSA strains with MICs increasing from 1 to 2 μg/ml (parents) to 4 to 8 μg/ml (resistant clones). Sequencing analysis of daptomycin resistance determinants revealed point mutations in the mprF genes of all four stable daptomycin-resistant clones. Teicoplanin gave rise to resistant clones after 14 to 21 days in 2 of 10 MRSA strains with MICs rising from 1 to 2 μg/ml (parents) to 4 to 16 μg/ml (stable resistant clones). Linezolid selected stable resistant clones after 22 to 48 days in 2 of 10 MRSA strains with MICs rising from 2 to 4 μg/ml (parents) to 32 μg/ml (resistant clones). Vancomycin yielded no resistant clones in 10 MRSA strains tested; however, MICs increased two- to fourfold from 1 to 8 μg/ml to 2 to 16 μg/ml after 50 days. No cross-resistance was found with any clone/antimicrobial combination. The two enterococci developed resistance to daptomycin, and one developed resistance to linezolid. Single-step mutation frequencies for telavancin (<4.0 × 10−11 to <2.9 × 10−10 at 2× MIC) were lower than the spontaneous mutation frequencies obtained with the comparators.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00742-09
PMCID: PMC2764208  PMID: 19620338
3.  MRSA: treating people with infection 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:0922.
Introduction
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as to other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use. About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland is resistant to methicillin.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatment for MRSA infections at any body site? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 11 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: clindamycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, glycopeptides (teicoplanin, vancomycin), linezolid, macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin), quinupristin–dalfopristin, pristinamycin, rifampicin, tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline), tigecycline, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole).
Key Points
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland is resistant to methicillin.
Glycopeptides (teicoplanin, vancomycin) and linezolid seem to have similar efficacy at curing MRSA infection. However, they have all been associated with adverse effects.
We found limited evidence that tigecycline may have similar cure rates as vancomycin, however effectiveness is not yet clear.
Trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole; TMP-SMX) may be as effective as vancomycin at curing MRSA infection in injecting drug users, with similar toxicity. However, we cannot draw conclusions on the effects of this drug in other populations.
We don’t know whether macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline), clindamycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, pristinamycin, quinupristin–dalfopristin, rifampicin, and trimethoprim are effective at curing MRSA infection, because we found no adequate RCTs. Ciprofloxacin has been used in combination with rifampicin or fusidic acid for MRSA bone and joint infections but we cannot confirm its effectiveness from adequate studies. Fusidic acid or rifampicin should not be used as monotherapy because resistance rapidly develops.Clindamycin may be used in preference to macrolides in susceptible MRSA infections, as bioavailability may be better and resistance less likely, however we found no adequate trials.Oral tetracyclines may be recommended for minor MRSA infections, however we found no adequate trials.
PMCID: PMC3217712  PMID: 21418679
4.  MRSA (treatment) 
Clinical Evidence  2006;2006:0922.
Introduction
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as to other beta lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use. About 40% of S aureus in blood cultures in the UK is resistant to methicillin.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for MRSA infections at any body site? What are the effects of treatment for MRSA nasal or extra-nasal colonisation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2005 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiseptic body washes, chlorhexidine-neomycin nasal cream, clindamycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, glycopeptides (teicoplanin, vancomycin), linezolid, macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin), mupirocin nasal ointment, quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin), quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin, systemic antimicrobials, tea tree preparations, tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline), trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Key Points
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease or after antibiotic use.About 40% of S aureus in blood cultures in the UK is resistant to methicillin.
Glycopeptides (teicoplanin, vancomycin) andlinezolidseem to have similar efficacy at curing MRSA infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may be as effective as vancomycin at curing MRSA infection in injecting drug users, with similar toxicity.
We don't know whether macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin), quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline), clindamycin, daptomycin,fusidic acid, quinupristin-dalfopristin or rifampicin are effective at curing MRSA infection, as no adequate studies were found. Ciprofloxacin has been used in combination with rifampicin or fusidic acid for MRSA bone and joint infections. Fusidic acid or rifampicin should not be used as monotherapy as resistance rapidly develops.Clindamycin may be used in preference to macrolides in susceptible MRSA infections, as bioavailability may be better and resistance less likely.Oral tetracyclines are recommended for minor MRSA infections.
Mupirocin nasal ointment may improve eradication of colonised MRSA compared with placebo, and may be as effective as topical fusidic acid plus oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and more effective than tea tree oil, although studies have given conflicting results. We don't know whether antiseptic body washes, chlorhexidine-neomycin nasal cream or systemic antimicrobials are effective at clearing MRSA colonisation.
PMCID: PMC2907633
5.  Prospective Comparison of the Clinical Impacts of Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Susceptible MRSA▿ †  
Although methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (RVS-MRSA; including vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] and heterogeneous VISA [hVISA]) have been linked with vancomycin treatment failure, it is unclear whether they are more pathogenic than vancomycin-susceptible MRSA (VS-MRSA). We prospectively assessed patients with clinical MRSA isolates during a 10-month period to determine clinical status (infection versus colonization) and therapeutic outcome before correlating these findings with the results of detailed in vitro assessment of vancomycin susceptibility, including population analysis profile (PAP) testing. hVISA and VISA were defined by standard PAP criteria (area-under-the-curve ratio compared to that of the reference hVISA strain Mu3 [≥0.9]) and routine CLSI criteria (vancomycin MIC, 4 to 8 μg/ml), respectively. Among the 117 patients assessed, 58 had RVS-MRSA isolates (56 hVISA and 2 VISA) and 59 had VS-MRSA isolates; the patient demographics and comorbidities were similar. RVS-MRSA was associated with a lower rate of infection than VS-MRSA (29/58 versus 46/59; P = 0.003), including a lower rate of bacteremia (3/58 versus 20/59, respectively; P < 0.001). The cure rates in RVS-MRSA and VS-MRSA groups were not statistically different (16/26 versus 31/42; P = 0.43), but the post hoc assessment of treatment regimes and study size made detailed conclusions difficult. The results of the macro method Etest correlated well with the PAP results (sensitivity, 98.3%, and specificity, 91.5%), but broth microdilution and our preliminary RVS-MRSA detection method correlated poorly. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. These data suggest that detailed prospective laboratory identification of RVS-MRSA isolates may be of limited value and that, instead, such in vitro investigation should be reserved for isolates from patients who are failing appropriate anti-MRSA therapy.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01365-08
PMCID: PMC2715624  PMID: 19506056
6.  Correlation between Vancomycin MIC Values and Those of Other Agents against Gram-Positive Bacteria among Patients with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(12):5141-5144.
An increase in the distribution of vancomycin MIC values among methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been noted. It is postulated that the shift in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with a concurrent rise in the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. Scant data are available on the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. This study examined the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin among 120 patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA at a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and May 2007. For each included patient, the MIC values of the antibiotics under study were determined by the Etest method and were separated into the following two categories: day 1 (index) and post-day 1 (subsequent). For subsequent isolates, the MIC values for each antibiotic from the post-day 1 terminal isolate were used. Among the index isolates, there was a significant correlation (P value, <0.01) between the MIC values for vancomycin and daptomycin and between the MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin. The MIC values for daptomycin were significantly correlated with linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin MIC values. Among the 48 patients with subsequent isolates, vancomycin MIC values were significantly correlated with MIC values for daptomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin (ρ value of ≥0.38 for all comparisons). This study documented an association between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA antibiotics among patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA primarily treated with vancomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00307-09
PMCID: PMC2786352  PMID: 19805558
7.  Daptomycin compared with teicoplanin and vancomycin for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(11):2081-2085.
The efficacies of daptomycin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were compared in the therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Rabbits infected with either of two methicillin-susceptible strains (SA-12871 or its moderately teicoplanin-resistant derivative SA-12873) or a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain (MRSA-494) were treated with daptomycin, 8 mg/kg of body weight, every 8 h; teicoplanin, 12.5 mg/kg (low-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-LD], excluding MRSA-494) or 40 mg/kg (high-dose teicoplanin [teicoplanin-HD]) every 12 h; or vancomycin, 17.5 mg/kg every 6 h, for 4 days. Compared with no treatment daptomycin, teicoplamin-HD, and vancomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts of all test strains in vegetations and renal and splenic tissues (P less than 0.001). Teicoplanin-LD was equally effective against SA-12871 but failed against SA-12873, with three of six animals still being bacteremic at the end of therapy. For SA-12871, daptomycin was as effective as teicoplanin-HD and was superior to teicoplanin-LD and vancomycin (P = 0.02) in lowering vegetation bacterial counts. There were no differences between daptomycin, teicoplanin-HD, or vancomycin in the reduction of bacterial counts in tissues for any of the test strains. In rabbits infected with SA-12871, vegetations from 33% of teicoplanin-LD-treated, 6% of teicoplanin-HD-treated, and 13% of daptomycin-treated animals yielded organisms for which there were up to eightfold increases in the MICs. Resistance may have contributed to early death in one daptomycin-treated animal. No increases in the MICs for the test strain were detected in animals infected with SA-12873 or MRSA-494. We conclude that in this model and against these strains of S. aureus, daptomycin and teicoplanin-HD are as efficacious as vancomycin, but diminished susceptibility to both can develop during therapy.
PMCID: PMC172003  PMID: 1963526
8.  Daptomycin versus vancomycin plus gentamicin for treatment of bacteraemia and endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: subset analysis of patients infected with methicillin-resistant isolates 
Objectives
In a prospective, randomized trial, daptomycin was non-inferior to standard therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and right-sided endocarditis. Since rates of infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection are increasing and treatment outcomes for bacteraemia caused by MRSA are generally worse than those observed with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteraemia, clinical characteristics and treatment results in the trial’s pre-specified subset of patients with MRSA were analysed.
Methods
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving daptomycin were compared with those receiving vancomycin plus low-dose gentamicin. Success was defined as clinical improvement with clearance of bacteraemia among patients who completed adequate therapy, received no potentially effective non-study antibiotics and had negative blood cultures 6 weeks after end of therapy.
Results
Twenty of the 45 (44.4%) daptomycin patients and 14 of the 43 (32.6%) vancomycin/gentamicin patients were successfully treated (difference 11.9%; confidence interval −8.3 to 32.1). Success rates for daptomycin versus vancomycin/gentamicin were 45% versus 27% in complicated bacteraemia, 60% versus 45% in uncomplicated bacteraemia and 50% versus 50% in right-sided MRSA endocarditis. Cure rates in patients with septic emboli and in patients who received pre-enrolment vancomycin were similar between treatment groups. However, in both treatment groups, success rates were lower in the elderly (≥75 years). Persisting or relapsing bacteraemia occurred in 27% of daptomycin and 21% of vancomycin/gentamicin patients; among these patients, MICs of ≥2 mg/L occurred in five daptomycin and four vancomycin/gentamicin patients. The clinical course of several patients may have been influenced by lack of surgical intervention.
Conclusions
Daptomycin was an effective alternative to vancomycin/gentamicin for MRSA bacteraemia or right-sided endocarditis.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkn372
PMCID: PMC2583068  PMID: 18782781
MRSA; endovascular infections; bloodstream infections; combination therapy; clinical trial
9.  Daptomycin Bactericidal Activity and Correlation between Disk and Broth Microdilution Method Results in Testing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains with Decreased Susceptibility to Vancomycin 
A total of 207 Staphylococcus aureus strains, including 105 well-characterized strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin (17 vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] and 88 heteroresistant VISA [hVISA] strains) and 102 wild-type methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA-WT) strains were tested by reference/standardized broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods, as well as by Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden), against daptomycin and vancomycin. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial agent that killed ≥99.9% of the initial inoculum was defined as the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) endpoint, and time-kill curves were performed in selected strains to further evaluate bactericidal activity. All MRSA-WT and hVISA strains were inhibited by ≤1 μg/ml of daptomycin, while the VISA strains showed slightly higher daptomycin MICs (range, 0.5 to 4 μg/ml). All daptomycin MBC results were at the MIC or twofold higher. In contrast, 14.7% of MRSA-WT, 69.3% of hVISA, and all VISA strains showed a vancomycin MBC/MIC ratio of ≥32 or an MBC of ≥16 μg/ml (tolerant). The correlation coefficients between broth microdilution and disk diffusion method results were low for daptomycin (0.07) and vancomycin (0.11). Eight (3.8%) strains (all hVISA or VISA) were “nonsusceptible” to daptomycin by broth microdilution methods but susceptible by the disk diffusion method. For vancomycin, 35 (16.9%) strains were nonsusceptible by broth microdilution methods but susceptible by disk diffusion methods. In conclusion, daptomycin was highly bactericidal against S. aureus strains, and its bactericidal activity was not affected by decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. In contrast, many (one in seven) contemporary MRSA-WT, the majority of hVISA, and all VISA strains showed vancomycin MBC/MIC ratios consistent with tolerance, a predictor of poor clinical response. Disk diffusion tests generally failed to detect strains categorized as nonsusceptible to daptomycin or vancomycin by the reference broth microdilution method or Etest, and reassessment of breakpoints should be immediately attempted for MIC methods suggested as the test of choice.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01491-05
PMCID: PMC1489799  PMID: 16801409
10.  In Vitro Activity of the New Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic TD-1792 against Vancomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus Isolates▿  
TD-1792 is a glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive pathogens that includes methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of TD-1792 against a collection of clinical isolates of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus spp. (VISS), heteroresistant VISS (hVISS), and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The TD-1792, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for 50 VISS/hVISS isolates and 3 VRSA isolates. Time-kill experiments (TKs) were then performed over 24 h with two vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains and two VRSA strains, using each agent at multiples of the MIC. TD-1792 and daptomycin were also evaluated in the presence and absence of 50% human serum to determine the effects of the proteins on their activities. Most of the VISS/hVISS isolates were susceptible to all agents except vancomycin. TD-1792 exhibited the lowest MIC values (MIC90 = 0.125 μg/ml), followed by quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin (MIC90 = 1 μg/ml) and then linezolid (MIC90 = 2 μg/ml). The presence of serum resulted in a 2- to 8-fold increase in the TD-1792 and daptomycin MIC values. In TKs, QD demonstrated bactericidal activity at multiples of the MIC that simulated therapeutic levels, whereas linezolid was only bacteriostatic. Both TD-1792 and daptomycin demonstrated rapid bactericidal activities against all isolates tested. The presence of proteins had only a minimal impact on the activity of TD-1792 in TKs. TD-1792 exhibited significant in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus isolates and represents a promising candidate for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive organisms.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00452-10
PMCID: PMC2935031  PMID: 20585126
11.  Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Recovered from a Phase IV Clinical Trial for Linezolid versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(11):3694-3702.
A total of 434 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) baseline isolates were collected from subjects enrolled in a prospective, double-blind randomized trial comparing linezolid versus vancomycin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution, examined for inducible clindamycin resistance by D-test, and screened for heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (hVISA) by the Etest macromethod. All strains were subjected to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening, and SCCmec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and spa typing. Selected strains were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on the spa and/or MLST results. Most strains were CC5 (56.0%), which originated from North America (United States) (CC5-MRSA-SCCmec II/IV; 70.0%), Asia (CC5-MRSA-II; 14.0%) and Latin America (CC5-MRSA-I/II; 12.3%). The second- and third-most-prevalent clones were CC8-MRSA-IV (23.3%) and CC239-MRSA-III (11.3%), respectively. Furthermore, the CC5-MRSA-I/II clone predominated in Asia (50.7% within this region) and Latin America (66.7%), followed by CC239-MRSA-III (32.8% and 28.9%, respectively). The European strains were CC8-MRSA-IV (34.5%), CC22-MRSA-IV (18.2%), or CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (16.4%), while the U.S. MRSA isolates were CC5-MRSA-II/IV (64.4%) or CC8-MRSA-IV (28.8%). Among the U.S. CC8-MRSA-II/IV strains, 73.7% (56/76 [21.2% of all U.S. MRSA strains]) clustered within USA300. One strain from the United States (USA800) was intermediate to vancomycin (MIC, 4 μg/ml). All remaining strains were susceptible to linezolid, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. hVISA strains (14.5%) were predominantly CC5-MRSA-II, from South Korea, and belonged to a single PFGE type. Overall, each region had two predominant clones. The USA300 rate corroborates previous reports describing increased prevalence of USA300 strains causing invasive infections. The prevalence of hVISA was elevated in Asia, and these strains were associated with CC5.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02024-12
PMCID: PMC3486224  PMID: 22972817
12.  In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Human Simulated Exposures of Ceftaroline and Daptomycin against MRSA, hVISA, and VISA with and without Prior Vancomycin Exposure 
The effects of prior vancomycin exposure on ceftaroline and daptomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have not been widely studied. Humanized free-drug exposures of vancomycin at 1 g every 12 h (q12h), ceftaroline at 600 mg q12h, and daptomycin at 10 mg/kg of body weight q24h were simulated in a 96-h in vitro pharmacodynamic model against three MRSA isolates, including one heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolate and one VISA isolate. A total of five regimens were tested: vancomycin, ceftaroline, and daptomycin alone for the entire 96 h, and then sequential therapy with vancomycin for 48 h followed by ceftaroline or daptomycin for 48 h. Microbiological responses were measured by the changes in log10 CFU during 96 h from baseline. Control isolates grew to 9.16 ± 0.32, 9.13 ± 0.14, and 8.69 ± 0.28 log10 CFU for MRSA, hVISA, and VISA, respectively. Vancomycin initially achieved ≥3 log10 CFU reductions against the MRSA and hVISA isolates, followed by regrowth beginning at 48 h; minimal activity was observed against VISA. The change in 96-h log10 CFU was largest for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (−5.22 ± 1.2, P = 0.010 versus ceftaroline) and for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (−3.60 ± 0.6, P = 0.037 versus daptomycin), compared with daptomycin (−2.24 ± 1.0), vancomycin (−1.40 ± 1.8), and sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by daptomycin (−1.32 ± 1.0, P > 0.5 for the last three regimens). Prior exposure of vancomycin at 1 g q12h reduced the initial microbiological response of daptomycin, particularly for hVISA and VISA isolates, but did not affect the response of ceftaroline. In the scenario of poor vancomycin response for high-inoculum MRSA infection, a ceftaroline-containing regimen may be preferred.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01516-13
PMCID: PMC3910832  PMID: 24217694
13.  Comparative efficacy of daptomycin, vancomycin, and cloxacillin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in rats and role of test conditions in this determination. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(12):2348-2353.
The in vivo efficacy of daptomycin, a new cell wall-active anti-gram-positive-bacterial agent, was compared to those of cloxacillin and vancomycin in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were used. When therapy was initiated early (8 h) after infection, at the time when valvular bacterial counts were relatively low (approximately 10(6) CFU/g of vegetation), 3 days of therapy was found to be effective against the MSSA strains whatever the antibiotic regimen. In contrast, when the onset of therapy was delayed up to 15 h after infection, so that higher bacterial counts could develop on the valves (approximately 10(9) CFU/g of vegetation), a longer period of treatment (6 days) was required to cure infection. Under these conditions after 3 days of therapy, daptomycin was more effective than cloxacillin and vancomycin against the MSSA strains. Similarly, daptomycin showed a greater activity than vancomycin against the MRSA strain after 3 days of treatment, but after 6 days both antibiotics were equally effective. Decreasing doses of daptomycin showed decreasing activity: 10 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h (q12h) was better than 5 mg/kg q12h, whereas 5 mg/kg q24h (providing drug levels in blood detectable only during the first 12 h) failed to cure infection. In vitro, daptomycin was highly bactericidal at high concentrations (25 and 60 micrograms/ml, corresponding to peak levels in serum after doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, respectively) and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations (0.5 to 2.5 micrograms/ml, corresponding to trough levels in serum). In conclusion, against low-bacterial-count S. aureus endocarditis, daptomycin showed an efficacy similar to those of vancomycin and cloxacillin. Against high-bacterial-count S. aureus endocarditis, daptomycin showed a higher bactericidal activity than cloxacillin (against the MSSA strains) and vancomycin (against both the MSSA and MRSA strains).
PMCID: PMC172059  PMID: 1965105
14.  Comparative Genome Sequencing of an Isogenic Pair of USA800 Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained before and after Daptomycin Treatment Failure▿† 
We describe here a clinical daptomycin treatment failure in a patient with recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in whom daptomycin was administered after a failed empirical treatment course with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. We had the opportunity to compare the genome sequences of an isogenic pair of daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant MRSA isolates obtained before and after initiation of daptomycin therapy, respectively. The genotype of both isolates was USA800, ST5, SCCmec type IV, agr type II. There was no increase in cell wall thickness in the daptomycin-resistant strain despite having decreased susceptibility to both vancomycin and daptomycin. By comparing the genome sequences by pyrosequencing, we identified a polymorphism (S337L) in the tenth transmembrane segment of the multiple peptide resistance factor, MprF, encoding lysyl phosphatidylglycerol transferase. This enzyme has been shown previously to promote repulsion of daptomycin at the cell surface by addition of positively charged lysine to phosphatidylglycerol. Also, the hlb open reading frame (ORF) encoding the β-toxin was interrupted by a prophage in the daptomycin-susceptible strain; this phage was missing in the daptomycin-resistant isolate and the hlb ORF was restored. Loss of the phage in the resistant isolate also resulted in loss of the virulence factor genes clpP, scn, and sak. This is the first study to use pyrosequencing to compare the genomes of a daptomycin-susceptible/resistant MRSA isolate pair obtained during failed daptomycin therapy in humans.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01593-10
PMCID: PMC3088213  PMID: 21343446
15.  Impact of High-Inoculum Staphylococcus aureus on the Activities of Nafcillin, Vancomycin, Linezolid, and Daptomycin, Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin, in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(12):4665-4672.
We evaluated the impact of high (9.5 log10 CFU/g) and moderate (5.5 log10 CFU/g) inocula of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) on the activities of nafcillin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin, alone and in combination with gentamicin in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 72 h. Human therapeutic dosing regimens for nafcillin, daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, and gentamicin were simulated. At a moderate inoculum, nafcillin (MSSA only), vancomycin, and daptomycin demonstrated equivalent and significant (P < 0.01) bactericidal (99.9% kill) activities (decreases of 3.34 ± 1.1, 3.28 ± 0.4, and 3.34 ± 0.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 4 h for nafcillin and daptomycin and at 32 h for vancomycin. Linezolid demonstrated bacteriostatic activity over the course of the study period. At a high inoculum, daptomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against both MSSA and MRSA by 24 h (decrease of 5.51 to 6.31 ± 0.10 log10 CFU/g). Nafcillin (versus MSSA), vancomycin, and linezolid (MSSA and MRSA) did not achieve bactericidal activity throughout the 72-h experiment. The addition of gentamicin increased the rate of 99.9% kill to 8 h for daptomycin (P < 0.01) and 48 h for nafcillin (MSSA only) (P = 0.01). The addition of gentamicin did not improve the activity of vancomycin or linezolid for either isolate for the 72-h period. Overall, high-inoculum Staphylococcus aureus had a significant impact on the activities of nafcillin and vancomycin. In contrast, daptomycin was affected minimally and linezolid was not affected by inoculum.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.12.4665-4672.2004
PMCID: PMC529225  PMID: 15561842
16.  Evaluation of the Novel Combination of High-Dose Daptomycin plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5709-5714.
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus is found in difficult-to-treat infections, and the optimal therapy is unknown. We investigated the activity of high-dose (HD) daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against 4 clinical DNS methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of simulated endocardial vegetations (109 CFU/g). Simulated regimens included HD daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day for 14 days, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 160/800 mg every 12 h for 14 days, HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days, and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin for 7 days and de-escalated to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 7 days. Differences in CFU/g (at 168 and 336 h) were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey's post hoc test. Daptomycin MICs were 4 μg/ml (SA H9749-1, vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus; R6212, heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) and 2 μg/ml (R5599 and R5563). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs were ≤0.06/1.19 μg/ml. HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole displayed rapid bactericidal activity against SA H9749-1 (at 7 h) and R6212 (at 6 h) and bactericidal activity against R5599 (at 72 h) and R5563 (at 36 h). A ≥8 log10 CFU/g decrease was observed with HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against all strains (at 48 to 144 h), which was maintained with de-escalation to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 336 h. The combination for 14 days and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly better than daptomycin monotherapy (P < 0.05) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy (P < 0.05) at 168 and 336 h. Combination therapy followed by de-escalation offers a novel bactericidal therapeutic alternative for high-inoculum, serious DNS MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01185-12
PMCID: PMC3486589  PMID: 22908167
17.  In vitro activity of daptomycin & linezolid against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus & vancomycin resistant enterococci isolated from hospitalized cases in Central India 
Background & objectives:
Growing incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enteroccoci (VRE) is posing a therapeutic problem due to limited drug options. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to check susceptibility of MRSA and VRE isolates against new antimicrobials such as daptomycin and linezolid.
Methods:
A total of 586 Gram-positive isolates comprising 442 S. aureus and 144 enterococci isolated from hospitalized cases included in the study, were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method. One hundred twenty four enterococci obtained from rectal swabs of neonates were also included. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for daptomycin, linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin against 50 each isolates of MRSA and VRE by E strip.
Results:
Among the staphylococci, 326 (73.85%) isolates were MRSA. MIC for vancomycin and teicoplanin among MRSA was ≤3 μg/ml. MIC for daptomycin among MRSA was found to be in the range of 0.064-1.5 μg/ml. Percentage of VRE among clinical samples was 14.29 per cent while it was 47.06 per cent among enterococci from rectal swabs of neonates. MIC was >256 μg/ml for vancomycin among VRE and was associated with van A genotype. MIC range for daptomycin among VRE was 0.38-3 μg/ml. MIC for linezolid among MRSA and VRE was in the range of 0.25 to 1 and 0.38 -1.5 μg/ml, respectively.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The present study showed a rise in MIC to vancomycin for sizable number of MRSA and growing percentage of VRE at our centre. Daptomycin and linezolid showed 100 per cent activity against MRSA and VRE.
PMCID: PMC3657887  PMID: 23481072
Daptomycin; linezolid; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; minimum inhibitory concentration; vancomycin resistant enterococci
18.  Economic burden of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections: a comparison of linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin 
Background
Previous economic analyses evaluating treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTI) failed to include all direct treatment costs such as outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT). Our objective was to develop an economic model from a US payer perspective that includes all direct inpatient and outpatient costs incurred by patients with MRSA cSSTI receiving linezolid, vancomycin, or daptomycin.
Methods
A 4-week decision model was developed for this economic analysis. Published literature and database analyses with validation by experts provided clinical, resource use, and cost inputs on data such as efficacy rate, length of stay, adverse events, and OPAT services. Base-case analysis assumed equal efficacy and equal length of stay for treatments. We conducted several sensitivity analyses where assumptions on resource use or efficacy were varied. Costs were reported in year-end 2011 US dollars.
Results
Total treatment costs in the base-case were lower for linezolid ($10,571) than vancomycin ($11,096), and daptomycin ($13,612). Inpatient treatment costs were $740 more, but outpatient costs, $1,266 less with linezolid than vancomycin therapy due to a switch to oral linezolid when the patient was discharged. Compared with daptomycin, both inpatient and outpatient treatment costs were lower with linezolid by $87 and $2,954 respectively. In sensitivity analyses, linezolid had lower costs compared with vancomycin and daptomycin when using differential length of stay data from a clinical trial, and using success rates from a meta-analysis. In a scenario without peripherally inserted central catheter line costs, linezolid became slightly more expensive than vancomycin (by $285), but remained less costly than daptomycin (by $2,316).
Conclusion
Outpatient costs of managing MRSA cSSTI may be reduced by 30%–50% with oral linezolid compared with vancomycin or daptomycin. Results from this analysis support potential economic benefit and cost savings of using linezolid versus traditional OPAT when total inpatient and outpatient medical costs are evaluated.
doi:10.2147/CEOR.S46991
PMCID: PMC3782516  PMID: 24068869
economic model; OPAT; cost
19.  Is Vancomycin MIC “Creep” Method Dependent? Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Susceptibility Trends in Blood Isolates from North East Scotland from 2006 to 2010 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(2):318-325.
This study investigated “creep” in vancomycin and daptomycin MICs among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from blood cultures over a 5-year period in a hospital in the United Kingdom, using different susceptibility testing methods. Trends in vancomycin and daptomycin susceptibility were evaluated by using Etest performed prospectively on isolates in routine clinical practice from December 2007 to December 2010 (n = 102). Comparison was made to results from prospective testing of subcultures at the Scottish MRSA Reference Laboratory, using an automated system (Vitek 2) and retrospective testing (Etest and CLSI reference broth microdilution [BMD] method) of stored isolates from 2006 to 2010 (n = 208). Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant increase in vancomycin MIC (P = 0.012) and a significant decrease in daptomycin MIC (P = 0.03) by year of study for Etest results from the time of isolation. However, neither trend was replicated in MICs from automated or retrospective testing. The Friedman test revealed a significant difference between vancomycin MICs obtained from the same samples by different testing methods (χ2 [3 degrees of freedom] = 97; P < 0.001). MICs from automated testing and Etest analysis of stored isolates were significantly lower than those from Etest analysis at the time of isolation for both antibiotics (P < 0.001). Effects of storage on the MIC appeared within the first 6 months of storage. Inconsistent evidence on vancomycin MIC creep and the relevance of the MIC to clinical outcome may arise from differences in susceptibility testing methods, including storage of isolates. There is a need to standardize and streamline susceptibility testing of vancomycin against MRSA.
doi:10.1128/JCM.05520-11
PMCID: PMC3264194  PMID: 22135252
20.  Activities of Daptomycin and Vancomycin Alone and in Combination with Rifampin and Gentamicin against Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis ▿  
The findings of clinical and in vitro research support the theory that infective endocarditis (IE)-causing bacteria form biofilms and that biofilms negatively affect treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the biofilm formation of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients with IE and to evaluate the in vitro activities of daptomycin and vancomycin alone and in combination with rifampin (rifampicin) or gentamicin while monitoring the isolates for the development of resistance. A high-inoculum, stationary-phase infection model of IE was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics in humans of daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight/day, vancomycin at 1.25 g every 12 h (q12h) alone and in combination with rifampin at 300 mg every 8 h, and gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h. Two randomly selected clinical MRSA isolates were obtained from patients with IE; both MRSA isolates quantitatively produced biofilms. The time to bactericidal activity in the presence of daptomycin was isolate dependent but was achieved by 24 h for both MRSA isolates. Vancomycin did not achieve bactericidal activity throughout the experiment. At 24, 48, and 72 h, daptomycin-containing regimens had significantly more activity (greater declines in the mean number of CFU/g) than any of the vancomycin-containing regimens (P = 0.03). Rifampin and gentamicin antagonized or delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin (against MRSA B346846 for rifampin and against both isolates for gentamicin) in the first 24 h. Increases in the daptomycin and vancomycin MICs were not observed. We conclude that in an IE model of biofilm-forming MRSA, daptomycin monotherapy has better in vitro activity than daptomycin in combination with rifampin or gentamicin or any vancomycin-containing regimen studied within the first 24 h. Further investigations are needed to understand the initial delay in bactericidal activity observed when gentamicin or rifampin is combined with daptomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00134-09
PMCID: PMC2737833  PMID: 19564363
21.  Prevalence and Characterization of Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from 14 Cities in China‡▿  
The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) among 1,012 vancomycin-susceptible methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus isolates collected from 14 cities in China from 2005 to 2007 was 13 to 16%, as determined by a combination of (i) measurement by the modified population analysis profile-area under the curve method (PAP-AUC) and (ii) estimation from the measured sensitivity and specificity of a screening method. Two hundred isolates from blood were chosen as a subset for measurement of the sensitivities and the specificities of several previously described screening methods by using the results of PAP-AUC as the reference. During this testing, one isolate was found to be a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain so was not used in the evaluation of the screening tests. Of the other 199 isolates, 26 (13.1%) were hVISA, as assessed by PAP-AUC. A screening cascade of culturing the isolates on brain heart infusion agar containing teicoplanin (5 mg/liter) and then subjecting the positive isolates to a macro-Etest method was applied to the 812 non-blood isolates, yielding 149 positive results. From these results and by adjusting for sensitivity (0.423) and specificity (0.861), the prevalence was estimated to be 15.7%. The precision of that estimate was assessed by reapplying the screening cascade to 120 randomly selected isolates from the 812 non-blood isolates and simultaneously determining their heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility status by PAP-AUC. Because PAP-AUC is impractical for use with large numbers of isolates, the screening-based estimation method is useful as a first approximation of the prevalence of hVISA. Of the 27 VISA or hVISA isolates from blood, 22.2% and 74.1% were staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec types II and III, respectively, while 77.8% and 22.2% were agr type 1 and agr type 2, respectively; the MIC ranges were 0.5 to 4 mg/liter for vancomycin and 0.25 to 1 mg/liter for daptomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00206-09
PMCID: PMC2737858  PMID: 19546358
22.  A review of the current place of glycopeptides in turkish medical practice 
Background: Glycopeptide antibiotics are considered by many investigators to be the last resort in the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections.
Objective: The aim of this review was to assess the place of glycopeptides in the treatment of common gram-positive bacteria in accordance with the current epidemiologic data in Turkey.
Methods: A search of both the English- and Turkish-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, Ulakbim (Turkey), and Pleksus (Turkey) was performed using the terms: vancomycin, teicoplanin, and glycopeptides, or their Turkish-language counterparts. The complete texts of the articles found in these databases were obtained from the electronic library of Gulhane Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. Articles from regional journals, without the support of an electronic format, were obtained by direct communication. Articles of interest were those based on studies occurring in Turkish populations, with special consideration given to publications in press after 2002.
Results: Staphylococci were the most frequent gram-positive pathogens encountered in Turkish hospitals. Studies have found that ∼74% of strains were Staphylococcus aureus and the remaining strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Overall methicillin resistance in staphylococci was reported as ∼60%. In Turkey, S aureus was one of the most common infectious agents found inside hospitals and is deemed a growing threat in the community. While the rate of methicillin resistance in community-acquired isolates is ∼4%, the data from hospitals suggest that reduced resistance comprises most of the isolates. In the studies reviewed, older quinolones like ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin seem to be ineffective in nearly half of the S aureus isolates. Alternatives like rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), clindamycin, and erythromycin have had substantial resistance profiles in >50% of the strains. In recent Turkish studies, in vitro profiles of linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD), and daptomycin have had positive results. As in the S aureus isolates, resistance trends have been observed in the CoNS group of pathogens. The possible use of β-lactams seems restricted, and alternative approaches have become necessary. Quinolones, gentamicin, tetracycline, TMP/SMX, clindamycin, and erythromycin have resistance profiles of >50%. Although glycopeptide resistance was not detected, the frequency of heterogenous vancomycin-intermediate S aureus, a precursor to future resistance, was 13% in 1 study. Current studies in Turkey have found that Enterococcus faecalis comprises three quarters of enterococci while the rest are comprised of Enterococcus faecium. Initial studies performed with linezolid, QD, and daptomycin suggest that these drugs might be effective alternatives for future enterococcal infections that may have high glycopeptide resistance. Approximately 8% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae strains had high-level resistance in Turkey. However, 10 million units of crystallized penicillin or 3 g of oral amoxicillin maintains the optimum treatment of pneumococcal infections outside the central nervous system (CNS). Resistance profiles in third-generation cephalosporins in Turkey range between 2% and 2.5%.
Conclusions: In Turkey, a review of the existing literature found that the current use of glycopeptides in pneumococcal infections is restricted to CNS infections facing therapeutic failure in due course. However, the belief that these drugs are the last resort, either in staphylococcal or enterococcal infections, is no longer valid. If a patient has a critical status due to probable gram-positive microorganisms, clinicians should consider the empiric use of glycopeptides. However, new molecules such as linezolid, QD, and daptomycin, offered for use in the treatment of gram-positive bacterial diseases, should be reserved for the future, when glycopeptides eventually become obsolete.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2007.03.001
PMCID: PMC3965998  PMID: 24678118
glycopeptides; Turkey
23.  First Detection of an Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Strain (D958) with Reduced Susceptibility to Glycopeptides in Saudi Arabia ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(6):2199-2204.
Strain D958, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, was isolated from a 69-year-old Saudi male patient presenting with severe sepsis immediately after admission. Despite high serum levels of vancomycin, the same S. aureus strain was isolated from five blood culture sets during 1 week. Treatment failure under therapeutic levels of vancomycin prompted us to investigate the resistance profile of this strain in further detail. The MIC values for vancomycin as determined by Etest and microdilution were 3.0 and 2.0 mg/liter, respectively, and remained unchanged during the treatment course. The macro-Etest method showed a MIC of 4 mg/liter. The strain showed liquid vancomycin and lysostaphin MBCs of 2.0 and 5.0 mg/liter, respectively. The isolates were confirmed as heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) by vancomycin population analysis profile. The areas under these curves were similar for Mu3 and D958 for vancomycin and teicoplanin (ratio values were 1 and 1.1 for vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively). Extensive genotyping and molecular characterization demonstrated that the strain harbored a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type III cassette and was of sequence type ST241, a single-locus variant of the successful multiresistant clone ST239. Microarray results demonstrated that D958 contained numerous resistance determinants (generally plasmid or phage encoded). These results suggest that this strain is constitutively expressing an altered susceptibility to vancomycin. Further studies are warranted to assess the clonal distribution of such strains displaying reduced susceptibility to vancomycin prior to any antimicrobial therapy.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00954-09
PMCID: PMC2884509  PMID: 20392906
24.  Addition of Ceftaroline to Daptomycin after Emergence of Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus during Therapy Improves Antibacterial Activity 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5296-5302.
Antistaphylococcal beta-lactams enhance daptomycin activity and have been used successfully in combination for refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Ceftaroline possesses MRSA activity, but it is unknown if it improves the daptomycin potency comparably to other beta-lactams. We report a complex patient case of endocarditis who was treated with daptomycin in combination with ceftaroline, which resulted in clearance of a daptomycin-nonsusceptible strain. An in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of renal failure was used to simulate the development of daptomycin resistance and evaluate the microbiologic effects of daptomycin plus ceftaroline treatment. Combination therapy with daptomycin and ceftaroline restored daptomycin sensitivity in vivo and resulted in clearance of persistent blood cultures. Daptomycin susceptibility in vitro was increased in the presence of either ceftaroline or oxacillin. Daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight every 48 h was bactericidal in the model but resulted in regrowth and daptomycin resistance (MIC, 2 to 4 μg/ml) with continued monotherapy. The addition of ceftaroline at 200 mg every 12 h after the emergence of daptomycin resistance enhanced bacterial killing. Importantly, daptomycin plus ceftaroline as the initial combination therapy produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity and prevented daptomycin resistance. Both in vivo- and in vitro-derived daptomycin resistance resulted in bacteria with more fluid cell membranes. After ceftaroline was added in the model, fluidity was restored to the level of the initial in vivo isolate. Daptomycin-resistant isolates required high daptomycin exposures (at least 10 mg/kg) to optimize cell membrane damage with daptomycin alone. Ceftaroline combined with daptomycin was effective in eliminating daptomycin-resistant MRSA, and these results further justify the potential use of daptomycin plus beta-lactam therapy for these refractory infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00797-12
PMCID: PMC3457349  PMID: 22869564
25.  Antistaphylococcal Activity of Ceftobiprole, a New Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2005;49(10):4210-4219.
Ceftobiprole (formerly BAL9141), the active component of the prodrug BAL5788 (ceftobiprole medocaril), is a novel cephalosporin with expanded activity against gram-positive bacteria. Among 152 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including 5 vancomycin-intermediate and 2 vancomycin-resistant strains, MIC50 and MIC90 values for ceftobiprole were each 0.5 μg/ml against methicillin-susceptible strains and 2 μg/ml against methicillin-resistant strains. Against 151 coagulase-negative staphylococci (including 4 vancomycin-intermediate strains), MIC50 and MIC90 values were, respectively, 0.125 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml against methicillin-susceptible and 1 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml against methicillin-resistant strains. Teicoplanin was less active than vancomycin against coagulase-negative strains. Linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and daptomycin were active against all strains, whereas increased MICs for amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, minocycline, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, rifampin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and fosfomycin were sometimes observed. At 2× MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 11 of 12 test strains by 24 h. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to select for clones with MICs >4 times those of the parents; the maximum MIC achieved for ceftobiprole after 50 passages (in 1 of 10 strains) was 8 μg/ml. Single-passage selections showed very low frequencies of resistance to ceftobiprole irrespective of genotype or phenotype; the maximal ceftobiprole MIC of recovered clones was 8 μg/ml.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.10.4210-4219.2005
PMCID: PMC1251547  PMID: 16189100

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